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Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
(Chavacano: Peninsula de Zamboanga; Cebuano: Lawis sa Zamboanga; Filipino: Tangway ng Zamboanga) is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region IX. The region consists of three provinces (Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay and Zamboanga del Sur) and two cities (Isabela City and Zamboanga City; the former being part of Basilan
Basilan
province and the latter a highly urbanized city). The region was previously known as Western Mindanao
Mindanao
before the enactment of Executive Order No. 36 on September 19, 2001. The city of Pagadian
Pagadian
is designated as the regional center.

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Ancient era 2.2 Sultanate of Maguindanao 2.3 Spanish rule 2.4 Province of Zamboanga 2.5 Region 2.6 Present 2.7 Regional center issue

3 Administrative divisions 4 Demographics 5 Economy

5.1 Resources 5.2 Area of Growth

6 References 7 External links

Geography[edit] The region is located on the eponymous Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
of the island of Mindanao, that lies between the Moro Gulf
Moro Gulf
(part of the Celebes Sea) and the Sulu
Sulu
Sea. Along the shores of the peninsula are numerous bays and islands of varying sizes. The peninsula is connected to the rest of Mindanao
Mindanao
through an isthmus situated between Panguil Bay and Pagadian
Pagadian
Bay. The region consists of the three Zamboanga provinces and the highly urbanized independent city of Zamboanga, and the boundary between the peninsula and mainland is artificially marked by the border between the provinces of Zamboanga del Sur
Zamboanga del Sur
and Lanao del Norte. History[edit] Ancient era[edit] During the ancient era, the southern Philippines, particularly the Sulu Archipelago
Sulu Archipelago
and surrounding coastal regions was under the influence of the Javanese Majapahit Empire. Sultanate of Maguindanao[edit] During the late 15th century and early 16th century, Malay missionaries spread Islam
Islam
in the southern Philippines. Sharif Kabungsuwan, a Johore-born missionary of Malay and Arab descent established the Sultanate of Maguindanao, which the entire island of Mindanao
Mindanao
is named after. The Sultanate also occupied nearly the entire island, stretching from the Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
to modern-day Davao City, while the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
occupied the Sulu
Sulu
Archipelago, parts of Sabah
Sabah
and Palawan. Magauindanao's sultans provided Mindanao
Mindanao
fierce armed resistance against the Spanish occupation, especially under the lead of Muhammad Kudarat. They soon allied themselves with the Sulu Sultanate. The Muslim natives of the region were collectively known as Moros by the Spanish, meaning "Moor", though the Iberian Moors and the Philippine Muslims had little cultural connection outside of following Islam. A large chunk of the Spanish-Moro Conflict, the war between the Spanish conquerors and Mindanao's Muslim natives took place in the Zamboanga Peninsula. Spanish rule[edit] In 1569 Zamboanga was chosen as the site of the Spanish settlement and garrison on La Caldera (now called Barrio Recodo). Zamboanga was one of the main strongholds in Mindanao, supporting colonizing efforts in the south of the island and making way for Christian settlements. It also served as a military outpost, protecting the island against foreign invaders and Moro pirates and their Chinese allies. The Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
played a central role in the Spanish-Moro conflict. It was the site of constant battling between Spanish soldiers and Moro pirate raids. While the Spanish settlers successfully established churches in the region, they suffered heavily at the hands of Moro raiders, and had to repeatedly withdraw from the region. While the Spanish achieved a tactical victory, but launching several attacks against the Sultanate of Sulu, constant fighting and attacks persisted, giving the Moros a psychological victory. Province of Zamboanga[edit] After the United States
United States
annexed the Spanish East Indies
Spanish East Indies
in 1898, the Peninsula hosted a briefly independent state called the Republic of Zamboanga. It was incorporated by the Insular Government
