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Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
or Zaidism (Arabic: الزيدية‎ az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia
Shia
sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi
Hanafi
Sunni
Sunni
Islam.[1] Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
emerged in the eighth century out of Shi'a
Shi'a
Islam.[2] Zaidis are named after Zayd ibn ʻAlī, the grandson of Husayn ibn ʻAlī and the son of their fourth Imam Ali ibn 'Husain.[2] Followers of the Zaydi Islamic jurisprudence
Islamic jurisprudence
are called Zaydi and make up about 35–42% of Muslims in Yemen, with the vast majority of Shia
Shia
Muslims in the country being Zaydi.[3][4] Zaidis dismiss religious dissimulation (taqiyya).[5] Zaydis were the oldest branch of the Shia
Shia
and are currently the second largest group after Twelvers. Zaidis do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms, but promote their leadership and divine inspiration.[6] Zaydis believe that Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn Ali
in his last hour was betrayed by the people in Kufa. Zaydis as of 2014 constitute roughly 0.5% of the world's Muslim population.

Contents

1 Law

1.1 Theology 1.2 Beliefs

2 History

2.1 Status of Caliphs
Caliphs
and the Sahaba 2.2 Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ite references to Zayd 2.3 Empires

2.3.1 Alid dynasty 2.3.2 Idrisid dynasty 2.3.3 Banu Ukhaidhir 2.3.4 Hammudid dynasty 2.3.5 Muttawakili

2.4 Community and former States

2.4.1 Houthi Yemen 2.4.2 Some contemporary Zaidi scholars

3 Zaidi Imāms 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Law[edit] In matters of Islamic jurisprudence, the Zaydis follow Zayd ibn ’Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Majmu’ al-Fiqh (Arabic: مجموع الفِقه‎). Zaydi fiqh is similar to the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of Sunni
Sunni
Islamic jurisprudence.[7] Abu Hanifa, a Sunni madhab shaykh, was favorable and even donated towards the Zaydi cause.[8] Theology[edit] Zaydis’ theological literature retains the Mu’tazilite traditional emphasis on justice and human responsibility, and its political implications i.e. Muslims have an ethical and legal obligation by their religion to rise up and depose unjust leaders including unrighteous sultans and caliphs.[9] In matters of theology, the Zaydis are close to the Mu'tazili school, though they are not exactly Mu'tazilite. There are a few issues between both schools, most notably the Zaydi doctrine of the Imamate, which is rejected by the Mu'tazilites. Of the Shi'a, Zaydis are most similar to Sunnis[10] since Zaydism shares similar doctrines and jurisprudential opinions with Sunni
Sunni
scholars.[11] Beliefs[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

