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ZüRICH or ZURICH (/ˈzjʊərɪx, -ɪk/ ZEWR-ik ) is the largest city in Switzerland
Switzerland
and the capital of the canton of Zürich
Zürich
. It is located in north-central Switzerland
Switzerland
at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich
Zürich
. The municipality has approximately 400,028 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich
Zürich
metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich
Zürich
is a hub for railways, roads, and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport
Zürich Airport
and railway station are the largest and busiest in the country.

Permanently settled for about 2000 years, Zürich
Zürich
was founded by the Romans , who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum
Turicum
. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6400 years ago. During the Middle Ages, Zürich
Zürich
gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli .

The official language of Zurich is German , but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect.

Many museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus . Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world.

Zürich
Zürich
is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres despite having a relatively small population. The city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies. Most of Switzerland's research and development centres are concentrated in Zürich
Zürich
and the low tax rates attract overseas companies to set up their headquarters there.

Monocle\'s 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Zürich
Zürich
first on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich
Zürich
was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe. The Economist Intelligence Unit 's Global Liveability Ranking sees Zürich
Zürich
rank among the top ten most liveable cities in the world.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Old Swiss Confederacy * 2.3 Modern history * 2.4 Coat of arms
Coat of arms

* 3 Politics

* 3.1 City
City
districts * 3.2 Government * 3.3 Parliament
Parliament

* 3.4 Elections

* 3.4.1 National Council

* 3.5 International relations

* 3.5.1 Twin towns and sister cities

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Topography * 4.2 Climate * 4.3 Climate protection * 4.4 Urban area

* 5 Transport

* 5.1 Public transport * 5.2 Zurich Airport * 5.3 Road traffic * 5.4 Bicycle Transport

* 6 Demographics

* 6.1 Population * 6.2 Languages * 6.3 Religion * 6.4 Social

* 7 Main sites

* 7.1 Churches * 7.2 Museums * 7.3 Parks and nature * 7.4 Architecture * 7.5 World heritage sites

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Contributory factors to economic strength * 8.2 The Swiss
Swiss
stock exchange

* 9 Education and research

* 9.1 State universities by size in Canton Zürich
Zürich

* 10 Media

* 10.1 Television and radio * 10.2 Print media

* 11 Culture

* 11.1 Opera, ballet and theaters * 11.2 Food * 11.3 Nightlife and clubbing

* 12 Sports

* 12.1 Events

* 13 Notable people

* 14 Further reading

* 14.1 Architecture * 14.2 Culture * 14.3 Others

* 15 See also

* 16 Notes and references

* 16.1 Notes * 16.2 References

* 17 External links

NAME

In the Swiss
Swiss
variety of Standard German , the city name is written Zürich, and pronounced ( listen ). In Zürich German , or in many other Swiss German varieties, which are widely spoken in the city, the name is pronounced without the final consonant and a pronunciation of the umlaut, Züri , although the adjective remains Zürcher(in) . In the German variety of Standard German , the city name is pronounced . The city is called Zurich in French, Zurigo in Italian, and Turitg in Romansh .

In English, the name used to be written as Zurich, without the umlaut . Even so, standard English practice for German calques is to either preserve the umlaut or replace it with the base letter followed by e (i.e. Zuerich). It is pronounced /ˈzjʊərɪk/ (ZEWR-ik ) or /ˈzʊərɪk/ (ZOOR-ik ); more recently sometimes also with /ts/ as in German.

The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA(tio) TURICEN(sis) (" Turicum
Turicum
tax post"). In Latin publications, the name Tiguri is used. Neither the name's linguistic origin (most likely Rhaetic or Celtic ) nor its meaning can be determined with certainty. A possibility is derivation from *Turīcon, from the Gaulish personal name Tūros. The Latin stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, , was lost in German but is preserved in Italian Zurigo and in Romansh Turitg .

A first development towards its later, Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 10th century onward, the name has more or less clearly been established as Zürich (Zurih (857), Zürich
Zürich
(924)).

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Zürich and Timeline of Zürich

EARLY HISTORY

Johann Balthasar Bullinger 's imagining of Zürich
Zürich
in Roman times (engraving 1773)

Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich
Zürich
. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof hill . In Roman times , Turicum
Turicum
was a tax-collecting point at the border of Gallia Belgica (from AD 90 Germania Superior ) and Raetia for goods trafficked on the river Limmat
Limmat
. After Emperor Constantine 's reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy
Italy
(two of the four praetorian prefectures of the Roman Empire) was located east of Turicum, crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen
Lake Walen
and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum's safety. The earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum (" Zürich
Zürich
post for collecting the 2.5% value tax of the Galliae"), discovered at the Lindenhof
Lindenhof
.

