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ZAIDIYYAH or ZAIDISM (Arabic : الزيدية‎‎ az-zaydiyya, adjective form ZAIDI or ZAYDI) is a Muslim sect which emerged in the eighth century out of Shi\'a Islam. Zaidis are named after Zayd ibn ʻAlī , the grandson of Husayn ibn ʻAlī who they recognize as the fifth Imam. Followers of the Zaydi
Zaydi
Islamic jurisprudence are called Zaydi
Zaydi
Shi'a and make up about 35-40% of Muslims in Yemen
Yemen
. Zaidis dismiss religious dissimulation (taqiyya ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin

* 2 Law

* 2.1 Theology
Theology
* 2.2 Beliefs

* 3 History

* 3.1 Status of Caliphs and the Sahaba * 3.2 Twelver Shi\'ite references to Zayd

* 3.3 Empires

* 3.3.1 Alid dynasty * 3.3.2 Idrisid dynasty * 3.3.3 Banu Ukhaidhir * 3.3.4 Hammudid dynasty * 3.3.5 Muttawakili

* 3.4 Community and former States

* 3.4.1 Houthi Yemen
Yemen
* 3.4.2 Some contemporary Zaidi scholars

* 4 Zaidi Imāms * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

ORIGIN

The Zaydi
Zaydi
madhab emerged in reverence of Zayd ’s failed uprising against the Ummayad Caliph, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (ruling 724-743 AD), which set a precedent for revolution against corrupt rulers. It might be said that Zaydis find it difficult to remain passive in an unjust world, or in the words of a modern influential Zaydi
Zaydi
leader, Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi , to ‘sit in their houses’.

Zaydis were the oldest branch of the Shia and are currently the second largest group after Twelvers . Zaidis do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms , but promote their leadership and divine inspiration. Zaydis believe that Zayd ibn Ali in his last hour was betrayed by the people in Kufa
Kufa
. Zaydis as of 2014 constitute roughly 0.5% of the world's Muslim population.

LAW

In matters of Islamic jurisprudence , the Zaydis follow Zayd ibn ’Ali's teachings which are documented in his book Majmu’ al-Fiqh (Arabic : مجموع الفِقه‎‎). Zaydi
Zaydi
fiqh is similar to the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of Sunni
Sunni
Islamic jurisprudence. Abu Hanifa , a Sunni madhab shaykh, was favorable and even donated towards the Zaydi
Zaydi
cause.

THEOLOGY

Zaydis’ theological literature retains the Mu’tazilite traditional emphasis on justice and human responsibility, and its political implications i.e. Muslims have an ethical and legal obligation by their religion to rise up and depose unjust leaders including unrighteous sultans and caliphs.

In matters of theology, the Zaydis are close to the Mu\'tazili school, though they are not exactly Mu'tazilite. There are a few issues between both schools, most notably the Zaydi
Zaydi
doctrine of the Imamate , which is rejected by the Mu'tazilites. Of the Shi'a, Zaydis are most similar to Sunnis since Zaydism shares similar doctrines and jurisprudential opinions with Sunni
Sunni
scholars.

BELIEFS

Part of a series on Islam
Islam
Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam
Islam

* Shahada
Shahada
* Salah
Salah
* Sawm * Zakat * Hajj
Hajj

Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
1 SIX ARTICLES OF BELIEF

* God
God
* Prophets * Holy books * Angels * The Last Judgement * Predestination

SUNNI THEOLOGICAL TRADITIONS

* Ilm al- Kalam
Kalam

* Ash\'ari * Maturidi

* Traditionalist

Shi\'a 2 TWELVER

* PRINCIPLES

* Tawhid
Tawhid
* Adalah * Prophecy * Imamah * Qiyamah

* PRACTICES

* Salah
Salah
* Sawm * Zakat * Hajj
Hajj
* Khums * Jihad
Jihad
* Commanding what is just * Forbidding what is evil * Tawalla * Tabarra
Tabarra

