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ZEN IN JAPAN

* Dōgen * Hakuin Ekaku

SEON IN KOREA

* Taego Bou * Jinul * Daewon * Seongcheol

ZEN IN THE USA

* D. T. Suzuki * Hakuun Yasutani * Taizan Maezumi
Taizan Maezumi
* Shunryū Suzuki * Seungsahn

_Category: Zen
Zen
Buddhists _

Doctrines

* Zen and Sutras * Doctrinal background of Zen * Buddha-nature * Yogacara
Yogacara
* Śūnyatā * Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva

Traditions

* Dharma transmission * Zen lineage charts * Zen ranks and hierarchy * Zen organisation and institutions * Zen Narratives

Awakening

* Kenshō * Satori
Satori
* Sudden Enlightenment * Shikantaza

Teachings

* Ten Ox-Herding Pictures * Five ranks of Tozan * Three mysterious Gates * Four Ways of Knowing

Practice

* Zazen
Zazen
/ Shikantaza * Kōan practice

Schools

* East Mountain Teaching * Hongzhou school
Hongzhou school
* Five Houses of Chán * Rinzai school * Sōtō school * Sanbo Kyodan * White Plum Asanga

Related schools

* Huayan * Tiantai * Pure Land Buddhism

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MAHāYāNA BUDDHISM

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ZEN (Chinese : 禪; pinyin : _Chán_) is a school of Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
that originated in China
China
during the Tang dynasty as Chan Buddhism
Buddhism
. Zen
Zen
school was strongly influenced by Taoism and developed as a distinguished school of Chinese Buddhism . From China, Chan Buddhism
Buddhism
spread south to Vietnam
Vietnam
, northeast to Korea
Korea
and east to Japan
Japan
, where it became known as Japanese Zen .

The term Zen
Zen
is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪 (Chan) which traces its roots to the Indian practice of Dhyana ("meditation"). Zen
Zen
emphasizes rigorous self-control, meditation-practice, insight into Buddha-nature , and the personal expression of this insight in daily life, especially for the benefit of others . As such, it de-emphasizes mere knowledge of sutras and doctrine and favors direct understanding through zazen and interaction with an accomplished teacher.

The teachings of Zen
Zen
include various sources of Mahayana thought, especially Yogachara , the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras and the Huayan school , with their emphasis on Buddha-nature, totality , and the Bodhisattva-ideal. The Prajñāpāramitā literature and, to a lesser extent, Madhyamaka have also been influential in the shaping of the "paradoxical language" of the Zen-tradition.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Zen
Zen
practice

* 2.1 Observing the breath * 2.2 Observing the mind * 2.3 Intensive group meditation * 2.4 Insight – Kōan practice * 2.5 Zen
Zen
chanting and liturgy * 2.6 Lay services

* 3 Zen
Zen
teachings

* 3.1 Rinzai * 3.2 Soto * 3.3 Sanbo Kyodan

* 4 Zen
Zen
scripture

* 4.1 The role of scripture in Zen
Zen
* 4.2 Grounding Chán in scripture * 4.3 Zen
Zen
literature

* 5 Zen
Zen
organization and institutions * 6 Zen
Zen
narratives

* 7 History of Zen
Zen

* 7.1 Chinese Chán

* 7.1.1 Periodisation * 7.1.2 Origins and Taoist influences (c. 200–500) * 7.1.3 Legendary or Proto-Chán – Six Patriarchs (c. 500–600) * 7.1.4 Early Chán – Tang Dynasty (c. 600–900)

* 7.1.5 Classical or Middle Chán (c. 750–1000)

* 7.1.5.1 An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) till end of Tang Dynasty (907) * 7.1.5.2 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960/979)

* 7.1.6 Literary Chán – Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
(c. 960–1300)

* 7.1.7 Post-Classical Chán (c. 1300 – present)

* 7.1.7.1 Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
(1279–1368) * 7.1.7.2 Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
(1368–1644) * 7.1.7.3 Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
(1644–1912) * 7.1.7.4 Modern times

* 7.2 Spread of Chán

* 7.2.1 Thiền in Vietnam
Vietnam
* 7.2.2 Seon in Korea
Korea
* 7.2.3 Zen
Zen
in Japan
Japan
* 7.2.4 Zen
Zen
in the Western world

* 8 See also * 9 Notes

* 10 References

* 10.1 Published sources * 10.2 Web sources

* 11 Further reading * 12 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The word _Zen_ is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪 (dʑjen) (pinyin : _Chán_), which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word _dhyāna _ (ध्यान ), which can be approximately translated as "absorption" or "meditative state ".

ZEN PRACTICE

See also: Dhyāna in Buddhism

Central to Zen
Zen
is the practice of dhyana or meditation .

OBSERVING THE BREATH

Venerable Hsuan Hua
Hsuan Hua
meditating in the Lotus Position. Hong Kong , 1953.

During sitting meditation, practitioners usually assume a position such as the lotus position , half-lotus, Burmese, or seiza postures, using the dhyāna mudrā . To regulate the mind, awareness is directed towards counting or watching the breath or by bringing that awareness to the energy center below the navel (see also ānāpānasati ). Often, a square or round cushion placed on a padded mat is used to sit on; in some other cases, a chair may be used. This practice may simply be called sitting dhyāna , which is _zuòchán_ (坐禅) in Chinese, and _zazen _ (坐禅) in Japanese, _jwaseon_ (坐禅) in Korean.

OBSERVING THE MIND

In the Sōtō school of Zen, meditation with no objects, anchors, or content, is the primary form of practice. The meditator strives to be aware of the stream of thoughts, allowing them to arise and pass away without interference. Considerable textual, philosophical, and phenomenological justification of this practice can be found throughout Dōgen 's _Shōbōgenzō_, as for example in the "Principles of Zazen" and the "Universally Recommended Instructions for Zazen". In the Japanese language, this practice is called _ Shikantaza _.

INTENSIVE GROUP MEDITATION

Intensive group meditation may be practiced occasionally in some temples. In the Japanese language, this practice is called _ Sesshin _. While the daily routine may require monks to meditate for several hours each day, during the intensive period they devote themselves almost exclusively to the practice of sitting meditation. The numerous 30–50 minute long meditation periods are interwoven with rest breaks, meals, and short periods of work that are performed with the same mindfulness ; nightly sleep is kept to seven hours or less. In modern Buddhist practice in Japan, Taiwan, and the West, lay students often attend these intensive practice sessions, which are typically 1, 3, 5, or 7 days in length. These are held at many Zen
Zen
centers, especially in commemoration of the Buddha's attainment of _Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi _. One distinctive aspect of Zen
Zen
meditation in groups is the use of a kyosaku , a flat, wooden slat used to strike meditators with the intention of keeping them focused and awake.