Sunni Six articles of belief

God Prophets Holy books Angels The Last Judgement Predestination

Sunni
Sunni
theological traditions

Ilm al-Kalam

Ash'ari1 Maturidi

Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2

Shi'a Twelver3

Principles

Tawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah Qiyamah

Practices

Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla Tabarra

Seven pillars of Ismailism4

Walayah Tawhid Salah Zakat Sawm Hajj Jihad

Other Shia
Shia
concepts of Aqidah

Imamate Batin Sixth Pillar of Islam

Other schools of theology

Khawarij5 Ibadi6 Murji'ah

Qadariyah Muʿtazila7 Sufism8

Including: 1Jahmi; 2Karramiyya; 3 Alawites
Alawites
& Qizilbash 4Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins
Assassins
& Druzes 5Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat
Najdat
& Sūfrī 6Nūkkārī; 7 Bahshamiyya
Bahshamiyya
& Ikhshîdiyya 8Alevism, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
& Qalandariyya Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Like all Muslims, the Zaydi Shi'a
Shi'a
affirm the fundamental tenet of Islam
Islam
known as the Shahada
Shahada
or testament of faith  – "There is no god but Allah and Muhammed is his messenger." Traditionally, the Zaydi believe that Muslims who commit major sins without remorse should not be considered Muslims nor be considered kafirs but rather be categorized in neither group.[citation needed] In the context of the Shi'a
Shi'a
Muslim belief in spiritual leadership or Imamate, Zaydis believe that the leader of the Ummah
Ummah
or Muslim community must be Fatimids: descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
through his only surviving daughter Fatimah, whose sons were Hasan ibn ʻAlī and Husayn ibn ʻAlī. These Shi'a
Shi'a
called themselves Zaydi so they could differentiate themselves from other Shi'is who refused to take up arms with Zayd ibn Ali. Zaydis believe Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn Ali
was the rightful successor to the Imamate because he led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate, who he believed were tyrannical and corrupt. Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir
did not engage in political action and the followers of Zayd believed that a true Imām
Imām
must fight against corrupt rulers.[12] The renowned Muslim jurist Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
who is credited for the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of Sunni Islam, delivered a fatwā or legal statement in favour of Zayd in his rebellion against the Umayyad ruler. He also urged people in secret to join the uprising and delivered funds to Zayd.[13] Unlike Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ites, Zaydis do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms[6][14][15] and do not believe that the Imāmate must pass from father to son—but believe it can be held by any descendant, from either Hasan ibn ʻAlī or Husayn ibn ʻAlī. History[edit] Status of Caliphs
Caliphs
and the Sahaba[edit] There was a difference of opinion among the companions and supporters of Zayd ibn 'Ali, such as Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad, Sulayman ibn Jarir, Kathir al-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih, concerning the status of the first three Caliphs
Caliphs
who succeeded to the political and administrative authority of Muhammad. The earliest group, called Jarudiyya (named for Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad), was opposed to the approval of certain companions of Muhammad. They held that there was sufficient description given by the Prophet that all should have recognised ' Ali
Ali
as the rightful Caliph. They therefore consider the Companions wrong in failing to recognise ' Ali
Ali
as the legitimate Caliph and deny legitimacy to Abu Bakr, ' Umar
Umar
and 'Usman; however, they avoid denouncing them. They further condemn two other companions of Muhammad, Talhah
Talhah
and Zubayr ibn al-Awam, for their initial uprising against Caliph
Caliph
Ali.[citation needed] The Jarudiyya were active during the late Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
and early Abbasid Caliphate. Its views, although predominant among the later Zaydis, especially in Yemen
Yemen
under the Hadawi sub-sect, became extinct in Iraq and Iran
Iran
due to forced conversion of the present religious sects to Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ism by the Safavid Dynasty.[16][17][17] The second group, the Sulaymaniyya, named for Sulayman ibn Jarir, held that the Imamate
Imamate
should be a matter to be decided by consultation. They felt that the companions, including Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and 'Umar, had been in error in failing to follow ' Ali
Ali
but it did not amount to sin.[citation needed] The third group is known as the Tabiriyya, Butriyya
Butriyya
or Salihiyya for Kathir an-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih. Their beliefs are virtually identical to those of the Sulaymaniyya, except they see Uthman
Uthman
also as in error but not in sin.[18] Zaidis accounts state the term Rafida was a term used by Zayd ibn Ali on those who rejected him in his last hours for his refusal to condemn the first two Caliphs
Caliphs
of the Muslim world, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar.[19] Zayd bitterly scolds the "rejectors" (Rafidha) who deserted him, an appellation used by Sunnis and Zaydis to refer to Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ites to this day.[20]

“ A group of their leaders assembled in his (Zayd's presence) and said: "May God
God
have mercy on you! What do you have to say on the matter of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar?" Zayd said, "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah"[21] ”

Twelver
Twelver
Shi'ite references to Zayd[edit] While not one of the 12 Imams
12 Imams
embraced by the Twelver
Twelver
denomination and current largest branch of Shi'ite Islam, Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn Ali
features in historical accounts within Twelver
Twelver
literature in a positive light. In Twelver
Twelver
shi'ite accounts, Imam Ali
Ali
al-Ridha narrated how his grandfather Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
also supported Zayd ibn Ali's struggle:

