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Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(/ˈzænzɪbɑːr/; Swahili: Zanzibar; Arabic: زنجبار‎, translit. Zanjibār) is a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania
Tanzania
in East Africa. It is composed of the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Archipelago in the Indian Ocean, 25–50 kilometres (16–31 mi) off the coast of the mainland, and consists of many small islands and two large ones: Unguja
Unguja
(the main island, referred to informally as Zanzibar) and Pemba Island. The capital is Zanzibar
Zanzibar
City, located on the island of Unguja. Its historic centre is Stone Town, which is a World Heritage Site. The name Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is derived from the Persian zang-bâr signifying "black coast".[5] Zanzibar's main industries are spices, raffia, and tourism.[6] In particular, the islands produce cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon, and black pepper. For this reason, the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Archipelago, together with Tanzania's Mafia Island, are sometimes called the " Spice
Spice
Islands" (a term also associated with the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
of Indonesia). Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is the home of the endemic Zanzibar
Zanzibar
red colobus, the Zanzibar servaline genet, and the (possibly extinct) Zanzibar
Zanzibar
leopard.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Before 1498 2.2 Sultanate of Zanzibar 2.3 British protectorate 2.4 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
revolution and merger with Tanganyika

3 Demography

3.1 Ethnic origins 3.2 Languages 3.3 Religion

4 Government

4.1 Politics

5 Geography

5.1 Climate

6 Wildlife

6.1 Unguja 6.2 Pemba

7 Standard of living and health 8 Economy

8.1 Tourism 8.2 Energy

9 Transport

9.1 Roads 9.2 Public transportation 9.3 Ports 9.4 Airport

10 Culture

10.1 Media and communication 10.2 Education 10.3 Sports

11 Notable people 12 Gallery 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology[edit] The word Zanzibar
Zanzibar
came from Arabic
Arabic
Zanjibār (زنجبار), which is in turn from Persian Zang-bār (زنگبار), a compound of Zang (زنگ, "Black") + bār (بار, "coast"),[7][8][9] cf. the Sea of Zanj. The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. History[edit] Main article: History of Zanzibar Before 1498[edit] The presence of microliths suggests that Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has been home to humans for at least 20,000 years,[10] which was the beginning of the Later Stone Age. A Greco-Roman text between the 1st and 3rd centuries, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned the island of Menuthias (Ancient Greek: Μενουθιάς), which is probably Unguja.[11] Zanzibar, like the nearby coast, was settled by Bantu-speakers at the outset of the first millennium. Archaeological finds at Fukuchani, on the north-west coast of Zanzibar, indicate a settled agricultural and fishing community from the 6th century CE at the latest. The considerable amount of daub found indicates timber buildings, and shell beads, bead grinders, and iron slag have been found at the site. There is evidence for limited engagement in long-distance trade: a small amount of imported pottery has been found, less than 1% of total pottery finds, mostly from the Gulf and dated to the 5th to 8th century. The similarity to contemporary sites such as Mkokotoni and Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
indicate a unified group of communities that developed into the first center of coastal maritime culture. The coastal towns, including those on Zanzibar, appear to have been engaged in Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
trade at this early period. Trade rapidly increased in importance and quantity beginning in the mid-8th century and by the close of the 10th century Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was one of the central Swahili trading towns.[12] Excavations at nearby Pemba Island, but especially at Shanga in the Lamu Archipelago, provide the clearest picture of architectural development. Houses were originally built with timber (c. 1050) and later in mud with coral walls (c. 1150). The houses were continually rebuilt with more permanent materials. By the 13th century, houses were built with stone, and bonded with mud, and the 14th century saw the use of lime to bond stone. Only the wealthier patricians would have had stone and lime built houses, the strength of the materials allowing for flat roofs, while the majority of the population lived in single-story thatched houses similar to those from the 11th and 12th centuries. According to Tom Middleton and Mark Horton, the architectural style of these stone houses have no Arab or Persian elements, and should be viewed as an entirely indigenous development of local vernacular architecture. While much of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Town's architecture was rebuilt during Omani rule, nearby sites elucidate the general development of Swahili, and Zanzibari, architecture before the 15th century.[13] Persian, Indian, and Arab traders used Zanzibar
Zanzibar
as a base for voyages between the Middle East, India, and Africa. Unguja, the larger island, offered a protected and defensible harbor, so although the archipelago offered few products of value, traders settled at Zanzibar
Zanzibar
City ("Stone Town") a convenient point from which to trade with the other Swahili coast
Swahili coast
towns. The impact of these traders and immigrants on the Swahili culture
Swahili culture
is uncertain. During the Middle Ages, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and other settlements on the Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast
were advanced. The littoral contained a number of autonomous trade cities. These towns grew in wealth as the Swahili people served as intermediaries and facilitators to local, Arab, Persian, Indonesian, Malaysian, Indian, and Chinese merchants. This interaction contributed in part to the evolution of the Swahili culture, which developed its own written language. Although a Bantu language, the Swahili language
Swahili language
as a consequence today includes some elements that were borrowed from other civilizations, particularly loanwords from Arabic. With the wealth that they had acquired through trade, some of the Arab traders also became rulers of the coastal cities.[14] Vasco da Gama's visit in 1498 marked the beginning of European influence. In 1503 or 1504, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
became part of the Portuguese Empire when Captain Ruy Lourenço Ravasco Marques landed and demanded and received tribute from the sultan in exchange for peace.[15]:page: 99 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
remained a possession of Portugal for almost two centuries. It initially became part of the Portuguese province of Arabia and Ethiopia and was administered by a governor general. Around 1571, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
became part of the western division of the Portuguese empire and was administered from Mozambique.[16]:page: 15 It appears, however, that the Portuguese did not closely administer Zanzibar. The first English ship to visit Unguja, the Edward Bonaventure in 1591, found that there was no Portuguese fort or garrison. The extent of their occupation was a trade depot where produce was purchased and collected for shipment to Mozambique. "In other respects, the affairs of the island were managed by the local 'king', the predecessor of the Mwinyi Mkuu of Dunga."[11]:page: 81 This hands-off approach ended when Portugal established a fort on Pemba Island
Pemba Island
around 1635 in response to the Sultan
Sultan
of Mombasa's slaughter of Portuguese residents several years earlier. Portugal had long considered Pemba to be a troublesome launching point for rebellions in Mombasa
Mombasa
against Portuguese rule.[11]:page: 85 The precise origins of the sultans of Unguja
Unguja
are uncertain. However, their capital at Unguja
Unguja
Ukuu is believed to have been an extensive town. Possibly constructed by locals, it was composed mainly of perishable materials.[11]:page: 89 Sultanate of Zanzibar[edit] Main article: Sultanate of Zanzibar

The old castle in Zanzibar

The Harem and Tower Harbour of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(p.234), London Missionary Society[17]