INSIGHT – KōAN PRACTICE

Main article: Kōan _ Chinese character for "nothing " (Hanyu Pinyin : wú_; Japanese pronunciation : _mu_; Korean pronunciation : _mu_). It figures in the famous _Zhaozhou's dog_ kōan

At the beginning of the Sòng dynasty , practice with the kōan method became popular, whereas others practiced "silent illumination." This became the source of some differences in practice between the Línjì and Cáodòng schools .

A kōan, literally "public case", is a story or dialogue, describing an interaction between a Zen master and a student. These anecdotes give a demonstration of the master's insight. Koans emphasize the non-conceptional insight that the Buddhist teachings are pointing to. Koans can be used to provoke the "great doubt", and test a student's progress in Zen
Zen
practice.

Kōan-inquiry may be practiced during zazen (sitting meditation), kinhin (walking meditation), and throughout all the activities of daily life. Kōan practice is particularly emphasized by the Japanese Rinzai school , but it also occurs in other schools or branches of Zen depending on the teaching line.

The Zen
Zen
student's mastery of a given kōan is presented to the teacher in a private interview (referred to in Japanese as _dokusan_ (独参), _daisan_ (代参), or _sanzen_ (参禅)). While there is no unique answer to a kōan, practitioners are expected to demonstrate their understanding of the kōan and of Zen
Zen
through their responses. The teacher may approve or disapprove of the answer and guide the student in the right direction. The interaction with a Zen
Zen
teacher is central in Zen, but makes Zen
Zen
practice also vulnerable to misunderstanding and exploitation.

ZEN CHANTING AND LITURGY

See also: Buddhist chant

A practice in many Zen
Zen
monasteries and centers is a daily liturgy service. Practitioners chant major sutras such as the _Heart Sutra
Sutra
_, chapter 25 of the _ Lotus Sutra _ (often called the "Avalokiteśvara Sutra"), _Song of the Precious Mirror Samadhi
Samadhi
_, the Nīlakaṇṭha Dhāraṇī , and other minor mantras.

The butsudan is the altar in a monastery where offerings are made to the images of the Buddha or bodhisattvas . The same term is also used in Japanese homes for the altar where one prays to and communicates with deceased family members. As such, reciting liturgy in Zen
Zen
can be seen as a means to connect with the Bodhisattvas of the past. Liturgy is often used during funerals, memorials, and other special events as means to invoke the aid of supernatural powers.

Chanting usually centers on major bodhisattvas like Avalokiteśvara (see Guanyin
Guanyin
) and Manjushri
Manjushri
. According to Mahayana Buddhism, bodhisattvas are beings who have taken vows to remain in saṃsāra to help all beings achieve liberation from it. Since the Zen practitioner's aim is to walk the bodhisattva path, chanting can be used as a means to connect with these beings and realize this ideal within oneself.

LAY SERVICES

Though in western Zen
Zen
the emphasis is on zen-meditation, and the application of Zen-teachings in daily life, Japanese Zen also serves a function in public religion. Funerals play an important role as a point of contact between the monks and the laity. Statistics published by the Sōtō school state that 80 percent of Sōtō laymen visit their temple only for reasons having to do with funerals and death. Seventeen percent visit for spiritual reasons and 3 percent visit a Zen
Zen
priest at a time of personal trouble or crisis.

ZEN TEACHINGS

Main article: Doctrinal background of Zen

Though Zen-narrative states that it is a "special transmission outside scriptures" which "did not stand upon words", Zen
Zen
does have a rich doctrinal background, which is firmly grounded in the Buddhist tradition. It was thoroughly influenced by the Chinese understanding of Yogacara
Yogacara
and the Buddha-nature doctrine, Zen
Zen
integrates both Yogacara
Yogacara
and Madhyamaka, and the influence of Madhyamaka can be discerned in the stress on non-conceptual insight and the paradoxical language of the koans. Most essential are "the most fundamental teaching that we are already originally enlightened ", and the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
ideal, which supplements insight with Karuṇā , compassion with all sentient beings.

To point out 'essential Zen-teachings' is almost impossible, given the variety of schools, the extended history of 1500 years, and the emphasis on suchness , reality just-as-it-is, which has to be expressed in daily life, not in words. But common to most schools and teachings is this emphasis on suchness and Buddha-nature, the Bodhisattva-ideal, and the priority of zazen.

Zen
Zen
teachings can be likened to "the finger pointing at the moon". Zen
Zen
teachings point to the moon, awakening , "a realization of the unimpeded interpenetration of the dharmadhatu ". But the Zen-tradition also warns against taking its teachings, the pointing finger, to be this insight itself.

The various traditions lay various emphases in their teachings and practices:

There are two different ways of understanding and actually practicing Zen. These two different ways are termed in Chinese pen chueh and shih-chueh respectively. The term pen chueh refers to the belief that one’s mind is from the beginning of time fully enlightened, while shih-chueh refers to the belief that at some point in time we pass from imprisonment in ignorance and delusion to a true vision of Zen realization: “Our enlightenment is timeless, yet our realization of it occurs in time.” According to this belief experiencing a moment of awakening in this life is of central importance.

RINZAI

Main article: Rinzai school

The Rinzai school is the Japanese lineage of the Chinese Linji school, which was founded during the Tang dynasty by Linji Yixuan .The Rinzai school emphasizes kensho , insight into one's true nature. This is followed by so-called post-satori practice , further practice to attain Buddhahood.

Other Zen-teachers have also expressed sudden insight followed by gradual cultivation. Jinul , a 12th-century Korean Seon master, followed Zongmi, and also emphasized that insight into our true nature is sudden, but is to be followed by practice to ripen the insight and attain full buddhahood. This is also the standpoint of the contemporary Sanbo Kyodan , according to whom kenshō is at the start of the path to full enlightenment.