SEVEN PILLARS OF ISMAILISM

* Walayah * Tawhid
Tawhid
* Salah
Salah
* Zakat * Sawm * Hajj
Hajj
* Jihad
Jihad

OTHER SHIA CONCEPTS OF AQIDAH

* Imamate * Batin * Sixth Pillar of Islam
Islam

Other schools of theology

* Ibadi
Ibadi
* Jahmi * Khawarij 3 * Murji\'ah * Muʿtazila * Qadariyah * Sufism
Sufism
4

Including: 1 Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
, Qutbism top: 0.2em;">2 Alawites
Alawites
, Assassins , Druzes top: 0.2em;">3 Azariqa , Ajardi, Haruriyyah
Haruriyyah
, Najdat top: 0.2em;">4 Alevism
Alevism
, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;">

* v * t * e

Like all Muslims, the Zaydi
Zaydi
Shi'a affirm the fundamental tenet of Islam
Islam
known as the Shahada
Shahada
or testament of faith – "There is no god but Allah and Muhammed is his messenger." Traditionally, the Zaydi believe that Muslims who commit major sins without remorse should not be considered Muslims nor be considered kafirs but rather be categorized in neither group.

In the context of the Shi'a Muslim belief in spiritual leadership or Imamate, Zaydis believe that the leader of the Ummah or Muslim community must be Fatimids: descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
through his only surviving daughter Fatimah
Fatimah
, whose sons were Hasan ibn ʻAlī and Husayn ibn ʻAlī . These Shi'a called themselves Zaydi
Zaydi
so they could differentiate themselves from other Shi'is who refused to take up arms with Zayd ibn Ali.

Zaydis believe Zayd ibn Ali was the rightful successor to the Imamate because he led a rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
, who he believed were tyrannical and corrupt. Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir
did not engage in political action and the followers of Zayd believed that a true Imām must fight against corrupt rulers. The renowned Muslim jurist Abu Hanifa who is credited for the Hanafi
Hanafi
school of Sunni
Sunni
Islam, delivered a fatwā or legal statement in favour of Zayd in his rebellion against the Umayyad ruler. He also urged people in secret to join the uprising and delivered funds to Zayd.

Unlike Twelver Shi'ites, Zaydis do not believe in the infallibility of Imāms and do not believe that the Imāmate must pass from father to son - but believe it can be held by any descendant from either Hasan ibn ʻAlī or Husayn ibn ʻAlī.

HISTORY

STATUS OF CALIPHS AND THE SAHABA

There was a difference of opinion among the companions and supporters of Zayd ibn 'Ali, such as Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad, Sulayman ibn Jarir, Kathir al-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih, concerning the status of the first three Caliphs who succeeded to the political and administrative authority of Muhammad. The earliest group, called JARUDIYYA (named for Abu al-Jarud Ziyad ibn Abi Ziyad), was opposed to the approval of certain companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
. They held that there was sufficient description given by the Prophet that all should have recognised ' Ali
Ali
as the rightful Caliph. They therefore consider the Companions wrong in failing to recognise ' Ali
Ali
as the legitimate Caliph and deny legitimacy to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
, ' Umar
Umar
and \'Usman ; however, they avoid denouncing them. They further condemn two other companions of Muhammad, Talhah and Zubayr ibn al-Awam , for their initial uprising against Caliph
Caliph
Ali.

The Jarudiyya were active during the late Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
and early Abbasid Caliphate
Caliphate
. Its views, although predominant among the later Zaydis, especially in Yemen
Yemen
under the Hadawi sub-sect, became extinct in Iraq and Iran
Iran
due to forced conversion of the present religious sects to Twelver Shi\'ism by the Safavid Dynasty
Safavid Dynasty
.

The second group, the Sulaymaniyya, named for Sulayman ibn Jarir, held that the Imamate should be a matter to be decided by consultation. They felt that the companions, including Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and 'Umar, had been in error in failing to follow ' Ali
Ali
but it did not amount to sin.