“ he was one of the scholars from the Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
and got angry for the sake of the Honorable the Exalted God. He fought with the enemies of God
God
until he got killed in His path. My father Musa ibn Ja’far narrated that he had heard his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad say, "May God
God
bless my uncle Zayd... He consulted with me about his uprising and I told him, "O my uncle! Do this if you are pleased with being killed and your corpse being hung up from the gallows in the al-Konasa neighborhood." After Zayd left, As-Sadiq said, "Woe be to those who hear his call but do not help him!". ”

— Uyūn Akhbār al-Riḍā,[22] p. 466

Jafar al-Sadiq's love for Zayd ibn Ali
Zayd ibn Ali
was so immense, he broke down and cried upon reading the letter informing him of his death and proclaimed:

“ From God
God
we are and to Him is our return. I ask God
God
for my reward in this calamity. He was a really good uncle. My uncle was a man for our world and for our Hereafter. I swear by God
God
that my uncle is a martyr just like the martyrs who fought along with God’s Prophet or Ali
Ali
or Al-Hassan or Al-Hussein ”

— Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā,[22] p. 472

Empires[edit] Alid dynasty[edit] Alid dynasty of Tabaristan. See zaydids Idrisid dynasty[edit]

Extent of Zaydi dynasty in North Africa.

The Idrisid dynasty
Idrisid dynasty
was a mostly Berber Zaydi dynasty centered around modern-day Morocco. It was named after its first leader Idriss I. Banu Ukhaidhir[edit] The Banu Ukhaidhir
Banu Ukhaidhir
was a dynasty that ruled in al- Yamamah
Yamamah
(central Arabia) from 867 to at least the mid-eleventh century. Hammudid dynasty[edit] The Hammudid dynasty was a Zaydi dynasty in the 11th century in southern Spain. Muttawakili[edit]

Zaydi regions in red.

Muttawakili Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of Yemen
Yemen
or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen. Its capital was Sana`a until 1948, then Ta'izz. Community and former States[edit] Since the earliest form of Zaydism was Jaroudiah,[18] many of the first Zaidi states were supporters of its position, such as those of the Iranian Alavids of Mazandaran Province
Mazandaran Province
and the Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
of Gilan Province
Gilan Province
and the Arab dynasties of the Banu Ukhaidhir[citation needed] of al-Yamama (modern Saudi Arabia) and the Rassids
Rassids
of Yemen. The Idrisid dynasty
Idrisid dynasty
in the western Maghreb
Maghreb
were another Arab[23] Zaydi[24][25][26][27][28][29] dynasty, ruling 788–985. The Alavids established a Zaydi state in Deylaman
Deylaman
and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864;[30] it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Sunni
Sunni
Samanids
Samanids
in 928. Roughly forty years later, the state was revived in Gilan (Northwest Iran) and survived until 1126. From the 12th-13th centuries, Zaydi communities acknowledged the Imams of Yemen
Yemen
or rival Imams within Iran.[31] The Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
was initially Zaidi[32] as were the Banu Ukhaidhir rulers of al-Yamama in the 9th and 10th centuries.[33] The leader of the Zaidi community took the title of Caliph. As such, the ruler of Yemen
Yemen
was known as the Caliph. Al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, a descendant of Imam Hasan ibn Ali, founded this Rassid state at Sa'da, al-Yaman, in c. 893-7. The Rassid Imamate
Imamate
continued until the middle of the 20th century, when a 1962 revolution deposed the Imam. After the fall of the Zaydi Imamate
Imamate
in 1962 many[citation needed] Zaydi Shia
Shia
in northern Yemen
Yemen
had converted to Sunni
Sunni
Islam.[34][dubious – discuss] The Rassid state was founded under Jarudiyya thought;[7] however, increasing interactions with Hanafi
Hanafi
and Shafi'i
Shafi'i
schools of Sunni
Sunni
Islam led to a shift to Sulaimaniyyah thought, especially among the Hadawi sub-sect. Currently, the most prominent Zaidi movement is the Shabab Al Mu'mineen, commonly known as Houthis, who have been engaged in an uprising against the Yemeni Government in which the Army has lost 743 men and thousands of innocent civilians have been killed or displaced by government forces and Houthi, causing a grave humanitarian crisis in north Yemen.[35][36] Some Persian and Arab legends record that Zaidis fled to China
China
from the Umayyads during the 8th century.[37] Houthi Yemen[edit] Main article: Houthis Since 2004 in Yemen, Zaidi fighters have been waging an uprising against factions belonging to the Sunni
Sunni
majority group in the country. The Houthis, as they are often called, have asserted that their actions are for the defense of their community from the government and discrimination, though the Yemeni government in turn accused them of wishing to bring it down and institute religious law.[38] On 20 September 2014, an agreement was signed in Sana'a
Sana'a
under UN patronage essentially giving the Houthis
Houthis
control of the government after a decade of conflict.[citation needed] Tribal militias then moved swiftly to consolidate their position in the capital, with the group officially declaring direct control over the state on 6 February 2015.[39] This outcome followed the removal of Yemen's President Ali Abdullah Saleh in 2012 in the wake of protracted Arab Spring
Arab Spring
protests. Saudi Arabia
Arabia
has exercised the predominant external influence in Yemen since the withdrawal of Nasser's Egyptian expeditionary force marking the end of the bitter North Yemen
Yemen
Civil War.[40][41][42] There is a wide array of domestic opponents to Houthi rule in Yemen, ranging from the conservative Sunni
Sunni
Islah Party to the secular socialist Southern Movement
Southern Movement
to the radical Islamists of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and now ISIS
ISIS
in Yemen.[43][44][45] Some contemporary Zaidi scholars[edit]