To attain this primary insight and to deepen it, zazen and kōan-study is deemed essential. This trajectory of initial insight followed by a gradual deepening and ripening is expressed by Linji in his Three Mysterious Gates and Hakuin Ekaku\'s _Four Ways of Knowing_ . Another example of depiction of stages on the path are the Ten Bulls , which detail the steps on the path. Japanese buddhist monk from the Sōtō Zen
Zen
sect

SOTO

Main article: Sōtō

Sōtō is the Japanese line of the Chinese Caodong school , which was founded during the Tang Dynasty by Dongshan Liangjie . The Sōtō-school has de-emphasized kōans since Gentō Sokuchū (circa 1800), and instead emphasized shikantaza . Dogen, the founder of Soto in Japan, emphasised that practice and awakening cannot be separated. By practicing shikantaza, attainment and Buddhahood are already being expressed. For Dogen, zazen, or shikantaza, is the essence of Buddhist practice. Gradual cultivation was also recognized by Dongshan Liangjie.

SANBO KYODAN

The Sanbo Kyodan combines Soto and Rinzai teachings. It is a Japanese lay organization, which is highly influential in the West through the work of Hakuun Yasutani , Philip Kapleau , Yamada Koun , and Taizan Maezumi
Taizan Maezumi
. Yasutani mentions three goals of Zen: development of concentration (_joriki_), awakening (_kensho-godo_), and realization of Zen
Zen
in daily life (_mujodo no taigen_). Kensho is stressed, but also _post-satori practice_.

ZEN SCRIPTURE

Main article: Zen and Sutras

THE ROLE OF SCRIPTURE IN ZEN

Contrary to the popular image, literature does play a role in the Zen-training. Zen
Zen
is deeply rooted in the teachings and doctrines of Mahāyāna Buddhism. _Unsui_, Zen-monks, "are expected to become familiar with the classics of the Zen
Zen
canon". A review of the early historical documents and literature of early Zen
Zen
masters clearly reveals that they were well versed in numerous Mahāyāna Buddhist sūtras, including Madhyamaka. Especially the Lotus Sutra played a large role in the development of East Asian Buddhism, including Zen.

Nevertheless, Zen
Zen
is often pictured as anti-intellectual. This picture of Zen
Zen
emerged during the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
(960–1297), when Chán became the dominant form of Buddhism
Buddhism
in China, and gained great popularity among the educated and literary classes of Chinese society. The use of koans, which are highly stylized literary texts, reflects this popularity among the higher classes. The famous saying "do not establish words and letters", attributed in this period to Bodhidharma,

...was taken not as a denial of the recorded words of the Buddha or the doctrinal elaborations by learned monks, but as a warning to those who had become confused about the relationship between Buddhist teaching as a guide to the truth and mistook it for the truth itself.

What the Zen
Zen
tradition emphasizes is that the enlightenment of the Buddha came not through conceptualization, but rather through direct insight. But direct insight has to be supported by study and understanding (_hori_ ) of the Buddhist teachings and texts. Intellectual understanding without practice is called _yako-zen_, "wild fox Zen" , but "one who has only experience without intellectual understanding is a _zen temma_, ' Zen
Zen
devil'".

GROUNDING CHáN IN SCRIPTURE

The early Buddhist schools in China
China
were each based on a specific sutra. At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty , by the time of the Fifth Patriarch Hongren (601–674), the Zen
Zen
school became established as a separate school of Buddhism. It had to develop a doctrinal tradition of its own to ascertain its position, and to ground its teachings in a specific sutra. Various sutras were used for this, even before the time of Hongren: the Śrīmālādevī Sūtra ( Huike ), Awakening of Faith
Faith
( Daoxin ), the Lankavatara Sutra
Sutra
(East Mountain School), the Diamond Sutra
Sutra
( Shenhui ), the Platform Sutra
Sutra
. None of these sutras was decisive though, since the school drew inspiration from a variety of sources. Subsequently, the Zen
Zen
tradition produced a rich corpus of written literature which has become a part of its practice and teaching. Other influential sutras are the Vimalakirti Sutra
Sutra
, Avatamsaka Sutra , the Shurangama Sutra
Sutra
, and the Mahaparinirvana Sutra
Sutra
.

ZEN LITERATURE

See also: Zen
Zen
literature

The Zen-tradition developed a rich textual tradition, based on the interpretation of the Buddhist teachings and the recorded sayings of Zen-masters. Important texts are the Platform Sutra
Sutra
(8th century), attributed to Huineng
Huineng
; the Chán transmission records, teng-lu, such as _The Records of the Transmission of the Lamp_ (Ching-te ch'uan-teng lu), compiled by Tao-yün and published in 1004; the "yü-lü" genre consisting of the recorded sayings of the masters, and the encounter dialogues; the koan-collections, such as the "Gateless Gate" and the "Blue Cliff Record". 'and Dogen's Shobogenzo .

ZEN ORGANIZATION AND INSTITUTIONS

Main articles: Zen organisation and institutions , Zen
Zen
ranks and hierarchy , Dharma transmission , and Zen lineage charts

Religion
Religion
is not only an individual matter, but "also a collective endeavour". Though individual experience and the iconoclastic picture of Zen
Zen
are emphasised in the Western world, the Zen-tradition is maintained and transferred by a high degree of institutionalisation and hierarchy. In Japan, modernity has led to criticism of the formal system and the commencement of lay-oriented Zen-schools such as the Sanbo Kyodan and the Ningen Zen
Zen
Kyodan . How to organize the continuity of the Zen-tradition in the West, constraining charismatic authority and the derailment it may bring on the one hand, and maintaining the legitimacy and authority by limiting the number of authorized teachers on the other hand, is a challenge for the developing Zen-communities in the West.

ZEN NARRATIVES

Main article: Zen Narratives

The Chán of the Tang Dynasty , especially that of Mazu and Linji with its emphasis on "shock techniques", in retrospect was seen as a golden age of Chán. This picture has gained great popularity in the West in the 20th century, especially due to the influence of D.T. Suzuki , and further popularized by Hakuun Yasutani and the Sanbo Kyodan . This picture has been challenged, and complemented, since the 1970s by modern scientific research on Zen.

Modern scientific research on the history of Zen
Zen
discerns three main narratives concerning Zen, its history and its teachings: Traditional Zen
Zen
Narrative (TZN), Buddhist Modernism (BM), Historical and Cultural Criticism (HCC). An external narrative is Nondualism , which claims Zen
Zen
to be a token of a universal nondualist essence of religions.

HISTORY OF ZEN

CHINESE CHáN

Main article: Chinese Chán See also: Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism

Periodisation

The history of Chán in China
China
can be divided in several periods. Zen as we know it today is the result of a long history, with many changes and contingent factors. Each period had different types of Zen, some of which remained influential while others vanished.

