The Info List - Zhang Hua

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Zhang Hua (232–300), courtesy name Maoxian, was a Chinese official, scholar and poet of the Jin dynasty (265–420). He previously served in the state of Cao Wei
Cao Wei
during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms


1 Background and service under Wei 2 Service under the Jin dynasty 3 Death 4 Poetry 5 Family 6 See also 7 References

Background and service under Wei[edit] Zhang Hua's father, Zhang Ping (張平), was a commandery administrator in the Cao Wei
Cao Wei
state during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period. He died when Zhang Hua was still young. Zhang Hua's family became impoverished, and he was a shepherd when he was young. The official Liu Fang (劉放) was so impressed with Zhang Hua that he arranged for Zhang Hua to marry his daughter. Zhang Hua became known for his literary talent, and he wrote a collection of poems, ostensibly about birds – but in fact about people's tendencies. His poems received great renown, and the commandery administrator recommended him to the regent, Sima Zhao. Sima Zhao made him one of his secretaries, and he distinguished himself in that role. However, as an Academician in the Ministry of Ceremonies (太常博士), he suffered disgrace when he was dismissed for negligence after one of the beams in the imperial ancestral temple broke. Service under the Jin dynasty[edit] In 265, after Sima Zhao's son, Sima Yan (Emperor Wu) usurped the throne from the last Cao Wei
Cao Wei
emperor Cao Huan and established the Jin dynasty (265–420), he appointed Zhang Hua as a Gentleman of the Yellow Gate (黃門侍郎) and awarded him the title of a Secondary Marquis (關內侯). He was promoted to the position of a Master of Writing (尚書) later. Around 279 or 280, when the general Yang Hu encouraged Emperor Wu to conquer the Jin dynasty's rival state Eastern Wu, most officials strongly objected but Zhang Hua agreed with Yang Hu and became heavily involved in the strategies and logistic arrangements behind the campaign against Eastern Wu. After the Jin dynasty conquered Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
in 280, Emperor Wu enfeoffed Zhang Hua as the Marquis of Guangwu (廣武侯) to honour him for his contributions. Zhang Hua soon fell out of favour with Emperor Wu. When Emperor Wu once asked him who could be a regent for his son Sima Zhong (later Emperor Hui), Zhang Hua recommended Emperor Wu's brother, Sima You (the Prince of Qi). Although Sima You was clearly capable of fulfilling that role, Emperor Wu was angry with Zhang Hua because he feared that Sima You might usurp the throne from Sima Zhong in the future since he had much support from the masses. The officials who previously opposed the campaign against Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
seized this opportunity to speak ill of Zhang Hua in front of Emperor Wu and cause him to fall out of the emperor's favour. Emperor Wu then sent Zhang Hua away to the northern frontier in You Province
You Province
to serve as Colonel Who Protects the Wuhuan
(護烏桓校尉) and General Who Stabilises the North (安北將軍). Zhang Hua performed well in office as he pacified the various non- Han Chinese
Han Chinese
peoples, such as the Wuhuan
and Xianbei
tribes, in the region. Although Emperor Wu considered summoning Zhang Hua back to the imperial capital Luoyang
to serve in ministerial positions, he changed his mind every time after listening to officials who disliked Zhang Hua. Following Emperor Wu's death in 290, Zhang Hua was summoned back to Luoyang
to serve as an Official of Ceremonies (太常卿), a position without actual power. His role was mainly to teach Sima Yu, the heir apparent of the newly enthroned Sima Zhong (Emperor Hui). After Empress Jia Nanfeng overthrew Empress Dowager Yang and her father Yang Jun in a coup d'état, she entrusted Zhang Hua with greater responsibilities as Right Household Counsellor (右光祿大夫), Palace Attendant (侍中) and Supervisor of the Palace Writers (中書監). In 296, Zhang Hua was promoted to Minister of Works (司空). Over the subsequent years, with Empress Jia Nanfeng in power (Emperor Hui was merely a puppet emperor), Zhang Hua used his political skills to keep the various competing factions in check, in conjunction with Empress Jia's cousin Pei Wei (裴頠). Death[edit] In 299, the political firestorm became too big for Zhang Hua to handle after Empress Jia Nanfeng framed Sima Yu for treason in 299 and had him deposed. In the following year, fearing that Sima Yu would make a comeback, Empress Jia had him murdered. Sima Lun
Sima Lun
(the Prince of Zhao), a granduncle of Emperor Hui, plotted a coup d'état to remove Empress Jia from power. He tried to persuade Zhang Hua to join him, but Zhang Hua was reluctant to do so. Later that year, after Sima Lun successfully overthrew Empress Jia, he had her several of her supporters and associates (including Zhang Hua) executed along with their families. Sima Lun
Sima Lun
then usurped the throne and briefly ruled as emperor before he was overthrown. In 301, Sima You's son, Sima Jiong
Sima Jiong
(the Prince of Qi), then the regent, had Zhang Hua posthumously rehabilitated and restored to his former titles and positions. Poetry[edit] Zhang Hua's poetry was admired by such people as Ruan Ji
Ruan Ji
and Chen Liu (陳留). He was profoundly learned, and when he changed houses it took thirty carts to carry his library. Zhang Hua was the author of the Bowuzhi, a collection of articles on various topics of interest. It appears to have perished during the Song dynasty, and the modern work which passes under that name was probably compiled from extracts found in other books. Family[edit] Zhang Hua had two sons: Zhang Yi (張禕), who served as a Regular Mounted Attendant (散騎常侍); Zhang Wei (張韙), who served as a Mounted Gentleman (散騎侍郎). Both of them died together with their father and the rest of their families in 300. Only one of Zhang Hua's grandsons, Zhang Yu (張輿), survived the purge. He inherited his grandfather's peerage in 301 after his grandfather was posthumously rehabilitated. See also[edit]

