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Zhang Chunqiao (Chinese: 张春桥; 1 February 1917 – 21 April 2005) was a prominent Chinese political theorist, writer, and politician. He came to the national spotlight during the late stages of the Cultural Revolution, and was a member of the Maoist radical group dubbed the "Gang of Four". Biography[edit] Born in Juye County, Shandong, Zhang worked as a writer in Shanghai
Shanghai
in the 1930s and became closely associated with the city. After the Yan'an
Yan'an
conference in 1938, he joined the Communist Party of China. With the creation of the People's Republic of China, he became a prominent journalist in Shanghai
Shanghai
in charge of the Liberation Daily newspaper. He met Jiang Qing
Jiang Qing
in Shanghai
Shanghai
and helped to launch the Cultural Revolution. Zhang first came to prominence as the result of his October 1958 Jiefang ("Liberation") magazine entitled “Destroy the Ideas of Bourgeois Legal Ownership.” Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
ordered the reproduction of the article in People’s Daily, and personally wrote an accompanying “Editor’s Note” giving the article his own mild approval.[1] He was seen as one of Mao Zedong's full supporters as Mao became involved in an ideological struggle with rival leader Liu Shaoqi. In February 1967, at the outset of the Cultural Revolution, Zhang organized the Shanghai
Shanghai
Commune along with Wang Hongwen
Wang Hongwen
and Yao Wenyuan, essentially overthrowing the local government and party organization and becoming chairman of the city's Revolutionary Committee, which combined both the former posts of mayor and party secretary, until the latter post was restored in 1971. Zhang also initially served as one of the leaders of the Cultural Revolution Group, in charge of carrying out the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
around China. He spent much of the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
shuttling between Beijing
Beijing
and Shanghai. In April 1969 he joined the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and in 1973 he was promoted to the Politburo Standing Committee, a council of top Communist leaders. In January 1975 Zhang became the second-ranked Vice Premier; Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
was the first-ranked Vice Premier at the time, but Deng was purged in 1976. He was arrested along with the other members of the Gang of Four
Gang of Four
in October 1976, as part of a conspiracy by Ye Jianying
Ye Jianying
and newly anointed party leader Hua Guofeng. Zhang was sentenced to death with a two-year reprieve, together with Jiang Qing, in 1984, but his sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment, and in December 1997 the sentence was further reduced to eighteen years. In 1998, Zhang was released from prison to undergo medical treatment. He then lived in obscurity in Shanghai
Shanghai
for the remainder of his life. Zhang died from pancreatic cancer in April 2005.[2] Notes[edit]

^ Chang, Parris H., Power and Policy in China, 2nd Edition, The Pennsylvania State University Press (University Park: 1978), p. 100, and n21-22. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4533401.stm

References[edit]

Zhang Chunqiao Reference Archive "On Exercising All-Round Dictatorship over the Bourgeoisie"

Political offices

Preceded by Cao Diqiu as Mayor of Shanghai Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of Shanghai 1967–1976 Succeeded by Su Zhenhua

Preceded by Deng Xiaoping First-ranking Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China 1976 Succeeded by Li Xiannian

Party political offices

Preceded by Chen Pixian Vacant since 1967 Secretary of the CPC Shanghai
Shanghai
Committee 1971–1976 Succeeded by Su Zhenhua

Military offices

Preceded by Li Desheng Vacant since 1970 Director of the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army 1975–1976 Succeeded by Wei Guoqing Vacant until 1977

v t e

10th Politburo of the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
(1973–1977)

Standing Committee (PSC)

before Oct 1976

1. Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
(chairman, died Sep 1976) 2. Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
(vice chairman, died Jan 1976) 3. Wang Hongwen
Wang Hongwen
(vice chairman, arrested Oct 1976) 4. Kang Sheng
Kang Sheng
(vice chairman, died Dec 1975) 5. Ye Jianying
Ye Jianying
(vice chairman) 6. Li Desheng
Li Desheng
(vice chairman, resigned Jan 1975) 7. Zhu De
Zhu De
(died Jul 1976) 8. Zhang Chunqiao (arrested Oct 1976) 9. Dong Biwu
Dong Biwu
(died Apr 1975) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(added Jan 1975, vice chairman, dismissed Apr 1976) Hua Guofeng
Hua Guofeng
(added Apr 1976, vice chairman)

after Oct 1976

1. Hua Guofeng
Hua Guofeng
(chairman) 2. Ye Jianying
Ye Jianying
(vice chairman) 3. Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(vice chairman, reinstated Jul 1977)