The third group is known as the Tabiriyya, Butriyya or Salihiyya for Kathir an-Nawa al-Abtar and Hasan ibn Salih. Their beliefs are virtually identical to those of the Sulaymaniyya, except they see Uthman also as in error but not in sin.

Zaidis accounts state the term Rafida was a term used by Zayd ibn Ali on those who rejected him in his last hours for his refusal to condemn the first two Caliphs of the Muslim world, Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar
Umar
. Zayd bitterly scolds the "rejectors" (Rafidha) who deserted him, an appellation used by Sunnis and Zaydis to refer to Twelver Shi'ites to this day.

“ A group of their leaders assembled in his (Zayd's presence) and said: "May God
God
have mercy on you! What do you have to say on the matter of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and Umar?" Zayd said, "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah" ”

TWELVER SHI\'ITE REFERENCES TO ZAYD

While not one of the 12 Imams embraced by the Twelver denomination and current largest branch of Shi'ite Islam, Zayd ibn Ali features in historical accounts within Twelver literature in a positive light.

In Twelver shi'ite accounts, Imam Ali
Ali
al-Ridha narrated how his grandfather Ja\'far al-Sadiq also supported Zayd ibn Ali's struggle:

“ he was one of the scholars from the Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
and got angry for the sake of the Honorable the Exalted God. He fought with the enemies of God
God
until he got killed in His path. My father Musa ibn Ja’far narrated that he had heard his father Ja’far ibn Muhammad say, "May God
God
bless my uncle Zayd... He consulted with me about his uprising and I told him, "O my uncle! Do this if you are pleased with being killed and your corpse being hung up from the gallows in the al-Konasa neighborhood." After Zayd left, As-Sadiq said, "Woe be to those who hear his call but do not help him!". ”

— Uyūn Akhbār al-Riḍā, p. 466

Jafar al-Sadiq's love for Zayd ibn Ali was so immense, he broke down and cried upon reading the letter informing him of his death and proclaimed:

“ From God
God
we are and to Him is our return. I ask God
God
for my reward in this calamity. He was a really good uncle. My uncle was a man for our world and for our Hereafter. I swear by God
God
that my uncle is a martyr just like the martyrs who fought along with God’s Prophet or Ali
Ali
or Al-Hassan or Al-Hussein ”

— Uyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, p. 472

EMPIRES

Alid Dynasty

Alid dynasty of Tabaristan. See zaydids

Idrisid Dynasty

Extent of Zaydi
Zaydi
dynasty in North Africa.

The Idrisid dynasty was a mostly Berber Zaydi
Zaydi
dynasty centered around modern-day Morocco. It was named after its first leader Idriss I .

Banu Ukhaidhir

The Banu Ukhaidhir was a dynasty that ruled in al- Yamamah (central Arabia
Arabia
) from 867 to at least the mid-eleventh century.

Hammudid Dynasty

The Hammudid dynasty was a Zaydi
Zaydi
dynasty in the 11th century in southern Spain.

Muttawakili

Zaydi
Zaydi
regions in red.

Muttawakili Kingdom , also known as the Kingdom of Yemen
Yemen
or, retrospectively, as North Yemen, existed between 1918 and 1962 in the northern part of what is now Yemen. Its capital was Sana`a until 1948, then Ta'izz.

COMMUNITY AND FORMER STATES

Since the earliest form of Zaydism was Jaroudiah , many of the first Zaidi states were supporters of its position, such as those of the Iranian Alavids of Mazandaran Province and the Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
of Gilan Province and the Arab dynasties of the Banu Ukhaidhir of al-Yamama (modern Saudi Arabia
Arabia
) and the Rassids of Yemen
Yemen
. The Idrisid dynasty in the western Maghreb
Maghreb
were another Arab Zaydi
Zaydi
dynasty, ruling 788-985.