Ferguson distinguishes three periods from the 5th century into the 13th century:

* The LEGENDARY PERIOD, from Bodhidharma in the late 5th century to the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE, in the middle of the Tang Dynasty . Little written information is left from this period. It is the time of the Six Patriarchs, including Bodhidharma and Huineng
Huineng
, and the legendary "split" between the Northern and the Southern School of Chán. * The CLASSICAL PERIOD, from the end of the An Lushan Rebellion around 765 CE to the beginning of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
around 950 CE. This is the time of the great masters of Chán, such as Mazu Daoyi and Linji Yixuan , and the creation of the _yü-lü_ genre, the recordings of the sayings and teachings of these great masters. * The LITERARY PERIOD, from around 950 to 1250, which spans the era of the Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
(960–1279). In this time the gongan-collections were compiled, collections of sayings and deeds by the famous masters, appended with poetry and commentary. This genre reflects the influence of _literati_ on the development of Chán. This period idealized the previous period as the "golden age" of Chán, producing the literature in which the spontaneity of the celebrated masters was portrayed.

Although McRae has reservations about the division of Chán-history in phases or periods, he nevertheless distinguishes four phases in the history of Chán:

* PROTO-CHáN (c. 500–600) ( Southern and Northern Dynasties (420 to 589) and Sui Dynasty (589–618 CE)). In this phase, Chán developed in multiple locations in northern China. It was based on the practice of _dhyana_, and is connected to the figures of Bodhidharma and Huike. Its principal text is the Two Entrances and Four Practices , attributed to Bodhidharma. * EARLY CHáN (c. 600–900) ( Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE)). In this phase Chán took its first clear contours. Prime figures are the fifth patriarch Daman Hongren
Daman Hongren
(601–674), his dharma-heir Yuquan Shenxiu (606?–706), the sixth patriarch Huineng
Huineng
(638–713), antagonist of the quintessential Platform Sutra
Sutra
, and Shenhui (670–762), whose propaganda elevated Huineng
Huineng
to the status of sixth patriarch. Prime factions are the Northern School, Southern School and Oxhead School . * MIDDLE CHáN (c. 750–1000) (from An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) till Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960/979)). In this phase developed the well-known Chán of the iconoclastic zen-masters. Prime figures are Mazu Daoyi (709–788), Shitou Xiqian (710–790), Linji Yixuan (died 867), and Xuefeng Yicun (822–908). Prime factions are the Hongzhou school
Hongzhou school
and the Hubei faction An important text is the Anthology of the Patriarchal Hall (952), which gives a great amount of "encounter-stories", and the well-known genealogy of the Chán-school. * SONG DYNASTY Chán (c. 950–1300). In this phase Chán took its definitive shape, including the picture of the "golden age" of the Chán of the Tang-Dynasty, and the use of koans for individual study and meditation. Prime figures are Dahui Zonggao (1089–1163), who introduced the Hua Tou practice, and Hongzhi Zhengjue (1091–1157), who emphasized Shikantaza . Prime factions are the Linji school
Linji school
and the Caodong school . The classic koan-collections, such as the Blue Cliff Record were assembled in this period, which reflect the influence of the "literati" on the development of Chán. In this phase Chán is transported to Japan, and exerts a great influence on Korean Seon via Jinul .

Neither Ferguson nor McRae give a periodisation for Chinese Chán following the Song-dynasty, though McRae mentions "at least a POSTCLASSICAL PHASE or perhaps multiple phases".

Origins And Taoist Influences (c. 200–500)

See also: Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
, Silk Road transmission of Buddhism , and Six Dynasties

The practice of Buddhist meditation was practiced in China
China
centuries before the rise of Chán by people such as An Shigao
An Shigao
(c. 148–180 CE) and his school who translated various meditation treatises (Chán-jing, 禪経). Other important translators of meditation texts were Kumārajīva (334–413 CE) and Buddhabhadra . These Chinese translations of mostly Indian Yogacara
Yogacara
meditation manuals were the basis for the meditation techniques of Chinese Chan.

When Buddhism
Buddhism
came to China
China
from Gandhara (now Afghanistan) and India , it was initially adapted to the Chinese culture and understanding. Buddhism
Buddhism
was exposed to Confucianist and Taoist influences. Goddard quotes D.T. Suzuki , calling Chán a "natural evolution of Buddhism
Buddhism
under Taoist conditions." Buddhism
Buddhism
was first identified to be "a barbarian variant of Taoism":

Judging from the reception by the Han of the Hinayana works and from the early commentaries, it appears that Buddhism
Buddhism
was being perceived and digested through the medium of religious Daoism (Taoism). Buddha was seen as a foreign immortal who had achieved some form of Daoist nondeath. The Buddhists’ mindfulness of the breath was regarded as an extension of Daoist breathing exercises.

Taoist terminology was used to express Buddhist doctrines in the oldest translations of Buddhist texts, a practice termed _ko-i_, "matching the concepts", while the emerging Chinese Buddhism had to compete with Taoism and Confucianism.

The first Buddhist recruits in China
China
were Taoists. They developed high esteem for the newly introduced Buddhist meditational techniques, and blended them with Taoist meditation . Representatives of early Chinese Buddhism like Sengzhao and Tao Sheng were deeply influenced by the Taoist keystone works of Laozi and Zhuangzi . Against this background, especially the Taoist concept of _naturalness _ was inherited by the early Chán disciples: they equated – to some extent – the ineffable Tao
Tao
and Buddha-nature , and thus, rather than feeling bound to the abstract "wisdom of the sūtras", emphasized Buddha-nature to be found in "everyday" human life, just as the Tao.

In addition to Taoist ideas, also Neo-Taoist concepts were taken over in Chinese Buddhism. Concepts such as "T’i -yung" (Essence and Function) and "Li-shih" (Noumenon and Phenomenon) were first taken over by Hua-yen Buddhism, which consequently influenced Chán deeply.

One point of confusion for Chinese Buddhism was the two truths doctrine. Chinese thinking took this to refer to two _ontological truths_: reality exists on two levels, a relative level and an absolute level. Taoists at first misunderstood sunyata to be akin to the Taoist non-being. In Madhyamaka the two truths are two _epistemological truths_: two different ways to look at reality. Based on their understanding of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra
Sutra
the Chinese supposed that the teaching of the Buddha-nature was, as stated by that sutra, the final Buddhist teaching, and that there is an essential truth above sunyata and the two truths.