In the 5th century, the Germanic Alemanni tribe settled in the Swiss Plateau . The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, Louis the German , is mentioned in 835 (in castro Turicino iuxta fluvium Lindemaci). Louis also founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard. He endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich, Uri , and the Albis forest, and granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, and mint coins, and thus effectively made the abbess the ruler of the city.

Zürich
Zürich
gained Imperial immediacy
Imperial immediacy
(Reichsunmittelbar, becoming an Imperial free city ) in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well. The Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had started to fall into ruin.

Emperor Frederick II promoted the abbess of the Fraumünster to the rank of a duchess in 1234. The abbess nominated the mayor, and she frequently delegated the minting of coins to citizens of the city. The political power of the convent slowly waned in the 14th century, beginning with the establishment of the Zunftordnung (guild laws) in 1336 by Rudolf Brun
Rudolf Brun
, who also became the first independent mayor, i.e. not nominated by the abbess.

An important event in the early 14th century was the completion of the Manesse Codex , a key source of medieval German poetry. The famous illuminated manuscript – described as "the most beautifully illumined German manuscript in centuries;" – was commissioned by the Manesse family of Zürich, copied and illustrated in the city at some time between 1304 and 1340. Producing such a work was a highly expensive prestige project, requiring several years work by highly skilled scribes and miniature painters, and it clearly testifies to the increasing wealth and pride of Zürich
Zürich
citizens in this period.

OLD SWISS CONFEDERACY

A scene depicting the Old Zürich War in 1443 (1514, illustration in Federal Chronicle by Werner Schodoler)

On 1 May 1351, the citizens of Zürich
Zürich
had to swear allegiance before representatives of the cantons of Lucerne , Schwyz
Schwyz
, Uri and Unterwalden , the other members of the Swiss
Swiss
Confederacy . Thus, Zürich
Zürich
became the fifth member of the Confederacy, which was at that time a loose confederation of de facto independent states . Zürich was the presiding canton of the Diet from 1468 to 1519. This authority was the executive council and lawmaking body of the confederacy, from the Middle Ages until the establishment of the Swiss
Swiss
federal state in 1848. Zürich
Zürich
was temporarily expelled from the confederacy in 1440 due to a war with the other member states over the territory of Toggenburg (the Old Zürich War ). Neither side had attained significant victory when peace was agreed upon in 1446, and Zürich was readmitted to the confederation in 1450. The Murerplan
Murerplan
of 1576

Zwingli started the Swiss Reformation
Swiss Reformation
at the time when he was the main preacher in the 1520s, at the Grossmünster . He lived there from 1484 until his death in 1531. The Zürich Bible , based on that of Zwingli, was issued in 1531. The Reformation resulted in major changes in state matters and civil life in Zürich, spreading also to a number of other cantons. Several cantons remained Catholic and became the basis of serious conflicts that eventually led to the outbreak of the Wars of Kappel .

During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Council of Zürich
Zürich
adopted an isolationist attitude, resulting in a second ring of imposing fortifications built in 1624. The Thirty Years\' War which raged across Europe motivated the city to build these walls. The fortifications required a lot of resources, which were taken from subject territories without reaching any agreement. The following revolts were crushed brutally. In 1648, Zürich
Zürich
proclaimed itself a republic, shedding its former status of a free imperial city. In this time the political system of Zürich
Zürich
was an oligarchy (Patriziat): the dominant families of the city were the following ones: Bonstetten, Brun, Bürkli, Escher vom Glas, Escher vom Luchs, Hirzel, Jori (or von Jori), Kilchsperger, Landenberg, Manesse, Meiss, Meyer von Knonau, Mülner, von Orelli. Fighting on the Paradeplatz
Paradeplatz
during the Züriputsch

The Helvetic Revolution of 1798 saw the fall of the Ancien Régime . Zürich
Zürich
lost control of the land and its economic privileges, and the city and the canton separated their possessions between 1803–05. In 1839, the city had to yield to the demands of its urban subjects, following the Züriputsch of 6 September. Most of the ramparts built in the 17th century were torn down, without ever having been besieged, to allay rural concerns over the city's hegemony . The Treaty of Zürich
Zürich
between Austria, France, and Sardinia was signed in 1859.