The Alavids established a Zaydi
Zaydi
state in Deylaman and Tabaristan (northern Iran) in 864; it lasted until the death of its leader at the hand of the Sunni
Sunni
Samanids in 928. Roughly forty years later, the state was revived in Gilan (Northwest Iran) and survived until 1126.

From the 12th-13th centuries, Zaydi
Zaydi
communities acknowledged the Imams of Yemen
Yemen
or rival Imams within Iran.

The Buyid dynasty
Buyid dynasty
was initially Zaidi as were the Banu Ukhaidhir rulers of al-Yamama in the 9th and 10th centuries.

The leader of the Zaidi community took the title of Caliph
Caliph
. As such, the ruler of Yemen
Yemen
was known as the Caliph. Al-Hadi ila\'l-Haqq Yahya , a descendant of Imam Hasan ibn Ali, founded this Rassid state at Sa\'da , al-Yaman, in c. 893-7. The Rassid Imamate continued until the middle of the 20th century, when a 1962 revolution deposed the Imam. After the fall of the Zaydi
Zaydi
Imamate in 1962 many Zaydi
Zaydi
Shia in northern Yemen
Yemen
had converted to Sunni
Sunni
Islam.

The Rassid state was founded under Jarudiyya thought; however, increasing interactions with Hanafi
Hanafi
and Shafi\'i schools of Sunni Islam
Islam
led to a shift to Sulaimaniyyah thought, especially among the Hadawi sub-sect.

Currently, the most prominent Zaidi movement is the Shabab Al Mu'mineen, commonly known as Houthis , who have been engaged in an uprising against the Yemeni Government in which the Army has lost 743 men and thousands of innocent civilians have been killed or displaced by government forces and Houthi, causing a grave humanitarian crisis in north Yemen.

Some Persian and Arab legends record that Zaidis fled to China
China
from the Umayyads during the 8th century.

Houthi Yemen

Main article: Houthis

Since 2004 in Yemen
Yemen
, Zaidi fighters have been waging an uprising against factions belonging to the Sunni
Sunni
majority group in the country. The Houthis , as they are often called, have asserted that their actions are for the defense of their community from the government and discrimination, though the Yemeni government in turn accused them of wishing to bring it down and institute religious law.

On September 20, 2014, an agreement was signed in Sana\'a under UN patronage essentially giving the Houthis control of the government after a decade of conflict. Tribal militias then moved swiftly to consolidate their position in the capital, with the group officially declaring direct control over the state on February 6, 2015. This outcome followed the removal of Yemen's President Ali
Ali
Abdullah Saleh in 2012 in the wake of protracted Arab Spring
Arab Spring
protests. The shift to Houthi (and thus Zaidi) control is significant because it affects the broader power balance in the Middle East, tilting the country from Saudi to Iranian influence. Saudi Arabia
Arabia
has exercised the predominant external influence in Yemen
Yemen
since the withdrawal of Nasser's Egyptian expeditionary force marking the end of the bitter North Yemen
Yemen
Civil War .

There is a wide array of domestic opponents to Houthi rule in Yemen, ranging from the conservative Sunni
Sunni
Islah Party to the secular socialist Southern Movement to the radical Islamists of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and now ISIS
ISIS
in Yemen.

Some Contemporary Zaidi Scholars

* Ali
Ali
bin Mohammed Al-Mua'dy * Majid Al-Dien Al-Mua'dy * Badr Al-Dien al-Huthi * Mohamed bin Mohamed Al-Mansour * Hamoud Abbas Al-Mua'dy * Mohammed Abdullazim Al-Huthi * Abdulrahman bin Hussein Al-Mua'dy * Dr. Matrudi bin Zaid Al-Muhattury * Dr. Taha Al-Mutawakkil * Mohammad Muphtah