Ali
Ali
bin Mohammed Al-Mua'dy Majid Al-Dien Al-Mua'dy Badr Al-Dien al-Huthi Mohamed bin Mohamed Al-Mansour Hamoud Abbas Al-Mua'dy Mohammed Abdullazim Al-Huthi Abdulrahman bin Hussein Al-Mua'dy Dr. Matrudi bin Zaid Al-Muhattury Dr. Taha Al-Mutawakkil Mohammad Muphtah

Zaidi Imāms[edit] Further information: Imams of Yemen List containing names of Zaidi Imams: Zaydi Imams after Imam Ali
Ali
are:

Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Al-Husayn
Al-Husayn
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al-mujtaba
Hassan al-mujtaba
bin Ali
Ali
al Murtaza bin Abi Talib Zayd bin Ali
Ali
Zayn al-'Ābidin
Zayn al-'Ābidin
bin Al-Husayn Yahya bin Zayd bin Ali
Ali
Zayn al-'Ābidin
Zayn al-'Ābidin
bin Al-Husayn Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
al-Mu'thannā bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
An-Nafs-Az-Zakiyyah Ibrahim bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al mujtaba
Hassan al mujtaba
bin Ali
Ali
al Murtaza bin Abi Talib Abdullah bin Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al-mujtaba
Hassan al-mujtaba
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Ibrahim bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al-mujtaba
Hassan al-mujtaba
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Al-Husayn
Al-Husayn
bin Ali
Ali
bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al-mujtaba
Hassan al-mujtaba
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Isa bin Zayd bin Ali
Ali
bin Al-Husayn Yahya bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Idris bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ibrahim bin Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Al-Hasan bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Zayd bin Ali
Ali
bin Al-Husayn Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Sulayman bin Dawud bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Al-Qasim bin Ibrahim bin Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin Al-Hasan bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib Yahya bin Al-Husayn
Al-Husayn
bin Al-Qasim Al-Hadi Abul Qasim Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yahya bin Al-Husayn Ahmad bin Yahya bin Al-Husayn Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
bin An-Nasir Ahmad Hasan ibn Zayd ibn Hasan 767-783 - was a notable Hasanid Alid who served as governor of Medina under al-Mansur Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
Ja'far al-Sadiq
815-818 - surnamed al-Dibaj ("the handsome"), He believed in a Zaydi Shia
Shia
type of Imamate Hasan ibn Zayd 864–884 - was a Hasanid Alid who became the founder of the Zaydid dynasty of Tabaristan al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya bin al-Husayn bin al-Qasim ar-Rassi 897–911 (descendant of the Prophet) al-Murtada Muhammad
Muhammad
911–913, d. 922 (son) Hasan al-Utrush
Hasan al-Utrush
914–917, was an Alid Shia
Shia
missionary of the Zaydi sect who re-established Zaydid rule over the province Tabaristan Abu Muhammad
Muhammad
Hasan ibn Qasim 917–919, 919–923, 927–928, also adopted the regnal name al-Da'i ila'l-haq Abu 'l-Husayn Ahmad ibn Hasan 919, 923, surnamed Nasir (919, 923). Reigned jointly with his brother in 919 Abu 'l-Qasim Ja'far ibn Hasan, surnamed Nasir (919, 923–925). Reigned jointly with his brother in 919 and from 923 until his death. Abu Ali
Ali
Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu 'l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir (925–927). Abu Ja'far Husayn ibn Abu 'l-Husayn Ahmad, surnamed Nasir (927). an-Nasir Ahmad 913–934 or 937 (brother) al-Muntakhab al-Hasan 934–936 or 939 (son) al-Mukhtar al-Qasim 936–956 (brother) al-Mansur Yahya 934–976 (brother) ad-Da'i Yusuf 977–999 (son) al-Mansur al-Qasim al-Iyyani bin Ali
Ali
999–1002 (descended from a cousin of al Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya) ad-Da'i Yusuf 1002–1012 (second term) al-Mahdi al-Husayn 1003–1013 (son of al-Mansur al-Qasim) al-Mu'ayyad Ahmad bin al-Husayn 1013–1020 (not resident in Yemen; descended from the Prophet via another branch) Abu Talib Yahya 1020–1033 (not resident in Yemen; brother) al-Mu’id li-Din Illah 1027–1030 (of obscure origins) Abu Hashim al-Hasan 1031–1040 (descended from a brother of al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya) Abu'l-Fath an-Nasir ad-Dailami bin al-Husayn 1038–1053 (descended from the Prophet via another branch) al-Muhtasib al-Mujahid Hamzah 1060–1067 (son of Abu Hashim al-Hasan) al-Mutawakkil Ahmad bin Sulayman 1138–1171 (descended from an-Nasir Ahmad) al-Mansur Abdallah bin Hamzah 1187–1217 (son of al-Muhtasib al-Mujahid Hamzah) an-Nasir Muhammad
Muhammad
1217–1226 (son) al-Hadi Yahya bin Muhsin 1217–1239 (descended from al-Mukhtar al-Qasim) al-Mahdi Ahmad bin al-Husayn 1248–1258 (descended from cousin of al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya) al-Hasan bin Wahhas 1258–1260, d. 1285 (descended from al-Muhtasib al-Mujahid Hamzah) Yahya bin Muhammad
Muhammad
as-Siraji 1261–1262, d. 1296 (descended from al-Hasan bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib) al-Mansur al-Hasan bin Badr ad-Din 1262–1271 (son of a cousin of al-Hadi Yahya) al-Mahdi Ibrahim bin Ahmad Taj ad-Din 1272–1276, d. 1284 (nephew) al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Yahya bin al-Murtada 1276–1298 (descended from an-Nasir Ahmad) al-Mahdi Muhammad
Muhammad
1301–1328 (son) al-Mu'ayyad Yahya bin Hamzah 1328–1346 (descended from Twelver
Twelver
imam Ali
Ali
ar-Ridha) an-Nasir Ali
Ali
bin Salah
Salah
1328–1329 (grandson of al-Mahdi Ibrahim) Ahmad bin Ali
Ali
al-Fathi 1329–1349 (descended from Abu'l-Fath an-Nasir ad-Dailami) al-Wathiq al-Mutahhar 1349 (son of al-Mahdi Muhammad) al-Mahdi Ali
Ali
bin Muhammad
Muhammad
1349–1372 (descended from ad-Da'i Yusuf) al-Nasir Muhammad
Muhammad
Salah
Salah
al-Din 1372–1391 (son) al-Mansur Ali
Ali
1391–1436 (son) al-Mahdi Ahmad bin Yahya bin al-Murtada 1391–1392, d. 1436 (descended from ad-Da'i Yusuf) al-Hadi Ali
Ali
bin al-Muayyad 1393–1432 (descended from al-Hadi Yahya) al-Mahdi Salah
Salah
ad-Din bin Ali
Ali
1436–1445 (descended from al-Mansur Yahya) al-Mansur an-Nasir bin Muhammad
Muhammad
1436–1462 (great-great-grandson of al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Yahya) al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Muhammad
Muhammad
1436–1474 (descended from brother of Abu Hashim al-Hasan) al-Mu’ayyad Muhammad
Muhammad
1462–1503 (son of al-Mansur an-Nasir) an-Nasir Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yusuf 1474–1488 (descended from al-Mahdi Ali) al-Hadi Izz ad-Din bin al-Hasan 1474–1495 (grandson of al-Hadi Ali) al-Mansur Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ali
Ali
al-Washali 1475–1504 (descended from Yahya bin Muhammad
Muhammad
as-Siraji) an-Nasir al-Hasan 1495–1523 (son of al-Hadi Izz-ad-Din) al-Mutawakkil Yahya Sharaf ad-Din bin Shams-ad-Din 1506–1555 (grandson of al-Mahdi Ahmad) al-Mutahhar 1547–1572 (son) an-Nasir al-Hasan bin Ali