Insular Government
into the Moro Province, which consisted of the Central and Western parts of Mindanao and the Sulu
Sulu
Archipelago. The name and status of Moro Province
Moro Province
were changed to the Department of Mindanao
Mindanao
and Sulu
Sulu
on August 16, 1916, causing Zamboanga to become a separate province. In 1942, the Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
along with the rest of the Philippine Islands was occupied by the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
at the beginning of the Second World War. The Peninsula was liberated in 1945 by joint American and Philippine Commonwealth
Philippine Commonwealth
forces fighting against the Imperial Japanese Army. On 6 June 1952, the province was partitioned into Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur, while the chartered city of Zamboanga became an independent, extraprovincial unit. Region[edit] Together with the Sulu
Sulu
Archipelago, the provinces that formerly made up Zamboanga Province were re-organised into Region IX by order of Presidential Decree No. 1 as part of the Integrated Reorganization Plan of President Ferdinand Marcos, that was signed in September 24, 1972.[2] From 1975 to 1989, the old Region IX (Western Mindanao) was further divided into two sub-regions by Presidential Decree No. 8233 dated August 21, 1975.[3] Sub-Region IX-A consisted of Basilan, Sulu
Sulu
and Tawi-Tawi
Tawi-Tawi
with Jolo, Sulu, as the sub-regional center, while Sub-Region IX-B consisted of the provinces of Zamboanga del Norte
Zamboanga del Norte
and Zamboanga del Sur, with the chartered city of Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
as the sub-regional centre. Present[edit] In 2001, Zamboanga Sibugay, was created from the province of Zamboanga del Sur with Ipil as the seat of government with the virtue of Republic Act No. 8973. In the same year, the residents of Basilan
Basilan
opted to join the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao
Mindanao
(ARMM) in a plebiscite. However, the citizens of the capital, Isabela, did not want to join so the city remained a part of this region as a result of Executive Order No. 36. In 2004, Pagadian
Pagadian
officially became the Regional Center for Region IX- Zamboanga Peninsula, despite opposition from Zamboanga City, the former Regional Center. Regional center issue[edit] Executive Order (EO) 429 was issued in 1990 by President Corazon Aquino which provided for the reorganization of the administrative regions in Mindanao. It declared that Western Mindanao
Mindanao
would comprise Zamboanga City, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, Basilan, and the cities comprising those provinces. It also declared that Pagadian City
Pagadian City
shall serve as the new regional center.[4] However, President Fidel Ramos
Fidel Ramos
issued EO 325 in 1996 which reorganized the Regional Development Councils (RDCs). The Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) of EO 325 declared Pagadian City
Pagadian City
as the regional center in Western Mindanao.[5] In 2001, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
signed EO 36 which reorganized and renamed Western Mindanao
Mindanao
to Zamboanga Peninsula. It was silent on the issue of regional government centers.[5][6] Memorandum Circular No. 75, signed in 2004 by Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita, directed the transfer of regional offices from Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
to Pagadian
Pagadian
citing EO 429 as its legal basis.[7] A moratorium on the transfer under Memorandum Circular No. 11 was issued on December 22, 2010 citing the high economic and social costs that the employees were experiencing in maintaining two residences and in fully transferring to Pagadian. It further directed all regional offices that are already in Pagadian
Pagadian
to continue their operations.[8] On March 3, 2011, the Regional Development Council IX endorsed Pagadian
Pagadian
as the regional center of Zamboanga Peninsula.[9][10] National Economic and Development Authority
National Economic and Development Authority
Regional Director Arturo Valero stated that “even if Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
is not the regional center, the city will still grow” and that the city should better focus on being a commercial and industrial center.[11] Administrative divisions[edit]

Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
comprises 3 provinces, 1 independent, chartered and highly urbanized city, 4 component cities, 67 municipalities and 1,904 barangays.

Province or City Capital Population (2015)[1] Area[12] Density Cities Muni. Bgy.

km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi

Zamboanga del Norte Dipolog 7001279000000000000♠27.9% 1,011,393 7,301.00 2,818.93 140 360 2 25 691

Zamboanga del Sur Pagadian 7001278000000000000♠27.8% 1,010,674 4,499.50 1,737.27 220 570 1 26 681

Zamboanga Sibugay Ipil 7001174009999900000♠17.4% 633,129 3,607.80 1,392.98 180 470 0 16 389

Zamboanga City † — 7001237000000000000♠23.7% 861,799 1,414.70 546.22 610 1,600 — — 98

Isabela City ‡ — 7000310000000000000♠3.1% 112,788 233.73 90.24 480 1,200 — — 45

Total 3,629,783 17,056.73 6,585.64 210 540 5 67 1,904

 †  Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
is a highly-urbanized city; figures are excluded from Zamboanga del Sur.  ‡  Figures include the component city of Isabela, which is under the administrative jurisdiction of the region.

Isabela City is a component city and the former capital of the province of Basilan. Since 2017, the seat of Basilan's government is moved to Lamitan. It continues to be under the jurisdiction of Basilan for the administration of provincially devolved services and functions. But for the administration of regional services, the city is part of the Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
Region despite the rest of Basilan being under the authority of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. Isabela was the southernmost outpost of the Spanish in the Philippines until the fall of Jolo in 1878. Having hosted Catholic residents since 1637, and a Spanish Fort (destroyed in World War II) since 1848, it was likewise the primary naval base of the Spanish in Mindanao
Mindanao
until 1899. Named after Queen Isabella II, the city is the southernmost predominantly Christian enclave of the Philippines, and serves as an entry point for trade and commerce of Basilan
Basilan
island.[citation needed] Dapitan
Dapitan
is also known as the "Shrine City in the Philippines" because the place where José Rizal, the National Hero, was exiled.[citation needed] It is also known for the old St. James Parish and the beach resort of Dakak. Dipolog, capital of Zamboanga del Norte, is known for their orchids, thus called "Orchid city of south" or "Orchid City" because of the abundant wild Dipolog
Dipolog
orchids. They have their nature spots and historical spots, such as Dipolog
Dipolog
Cathedral, Dipolog
Dipolog
Boulevard, Cogon Park, Japanese Park, Magsaysay Park, the Sungkilaw Falls, and the 3000 steps to Linabo Peak. Pagadian
Pagadian
is known as the "Little Hong Kong
Hong Kong
of the South" because of its topographical feature that is reminiscent of Hong Kong. It also has an affluent Chinese community that officially celebrates the Chinese Lunar New Year.[13] Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
is the only Independent, chartered city and highly urbanized city in the region. The city is the lone member of BIMP-EAGA in the Zamboanga Peninsula. Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
generates more than half of the economy of the region. It also has the largest airport and seaport and the city in the region with most investors.

City Population (2015)[1] Area Density City class Province

km2 sq mi /km2 /sq mi

Dapitan 82,418 390.53 150.78 210 540 Component Zamboanga del Norte

Dipolog 130,759 241.13 93.10 540 1,400 Component Zamboanga del Norte

Isabela 112,788 140.7 54.3 800 2,100 Component Basilan

Pagadian 199,060 378.80 146.26 530 1,400 Component Zamboanga del Sur

Zamboanga City 861,799 1,414.7 546.2 610 1,600 Highly urbanized Zamboanga del Sur

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Zamboanga Peninsula

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1990 2,281,064 —    

2000 2,831,412 +2.18%

2010 3,407,353 +1.87%

2015 3,629,783 +1.21%

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[1][14]

Economy[edit] It has the first export-processing zone in Mindanao. Farming and fishing are the main economic activities of the region. It also has rice and corn mills, oil processing, coffee berry processing and processing of latex from rubber. Its home industries include rattan and furniture craft, basket making, weaving and brass work.Dipolog City is home to a number of Bottled Sardines Companies which are being exported abroad.Dakak Park and Beach Resort can be found in Dapitan
Dapitan
it is one of the most visited places in the region along with Gloria's Fantasyland the first and only theme park in Vismin. Resources[edit] The region has vast forest resources and previously used to export logs, lumber, veneer and plywood. Mineral deposits include gold, chromite, coal, iron, lead, and manganese. Among its non-metallic reserves are coal, silica, salt, marble, silica sand, and gravel. Its fishing grounds are devoted to commercial and municipal fishing. It has also aqua farms for brackish water and freshwater fishes. Area of Growth[edit] The economic fulcrum of the region lies at the center of the peninsula that is the area connecting Ipil and Liloy. It is the fastest economic activity of the region. The 30 kilometer link between the north and the south would act as the main artery of economy in the region. References[edit]