The Portuguese arrived in East Africa
East Africa
in 1498, where they found a series of independent towns on the coast, with Muslim Arabic-speaking elites. While the Portuguese travelers describe them as 'black' they made a clear distinction between the Muslim and non-Muslim populations.[18] Their relations with these leaders were mostly hostile, but during the sixteenth century they firmly established their power, and ruled with the aid of tributary sultans. The Portuguese presence was relatively limited, leaving administration in the hands of preexisting local leaders and power structures. This system lasted till 1631, when the Sultan
Sultan
of Mombasa
Mombasa
massacred the European inhabitants. In the remainder of their rule, the Portuguese appointed European governors. The strangling of trade and diminished local power led the Swahili patrician elites in Mombasa
Mombasa
and Zanzibar to invite Omani aristocrats to assist them in driving the Europeans out.[16]:page: 9 In 1698, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
came under the influence of the Sultanate of Oman.[19] There was a brief revolt against Omani rule in 1784. Rather than a form of colonization in the modern sense, this was an invited sphere of influence. Wealthy patricians invited Omani merchant princes to settle on Zanzibar, rather than the former conquering the latter. In the first half of the nineteenth-century, locals saw the Busaidi sultans as powerful merchant princes whose patronage would benefit their island. Many locals today continue to emphasize that indigenous Zanzibaris had invited Seyyid Said, the first Busaidi sultan, to their island. Cultivating a patron-client relationship with powerful families was a strategy used by many Swahili coast
Swahili coast
towns since at least the fifteenth century.[20] In 1832,[15]:page: 162 or 1840[21]:page: 2,045 (the date varies among sources), Said bin Sultan, Sultan
Sultan
of Muscat
Muscat
and Oman
Oman
moved his capital from Muscat, Oman
Oman
to Stone Town. After Said's death in June 1856, two of his sons, Thuwaini bin Said and Majid bin Said, struggled over the succession. Said's will divided his dominions into two separate principalities, with Thuwaini to become the Sultan
Sultan
of Oman
Oman
and Majid to become the first Sultan
Sultan
of Zanzibar. The brothers quarrelled about the will, which was eventually upheld by Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning, Great Britain's Viceroy and Governor-General of India.[15]:pages: 163–4[16]:pages: 22–3

A Zanj slave gang in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(1889)

Until around 1890, the sultans of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
controlled a substantial portion of the Swahili coast
Swahili coast
known as Zanj, which included Mombasa
Mombasa
and Dar es Salaam. Beginning in 1886, Great Britain and Germany plotted to obtain parts of the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
sultanate for their own empires.[21]:page: 188

The narrow alley in Stone Town, Zanzibar.

In October 1886, a British-German border commission established the Zanj as a 10-nautical-mile-wide (19 km) strip along most of the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region's coast, an area stretching from Cape Delgado (now in Mozambique) to Kipini
Kipini
(now in Kenya), including Mombasa
Mombasa
and Dar es Salaam. Over the next few years, however, almost all of these mainland possessions were lost to European imperial powers. The sultans developed an economy of trade and cash crops in the Zanzibar Archipelago
Zanzibar Archipelago
with a ruling Arab elite. Ivory
Ivory
was a major trade good. The archipelago, also known as Spice
Spice
Islands, was famous worldwide for its cloves and other spices, and plantations were developed to grow them. The archipelago's commerce gradually fell into the hands of traders from the Indian subcontinent, whom Said bin Sultan
Sultan
encouraged to settle on the islands. During his 14-year reign as sultan, Majid bin Said consolidated his power around the Arab slave trade. Malindi
Malindi
in Zanzibar City
Zanzibar City
was the Swahili Coast's main port for the slave trade with the Middle East. In the mid-19th century, as many as 50,000 slaves passed annually through the port.

Many were captives of Tippu Tib, a notorious Arab slave trader and ivory merchant. Tib led huge expeditions, some 4,000 strong, into the African interior, where chiefs sold him their villagers for next to nothing. These Tib used to caravan ivory back to Zanzibar, then sold them in the slave market for large profits. In time Tib became one of the wealthiest men in Zanzibar, the owner of multiple plantations and 10,000 slaves.[22]

One of Majid's brothers, Barghash bin Said, succeeded him and was forced to abolish the slave trade in the Zanzibar Archipelago
Zanzibar Archipelago
by the British. He largely developed Unguja's infrastructure.[23] Another brother of Majid, Khalifa bin Said, was the third sultan of Zanzibar and furthered the relationship with the British which led to the archipelago's progress toward abolishing slavery.[15]:page: 172

British protectorate[edit]

Monument to the slaves in Zanzibar

Control of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
eventually came into the hands of the British Empire; part of the political impetus for this was the 19th century movement for the abolition of the slave trade. Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was the centre of the Arab slave trade, and in 1822, the British counsel in Muscat put pressure on Sultan
Sultan
Said to end the slave trade. The first of a series of anti-slavery treaties with Britain was signed by Said which prohibited slave transport south and east of the Moresby Line, from Cape Delgado
Cape Delgado
in Africa to Diu Head on the coast of India.[24] Said lost the revenue he would have received as duty on all slaves sold, so to make up for this shortfall he encouraged the development of the slave trade in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
itself.[24] Said came under increasing pressure from the British to abolish slavery, and in 1842 the British government told the Zanzibari ruler it wished to abolish the slave trade to Arabia, Oman, Persia, and the Red Sea.[25] Ships from the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
were employed to enforce the anti-slavery treaties by capturing any dhows carrying slaves, but with only four ships patrolling a huge area of sea, the British navy found it hard to enforce the treaties as ships from France, Spain, Portugal, and the United States continued to carry slaves.[26] In 1856, Sultan
Sultan
Majid consolidated his power around the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
slave trade, and in 1873 Sir John Kirk informed his successor, Sultan
Sultan
Barghash, that a total blockade of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was imminent, and Barghash reluctantly signed the Anglo-Zanzibari treaty which abolished the slave trade in the sultan's territories, closed all slave markets and protected liberated slaves.[27] The relationship between Britain and the German Empire, at that time the nearest relevant colonial power, was formalized by the 1890 Heligoland- Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Treaty, in which Germany agreed to "recognize the British protectorate over ... the islands of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Pemba".[28]

A street scene in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
during the early 20th century

In 1890 Zanzibar
Zanzibar
became a protectorate (not a colony) of Britain. This status meant it continued to be under the sovereignty of the Sultan
Sultan
of Zanzibar. Prime minister Salisbury explained his position:

The condition of a protected dependency is more acceptable to the half civilised races, and more suitable for them than direct dominion. It is cheaper, simpler, less wounding to their self-esteem, gives them more career as public officials, and spares of unnecessary contact with white men.[29]

From 1890 to 1913, traditional viziers were in charge; they were supervised by advisors appointed by the Colonial Office. However, in 1913 a switch was made to a system of direct rule through residents (effectively governors) from 1913. The death of the pro-British Sultan Hamad bin Thuwaini on 25 August 1896 and the succession of Sultan Khalid bin Barghash, whom the British did not approve of, led to the Anglo- Zanzibar
Zanzibar
War. On the morning of 27 August 1896, ships of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
destroyed the Beit al Hukum Palace. A cease fire was declared 38 minutes later, and to this day the bombardment stands as the shortest war in history.[30] Zanzibar
Zanzibar
revolution and merger with Tanganyika[edit] Main article: Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Revolution

President Abeid Karume

On 10 December 1963,[31] the Protectorate that had existed over Zanzibar
Zanzibar
since 1890 was terminated by the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom did not grant Zanzibar
Zanzibar
independence, as such, because the UK had never had sovereignty over Zanzibar. Rather, by the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Act 1963 of the United Kingdom, the UK ended the Protectorate and made provision for full self-government in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
as an independent country within the Commonwealth. Upon the Protectorate being abolished, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
became a constitutional monarchy under the Sultan.[32] However, just a month later, on 12 January 1964 Sultan
Sultan
Jamshid bin Abdullah was deposed during the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Revolution.[33] The Sultan fled into exile, and the Sultanate was replaced by the People's Republic of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Pemba, a socialist government led by the Afro-Shirazi Party
Afro-Shirazi Party
(ASP). Over 20,000 people were killed and refugees, especially Arabs
Arabs
and Indians, escaped the island as a consequence of the revolution.[34] In April 1964, the republic merged with mainland Tanganyika. This United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
was soon renamed, blending the two names, as the United Republic of Tanzania, within which Zanzibar
Zanzibar
remains a semi-autonomous region. Demography[edit]

A street scene in Stone Town.