Legendary Or Proto-Chán – Six Patriarchs (c. 500–600)

Main articles: Bodhidharma , Southern and Northern Dynasties , and Sui Dynasty

Traditionally the origin of Chán in China
China
is credited to Bodhidharma , an Iranian language speaking Central Asian monk or an Indian monk. The story of his life, and of the Six Patriarchs, was constructed during the Tang Dynasty to lend credibility to the growing Chán-school. Bodhidharma . Woodcut
Woodcut
print by Yoshitoshi, 1887.

Bodhidharma is recorded as having come into China
China
during the time of Southern and Northern Dynasties to teach a "special transmission outside scriptures" which "did not stand upon words". Throughout Buddhist art
Buddhist art
, Bodhidharma is depicted as a rather ill-tempered, profusely bearded and wide-eyed barbarian. He is referred as "The Blue-Eyed Barbarian
Barbarian
" (碧眼胡:Bìyǎn hú) in Chinese Chan texts. Only scarce historical information is available about him, but his hagiography developed when the Chan tradition grew stronger and gained prominence in the early 8th century. By this time a lineage of the six ancestral founders of Chán in China
China
was developed. The short text _ Two Entrances and Four Acts _, written by T'an-lín (曇林; 506–574), contains teachings which are attributed to Bodhidharma. The text is known from the Dunhuang-manuscripts .

The actual origins of Chán may lie in ascetic practitioners of Buddhism, who found refuge in forests and mountains. Huike , "a dhuta (extreme ascetic) who schooled others" and used the Srimala Sutra
Sutra
, one of the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras , figures in the stories about Bodhidharma. Huike is regarded as the second Chán patriarch, appointed by Bodhidharma to succeed him. One of Huike's students, Sengcan , to whom is ascribed the Xinxin Ming
Xinxin Ming
, is regarded as the third patriarch.

Early Chán – Tang Dynasty (c. 600–900)

See also: Tang Dynasty

With the fourth patriarch, Daoxin (道信 580–651), Chán began to take shape as a distinct school. The link between Huike and Sengcan, and the fourth patriarch Daoxin "is far from clear and remains tenuous". With Daoxin and his successor, the fifth patriarch Hongren (弘忍 601–674), there emerged a new style of teaching, which was inspired by the Chinese text Awakening of Faith
Faith
in the Mahayana . A large group of students gathered at a permanent residence, and extreme ascetism became outdated. The period of Daoxin and Hongren came to be called the East Mountain Teaching , due to the location of the residence of Hongren at Huamgmei.

The term "East Mountain Teaching" was used by Shenxiu (神秀 606?–706), the most important successor to Hongren. By this time the group had grown into a matured congregation which became significant enough to be reckoned with by the ruling forces. In 701 Shenxiu was invited to the Imperial Court by Empress Wu, who paid him imperial reverence. This gave his school the support and the legitimation of the imperial court. The school was typified by a "loose practice," aiming to make meditation accessible to a larger audience. Shenxiu used short formulas extracted from various sutras to package the teachings, a style which is also being used in the Platform Sutra. Members of the "East Mountain Teaching" shifted the alleged scriptural basis, realizing that the _Awwakening of Faith_ is not a sutra but a _sastra _, commentary, and fabricated a lineage of Lankavatara Sutra masters, as being the sutra that preluded the _Awakening of Faith_.

This growing influence, and the need to be supported by patrons, is reflected in the campaign of Shenhui (670–762) for imperial patronage. Shenhui was a successor to Hui-neng (惠能; 638–713), a minor student of Hongren. At 731 Shenhui started to propagate that Huineng
Huineng
was the real successor of Hongren's, instead of the then publicly recognized successor Shenxiu. A dramatic story of Huineng's life was created, as narrated in the Platform Sutra
Sutra
, which tells that there was a contest for the transmission of the title of patriarch. After being chosen by Hongren , the fifth patriarch, Huineng
Huineng
had to flee by night to Nanhua Temple in the south to avoid the wrath of Hongren's jealous senior disciples. The _Diamond Sutra
Sutra
_ was incorporated into the story as being the favorite sutra of Huineng, thereby shifting the alleged textual basis of the Chán-school again. Shenhui succeeded in his campaign, and Huineng
Huineng
came to be regarded as the Sixth Patriarch. Shenxiu's Northern School was denigrated as "gradual", in opposition to the self-acclaimed "sudden " approach of Shenhui's Southern School. Shenhui's story was so influential that all surviving schools regard Huineng
Huineng
as their ancestor.

Classical Or Middle Chán (c. 750–1000)

An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) Till End Of Tang Dynasty (907)

Blue-eyed Central Asian monk and East-Asian monk. A fresco from the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves , Turfan of China, dated to the 9th century; although Albert von Le Coq (1913) assumed the blue-eyed , red-haired monk was a Tocharian , modern scholarship has identified similar Caucasian figures of the same cave temple (No. 9) as ethnic Sogdians , an Eastern Iranian people who inhabited Turfan as an ethnic minority community during the phases of Tang Chinese (7th–8th century) and Uyghur rule (9th–13th century).

The An Lushan Rebellion (755–763) led to a loss of control by the Tang-dynasty, and changed the Chan scene again. Metropolitan Chan began to lose its status, while "other schools were arising in out-lying areas controlled by warlords. These are the forerunners of the Chan we know today."

The most important of these schools is the Hongzhou school (洪州宗) of Mazu , to which also belong Shitou , Baizhang , Huangbo and Linji . This school became the archetypal expression of Zen, with its emphasis on the personal expression of insight, and its rejection of positive statements of this insight. Shitou is regarded as the Patriarch of Caodong (Jp. Sōtō ), while Linji is regarded as the founder of Rinzai- Zen
Zen
.

During 845–846 Emperor Wuzong persecuted the Buddhist schools in China. This persecution was devastating for metropolitan Chan, but the Chan school of Mazu and his likes survived, and took a leading role in the Chan of the later Tang.

This surviving rural Chan developed into the Five Houses of Chán (Ch. 五家) of Zen, or five "schools". These were not originally regarded as "schools" or "sects", but historically they have come to be understood that way. Most Zen
Zen
lineages throughout Asia and the rest of the world originally grew from or were heavily influenced by the original five houses of Zen.