^ a b c d Census of Population (2015). Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ "P.D. No. 1 1972".  ^ "P.D. No. 773".  ^ "E.O. No. 429". The LawPhil Project. October 12, 1990. Retrieved June 18, 2012.  ^ a b "Palace halts regional transfer". SunStar.com.ph. December 27, 2010. Archived from the original on January 31, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2016.  ^ "E.O. 36". The LawPhil Project. September 19, 2001. Retrieved June 18, 2012.  ^ "Memorandum Circular No. 75, s. 2004". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. November 12, 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2012.  ^ "Memorandum Circular No. 11, s. 2010". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. December 22, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2012.  ^ "RDC chooses Pagadian City
Pagadian City
as regional center of Region 9". Zambotimes.com. March 4, 2011. Archived from the original on April 18, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2016.  ^ "A Resolution Endorsing Pagadian City
Pagadian City
as the location of Regional Center of Region IX" (PDF). Regional Development Council IX. March 3, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2012. [dead link] ^ "NEDA: Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
will grow sans Regional Center". Zambotimes.com. August 15, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2012.  ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on January 21, 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2014.  ^ Facts about Pagadian
Pagadian
Archived 2009-02-11 at the Wayback Machine. (retrieved: 12 April 2009) ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines
Philippines
and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. Philippine Statistics Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
at Wikimedia Commons National Statistical Coordination Board: REGION IX (Zamboanga Peninsula)

v t e

Zamboanga Peninsula
Zamboanga Peninsula
(Region IX)

Regional Center

Pagadian

Provinces

Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay

Highly Urbanized City

Zamboanga City

Component Cities

Dapitan Dipolog Isabela Pagadian

Provincial Capitals

Dipolog Ipil Pagadian

Municipalities

Alicia Aurora Baliguian Bayog Buug Dimataling Dinas Diplahan Dumalinao Dumingag Godod Guipos Gutalac Imelda Ipil Jose Dalman Josefina Kabasalan Kalawit Katipunan Kumalarang La Libertad Labangan Labason Lakewood Lapuyan Leon B. Postigo (Bacungan) Liloy Mabuhay Mahayag Malangas Manukan Margosatubig Midsalip Molave Mutia Naga Olutanga Payao Piñan Pitogo Polanco President Manuel A. Roxas Ramon Magsaysay Rizal Roseller Lim Salug San Miguel San Pablo Sergio Osmeña Sr. Siay Siayan Sibuco Sibutad Sindangan Siocon Sirawai Sominot Tabina Talusan Tambulig Tampilisan Tigbao Titay Tukuran Tungawan Vincenzo A. Sagun

Mindanao, Republic of the Philippines

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Regions of the Philippines

Luzon

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

Visayas

VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas

Mindanao

IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga ARMM – Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Former regions

NIR – Negros Island Region Southern Tagalog

v t e

  Administrative divisions of the Philippines

Capital

Manila
Manila
(National Capital Region)

Island groups

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Regions

Administrative

I – Ilocos Region II – Cagayan
Cagayan
Valley III – Central Luzon IV-A – Calabarzon Mimaropa
Mimaropa
– Southwestern Tagalog Region V – Bicol Region VI – Western Visayas VII – Central Visayas VIII – Eastern Visayas IX – Zamboanga Peninsula X – Northern Mindanao XI – Davao Region XII – Soccsksargen XIII – Caraga CAR – Cordillera Administrative Region NCR – National Capital Region

Autonomous

Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao

Provinces

Abra Agusan del Norte Agusan del Sur Aklan Albay Antique Apayao Aurora Basilan Bataan Batanes Batangas Benguet Biliran Bohol Bukidnon Bulacan Cagayan Camarines Norte Camarines Sur Camiguin Capiz Catanduanes Cavite Cebu Compostela Valley Cotabato Davao del Norte Davao del Sur Davao Occidental Davao Oriental Dinagat Islands Eastern Samar Guimaras Ifugao Ilocos Norte Ilocos Sur Iloilo Isabela Kalinga La Union Laguna Lanao del Norte Lanao del Sur Leyte Maguindanao Marinduque Masbate Misamis Occidental Misamis Oriental Mountain Province Negros Occidental Negros Oriental Northern Samar Nueva Ecija Nueva Vizcaya Occidental Mindoro Oriental Mindoro Palawan Pampanga Pangasinan Quezon Quirino Rizal Romblon Samar Sarangani Siquijor Sorsogon South Cotabato Southern Leyte Sultan Kudarat Sulu Surigao del Norte Surigao del Sur Tarlac Tawi-Tawi Zambales Zamboanga del Norte Zamboanga del Sur Zamboanga Sibugay

Cities

List of cities in the Philippines

Municipalities

List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines

Barangays

Lists of barangays by province Poblacion

Other subdivisions

Puroks Sitios List of primary LGUs Legislative districts Metropolitan areas

Historical

Former provinces Formally proposed provinces Negros Island Region Sout

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