ZAIDI IMāMS

See Imams of Yemen
Yemen

Zaydi
Zaydi
(early period) Imams as listed in Al-Masaabeeh fee As-Seerah by Imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim after Ali
Ali
are:

* - Al-Hasan bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Al-Husayn bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al-mujtaba
Hassan al-mujtaba
bin Ali
Ali
al Murtaza bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Zayd bin Ali
Ali
Zayn al-\'Ābidin bin Al-Husayn * - Yahya bin Zayd bin Ali
Ali
Zayn al-\'Ābidin bin Al-Husayn * - Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan al-Mu\'thannā bin Al-Hasan An-Nafs-Az-Zakiyyah * - Ibrahim bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al mujtaba bin Ali
Ali
al Murtaza bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Abdullah bin Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan al-Mu\'thannā bin Al- Hassan al-mujtaba
Hassan al-mujtaba
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Al-Hasan bin Ibrahim bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al-mujtaba
Hassan al-mujtaba
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Al-Husayn bin Ali
Ali
bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan al-Mu'thannā bin Al- Hassan al-mujtaba
Hassan al-mujtaba
bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Isa bin Zayd bin Ali
Ali
bin Al-Husayn * - Yahya bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Idris bin Abdillah al-Kāmil bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Ibrahim bin Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Zayd bin Ali
Ali
bin Al-Husayn * - Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Sulayman bin Dawud bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Al-Qasim bin Ibrahim bin Isma'il bin Ibrahim bin Al-Hasan bin Al-Hasan bin Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib
Abi Talib
* - Yahya bin Al-Husayn bin Al-Qasim Al-Hadi * - Abul Qasim Muhammad
Muhammad
bin Yahya bin Al-Husayn * - Ahmad bin Yahya bin Al-Husayn * - Al-Hasan bin An-Nasir Ahmad

Time line indicating Zaidi Imams amongst other Shia Imams:

SHIA ISLAM CHART

Abdul-Muttalib
Abdul-Muttalib

Abi Talib
Abi Talib

Abdullah

Muhammad
Muhammad

Ali
Ali
al Murtaza

Fatimah
Fatimah

Hasan

Husayn

Ali
Ali
zayn ul Abedin

Muhammad al-Baqir
Muhammad al-Baqir

Zaydi
Zaydi

Ja\'far al-Sadiq

Ismaili
Ismaili

Twelver

Isma\'il ibn Jafar

Musa al-Kadhim .

Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma\'il

Sevener

Ali
Ali
al-Rida

Ahmad al-Wafi (Abadullah)

Muhammad
Muhammad

Ahmad (al-Taqī Muhammad)

Ali
Ali
al Hadi

Ḥusayn (ar-Raḍī ʿAbdillāh)

hasan al Askari

Abdullah ( Fatimid
Fatimid
)

Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi

al-Qāʾim

al-Manṣūr

al-Muʿizz

al-ʿAzīz

al-Ḥākim

al-Ẓāhir

Druze
Druze

al-Mustanṣir bi l-Lāh

Al-Musta\'li

Nizari

ai-Amir

Hafizi

al-Tayyib

Dawoodi Bohra other Bohra

Agha khani Druze
Druze
Sevener Twelver Zaydi
Zaydi

SEE ALSO

* Imams of Yemen
Yemen
* Dukayniyya Shia * Khalafiyya Shia * Khashabiyya Shia * Islamic history of Yemen
Yemen
* Zaidi (surname)