Produce vendors at a market.

The 2002 census is the most recent census for which results have been reported. The total population of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was 984,625[35] – with an annual growth rate of 3.1 percent.[36] The population of Zanzibar City, which was the largest city, was 205,870.[36] Around two thirds of the people, 622,459, lived on Unguja
Unguja
(Zanzibar Island), with most settled in the densely populated west. Besides Zanzibar
Zanzibar
City, other towns on Unguja
Unguja
include Chaani, Mbweni, Mangapwani, Chwaka, and Nungwi. Outside of these towns, most people live in small villages and are engaged in farming or fishing.[36] The population of Pemba Island
Pemba Island
was 362,166.[37] The largest town on the island was Chake-Chake, with a population of 19,283. The smaller towns are Wete
Wete
and Mkoani.[36] Mafia Island, the other major island of the Zanzibar Archipelago
Zanzibar Archipelago
but administered by mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
(Tanganyka), had a total population of 40,801.[38] Ethnic origins[edit] The people of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
are of diverse ethnic origins.[39] The first permanent residents of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
seem to have been the ancestors of the Bantu Hadimu and Tumbatu, who began arriving from the African Great Lakes mainland around AD 1000. They belonged to various mainland ethnic groups and on Zanzibar, lived in small villages, and did not coalesce to form larger political units. Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is today inhabited mostly by ethnic Swahili, a Bantu population.[36] There are also a number of Arabs
Arabs
as well as some Indians.[40] Languages[edit] Zanzibaris speak Swahili (Kiswahili), a Bantu language that is extensively spoken in the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region. Swahili is the de facto national and official language of Tanzania. Many local residents also speak Arabic, French and/or Italian.[41] Religion[edit] Main article: Islam
Islam
in Zanzibar

The main mosque and Anglican cathedral in Stone Town
Stone Town
Zanzibar.

Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Religions (2010 est.)[42]

Islam

98.9%

Christianity

0.6%

Indigenous

0.5%

Zanzibar's population is almost entirely Muslim with a small Christian minority,[42] whereas Tanzania
Tanzania
has a Christian majority. The Anglican Diocese of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was created in 1892. The first Bishop of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
was Charles Smythies, who was translated from his former post as Bishop of Nyasaland. The cathedral, located in Stone Town, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
City, is a prominent landmark, and a national heritage asset. Having fallen into poor condition, it was fully restored, at a cost of one million Euros, to reopen in 2016, with a world heritage visitor centre. The restoration was supported by the Tanzanian and Zanzibari governments, and spearheaded by the diocese in partnership with the World Monuments Fund.[43] The restoration of the spire, clock, and historic Willis organ are still outstanding. Historically the diocese included mainland locations in Tanganyika. In 1963 it was renamed as the Diocese of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
& Dar es Salaam. Two years later, in 1965, Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
became a separate diocese, and the original was again renamed as the Diocese of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
& Tanga. In 2001 the mainland links were finally ended, and the name reverted to the original Diocese of Zanzibar. The diocese continues to include the neighbouring island of Pemba. There have been ten bishops of the diocese from 1892 to the present day. The current bishop is Michael Hafidh. It is part of the Province of Tanzania, under the Archbishop of All Tanzania, based at Dodoma. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Zanzibar
Roman Catholic Diocese of Zanzibar
was created in 1980. An apostolic vicariate of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
had been created in 1906, out of part of a much larger east African jurisdiction. This was suppressed in 1953, with the territory coming under Kenyan church control, but was restored once more in 1964. It was created a diocese just before Easter 1980. The current bishop is Augustine Ndeliakyama Shao. It is part of the Province of Dar es Salaam, under the Archbishop of Dar es Salaam.

Government[edit]

Tanzania

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Tanzania

Constitution

Human rights

Government

President (list)

John Magufuli

Vice-President

Samia Suluhu

Prime Minister (list)

Kassim Majaliwa

Legislature

Speaker

Job Ndugai

Elections

Recent elections

General: 2005 2010 2015

Political parties

Administrative divisions

Regions Districts

Foreign relations

Zanzibar

President

Ali Mohamed Shein

Vice Presidents

Seif Sharif Hamad Seif Ali Iddi

Revolutionary Government

Revolutionary Council House of Representatives

Other countries Atlas

v t e

As a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has its own government, known as the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. It is made up of the Revolutionary Council and House of Representatives. The House of Representatives has a similar composition to the National Assembly of Tanzania. 50 members are elected directly from electoral constituencies to serve five-year terms; 10 members are appointed by the President of Zanzibar; 15 special seats are for women members of political parties that have representation in the House of Representatives; 6 members serve ex officio, including all regional commissioners and the attorney general.[44] Five of these 81 members are then elected to represent Zanzibar
Zanzibar
in the National Assembly.[45] Unguja
Unguja
has three administrative regions: Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Central/South, Zanzibar North
Zanzibar North
and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Urban/West. Pemba has two: Pemba North
Pemba North
and Pemba South.[46] Concerning the independence and sovereignty of Zanzibar, Tanzania Prime Minister Mizengo Pinda
Mizengo Pinda
said on 3 July 2008 that there was "nothing like the sovereignty of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
in the Union Government unless the Constitution is changed in future". Zanzibar
Zanzibar
House of Representatives members from both the ruling party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi, and the opposition party, Civic United Front, disagreed and stood firmly in recognizing Zanzibar
Zanzibar
as a fully autonomous state.[47] Politics[edit]

12 Jan 2004: President Karume of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
enters Amani Stadium for the celebration of the 40th anniversary of Zanzibar's 1964 revolution.

Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has a government of national unity, with the current president of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
being Ali Mohamed Shein, since 1 November 2010. There are many political parties in Zanzibar, but the most popular parties are the Chama Cha Mapinduzi
Chama Cha Mapinduzi
(CCM) and the Civic United Front (CUF). Since the early 1990s, the politics of the archipelago have been marked by repeated clashes between these two parties. Contested elections in October 2000 led to a massacre on 27 January 2001 when, according to Human Rights Watch, the army and police shot into crowds of protestors, killing at least 35 and wounding more than 600. Those forces, accompanied by ruling party officials and militias, also went on a house-to-house rampage, indiscriminately arresting, beating, and sexually abusing residents. Approximately 2,000 temporarily fled to Kenya.[48] Violence erupted again after another contested election on 31 October 2005, with the CUF claiming that its rightful victory had been stolen from it. Nine people were killed.[49][50] Following 2005, negotiations between the two parties aiming at the long-term resolution of the tensions and a power-sharing accord took place, but they suffered repeated setbacks. The most notable of these took place in April 2008, when the CUF walked away from the negotiating table following a CCM call for a referendum to approve of what had been presented as a done deal on the power-sharing agreement.[51] In November 2009, the then-president of Zanzibar, Amani Abeid Karume, met with CUF secretary-general Seif Sharif Hamad
Seif Sharif Hamad
at the State House to discuss how to save Zanzibar
Zanzibar
from future political turmoil and to end the animosity between them.[52] This move was welcomed by many, including the United States.[53] It was the first time since the multi-party system was introduced in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
that the CUF agreed to recognize Karume as the legitimate president of Zanzibar.[52] A proposal to amend Zanzibar's constitution to allow rival parties to form governments of national unity was adopted by 66.2 percent of voters on 31 July 2010.[54] The autonomous status of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is viewed as comparable to Hong Kong as suggested by some scholars, and being recognized as the "African Hong Kong".[55]

Geography[edit] Main article: Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Archipelago

Coastline off Zanzibar.

