ZEBULON MONTGOMERY PIKE (January 5, 1779 – April 27, 1813) was an
American brigadier general and explorer for whom
Pike's second expedition crossed the
In 1810, Pike published an account of his expeditions, a book so
popular that it was translated into Dutch , French , and German
languages, for publication in
* 1 Early and family life
* 1.1 Early life and education * 1.2 Marriage and family
* 2 Military career
* 3 Journals
* 4 Legacy
* 4.1 Federal * 4.2 State and local
* 5 See also * 6 Footnotes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
EARLY AND FAMILY LIFE
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Pike was born during the
Revolutionary War , on January 5, 1779, near
Lamberton, now called Lamington , in
Somerset County, New Jersey
The younger Pike grew to adulthood with his family at a series of
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY
Zebulon Pike, Jr. married Clarissa Harlow Brown in 1801. They had
one child who survived to adulthood, Clarissa Brown Pike, who later
William Henry Harrison
Pike's military career included working on logistics and payroll at a
series of frontier posts, including
Fort Bellefontaine near St. Louis.
In 1805, Wilkinson ordered Pike to find the source of the Mississippi
River , so Pike traveled into the northern
Louisiana Territory, newly
purchased from France. Over 100 years later, France released official
records showing General Wilkinson received personal trade concessions
and thus could be labeled a spy for
After Pike returned from this first expedition, General Wilkinson almost immediately ordered him to mount a second expedition, this time to explore, map, and find the headwaters of the Arkansas and Red rivers. Additional objectives of this exploratory expedition into the southwestern part of the Louisiana Territory were to evaluate natural resources and establish friendly relations with Native Americans.
Beginning July 15, 1806, Pike led what became known as the "Pike
Expedition". General Wilkinson's son James served as one of his
lieutenants, although it now seems that Wilkinson planned that the
Spanish who controlled
In early November 1806, Pike and his team sighted and tried to climb
to the summit of the peak later named after him (
They then continued south, searching for the Red River's headwaters,
and built a fort for shelter during the winter. However, they had
crossed the border, whether through confusion or deliberation. Spanish
authorities captured Pike and some of his party in what was then
Pike and his men were taken to Santa Fe then to the capital of Chihuahua province, and presented to Commandant General Salcedo, who was governor of the state. Pike was treated well and invited to formal social dinners, but still not quite given the treatment of a visiting dignitary, and his men were kept prisoner. Salcedo housed Pike with Juan Pedro Walker, a cartographer who also acted as an interpreter. Walker transcribed and translated Pike's confiscated documents, including his journal. Mexican authorities feared the spread of both democracy and Protestant Christian sects that might undermine their rule.
During this time, Pike had access to various maps of the southwest
and learned about Mexico's discontent with Spanish rule.
The Red River, which later separated Oklahoma Territory from Texas, was next explored by the ill-fated expedition of 1815, named for the Colonel who died; only two sick men returned, one of whom died soon thereafter. He also ended up in the Spanish territory.
WAR OF 1812
Pike was promoted to captain during the southwestern expedition. In
1811, Lt. Col. Zebulon M. Pike with the 4th Infantry Regiment fought
Battle of Tippecanoe . He was promoted to colonel in 1812.
Pike's military career also included service as deputy quartermaster
Pike was promoted to brigadier general in 1813. Along with General
Jacob Brown , Pike departed from the newly fortified rural military
Sackets Harbor , on the New York shore of Lake
The Spanish authorities confiscated Pike's journals, which were not
recovered by the
Pike's capture by the Spanish and travel through the Southwest gave
Pike insight into the region. For example, he described the politics
in Chihuahua, which led to the
As Olsen (2006) shows, after Pike's death in battle, his military accomplishments were widely celebrated in terms of biographies, mourning memorials, paintings, poems, and songs, and he became the namesake for dozens of towns, counties, and ships. His memory faded after the Civil War but rebounded in 1906, at the centennial of his Southwest Expedition. His 20th century reputation focused on his exploration, and his name appeared often on natural features, such as dams, islands, lakes, and parks.
STATE AND LOCAL
* PIKE COUNTY in:
* Pike\'s Purchase
* ^ Berry, Trey; Beasley, Pam; Clements, Jeanne, eds. (2006). The
Forgotten Expedition, 1804–1805: The
* ^ Buckley, Jay H.; Harris, Matthew L., eds. (2012). Zebulon Pike,
Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West. Norman,
Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-4243-2 .
* ^ "The Duel – People & Events: James Wilkinson". PBS. Archived
from the original on February 18, 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2015.
* ^ Buescher, John. "Trailing Lewis and Clark".
TeachingHistory.org. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
* ^ Woolley
* ^ Valkenburg, Samuel Van (1976). "Pike, Zebulon Montgomery". In
William D. Halsey. Collier's Encyclopedia. 19. New York: Macmillan
Educational Corporation. p. 46.
* ^ Peppiatt, Liam. "Chapter 31B: Fort York". Robertson's Landmarks
* ^ Pike, Zebulon Montgomery (1965). Elliott Coues, ed. The
expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike to headwaters of the
Mississippi River, through
Louisiana Territory, and in New Spain,
during the years 1805-6-7. Ross & Haines (published 1895).
* ^ Olsen, Michael L. (Spring 2006). "