Ali
1579–1585 (descended from al-Hadi Ali) al-Mansur al-Qasim bin Muhammad
Muhammad
1597–1620 (descended from ad-Da'i Yusuf) al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad
Muhammad
I 1620–1644 (son) al-Mutawakkil Isma'il 1644–1676 (brother) al-Mahdi Ahmad bin al-Hasan 1676–1681 (nephew) al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad
Muhammad
II 1681–1686 (son of al-Mutawakkil Isma'il) al-Mahdi Muhammad
Muhammad
1687–1718 (son of al-Mahdi Ahmad) al-Mansur al-Husayn I bin al-Qasim 1716–1720 (grandson of al-Mu'ayyad Muhammad
Muhammad
I) al-Mutawakkil al-Qasim bin al-Hasan 1716–1727 (grandson of al-Mahdi Ahmad) an-Nasir Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ishaq 1723, d. 1754 (grandson of al-Mahdi Ahmad) al-Mansur al-Husayn II 1727–1748 (son of al-Mutawakkil al-Qasim) al-Mahdi Abbas 1748–1775 (son) al-Mansur Ali
Ali
I 1775–1809 (son) al-Mutawakkil Ahmad 1809–1816 (son) al-Mahdi Abdallah 1816–1835 (son) al-Mansur Ali
Ali
II 1835–1837, d. 1871 (son) an-Nasir Abdallah bin al-Hasan bin Ahmad 1837–1840 (great-grandson of al-Mahdi Abbas) al-Hadi Muhammad
Muhammad
1840–1844 (son of al-Mutawakkil Ahmad) al-Mansur Ali
Ali
II 1844–1845 (second term) al-Mutawakkil Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yahya 1845–1849 (grandson of al-Mansur Ali
Ali
I) al-Mansur Ali
Ali
II 1849–1850 (third term) al-Mansur Ahmad bin Hashim 1849–1853 (descended from al-Mansur Yahya) al-Mu'ayyad Abbas bin Abd ar-Rahman 1850 (descended from al-Mutawakkil Isma’il) al-Mansur Ali
Ali
II 1851 (fourth term) al-Hadi Ghalib 1851–1852, d. 1885 (son of al-Mutawakkil Muhammad) al-Mansur Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abdallah 1853–1890 (descended from ad-Da'i Yusuf) al-Mutawakkil al-Muhsin bin Ahmad 1855–1878 (descended from al-Mutawakkil al-Mutahhar bin Yahya) al-Hadi Ghalib 1858–1872 (second term) al-Mansur al-Husayn III bin Muhammad
Muhammad
bin al-Hadi 1859–1863, d. 1888 al-Hadi Sharaf ad-Din bin Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abd ar-Rahman 1878–1890 (descended from al-Mu’ayyad Yahya) al-Mansur Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yahya Hamid ad-Din 1890–1904 (descended from al-Mansur al-Qasim) al-Mutawakkil Yahya Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamid ad-Din 1904–1948 (son) an-Nasir Ahmad bin Yahya 1948–1962 (son of al-Mutawakkil Yahya Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamid ed-Din) al-Mansur Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Badr 1962, d. 1996 (son) Idris II – (791–828) Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Idris – (828–836) Ali
Ali
ibn Muhammad, known as " Ali
Ali
I" – (836–848) Yahya ibn Muhammad, known as "Yahya I" – (848–864) Yahya ibn Yahya, known as "Yahya II" – (864–874) Ali
Ali
ibn Umar, known as " Ali
Ali
II" – (874–883) Yahya ibn Al-Qassim, known as "Yahya III" – (883–904) Yahya ibn Idris ibn Umar, known as "Yahya IV" – (904–917) Al-Hajjam al-Hasan ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Qassim – (925–927) Al Qasim Gannum – (937-948) Abu l-Aish Ahmad – (948-954) Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
ibn Guennoun, known as "Hassan II" – (954–974) Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir (from 866) Yusuf ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Ukhaidhir Isma'il ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir (to 928) Al-Hasan
Al-Hasan
ibn Yusuf al-Ukhaidhir Ahmad ibn al-Hasan al-Ukhaidhir Abu 'l-Muqallid Ja'far al-Ukhaidhir