MODERN HISTORY

Bahnhofplatz in 1900

Zürich
Zürich
was the Federal capital for 1839–40, and consequently the victory of the Conservative party there in 1839 caused a great stir throughout Switzerland. But when in 1845 the Radicals regained power at Zürich, which was again the Federal capital for 1845–46, Zürich took the lead in opposing the Sonderbund
Sonderbund
cantons. Following the Sonderbund
Sonderbund
war and the formation of the Swiss
Swiss
Federal State, Zürich voted in favour of the Federal constitutions of 1848 and of 1874. The enormous immigration from the country districts into the town from the 1830s onwards created an industrial class which, though "settled" in the town, did not possess the privileges of burghership , and consequently had no share in the municipal government. First of all in 1860 the town schools, hitherto open to "settlers" only on paying high fees, were made accessible to all, next in 1875 ten years' residence ipso facto conferred the right of burghership, and in 1893 the eleven outlying districts were incorporated within the town proper.

Extensive developments took place during the 19th century. From 1847, the Spanisch-Brötli-Bahn, the first railway on Swiss
Swiss
territory, connected Zürich
Zürich
with Baden , putting the Zürich Hauptbahnhof at the origin of the Swiss
Swiss
rail network. The present building of the Hauptbahnhof (the main railway station) dates to 1871. Zürich's Bahnhofstrasse
Bahnhofstrasse
(Station Street) was laid out in 1867, and the Zürich Stock Exchange was founded in 1877. Industrialisation led to migration into the cities and to rapid population growth, particularly in the suburbs of Zürich.

The Quaianlagen are an important milestone in the development of the modern city of Zürich, as the construction of the new lake front transformed Zürich
Zürich
from a small medieval town on the rivers Limmat and Sihl
Sihl
to an attractive modern city on the Zürichsee shore, under the guidance of the city engineer Arnold Bürkli .

In 1893, the twelve outlying districts were incorporated into Zürich, including Aussersihl, the workman's quarter on the left bank of the Sihl, and additional land was reclaimed from Lake Zürich.

In 1934, eight additional districts in the north and west of Zürich were incorporated.

Zürich
Zürich
was accidentally bombed during World War II.

COAT OF ARMS

The coat of arms on the Town Hall

The blue and white coat of arms of Zürich
Zürich
is attested from 1389, and was derived from banners with blue and white stripes in use since 1315 . The first certain testimony of banners with the same design is from 1434. The coat of arms is flanked by two lions. The red Schwenkel on top of the banner had varying interpretations: For the people of Zürich, it was a mark of honour, granted by Rudolph I . Zürich's neighbours mocked it as a sign of shame, commemorating the loss of the banner at Winterthur
Winterthur
in 1292. Today, the Canton of Zürich uses the same coat of arms as the city.

POLITICS

CITY DISTRICTS

Main article: Subdivisions of Zürich
Subdivisions of Zürich
Zürich's twelve municipal districts

The previous boundaries of the city of Zürich
Zürich
(before 1893) were more or less synonymous with the location of the old town. Two large expansions of the city limits occurred in 1893 and in 1934 when the city of Zürich
Zürich
merged with many surrounding municipalities, that had been growing increasingly together since the 19th century. Today, the city is divided into twelve districts (known as Kreis in German), numbered 1 to 12, each one of which contains between one and four neighborhoods:

* Kreis 1 , known as ALTSTADT, contains the old town, both to the east and west of the start of the Limmat
Limmat
. District 1 contains the neighbourhoods of Hochschulen, Rathaus, Lindenhof, and City. * Kreis 2 lies along the west side of Lake Zürich , and contains the neighbourhoods of Enge, Wollishofen and Leimbach. * Kreis 3 , known as WIEDIKON is between the Sihl
Sihl
and the Uetliberg , and contains the neighbourhoods of Alt-Wiedikon, Sihlfeld and Friesenberg. * Kreis 4 , known as AUSSERSIHL lies between the Sihl
Sihl
and the train tracks leaving Zürich Hauptbahnhof , and contains the neighbourhoods of Werd, Langstrasse, and Hard. * Kreis 5 , known as INDUSTRIEQUARTIER, is between the Limmat
Limmat
and the train tracks leaving Zürich Hauptbahnhof , it contains the former industrial area of Zürich
Zürich
which has gone under a large-scale rezoning to create upscale modern housing, retail and commercial real estate. It contains the neighborhoods of Gewerbeschule, and Escher-Wyss. * Kreis 6 is on the edge of the Zürichberg , a hill overlooking the eastern part of the city. District 6 contains the neighbourhoods of Oberstrass and Unterstrass . * Kreis 7 is on the edge of the Adlisberg
Adlisberg
hill as well as the Zürichberg, on the eastern side of the city. District 7 contains the neighbourhoods of Fluntern, Hottingen , and Hirslanden . These neighbourhoods are home to Zürich's wealthiest and more prominent residents. The neighbourhood Witikon
Witikon
also belongs to district 7. * Kreis 8 , officially called RIESBACH, but colloquially known as SEEFELD, lies on the eastern side of Lake Zürich . District 8 consists of the neighbourhoods of Seefeld, Mühlebach, and Weinegg. * Kreis 9 is between the Limmat
Limmat
to the north and the Uetliberg
Uetliberg
to the south. It contains the neighbourhoods Altstetten and Albisrieden . * Kreis 10 is to the east of the Limmat
Limmat
and to the south of the Hönggerberg and Käferberg hills. District 10 contains the neighbourhoods of Höngg and Wipkingen . * Kreis 11 is in the area north of the Hönggerberg and Käferberg and between the Glatt Valley and the Katzensee
Katzensee
(Cats Lake). It contains the neighbourhoods of Affoltern , Oerlikon and Seebach . * Kreis 12 , known as SCHWAMENDINGEN, is located in the Glattal (Glatt valley) on the northern side of the Zürichberg . District 12 contains the neighbourhoods of Saatlen, Schwamendigen Mitte, and Hirzenbach.