A bird's view of the stone city in Zanzibar.

Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is one of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands. It is situated on the Swahili Coast, adjacent to Tanganyika
Tanganyika
(mainland Tanzania). The northern tip of Unguja
Unguja
island is located at 5.72 degrees south, 39.30 degrees east, with the southernmost point at 6.48 degrees south, 39.51 degrees east.[56] The island is separated from the Tanzanian mainland by a channel, which at its narrowest point is 36.5 kilometres (22.7 mi) across.[57] The island is about 85 kilometres (53 mi) long and 39 kilometres (24 mi) wide,[57] with an area of 1,464 km2 (565 sq mi).[58] Unguja
Unguja
is mainly low lying, with its highest point being 120 metres (390 ft).[58] Unguja
Unguja
is characterised by beautiful sandy beaches with fringing coral reefs.[58] The reefs are rich in marine biodiversity.[59] The northern tip of Pemba island is located at 4.87 degrees south, 39.68 degrees east, and the southernmost point is located at 5.47 degrees south, 39.72 degrees east.[56] The island is separated from the Tanzanian mainland by a channel some 56 kilometres (35 mi) wide.[57] The island is about 67 kilometres (42 mi) long and 23 kilometres (14 mi) wide, with an area of 985 km2 (380 sq mi).[57] Pemba is also mainly low lying, with its highest point being 95 metres (312 ft).[60] Climate[edit] See also: Climate of Tanzania The heat of summer (corresponding to the Northern Hemisphere winter) is often cooled by strong sea breezes associated with the northeast monsoon (known as Kaskazi in Kiswahili), particularly on the north and east coasts. Being near to the equator, the islands are warm year round. The rainfall regime is split into two main seasons, a primary maximum in March, April, and May in association with the southwest monsoon (known locally as Kusi in Kiswahili), and a secondary maximum in November and December.[61] The months in between receive less rain, with a minimum in July.

Climate data for Zanzibar

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 32 (90) 33 (91) 33 (91) 30 (86) 29 (84) 28 (83) 28 (82) 28 (83) 29 (84) 30 (86) 32 (89) 32 (89) 31 (87)

Average low °C (°F) 24 (76) 24 (76) 25 (77) 25 (77) 24 (75) 23 (74) 22 (72) 22 (72) 22 (72) 23 (73) 24 (75) 24 (76) 24 (75)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 58 (2.3) 66 (2.6) 147 (5.8) 320 (12.6) 290 (11.4) 53 (2.1) 28 (1.1) 30 (1.2) 41 (1.6) 66 (2.6) 170 (6.7) 140 (5.5) 1,410 (55.5)

Source: Weatherbase[62]

Wildlife[edit] Main article: Wildlife of Zanzibar Unguja[edit]

The red colobus of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(Procolobus kirkii), taken at Jozani Forest, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

A dolphin in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
near Zanzibar

The main island of Zanzibar, Unguja, has a fauna reflecting its connection to the African mainland during the last Ice Age.[63][64] Endemic mammals with continental relatives include the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
red colobus (Procolobus kirkii), one of Africa's rarest primates, with perhaps only 1,500 existing. Isolated on this island for at least 1,000 years, this colobus is recognized as a distinct species, with different coat patterns, calls, and food habits from related colobus species on the mainland.[65] The Zanzibar red colobus
Zanzibar red colobus
lives in a wide variety of drier areas of coastal thickets and coral rag scrub, as well as mangrove swamps and agricultural areas. About one third of them live in and around Jozani Forest. The easiest place to see the colubus is farmland adjacent to the reserve. They are accustomed to people and the low vegetation means they come close to the ground. Rare native animals include the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
leopard, which is critically endangered and possibly extinct, and the recently described Zanzibar servaline genet. There are no large wild animals in Unguja. Forested areas such as Jozani are inhabited by monkeys, bushpigs, small antelopes, civets, and, rumour has it, the elusive leopard. Various species of mongoose can also be found on the island. There is a wide variety of birdlife and a large number of butterflies in rural areas. Pemba[edit] Pemba Island
Pemba Island
is separated from Unguja
Unguja
island and the African continent by deep channels and has a correspondingly restricted fauna, reflecting its comparative isolation from the mainland.[63][64] The island is home to the Pemba flying fox.

A panorama of Stone Town
Stone Town
taken from the Indian Ocean. Seen in the picture are the Sultan's palace, House of Wonders, Forodhani Gardens, and St. Joseph's Cathedral

Standard of living and health[edit]

Prophylaxis poster in Zanzibar, 2008

Considerable disparities exist in the standard of living for inhabitants of Pemba and Unguja, as well as the disparity between urban and rural populations. The average annual income is US$250. About half the population lives below the poverty line. Despite a relatively high standard of primary health care and education, infant mortality in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is 54 out of 1,000 live births, which is 10.0 percent lower than the rate in mainland Tanzania. The child mortality rate in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is 73 out of 1,000 live births, which is 21.5 percent lower than the rate in mainland Tanzania.[66] It is estimated that 12% of children on Zanzibar
Zanzibar
have acute malnutrition.[67] Life expectancy
Life expectancy
at birth is 57 years,[68] which is significantly lower than the 2010 world average of 67.2. The general prevalence of HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
in the sexually active population of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is 0.6 percent, with the rate slightly higher in females (0.7 percent) than males (0.5 percent). The rate for divorced women, however, is 10 percent and is even higher for injecting drug users (16 percent), men who have sex with men (MSM) (12.3 percent), and female sex workers (10.8 percent). Among MSM, 13.9 percent reported injecting drugs within the previous three months, 77.5 percent reported being paid for sex within the previous year, and 71.2 percent reported having female sex partners within the previous year.[69] Economy[edit]

Aquaculture
Aquaculture
of red algae (Eucheuma), Jambiani, Zanzibar.

Tourism
Tourism
is one of the main sectors of the economy

Market stall in Zanzibar's Stone Town.