For continuation of leadership after 1962, see Houthis.

Zaidi and Shiat-ul-ALI

See also[edit]

Imams of Yemen Dukayniyya Shia Khalafiyya Shia Khashabiyya Shia Islamic history of Yemen Zaidi (surname)

References[edit]

^ Fuller, Graham E. (30 March 2015). "How to Decipher Yemen, Where the Enemy of Your Enemy Is Also Your Enemy".  ^ a b Regional Surveys of the World: The Middle East and North Africa 2003. London, England: Europa Publications. 2003. p. 149. ISBN 1-85743-132-4.  ^ Stephen W. Day (2012). Regionalism and Rebellion in Yemen: A Troubled National Union. Cambridge University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9781107022157.  ^ http://gulf2000.columbia.edu/images/maps/Yemen_Ethno_Religious_summary_lg.png ^ Abdullah, Lux (Summer 2009). "Yemen's last Zaydi Imam: the shabab al-mu'min, the Malazim, and hizb allah in the thought of Husayn Badr al-Din al-Huthi". Contemporary Arab Affairs. Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. 2 (3): 369–434. doi:10.1080/17550910903106084.  ^ a b Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Islamic World Since 1500, pg. 47. New York: Facts on File, 1984. ISBN 0871966298 ^ a b Article by Sayyid ' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites), 2005 ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Page 14, Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone, Mahan Mirza - 2012 ^ Abdullah, Lux (Summer 2009). "Yemen's last Zaydi Imam: the shabab al-mu'min, the Malazim, and hizb allah in the thought of Husayn Badr al-Din al-Huthi". Contemporary Arab Affairs. Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. 2 (3): 369–434. doi:10.1080/17550910903106084. Retrieved 25 September 2015.  ^ "Telling the truth for more than 30 years - Sunni-Shi'i Schism: Less There Than Meets the Eye". WRMEA. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ Yemen: The Bradt Travel Guide - Daniel McLaughlin - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ Islamic Dynasties of the Arab East: State and Civilization during the Later Medieval Times by Abdul Ali, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1996, p97 ^ Ahkam al- Quran
Quran
By Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Jassas al-Razi, volume 1 page 100, published by Dar Al-Fikr Al-Beirutiyya ^ "Zaidiyyah". The Free Dictionary.  ^ Zaydi Islam
Islam
John Pike - http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/intro/islam-zaydi.htm ^ Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution. Nikki R Keddie, Yann Richard, pp. 13, 20 ^ a b Immortal: A Military History of Iran
Iran
and Its Armed Forces. Steven R Ward, pg.43 ^ a b Article by Sayyid ' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites), 2005 Referencing: Momen, p.50, 51. and S.S. Akhtar Rizvi, " Shi'a
Shi'a
Sects" ^ The Waning of the Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
by Tabarī, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, p37 ^ The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243. "They were called "Rafida by the followers of Zayd...the term became a pejorative nickname among Sunni Muslims, who used it, however to refer to the Imamiyah's repudiation of the first three caliphs preceding Ali..." ^ The waning of the Umayyad caliphate by Tabarī, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, p37, p38 The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243. ^ a b Ibn Bābawayh al-Qummī, Muḥammad ibn ʻAlī. Uyūn Akhbār al-Riḍā.  ^ Hodgson, Marshall (1961), Venture of Islam, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 262  ^ Ibn Abī Zarʻ al-Fāsī, ʻAlī ibn ʻAbd Allāh (1340), Rawḍ al-Qirṭās: Anīs al-Muṭrib bi-Rawd al-Qirṭās fī Akhbār Mulūk al-Maghrib wa-Tārīkh Madīnat Fās, ar-Rabāṭ: Dār al-Manṣūr (published 1972), p. 38  ^ "حين يكتشف المغاربة أنهم كانوا شيعة وخوارج قبل أن يصبحوا مالكيين !". Hespress.com. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ Introduction to Islamic Theology