Five Dynasties And Ten Kingdoms Period (907–960/979)

See also: Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period

After the fall of the Tang Dynasty , China
China
was without effective central control during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. China
China
was divided into several autonomous regions. Support for Buddhism
Buddhism
was limited to a few areas. The Hua-yen and T'ient-tai schools suffered from the changing circumstances, since they had depended on imperial support. The collapse of T'ang society also deprived the aristocratic classes of wealth and influence, which meant a further drawback for Buddhism. Shenxiu's Northern School and Henshui's Southern School didn't survive the changing circumstances. Nevertheless, chán emerged as the dominant stream within Chinese Buddhism, but with various schools developing various emphases in their teachings, due to the regional orientation of the period. The Fayan school , named after Fa-yen Wen-i (885–958) became the dominant school in the southern kingdoms of Nan-T'ang ( Jiangxi
Jiangxi
, Chiang-hsi) and Wuyue (Che-chiang).

Literary Chán – Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty
(c. 960–1300)

See also: Song Dynasty
Song Dynasty

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period was followed by the Song Dynasty, which established a strong central government. During the Song Dynasty, Chán (禪) was used by the government to strengthen its control over the country, and Chán grew to become the largest sect in Chinese Buddhism . An ideal picture of the Chán of the Tang period was produced, which served the legacy of this newly acquired status, and the period of the Tang Dynasty came to be regarded as the "golden age" of Chan. With the establishment of the Wu-shan (Gozan) system during the Southern Sung, the Chinese bureaucratic system entered into Zen
Zen
temples throughout the country, and a highly organized system of temple rank and administration developed.

The Linji school
Linji school
became the dominant school within Chán, due to support from literati and the court. Before the Song Dynasty, the Linji-school is rather obscure, and very little is known about its early history. The first mention of Linji is in the _Zutang ji_, compiled in 952, 86 years after Linji's death. But the _Zutang ji_ pictures the Xuefeng Yicun lineage as heir to the legacy of Mazu and the Hongzhou-school. According to Welter, the real founder of the Linji-school was Shoushan (or Baoying) Shengnian (首山省念)(926–993), a fourth generation dharma-heir of Linji. The _Tiansheng Guangdeng lu_ (天聖廣燈錄), "Tiansheng Era Expanded Lamp Record", compiled by the official Li Zunxu (李遵勗)(988–1038) confirms the status of Shoushan Shengnian, but also pictures Linji as a major Chan patriarch and heir to the Mazu, displacing the prominence of the Fayan-lineage. It also established the slogan of "a special transmission outside the teaching", supporting the Linji-school claim of "Chan as separate from and superior to all other Buddhist teachings".

During the 12th century, a clear difference between the Linji and the Caodong schools emerged. The two schools were competing for support of the literati, who became more powerful when the Song-government started to limit their influence on society. Hongzhi Zhengjue (1091–1157) of the Caodong-school emphasized silent illumination or shikantaza as a means for solitary practice, which could be undertaken by lay-followers. Dahui Zonggao (1089–1163) introduced k\'an-hua practice , "observing the word-head", as a means of solitary practice.

During the Song, both schools were exported to Japan, where they eventually became two clearly distinguished schools or "sects".

Post-Classical Chán (c. 1300 – Present)

This was different from China, where the Buddhist schools tended to coalesce into a syncretic Chinese Buddhist school.

Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
(1279–1368)

See also: Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty

The _Yuan Dynasty_ was the empire established by Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
, the leader of Mongolian Borjigin clan, after Mongol conquered the Jin and the Southern Song dynasty in China
China
. Chán-teachings started to be mixed with Pure Land teachings, as in the teachings of Zhongfeng Mingben (1263–1323).

Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
(1368–1644)

See also: Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty

Chán Buddhism
Buddhism
enjoyed something of a revival in the Ming Dynasty with teachers such as Hanshan Deqing (憨山德清), who wrote and taught extensively on both Chán and Pure Land Buddhism; Miyun Yuanwu (密雲圓悟), who came to be seen posthumously as the first patriarch of the Ōbaku Zen
Zen
school; as well as Yunqi Zhuhong (雲棲祩宏) and Ouyi Zhixu (蕅益智旭).

Chán was taught alongside Pure Land Buddhism in many Chinese Buddhist monasteries. In time much of the distinction between them was lost, and many masters taught both Chán and Pure Land.

With the downfall of the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
several Chinese Chán-masters fled to Japan, founding the Ōbaku school .

Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
(1644–1912)

See also: Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty

The Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
was the last imperial dynasty of China
China
.

In the beginning of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
Chán was "reinvented", by the "revival of beating and shouting practices" by Miyun Yuanwu (1566–1642), and the publication of the _Wudeng yantong_ ("The strict transmission of the five Chan schools") by Feiyin Tongrong’s (1593–1662), a dharma heir of Miyun Yuanwu. The book placed self-proclaimed Chan monks without proper Dharma transmission in the category of "lineage unknown" (_sifa weixiang_), thereby excluding several prominent Caodong-monks.

Modern Times

See also: Republic of China
China
(1912–1949) , China
China
, and Taiwan
Taiwan
Shuixin Chán Temple in Anhai Town, Fujian, China
China

After further centuries of decline during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912), Chán was revived again in the early 20th century by Hsu Yun (虛雲) (1840–1959), a well-known figure of 20th-century Chinese Buddhism. Many Chán teachers today trace their lineage back to Hsu Yun, including Sheng-yen (聖嚴) and Hsuan Hua
Hsuan Hua
(宣化), who have propagated Chán in the West where it has grown steadily through the 20th and 21st centuries.

Chán was repressed in China
China
during the 1960s in the Cultural Revolution, but subsequently has been re-asserting itself on the mainland, and has a significant following in Taiwan
Taiwan
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
as well as among Overseas Chinese .

SPREAD OF CHáN

Thiền In Vietnam

See also: Vietnamese Thiền and Buddhism in Vietnam Thiền monks performing a service in Huế .

According to traditional accounts of Vietnam, in 580 an Indian monk named Vinitaruci (Vietnamese : _Tì-ni-đa-lưu-chi_) travelled to Vietnam
Vietnam
after completing his studies with Sengcan , the third patriarch of Chinese Chán. This, then, would be the first appearance of Vietnamese Thiền Buddhism. Other early Vietnamese Chán schools included the Vô Ngôn Thông , which was associated with the teaching of Mazu, and the Thảo Đường , which incorporated _nianfo _ chanting techniques; both were founded by Chinese monks.

Seon In Korea

See also: Korean Seon and Buddhism in Korea Seon monk in Seoul, South Korea
Korea

Seon was gradually transmitted into Korea
Korea
during the late Silla period (7th through 9th centuries) as Korean monks of predominantly Hwaeom (華嚴) and Consciousness-only (唯識) background began to travel to China
China
to learn the newly developing tradition. Seon received its most significant impetus and consolidation from the Goryeo monk Jinul (知訥) (1158–1210), who established a reform movement and introduced koan practice to Korea. Jinul established the Songgwangsa (松廣寺) as a new center of pure practice.