REFERENCES

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Zaydi
Imam: the shabab al-mu\'min, the Malazim, and hizb allah in the thought of Husayn Badr al-Din al-Huthi". Contemporary Arab Affairs. Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. 2 (3): 369–434. doi :10.1080/17550910903106084 . * ^ A B Francis Robinson , Atlas of the Islamic World Since 1500, pg. 47. New York : Facts on File
File
, 1984. ISBN 0871966298 * ^ A B Article by Sayyid ' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) * ^ The Princeton encyclopedia of Islamic political thought - Page 14, Gerhard Böwering, Patricia Crone, Mahan Mirza - 2012 * ^ Abdullah, Lux (Summer 2009). "Yemen’s last Zaydi
Zaydi
Imam: the shabab al-mu\'min, the Malazim, and hizb allah in the thought of Husayn Badr al-Din al-Huthi". Contemporary Arab Affairs. Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. 2 (3): 369–434. doi :10.1080/17550910903106084 . Retrieved 25 September 2015. * ^ "Telling the truth for more than 30 years - Sunni-Shi’i Schism: Less There Than Meets the Eye". WRMEA. Retrieved 30 November 2013. * ^ Yemen: The Bradt Travel Guide - Daniel McLaughlin - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2013. * ^ Islamic dynasties of the Arab East: state and civilization during the later medieval times by Abdul Ali, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1996, p97 * ^ Ahkam al- Quran
Quran
By Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Jassas al-Razi, volume 1 page 100, published by Dar Al-Fikr Al-Beirutiyya * ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Zaidiyyah * ^ Zaydi
Zaydi
Islam
Islam
John Pike - http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/intro/islam-zaydi.htm * ^ Modern Iran: roots and results of revolution]. Nikki R Keddie, Yann Richard, pp. 13, 20 * ^ Immortal: A Military History of Iran
Iran
and Its Armed Forces. Steven R Ward, pg.43 * ^ Immortal: A Military History of Iran
Iran
and Its Armed Forces. Steven R Ward, pg.43 * ^ A B Article by Sayyid ' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) Referencing: Momen, p.50, 51. and S.S. Akhtar Rizvi, " Shi'a Sects" * ^ The waning of the Umayyad caliphate by Tabarī, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, p37 * ^ The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243. "They were called "Rafida by the followers of Zayd...the term became a pejorative nickname among Sunni Muslims, who used it, however to refer to the Imamiyah's repudiation of the first three caliphs preceding Ali..."

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Theology
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Ismaili
Studies - The Initial Destination of the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliphate: The Yemen
Yemen
or The Maghrib?". Iis.ac.uk. Retrieved 30 November 2013. * ^ "25. Shi\'ah tenets concerning the question of the imamate". Muslimphilosophy.com. Retrieved 30 November 2013. * ^ Article by Sayyid ' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) Referencing: Iranian Influence on Moslem Literature * ^ Article by Sayyid ' Ali
Ali
ibn ' Ali
Ali
Al-Zaidi, A short History of the Yemenite Shi‘ites (2005) Referencing: Encyclopedia Iranica * ^ Walker, Paul Ernest (1999), Hamid Al-Din Al-Kirmani: Ismaili Thought in the Age of Al-Hakim, Ismaili
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Yemen
mosque". BBC News. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2009. * ^ "Yemen’s Shia rebels finalize coup, vow to dissolve parliament". The Globe and Mail. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. * ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/21/sanaa-violence-end-yemen-shia-houthi-agreement * ^ al-Zarqa, Ahmed (22 September 2014). "Yemen: Saudi Arabia recognizes new balance of power in Sanaa as Houthis topple Muslim Brothers". Al-Akhbar. Retrieved 8 February 2015. * ^ " Yemen
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\'Coup\' A Sign Of Expanding Iranian Influence In the Middle East". International Business Times. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015. * ^ " ISIS
ISIS
gaining ground in Yemen". CNN. 2015-01-21. Retrieved 14 January 2016. * ^ "After takeover, Yemen’s Shiite rebels criticized over ‘coup’". The Washington Post. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015. * ^ "Shiite leader in Yemen
Yemen
says coup protects from al Qaeda". Business Insider. 7 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.

FURTHER READING

* Cornelis van Arendonk : Les débuts de l'imamat zaidite au Yemen, Leyden, Brill 1960 (in French)

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Majalis Aal Mohammed * Salvation Ark * Zaidiyyah * Zaidiyyah
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