Theology
and Law - Ignác Goldziher - Google Books. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics - James Hastings - Google Books. Books.google.com.au. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ "The Institute of Ismaili Studies - The Initial Destination of the Fatimid caliphate: The Yemen
Yemen
or The Maghrib?". Iis.ac.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ "25. Shi'ah tenets concerning the question of the imamate". Muslimphilosophy.com. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ Article by Sayyid ' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites), 2005 Referencing: Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature ^ Article by Sayyid ' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, At-tarikh as-saghir 'an ash-shia al-yamaniyeen (Arabic: التاريخ الصغير عن الشيعة اليمنيين, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites), 2005 Referencing: Encyclopedia Iranica ^ Walker, Paul Ernest (1999), Hamid Al-Din Al-Kirmani: Ismaili Thought in the Age of Al-Hakim, Ismaili Heritage Series, 3, London; New York: I.B. Tauris in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies, p. 13, ISBN 1-86064-321-3  ^ Madelung, W. "al-Uk̲h̲ayḍir." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. 7 December 2007 [1] ^ Ardic, Nurullah. Islam
Islam
and the Politics of Secularism: The Caliphate and Middle Eastern.  ^ "Map : Islam". Gulf2000.columbia.edu. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ "The Gulf/2000 Project - SIPA - COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY". Gulf2000.columbia.edu. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ Donald Daniel Leslie (1998). "The Integration of Religious Minorities in China: The Case of Chinese Muslims" (PDF). The Fifty-ninth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. p. 6. Retrieved 30 November 2010.  ^ "Deadly blast strikes Yemen
Yemen
mosque". BBC News. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2009.  ^ "Yemen's Shia
Shia
rebels finalize coup, vow to dissolve parliament". The Globe and Mail. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.  ^ "Yemeni government reaches agreement with Shia
Shia
Houthi rebels". The Guardian. 21 September 2014.  ^ al-Zarqa, Ahmed (22 September 2014). "Yemen: Saudi Arabia
Arabia
recognizes new balance of power in Sanaa as Houthis
Houthis
topple Muslim Brothers". Al-Akhbar. Retrieved 8 February 2015.  ^ " Yemen
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'Coup' A Sign Of Expanding Iranian Influence In the Middle East". International Business Times. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.  ^ " ISIS
ISIS
gaining ground in Yemen". CNN. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2016.  ^ "After takeover, Yemen's Shiite rebels criticized over 'coup'". The Washington Post. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.  ^ "Shiite leader in Yemen
Yemen
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Further reading[edit]

Cornelis van Arendonk: Les débuts de l'imamat zaidite au Yemen, Leyden, Brill 1960 (in French)

External links[edit]

Majalis Aal Mohammed Salvation Ark Zaidiyyah Zaidiyyah
Zaidiyyah
Blog Zaydiyya from wikishia.net

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