Zen
Zen
In Japan

See also: Buddhism in Japan and Japanese Zen Sojiji Temple, of the Soto Zen
Soto Zen
school, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Japan
Japan

Zen
Zen
was not introduced as a separate school until the 12th century, when Myōan Eisai traveled to China
China
and returned to establish a Linji lineage, which eventually perished. Decades later, Nanpo Shōmyō (南浦紹明) (1235–1308) also studied Linji teachings in China before founding the Japanese Otokan lineage, the most influential and only surviving lineage of Rinzai in Japan. In 1215, Dōgen , a younger contemporary of Eisai's, journeyed to China
China
himself, where he became a disciple of the Caodong master Tiantong Rujing . After his return, Dōgen established the Sōtō school, the Japanese branch of Caodong.

The three traditional schools of Zen
Zen
in contemporary Japan
Japan
are the _ Sōtō _ (曹洞), _ Rinzai _ (臨済), and _ Ōbaku _ (黃檗). Of these, Sōtō is the largest, and Ōbaku the smallest, with Rinzai in the middle. These schools are further divided into subschools by head temple, with two head temples for Sōtō ( Sōji-ji and Eihei-ji , with Sōji-ji having a much larger network), fourteen head temples for Rinzai, and one head temple ( Manpuku-ji
Manpuku-ji
) for Ōbaku, for a total of 17 head temples. The Rinzai head temples, which are most numerous, have substantial overlap with the traditional Five Mountain System , and include Myoshin-ji , Nanzen-ji
Nanzen-ji
, Tenryū-ji , Daitoku-ji , and Tofuku-ji , among others.

Besides these traditional organizations, there are modern Zen organisations which have especially attracted Western lay followers, namely the Sanbo Kyodan and the FAS Society.

Zen
Zen
In The Western World

See also: Buddhism in the West and Zen in the United States

Although it is difficult to trace the precise moment when the West first became aware of Zen
Zen
as a distinct form of Buddhism, the visit of Soyen Shaku , a Japanese Zen monk, to Chicago
Chicago
during the World Parliament of Religions in 1893 is often pointed to as an event that enhanced the profile of Zen
Zen
in the Western world. It was during the late 1950s and the early 1960s that the number of Westerners other than the descendants of Asian immigrants who were pursuing a serious interest in Zen
Zen
began to reach a significant level. Japanese Zen has gained the greatest popularity in the West. The various books on Zen by Reginald Horace Blyth , Alan Watts , Philip Kapleau and D. T. Suzuki published between 1950 and 1975, contributed to this growing interest in Zen
Zen
in the West, as did the interest on the part of beat poets such as Jack Kerouac , Allen Ginsberg and Gary Snyder . In 1958, the literary magazine Chicago
Chicago
Review played a significant role in introducing Zen
Zen
to the American literary community when it published a special issue on Zen
Zen
featuring the aforementioned beat poets and works in translation.

SEE ALSO

* List of Buddhists * Outline of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhism
* Chinese Chán * 101 Zen Stories

NOTES

* ^ Dumoulin writes in his preface to _Zen. A History. Part One: India
India
and China_: " Zen
Zen
(Chin. Ch'an, an abbreviation of _ch'an-na_, which transliterates the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
_Dhyāna_ (Devanagari: ध्यान) or its Pali
Pali
cognate _Jhāna_ (Sanskrit; Pāli झान) , terms meaning "meditation") is the name of a Mahayana Buddhist school of meditation originating in China. It is characterized by the practice of meditation in the lotus position (Jpn., _zazen_; Chin., _tso-ch'an_ and the use of the koan (Chin., _kung-an_), as well as by the enlightenment experience of _satori_ * ^ According to Kalupahana, the influence of Yofacara is stronger in the ts'ao-tung school and the tradition of silent meditation, while the influence of Madhyamaka is clear in the koan-tradition and its stress on insight and the use of paradoxical language.

* ^ Yasutani discerns five kinds of Zen:

* Bompu Zen: aimed at bodily and mental health * Gedo Zen:, practices like dhyana, Yoga
Yoga
and Christian contemplation which are akin to Zen, but not Buddhist * Shojo Zen: the Hinayana , aimed at one's own liberation * Daijo Zen: the Mahayana , aimed at attaining _kensho_ and the realisation of Zen
Zen
in daily life * Saijojo Zen: in which practice _is_ enlightenment

* ^ Sasaki's translation of the Linji yulu contains an extensive biography of 62 pages, listing influential Chinese Buddhist texts which played a role in Song dynasty Chán. * ^ Albert Low: "It is evident that the masters were well versed in the sutras. Zen master Tokusan, for example, knew the _Diamond Sutra_ well and, before meeting with his own Zen
Zen
master, lectured upon it extensively; the founder of the Zen
Zen
sect, Bodhidharma, the very one who preached selfrealization outside the scriptures, nevertheless advocated the _Lankavatara Sutra_; Zen master Hogen knew the _Avatamsaka Sutra_ well, and koan twenty-six in the _Mumonkan_, in which Hogen is involved, comes out of the teaching of that sutra. Other koans, too, make reference directly or indirectly to the sutras. The autobiography of yet another Zen
Zen
master, Hui Neng, subsequently became the _Platform Sutra_, one of those sutras so condemned by those who reject intellectual and sutra studies" * ^ Poceski: "Direct references to specific scriptures are relatively rare in the records of Mazu and his disciples, but that does not mean that they rejected the canon or repudiated its authority. To the contrary, one of the striking features of their records is that they are filled with scriptural quotations and allusions, even though the full extend of their usage of canonical sources is not immediately obvious and its discernment requires familiarity with Buddhist literature." See source for a full-length example from "one of Mazu's sermons", in which can be found references to the Vimalakīrti Scripture, the Huayan Scripture, the Mahāsamnipata-sūtra, the Foshuo Foming Scripture 佛說佛名經, the Lankāvatāra scripture and the Faju jing. * ^ Hakuin goes as far as to state that the buddhat path even _starts_ with study: " person must first gain wide-ranging knowledge, accumulate a treasure-store of wisdom by studying all the Buddhist sutras and commentaries, reading through all the classic works Buddhist and nonBuddhist and perusing the writings of the wise men of other traditions. It is for that reason the vow states "the Dharma teachings are infinite, I vow to study them all."" * ^ McRae gives no further information on this "Hubei faction". It may be the continuation of Shenxiu's "Northern School". See Nadeau 2012 p.89. Hebei was also the place where the Linji branch of chán arose. * ^ During the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(1368–1644) and the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) Chán was part of a larger, syncretic Buddhist culture. A final phase can be distinguished from the 19th century onward, when western imperialism had a growing influence in South-East Asia, including China. A side effect of this imperial influence was the modernisation of Asian religions, adapting them to western ideas and rhetorical strategies. * ^ See also The Tao
Tao
of Zen
Zen
, which argues that Zen
Zen
is almost entirely grounded in Taoist philosophy, though this fact is well covered by Mahayana Buddhism. * ^ Godard did not provide a source for this quote.