Ancient pottery implies trade routes with Zanzibar
Zanzibar
as far back as the time of the ancient Assyrians. Traders from the Arabian Peninsula, the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
region of modern-day Iran
Iran
(especially Shiraz), and west India probably visited Zanzibar
Zanzibar
as early as the 1st century. They used the monsoon winds to sail across the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to land at the sheltered harbor located on the site of present-day Zanzibar City.[citation needed] The clove, originating from the Moluccan Islands
Moluccan Islands
(today in Indonesia), was introduced in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
by the Omani sultans in the first half of the 19th century.[70] Zanzibar, mainly Pemba Island, was once the world's leading clove producer,[71] but annual clove sales have plummeted by 80 percent since the 1970s. Zanzibar's clove industry has been crippled by a fast-moving global market, international competition, and a hangover from Tanzania's failed experiment with socialism in the 1960s and 1970s, when the government controlled clove prices and exports. Zanzibar
Zanzibar
now ranks a distant third with Indonesia supplying 75 percent of the world's cloves compared to Zanzibar's 7 percent.[71] Zanzibar
Zanzibar
exports spices, seaweed and fine raffia. It also has a large fishing and dugout canoe production. Tourism
Tourism
is a major foreign currency earner.[72] The Government of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
legalized foreign exchange bureaux on the islands before mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
moved to do so. The effect was to increase the availability of consumer commodities. The government has also established a free port area, which provides the following benefits: contribution to economic diversification by providing a window for free trade as well as stimulating the establishment of support services; administration of a regime that imports, exports, and warehouses general merchandise; adequate storage facilities and other infrastructure to cater for effective operation of trade; and creation of an efficient management system for effective re-exportation of goods.[73] The island's manufacturing sector is limited mainly to import substitution industries, such as cigarettes, shoes, and processed agricultural products. In 1992, the government designated two export-producing zones and encouraged the development of offshore financial services. Zanzibar
Zanzibar
still imports much of its staple requirements, petroleum products, and manufactured articles. There is also a possibility of oil availability in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
on the island of Pemba, and efforts have been made by the Tanzanian Government and Zanzibar
Zanzibar
revolutionary Government to exploit what could be one of the most significant discoveries in recent memory. Oil
Oil
would help boost the economy of Zanzibar, but there have been disagreements about dividends between the Tanzanian mainland and Zanzibar, the latter claiming the oil should be excluded in Union matters.[citation needed]

Tourists in boat are chasing dolphins in the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
near Zanzibar

In 2007, a Norwegian consultancy firm went to Zanzibar
Zanzibar
to determine how the region could develop its oil potential.[74] The firm recommended that Zanzibar
Zanzibar
follow neo-liberal economist Hernando de Soto Polar's ideas about the formalization of property rights for persons living on ancestral land for which they probably do not have a legal deed.[75] Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism
Tourism
in Zanzibar In 1984, fewer than 20,000 tourists visited Zanzibar. Five times more visitors travelled to the island in 2000. The events of September 11, 2001 had an impact on the inflow of tourists, which was overcome only after 2004. Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has at least 6,200 beds across 6 classes of accommodation. However, there is a disproportionately large number in ungraded, one and two star categories.[76] Energy[edit] The energy sector in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
consists of unreliable electric power, petroleum and petroleum products; it is also supplemented by firewood and its related products. Coal and gas are rarely used for either domestic and industrial purposes. Unguja
Unguja
( Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Island) gets most of its electric power from mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
through a 39-kilometer, 100-megawatt submarine cable from Ras Kiromoni (near Dar es Salaam) to Ras Fumba on Unguja. The laying of the cable was begun on 10 October 2012 by the Viscas Corporation of Japan and was funded by a US$28.1 million grant from the United States through the Millennium Challenge Corporation.[77][78] The cable became operational on 13 April 2013.[79] The previous 45-megawatt cable, which was seldom-maintained, was completed by Norway
Norway
in 1980.[80] Since May 2010, Pemba Island
Pemba Island
has had a 75-kilometer, 25-megawatt, subsea electrical link directly to mainland Tanzania. The cable project was financed through a 45 million euro grant from Norway
Norway
and contributions of 8 million euros from the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
government and 4 million euros from the Tanzanian national government. The project ended years of dependence on unreliable and erratic diesel generation subject to frequent power cuts. Only about 20 percent of the cable's capacity was being used in January 2011, so it is anticipated that the cable will meet the island's needs for 20 to 25 years.[81][82] Between 70 and 75 percent of the electricity generated is used domestically while less than 20 percent is used industrially. Fuel wood, charcoal and kerosene are widely used as sources of energy for cooking and lighting for most rural and urban areas. The consumption capacity of petroleum, gas, oil, kerosene and industrial diesel oil is increasing annually, going from a total of 5,650 tons consumed in 1997 to more than 7,500 tons in 1999.[citation needed] From 21 May to 19 June 2008, Unguja
Unguja
suffered a major failure of its electricity system, which left the island without electrical service and mostly dependent on diesel generators. The failure originated in mainland Tanzania.[83] Another blackout happened from 10 December 2009 to 23 March 2010, caused by a problem with the submarine cable that formerly supplied electricity from mainland Tanzania.[84] This led to a serious shock to Unguja's fragile economy, which is heavily dependent on foreign tourism. Transport[edit]

A train operating on the railway between Bububu and Stone Town
Stone Town
in Zanzibar, circa 1905

Roads[edit] Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has 1,600 kilometres of roads, of which 85 percent are tarmacked or semi-tarmacked.[citation needed] The remainder are earth roads, which are rehabilitated annually to make them passable throughout the year.[citation needed]. Zanzibar, to ensure the roads are passable at all times and are maintained had established a Road Fund Board, situated at maisala which collects funds and disburses to Ministry of Communication, whom is the Road Agency at this time through the Department of Road Maintenance, known as UUB. The Road Fund Board, oversees a Performance Agreement entered between the Ministry of Communication and Infrastructure, while all the procurements and maintenances are assumed by the later. Public transportation[edit] There is no government-owned public transportation in Zanzibar. The privately owned Daladala, as it is officially known in Zanzibar, is the only kind of public transportation. The term Daladala originated from the Kiswahili word DALA or five shillings during the 1970s and 1980s when public transport cost five shillings. Ports[edit]

Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Harbour

There are five ports in the islands of Unguja
Unguja
and Pemba, all operated and developed by the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Ports Corporation. The main port at Malindi, which handles 90 percent of Zanzibar's trade, was built in 1925. The port was rehabilitated between 1989 and 1992 with financial assistance from the European Union. The Italian contractor, Salini Impregilo S.p.A., was supposed to build wharves that lasted 60 years; however, the wharves lasted only 11 years before crumbling and degenerating because the company deviated from the specifications.[85] After a long legal battle, the company was required in 2005 by the International Court of Arbitration to pay Zanzibar
Zanzibar
US$11.6 million in damages.[86] The port was again rehabilitated between 2004 and 2009 with a 31 million euro grant from the European Union. The contract was awarded to M/S E. Phil and Sons of Denmark. The then-director of the contractor suggested that the rehabilitation would last a minimum of 50 years. But the port is again facing problems, including sinking.[85]

Ferry accidents

The MV Faith, which began its final journey at the port of Dar es Salaam, sank in May 2009 shortly before docking at the port of Malindi. Six of the 25 people aboard lost their lives.[87] The Sinking of the MV Spice
Spice
Islander I on 10 September 2011, after departing from Unguja
Unguja
island for Pemba Island, was the worst disaster in Tanzanian history. In a report to the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
House of Representatives on 14 October 2011, Zanzibar's Second Vice President, Ambassador Seif Ali Iddi, said that 2,764 people were missing, 203 bodies had been recovered, and 619 passengers were rescued. It was the worst maritime disaster in Tanzanian history.[88] A presidential commission, however, reported three months later that 1,370 people were missing, 203 bodies had been recovered, and 941 passengers survived. Severe overloading caused the ferry to sink.[89] The MV Skagit, which also began its final journey at the port of Dar es Salaam, capsized in rough seas near Chumbe island on 18 July 2012. The ferry had 447 passengers, with 81 dead, 212 missing and presumed drowned, and 154 rescued. The ferry left port despite warnings from the Tanzania
Tanzania
Meteorological Agency for ships not to attempt the crossing from Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
to Unguja
Unguja
island because of the rough seas. A presidential commission reported in October 2012 that overloading was the cause of the disaster.[90][91]

Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Airport Terminal I

Airport[edit] Zanzibar's main airport, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
International Airport, has been able to handle large passenger planes since 2011, which has resulted in an increase in passenger and cargo inflows and outflows. Since another increase in capacity by the end of 2013, it can serve up to 1.5 million passengers per year.[92] The island can be reached by flights operated by Auric Air,[93] Kenya
Kenya
Airways,[94] Qatar Airways, Turkish Airlines, FlyDubai
FlyDubai
and Coastal Aviation[95] Culture[edit]

A view of the clock tower in House of Wonders
House of Wonders
through Islamic styled door in the Stone City of Zanzibar.

ZIFF, 2013

Zanzibar's most famous event is the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
International Film Festival, also known as the Festival of the Dhow
Dhow
Countries. Every July, this event showcases the best of the Swahili Coast
Swahili Coast
arts scene, including Zanzibar's favorite music, Taarab.[96] Important architectural features in Stone Town
Stone Town
are the Livingstone house, The Old dispensary of Zanzibar, the Guliani Bridge, Ngome kongwe (The Old fort of Zanzibar) and the House of Wonders.[97] The town of Kidichi
Kidichi
features the Hamamni Persian Baths, built by immigrants from Shiraz, Iran
Iran
during the reign of Barghash bin Said. Zanzibar
Zanzibar
also is the only place in Eastern African countries to have the longest settlement houses formally known as Michenzani
Michenzani
flats which were built by the aid from East Germany during the 1970s to solve housing problems in Zanzibar.[citation needed] Media and communication[edit] In 1973, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
introduced the first colour television service in sub-Saharan Africa.[98] Because of longstanding opposition to television by President Julius Nyerere, the first television service on mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
was not introduced until 1994.[99] The broadcaster in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
called Television Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(TVZ) had recently changed name to Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC).[100] following an enactment of an act to make it a public corporation, monitored under the Ministry of Finance by the treasurer registrar Among the famous reporters of TVZ during the 1980s and 1990s were the late Alwiya Alawi 1961–1996 (the elder sister of Inat Alawi, famous Taarab singer during the 1980s), Neema Mussa, Sharifa Maulid, Fatma Mzee, Zaynab Ali, Ramadhan Ali, and Khamis.[citation needed] Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has one AM radio station[101] and 21 FM radio stations.[102] In terms of landline communications, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is served by the Tanzania
Tanzania
Telecommunications Company Limited and Zantel Tanzania. Almost all mobile and Internet companies serving mainland Tanzania
Tanzania
are also available in Zanzibar. Education[edit]

Institute of Marine Sciences, UDSM

In 2000 there were 207 government schools and 118 privately owned schools in Zanzibar.[103] Zanzibar
Zanzibar
has three fully accredited Universities: Zanzibar
Zanzibar
University, the State University of Zanzibar (SUZA) and Sumait University (previously University College of Education, Chukwani).[104] SUZA was established in 1999, and is located in Stone Town, in the buildings of the former Institute of Kiswahili and Foreign Language (TAKILUKI).[105] It is the only public institution for higher learning in Zanzibar, the other two institutions being private. In 2004, the three institutions had a total enrollment of 948 students, of whom 207 were female.[106] The primary and secondary education system in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is slightly different from that of the Tanzanian mainland. On the mainland, education is only compulsory for the seven years of primary education, while in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
an additional three years of secondary education are compulsory and free.[103] Students in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
score significantly less on standardized tests for reading and mathematics than students on the mainland.[103][107] In the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, national service after secondary education was necessary, but it is now voluntary and few students volunteer. Most choose to seek employment or attend teacher's colleges. Sports[edit]

A bird's view of Amaan Stadium in Zanzibar.

Football is the most popular sport in Zanzibar, overseen by the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Football Association.[108] Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is an associate member of the Confederation of African Football
Confederation of African Football
(CAF), but not of FIFA. This means that the Zanzibar national football team
Zanzibar national football team
is not eligible to enter national CAF competitions, such as the African Nations Cup, but Zanzibar's Football Clubs get representation at the CAF Confederation Cup and the CAF Champions League. The national team participates in non- FIFA
FIFA
Football tournaments such as the FIFI Wild Cup, and the ELF Cup. Because Zanzibar
Zanzibar
is not a member of FIFA, their team is not eligible for the FIFA
FIFA
World Cup. The Zanzibar Football Association
Zanzibar Football Association
also has a Premier League for the top clubs, which was created in 1981. Since 1992, there has also been Judo
Judo
in Zanzibar. The founder, Mr. Tsuyoshi Shimaoka established a strong team which participates in national and international competitions. In 1999, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Judo Association (Z.J.A.) was registered and became an active member of Tanzania
Tanzania
Olympic Committee[citation needed] and International Judo Federation. March 2013 the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Shotokan Karate (ZASHOKA) has joined the International Shotokan Karate Federation (ISKF). Notable people[edit]

Miss Annie Allen, Englishwoman who came to call Zanzibar
Zanzibar
home after doing extensive medical missionary work there.[109] Freddie Mercury
Freddie Mercury
(born Farrokh Bulsara) of the rock band Queen was born in Stone Town, Zanzibar.[110] He fled to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Revolution.[111] Farouque Abdillahi, who was Princess Diana's designer[112] Abdulrazak Gurnah, Novelist, was born in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
in 1948 and emigrated to Britain as a student in 1968 [113][114]

Gallery[edit]

A Zanzibar
Zanzibar
beach

Stone Town

Stone Town
Stone Town
with Sultan's Palace

The red colobus of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(Procolobus kirkii), taken at Jozani Forest, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Cloves have played a significant role in the history of Zanzibar's economy

House of Wonders

Zanzibar
Zanzibar
East Coast beach

Red-knobbed starfish on the beach in Nungwi, northern Zanzibar

Zanzibari slave trader Tippu Tip

Omani Sultan
Sultan
of Zanzibar

View of ferry docked at the Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Ferry Terminal

See also[edit]

Tanzania
Tanzania
portal Islands portal

German East Africa List of Sultans of Zanzibar Zanzibari cuisine

References[edit]