Poetry portal

List of people of the Three Kingdoms


Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
(Sanguozhi). Giles, Herbert (1898). "Chang Hua". A Chinese Biographical Dictionary. London: Bernard Quaritch.  Fang, Xuanling. Book of Jin (Jin Shu). Pei, Songzhi. Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
(Sanguozhi zhu).

v t e

Notable figures of the War of the Eight Princes

The Eight Princes

Sima Ai, Prince of Changsha Sima Jiong, Prince of Qi Sima Liang, Prince of Runan Sima Lun, Prince of Zhao Sima Wei, Prince of Chu Sima Ying, Prince of Chengdu Sima Yong, Prince of Hejian Sima Yue, Prince of Donghai

Other notable figures

Empress Jia Nanfeng Sima Chi, Emperor Huai Sima Yu Sima Zhong, Emperor Hui Wei Guan Yang Jun Yang Xianrong Empress Yang Zhi Zhang Hua

v t e

Prominent people of Cao Wei


Cao Pi Cao Rui Cao Fang Cao Mao Cao Huan

Empresses and noble ladies

Empress Wuxuan Duchess Cao Empress Wenzhao Empress Wende Empress Mingdao Empress Mingyuan Empress Huai Empress Zhang Empress Wang Empress Bian (Cao Mao's wife) Empress Bian (Cao Huan's wife)

Princes and royal figures

Cao Ang Cao Biao Cao Chong Cao Gan Cao Gong Cao Gun Cao Hui Cao Jian Cao Ju (Prince of Fanyang) Cao Ju (Prince of Pengcheng) Cao Jun (Duke of Fan) Cao Jun (Prince of Chenliu) Cao Li Cao Lin (Prince of Donghai) Cao Lin (Prince of Pei) Cao Mao Cao Rui Cao Shuo Cao Xie Cao Xuan Cao Xun Cao Yan Cao Yong Cao Yu Cao Zhang Cao Zhi Cao Zicheng Cao Ziji Cao Zijing Cao Ziqin Cao Zishang Cao Zizheng


Cao Shuang Sima Yi Sima Shi Sima Zhao Sima Yan

Civil officers

Bao Xun Bi Gui Cang Ci Chang Lin Chen Jiao Chen Qun Cui Lin Deng Yang Dong Zhao Du Ji Du Xi Fu Jia Fu Xuan Fu Xun Gao Rou Gaotang Long Guan Ning Han Ji He Kui He Qia He Yan Hu Zhi Hua Xin Huan Fan Huan Jie Jia Chong Jia Xu Jiang Ji Li Feng Li Sheng Liang Xi Liu Shao Liu Ye Liu Yi Lu Yu Pang Yu Pei Qian Pei Xiu Sima Fu Sima Zhi Su Ze Wang Chen Wang Guan Wang Lang Wang Jing Wang Su Wang Xiang Wang Ye Wei Ji Wei Zhen Wu Zhi Xiahou He Xiahou Hui Xiahou Wei Xiahou Xuan Xin Pi Xing Yong Xu Miao Xu Shu Xu Xuan Xun Yi Yang Fu Yang Jun Yu Huan Zhang Hua Zhang Ji (Derong) Zhang Ji (Jingzhong) Zheng Hun Zhong Yao Zhong Yu

Military officers

Cao Hong Cao Ren Cao Xiu Cao Zhen Chen Tai Deng Ai Du Yu Fei Yao Gongsun Yuan Guanqiu Jian Guo Huai Hao Zhao Huang Quan Jia Kui Liu Jing Lü Qian Man Chong Meng Da Niu Jin Qian Hong Qian Zhao Qin Lang Sima Wang Sima Zhou Sun Li Tang Zi Tian Xu Tian Yu Wang Chang Wang Ji Wang Jun Wang Ling Wang Shuang Wang Zhong Wei Guan Wen Ping Wen Qin Wen Yang Wei Guan Xiahou Ba Xiahou Dun Xiahou Mao Xiahou Shang Xu Chu Xu Huang Xu Zhi Yang Hu Yang Qiu Yin Li Yu Jin Zang Ba Zhang He Zhang Liao Zhang Te Zhao Yan Zhong Hui Zhou Tai Zhu Ling Zhuge Dan Zhuge Xu

Other notable women

Wang Yuanji Xiahou Hui Xin Xianying Yang Huiyu Zhang Chunhua

Other notable figures

Budugen Du Kui Guan Lu Huangfu Mi Huchuquan Kebineng Liu Hui Ma Jun Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove Wang Bi Xun Can Pei Xiu Zhou Xuan Zhu Jianping

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 116881671 LCCN: n81053817 ISNI: 0000 0001 1580 6056 SUDOC: 030502160 BNF: cb12190358m (d