REFERENCES

PUBLISHED SOURCES

Citations

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Zen
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* Anderson, Reb (2000), _Being Upright: Zen
Zen
Meditation
Meditation
and the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Precepts_, Rodmell Press * Arokiasamy, Arul M. (2005), _Zen: Awakening to Your Original Face_, Chennai, India: Thiruvanmiyur * Batchelor, Martine (2004), _The Path Of Compassion: The Bodhisattva
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* Lathouwers, Ton (2000), _Meer dan een mens kan doen. Zentoespraken_, Rotterdam: Asoka * Liang-Chieh (1986), _The Record of Tung-shan_, Kuroda Institute (translator: William F. Powell) * Lievens, Bavo (1981), _Ma-tsu. De gesprekken_, Bussum: Het Wereldvenster * Loori, John Daido (2006), _Sitting with Koans: Essential Writings on Zen
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WEB SOURCES

* ^ Sheng, Yen. "Fundamentals of Meditation". * ^ Sōtō Zen
Zen
Text Project. "Zazengi translation". Stanford University . Retrieved 15 November 2015. * ^ Sōtō Zen
Zen
Text Project. "Fukan Zazengi". Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-03-26. * ^ Dan Arnold, _ Madhyamaka Buddhist Philosophy_, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy * ^ "Pointing at the moon". Khandro.net. Retrieved 2013-02-04. * ^ "Lankavatara Sutra, chapter LXXXII, p.192 Suzuki-translation, p.223/224 in brackets". Lirs.ru. 2008-06-16. Retrieved 2013-02-04. * ^ "Soto Zen". The Soto Zen
Soto Zen
Buddhist Association. Retrieved February 19, 2013. * ^ https://tricycle.org/trikedaily/important-new-translation-complete-lotus-sutra/ * ^ aqua-palette,Inc. "Ningen Zen". Ningen Zen. Retrieved 2013-02-04. * ^ "Andre van de Braak, \'\'ZEN SPIRITUALITY IN A SECULAR AGE. Charles Taylor and Zen
Zen
Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West\'\'". Retrieved 2013-02-04. * ^ Thich Hang Dat, A REAPPRAISAL OF KUMĀRAJĪVA’S ROLE IN MEDIEVAL CHINESE BUDDHISM: AN EXAMINATION OF KUMĀRAJĪVA’S TRANSLATION TEXT ON “THE ESSENTIAL EXPLANATION OF THE METHOD OF DHYANA” Archived May 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Soothill, William Edward; Hodous, Lewis (1995), A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms, London: RoutledgeCurzon * ^ _A_ _B_ "Rinzai-Obaku Zen
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– What is Zen? – History". Zen.rinnou.net. Retrieved 2013-02-04.

FURTHER READING

Modern works

* D.T. Suzuki , _Essays in Zen
Zen
Buddhism_, First Series (1927), Second Series (1933), Third Series (1934) * R. H. Blyth , _ Zen
Zen
and Zen
Zen
Classics,_ 5 volumes (1960–1970; reprints of works from 1942 into the 1960s) * Alan Watts , _The Way of Zen_ (1957) * Lu K'uan Yu ( Charles Luk ), _Ch'an and Zen
Zen
Teachings,_ 3 vols (1960, 1971, 1974), _The Transmission of the Mind: Outside the Teaching_ (1974) * Paul Reps & Nyogen Senzaki , _ Zen
Zen
Flesh, Zen
Zen
Bones_ (1957) * Philip Kapleau , _The Three Pillars of Zen_ (1966) * Shunryu Suzuki , _ Zen
Zen
Mind, Beginner's Mind_ (1970) * Katsuki Sekida, _ Zen
Zen
Training: Methods ">(PDF), _Philosophy East & West_, 57 (4): 577–592

_Formation of Chán in Tang & Song China_

* Mcrae, John (2003), _Seeing through Zen. Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism_. The University Press Group Ltd .ISBN 978-0-520-23798-8 * Welter, Albert (2000), _Mahakasyapa's smile. Silent Transmission and the Kung-an (Koan) Tradition. In: Steven Heine and Dale S. Wright (eds)(2000): "The Koan. Texts and Contexts in Zen
Zen
Buddhism_, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
* Schlütter, Morten (2008), _How Zen
Zen
became Zen. The Dispute over Enlightenment and the Formation of Chan Buddhism in Song-Dynasty China_, Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-3508-8

_Japan_

* Bodiford, William M. (1993), _ Sōtō Zen
Zen
in Medieval Japan_, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-8248-1482-7

_Modern times_

* Victoria, Brian Daizen (2006), _ Zen
Zen
at war_ (Second ed.), Lanham e.a.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. * Sharf, Robert H. (1995a), _Whose Zen? Zen
Zen
Nationalism Revisited_ (PDF)

_Orientalism and East-West interchange_

* Borup, Jorn (n.d.), _ Zen
Zen
and the Art of inverting Orientalism: religious studies and genealogical networks_ * King, Richard (2002), _Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India
India
and "The Mystic East"_, Routledge * McMahan, David L. (2008), _The Making of Buddhist Modernism_. Oxford University Press.ISBN 978-0-19-518327-6

Contemporary practice

* Borup, Jørn (2008), _Japanese Rinzai Zen
Zen
Buddhism: Myōshinji, a Living Religion_, Brill * Hori, Victor Sogen (1994), "Teaching and Learning in the Zen Rinzai Monastery" (PDF), _Journal of Japanese Studies_, VOL (1): 5–35 * Buswell, Robert E. (1993a), _The Zen
Zen
Monastic Experience: Buddhist Practice in Contemporary Korea_, Princeton University Press

EXTERNAL LINKS

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