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Tourism
Tourism
Sector".  ^ "Ambassador Lenhardt Participates in Ceremony to Install 100 Megawatt Submarine Power to Zanzibar". Press Release, Embassy of the United States, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 10 October 2012. ^ 132kV Sabmarine Cable - Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Iterconnector at Ras Kiromoni and Ras Fumba, Featured Project, Salem Construction, Ltd. ^ Yussuf, Issa (24 April 2013). "Tanzania: Reliable Power to Accelerate Development in Isles President Ali". Daily News (via AllAfrica.com). Retrieved 14 September 2013. ^ " Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Power: Electrical And Political Shortages", Cable from the United States Embassy in Dar Es Salaam to the United States Secretary of State, reference identification 08DARESSALAAM839, 15 December 2008. ^ Press release (3 June 2010). " Nexans
Nexans
Completes Subsea Cable Link to Provide Reliable Power for Pemba Island
Pemba Island
in Zanzibar – New 25 MVA Link to Mainland Grid Has Enabled the Local Population to End Years of Dependence on Unreliable Diesel Generators". Nexans. Retrieved 14 September 2013. ^ "Reliable electricity attracts investors to Pemba", Norway: The Official Site in Tanzania, 28 January 2011. ^ Staff (30 May 2008). "Melting in Zanzibar's Blackout". BBC News. Retrieved 14 September 2013.  ^ O'Connor, Maura R. (1 April 2010; updated 30 May 2010). "Zanzibar's Three-Month Blackout – Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
islands Go for 90 Days Without Power, Causing Business Problems and Water Shortages". GlobalPost. Retrieved 14 September 2013. ^ a b Yusof, Issa (17 October 2012). " Malindi
Malindi
Port Gradually Sinking". Daily News. Archived from the original on 2013-05-03.  ^ Staff (29 November 2008). " Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(Malindi) Nears Completion", World Cargo News. Retrieved 14 September 2013. ^ Hutson, Terry (30 July 2009). "Fire Guts Passenger Ferry in Dar es Salaam". Ports & Ships Maritime News. Retrieved 14 September 2013. ^ Sadallah, Mwinyi (16 October 2011). "Confirmed: 2,900 People Died in Zanzibar's Ferry Tragedy" Archived 12 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. IPP Media. Retrieved 14 September 2013. ^ Sadallah, Mwinyi (21 January 2012). "Nine Charged over MV Spice Islander Sinking", IPP Media. Retrieved 14 September 2013. ^ Staff (19 July 2012). " Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Ferry Disaster: Hopes Fade for Missing". BBC News. Retrieved 14 September 2013. ^ Yussuf, Issa (12 October 2012). "Tanzania: Overloading Blamed for Ill-Fated Boat". Daily News (via AllAfrica.com). Retrieved 14 September 2013. ^ " Zanzibar
Zanzibar
forms Airports Authority, modernises aviation infrastructure". Business Times (Tanzania). Retrieved 17 January 2013.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Auric Air". Auric Air
Auric Air
Services Ltd. March 30, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2012.  ^ Kenya
Kenya
Airways ^ "Coastal Aviation". Coastal Aviation. 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2015.  ^ "?".  ^ "?". Archived from the original on 16 November 2012.  ^ Mass Media, Towards the Millennium: The South African Handbook of Mass Communication, Arrie De Beer, J.L. van Schaik, 1998, page 56 ^ Martin Stumer, "The Media History of Tanzania", Salzburg, Austria: Ndanda Mission Press, 1998, pp. 191, 194, 295. ^ Karume House: Television Zanzibar
Zanzibar
Archived 3 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ AM radio stations in Tanzania: Directory of AM radio stations in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
West region Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ FM radio stations in Tanzania
Tanzania
Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c "Education in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
– Southern and Eastern African Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality". Sacmeq.org. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Tanzania
Tanzania
Commission for Universities Archived 19 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "SUZA website". Suza.ac.tz. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ Higher education – zanzibar.go .tz Archived 7 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Tanzania
Tanzania
entry – SACMEQ". Sacmeq.org. Retrieved 4 April 2011.  ^ "?". Retrieved 11 August 2010.  ^ Anderson-Morshead, Anne (1897). The History of the Universities' Mission to Central, 1859-1909.  ^ "The wonders of Zanzibar's Stone Town
Stone Town
- The Spectator". spectator.co.uk. 17 October 2015. Retrieved 12 March 2018.  ^ Levin, Angela (8 September 2012). "Exclusive interview: Freddie Mercury's mother on her 'dear boy'". Retrieved 12 March 2018 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.  ^ "Fashion Designers: Farouque Abdela". Fashion Week Zanzibar. Retrieved 12 May 2015.  ^ "Abdulrazak Gurnah - Literature". literature.britishcouncil.org. Retrieved 2017-12-12.  ^ "Abdulrazak Gurnah". www.encyclopediaofafroeuropeanstudies.eu. Retrieved 2017-12-12. 

Further reading[edit]

Don Petterson, Revolution in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 2002) Emily Ruete, Memoirs of an Arabian Princess from Zanzibar, 1888 (many reprints). The author (1844–1924) was born Princess Salme of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Oman
Oman
and was a daughter of Sayyid Said. H. S. Newman, Banani: the Transition from Slavery to Freedom in Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Pemba (London, 1898) W. W. A. FitzGerald, Travels in the Coastlands of British East Africa (London, 1898) R. N. Lyne, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
in Contemporary Times (London, 1905) J. E. E. Craster, Pemba: The Spice
Spice
Island of Zanzibar
Zanzibar
(London, 1913) Godfrey Mwakikagile, Nyerere and Africa: End of an Era (Pretoria, South Africa: New Africa Press, 2010); Tanzania
Tanzania
under Mwalimu Nyerere: Reflections on an African Statesman (Pretoria, South Africa: New Africa Press, 2006); Why Tanganyika
Tanganyika
united with Zanzibar
Zanzibar
to form Tanzania
Tanzania
(Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014); The Union of Tanganyika
Tanganyika
and Zanzibar: Formation of Tanzania
Tanzania
and its Challenges (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2016) Pearce, Francis Barrow (1920). Zanzibar, the Island Metropolis of Eastern Africa New York, NY: E. P. Dutton and Company. Hatice Uğur, Osmanlı Afrikası'nda Bir Sultanlık: Zengibar ( Zanzibar
Zanzibar
as a Sultanate in the Ottoman Africa), İstanbul: Küre Yayınları, 2005. kureyayinlari.com For its English version, see Boun.edu Wolfgang Scholz, Challenges of Informal Urbanisation. The Case of Zanzibar/ Tanzania
Tanzania
(Dortmund, 2008) Amazon.de Christopher Gallop, Letters from East Africa
East Africa
(UK, Grosvenor House Publishing 2013) ISBN 978-1781486283 [1]

External links[edit]

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and Zanzibar
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Find more aboutZanzibarat's sister projects

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History

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Economy

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Society

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Category

v t e

Portuguese overseas empire

North Africa

15th century

1415–1640 Ceuta

1458–1550 Alcácer Ceguer (El Qsar es Seghir)

1471–1550 Arzila (Asilah)

1471–1662 Tangier

1485–1550 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1487–16th century Ouadane

1488–1541 Safim (Safi)

1489 Graciosa

16th century

1505–1541 Santa Cruz do Cabo de Gué (Agadir)

1506–1525 Mogador (Essaouira)

1506–1525 Aguz (Souira Guedima)

1506–1769 Mazagan (El Jadida)

1513–1541 Azamor (Azemmour)

1515–1541 São João da Mamora (Mehdya)

1577–1589 Arzila (Asilah)

Sub-Saharan Africa

15th century

1455–1633 Anguim

1462–1975 Cape Verde

1470–1975 São Tomé1

1471–1975 Príncipe1

1474–1778 Annobón

1478–1778 Fernando Poo (Bioko)

1482–1637 Elmina
Elmina
(São Jorge da Mina)

1482–1642 Portuguese Gold Coast

1508–15472 Madagascar3

1498–1540 Mascarene Islands

16th century

1500–1630 Malindi

1501–1975 Portuguese Mozambique

1502–1659 Saint Helena

1503–1698 Zanzibar

1505–1512 Quíloa (Kilwa)

1506–1511 Socotra

1557–1578 Accra

1575–1975 Portuguese Angola

1588–1974 Cacheu4

1593–1698 Mombassa (Mombasa)

17th century

1645–1888 Ziguinchor

1680–1961 São João Baptista de Ajudá

1687–1974 Bissau4

18th century

1728–1729 Mombassa (Mombasa)

1753–1975 Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe

19th century

1879–1974 Portuguese Guinea

1885–1974 Portuguese Congo5

1 Part of São Tomé and Príncipe
Príncipe
from 1753. 2 Or 1600. 3 A factory (Anosy Region) and small temporary coastal bases. 4 Part of Portuguese Guinea
Portuguese Guinea
from 1879. 5 Part of Portuguese Angola
Portuguese Angola
from the 1920s.