Other members

Wei Guoqing Liu Bocheng Jiang Qing
Jiang Qing
(arrested Oct 1976) Xu Shiyou Hua Guofeng
Hua Guofeng
(to PSC Apr 1976) Ji Dengkui Wu De Wang Dongxing Chen Yonggui Chen Xilian Li Xiannian Yao Wenyuan (arrested Oct 1976) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(added Dec 1973, to PSC Jan 1975) Li Desheng
Li Desheng
(from PSC Jan 1975)

Alternate members

Wu Guixian Su Zhenhua Ni Zhifu Saifuddin Azizi

7th→8th→9th→10th→11th→12th→13th→14th→15th→16th→17th→18th→19th

v t e

9th Politburo of the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
(1969–1973)

Standing Committee

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
(chairman) Lin Biao
Lin Biao
(vice chairman, died Sep 1971) Zhou Enlai Chen Boda
Chen Boda
(dismissed Aug 1973) Kang Sheng

Other members (surname stroke order)

Ye Qun
Ye Qun
(died Sep 1971) Ye Jianying Liu Bocheng Jiang Qing Zhu De Xu Shiyou Chen Xilian Li Xiannian Li Zuopeng
Li Zuopeng
(arrested Sep 1971) Wu Faxian
Wu Faxian
(arrested Sep 1971) Zhang Chunqiao Qiu Huizuo
Qiu Huizuo
(arrested Sep 1971) Yao Wenyuan Huang Yongsheng
Huang Yongsheng
(arrested Sep 1971) Dong Biwu Xie Fuzhi (died Mar 1972)

Alternate members

Ji Dengkui Li Xuefeng (dismissed Aug 1973) Li Desheng Wang Dongxing

7th→8th→9th→10th→11th→12th→13th→14th→15th→16th→17th→18th→19th

v t e

Political leaders of Shanghai
Shanghai
since 1949

CPC Committee Secretaries

Rao Shushi Chen Yi Ke Qingshi Chen Pixian Zhang Chunqiao Su Zhenhua Peng Chong Chen Guodong Rui Xingwen Jiang Zemin Zhu Rongji Wu Bangguo Huang Ju Chen Liangyu Han Zheng
Han Zheng
(acting) Xi Jinping Yu Zhengsheng Han Zheng Li Qiang

Congress Chairmen

Yan Youmin Hu Lijiao Ye Gongqi Chen Tiedi Gong Xueping Liu Yungeng Yin Yicui

Mayors

Chen Yi Ke Qingshi Cao Diqiu Zhang Chunqiao Su Zhenhua Peng Chong Wang Daohan Jiang Zemin Zhu Rongji Huang Ju Xu Kuangdi Chen Liangyu Han Zheng Yang Xiong Ying Yong

CPPCC Committee Chairmen

Ke Qingshi Chen Pixian Peng Chong Wang Yiping Li Guohao Xie Xide Chen Tiedi Wang Liping Jiang Yiren Feng Guoqin Wu Zhiming Dong Yunhu

v t e

The Cultural Revolution

Major events

Socialist Education Movement Lushan Conference Down to the Countryside Movement February Countercurrent Wuhan Incident 9th Party Congress Project 571 10th Party Congress Criticize Lin, Criticize Confucius Counterattack the Right-Deviationist Reversal-of-Verdicts Trend Tiananmen Incident 3rd Plenum of the 11th Central Committee

Key figures

Mao Zedong Liu Shaoqi Zhou Enlai Lin Biao Deng Xiaoping Gang of Four
Gang of Four
(Jiang Qing Zhang Chunqiao Yao Wenyuan Wang Hongwen) Peng Dehuai Wu Han Peng Zhen Tao Zhu Chen Boda Wang Dongxing Xie Fuzhi Ji Dengkui Wang Li Qi Benyu Wu Faxian Qiu Huizuo Yang Chengwu Chen Zaidao Kang Sheng Mao Yuanxin Hua Guofeng Ye Jianying

Documents

Bombard the Headquarters Quotations from Chairman Mao Hai Rui Dismissed from Office

Concepts

Four Olds Struggle session Feudal fascism Big-character poster One Divides Into Two Democracy Wall Eight model plays Capitalist roader Learn from Daqing in industry Learn from Dazhai in agriculture Scar literature

Groups

Red Guards Five Man Group Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
Group Central Case Examination Group Central Organization and Propaganda Leading Group Revolutionary committee Shanghai
Shanghai
People's Commune 8341 Special
Special
Regiment Sent-down youth 61 Renegades Barefoot doctor Stinking Old Ninth Five Black Categories Five Red Categories Worker-Peasant-Soldier student May Seventh Cadre School

Related topics

Maoism Great Leap Forward Class struggle Sino-Soviet split Ultra-Leftism Peaceful Evolution theory Two Whatevers

History portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 79504642 LCCN: n88034303 GND: 12478

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