Middle East [Persian Gulf]

16th century

1506–1615 Gamru (Bandar Abbas)

1507–1643 Sohar

1515–1622 Hormuz (Ormus)

1515–1648 Quriyat

1515–? Qalhat

1515–1650 Muscat

1515?–? Barka

1515–1633? Julfar (Ras al-Khaimah)

1521–1602 Bahrain
Bahrain
(Muharraq • Manama)

1521–1529? Qatif

1521?–1551? Tarut Island

1550–1551 Qatif

1588–1648 Matrah

17th century

1620–? Khor Fakkan

1621?–? As Sib

1621–1622 Qeshm

1623–? Khasab

1623–? Libedia

1624–? Kalba

1624–? Madha

1624–1648 Dibba Al-Hisn

1624?–? Bandar-e Kong

Indian subcontinent

15th century

1498–1545

Laccadive Islands (Lakshadweep)

16th century Portuguese India

 • 1500–1663 Cochim (Kochi)

 • 1501–1663 Cannanore (Kannur)

 • 1502–1658  1659–1661

Quilon (Coulão / Kollam)

 • 1502–1661 Pallipuram (Cochin de Cima)

 • 1507–1657 Negapatam (Nagapatnam)

 • 1510–1961 Goa

 • 1512–1525  1750

Calicut (Kozhikode)

 • 1518–1619 Portuguese Paliacate outpost (Pulicat)

 • 1521–1740 Chaul

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1523–1662 Mylapore

 • 1528–1666

Chittagong (Porto Grande De Bengala)

 • 1531–1571 Chaul

 • 1531–1571 Chalé

 • 1534–1601 Salsette Island

 • 1534–1661 Bombay (Mumbai)

 • 1535 Ponnani

 • 1535–1739 Baçaím (Vasai-Virar)

 • 1536–1662 Cranganore (Kodungallur)

 • 1540–1612 Surat

 • 1548–1658 Tuticorin (Thoothukudi)

 • 1559–1961 Daman and Diu

 • 1568–1659 Mangalore

  (Portuguese India)

 • 1579–1632 Hugli

 • 1598–1610 Masulipatnam (Machilipatnam)

1518–1521 Maldives

1518–1658 Portuguese Ceylon
Portuguese Ceylon
(Sri Lanka)

1558–1573 Maldives

17th century Portuguese India

 • 1687–1749 Mylapore

18th century Portuguese India

 • 1779–1954 Dadra and Nagar Haveli

East Asia and Oceania

16th century

1511–1641 Portuguese Malacca
Portuguese Malacca
[Malaysia]

1512–1621 Maluku [Indonesia]

 • 1522–1575  Ternate

 • 1576–1605  Ambon

 • 1578–1650  Tidore

1512–1665 Makassar

1557–1999 Macau [China]

1580–1586 Nagasaki [Japan]

17th century

1642–1975 Portuguese Timor
Portuguese Timor
(East Timor)1

19th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1864–1999 Coloane

 • 1851–1999 Taipa

 • 1890–1999 Ilha Verde

20th century Portuguese Macau

 • 1938–1941 Lapa and Montanha (Hengqin)

1 1975 is the year of East Timor's Declaration of Independence and subsequent invasion by Indonesia. In 2002, East Timor's independence was fully recognized.

North America & North Atlantic

15th century [Atlantic islands]

1420 Madeira

1432 Azores

16th century [Canada]

1500–1579? Terra Nova (Newfoundland)

1500–1579? Labrador

1516–1579? Nova Scotia

South America & Antilles

16th century

1500–1822 Brazil

 • 1534–1549  Captaincy Colonies of Brazil

 • 1549–1572  Brazil

 • 1572–1578  Bahia

 • 1572–1578  Rio de Janeiro

 • 1578–1607  Brazil

 • 1621–1815  Brazil

1536–1620 Barbados

17th century

1621–1751 Maranhão

1680–1777 Nova Colónia do Sacramento

18th century

1751–1772 Grão-Pará and Maranhão

1772–1775 Grão-Pará and Rio Negro

1772–1775 Maranhão and Piauí

19th century

1808–1822 Cisplatina
Cisplatina
(Uruguay)

1809–1817 Portuguese Guiana (Amapá)

1822 Upper Peru
Upper Peru
(Bolivia)

Coats of arms of Portuguese colonies Evolution of the Portuguese Empire Portuguese colonial architecture Portuguese colonialism in Indonesia Portuguese colonization of the Americas Theory of the Portuguese discovery of Australia

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat
Muscat
and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Territory (before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

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Tanzania articles

History

Timeline German East Africa Maji Maji Rebellion East African Campaign (World War I) British rule Tanganyika Sultanate of Zanzibar Zanzibar
Zanzibar
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Tanzania
War

Geography

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Politics

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List

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List

Economy

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airports

Society

Cuisine Culture Demographics Education Ethnic groups Flag Healthcare HIV/AIDS Languages List of Tanzanians Literature Media Music Persecution of Albinos Public holidays Religion Sport Telephone codes Water supply and sanitation

Zanzibar

History Pemba Unguja Archipelago House of Representatives

Outline Index

Category Portal

v t e

Members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

Africa

  Afrikaners   Amazigh (Berberia)   Barotseland   Batwaland  Haratin   Ogaden   Ogoni   Oromia   Rehoboth   Somaliland   Southern Cameroons   Venda   Zanzibar

North America

  District of Columbia

South America

  Mapuche

Asia

  Aceh   Ahwazi (Arabistan)   Assyria   Iranian Azerbaijan   East Balochistan   West Balochistan   Chin   Chittagong Hill Tracts   Degar-Montagnards    Gilgit-Baltistan
Gilgit-Baltistan
(Balawaristan)   Hmong  Igorot (Cordillera)   Inner Mongolia   Khmer Krom   Kurdistan   South Moluccas   Moro   Nagaland   Sindh   Taiwan   Talysh-Mughan   Tibet   Iraqi Turkmens   East Turkestan   West Papua

Europe

  Abkhazia   Brittany   Circassia   Hungarians in Transilvania   Kosovo   Lezgiland   Crimean Tatars   Savoy   Trieste

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312799169 GND: 4051641-6 NDL: 00574576

Coordinates: 6°08′S 39°19′E / 6.133°S 39.317°E / -6

.