Most of the district boundaries are fairly similar to the original boundaries of the previously existing municipalities before they were incorporated into the city of Zürich.

GOVERNMENT

See also: List of mayors of Zürich

The City
City
Council (STADTRAT) constitutes the executive government of the City
City
of Zürich
Zürich
and operates as a collegiate authority . It is composed of nine councilors, each presiding over a department. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws decreed by the Municipal Council are carried out by the City
City
Council. The regular election of the City
City
Council by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years. The mayor (German : Stadtpräsident(in)) is elected as such by a public election by a system of Majorz while the heads of the other departments are assigned by the collegiate. Any resident of Zurich allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the City
City
Council. In the mandate period 2014–2018 (Legislatur) the City
City
Council is presided by mayor Corine Mauch . The executive body holds its meetings in the City
City
Hall (German : Stadthaus), on the left bank of the Limmat. The building was built in 1883 in Renaissance style.

As of 2014 , the Zürich
Zürich
City
City
Council is made up of four representatives of the SP (Social Democratic Party , one of whom is the mayor), two members of the FDP (Free Democratic Party ) and one member each of Green Party , CVP (Christian Democratic Party ) and AL ( Alternative Left Party ), giving the left parties a combined six out of nine seats. The last regular election was held on 4 February 2014.

The Stadtrat of Zurich CITY COUNCILOR (STADTRAT / STADTRäTIN) PARTY HEAD OF OFFICE (DEPARTEMENT, SINCE) OF

elected since

CORINE MAUCH SP Mayor's Office (Präsidialdepartement, 2009) 2009

Daniel Leupi GPS Finance (Finanzdepartement, 2013) 2010

Richard Wolff AL Police (Polizeidepartement, 2013) 2013

Claudia Nielson SP Health and Environment (Gesundheits- und Umweltdepartement, 2010) 2010

Filippo Leutenegger FDP Civil Engineering and Waste Management (Tiefbau- und Entsorgungsdepartement, 2014) 2014

André Odermatt SP Structural Engineering (Hochbaudepartement, 2010) 2010

Andres Türler FDP Industrial Facilities (Departement der Industriellen Betriebe, 2002) 2002

Gerold Lauper CVP Education and Sports (Schul- und Sportdepartement, 2006) 2006

Raphael Golta SP Social Services (Sozialdepartement, 2014) 2014

* ^ Mayor (Stadtpräsidentin) * ^ 2nd Vice President (II. Vizepräsident) * ^ 1st Vice President (I. Vizepräsident)

Claudia Cuche-Curti is Town Chronicler (Stadtschreiberin) since 2012, and Peter Saile is Legal Counsel (Rechtskonsulent) since 2000 for the City
City
Council.

PARLIAMENT

The Gemeinderat of Zürich
Zürich
for the mandate period of 2014–2018 AL (7.2%) SP (31.2%) GPS (11.2%) GLP (10.4%) CVP (4.8%) FDP (16.8%) SVP (17.6%) independent (0.8%)

The Municipal Council (GEMEINDERAT) holds the legislative power . It is made up of 125 members (Gemeindrat / Gemeinderätin), with elections held every four years. The Municipal Council decrees regulations and by-laws that are executed by the City
City
Council and the administration. The sessions of the Municipal Council are held in public. Unlike those of the City
City
Council, the members of the Municipal Council are not politicians by profession, but are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Zürich
Zürich
allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the Municipal Council. The legislative body holds its meetings in the town hall (Rathaus), on the right bank of the Limmat
Limmat
opposite to the City
City
Hall (Stadthaus).

The last election of the Municipal Council was held on 9 February 2014 for the mandate period of 2014–2018. Currently the Municipal Council consist of 39 members of the Social Democratic Party (SP) , 22 members of the Swiss
Swiss
People\'s Party (SVP) , 21 The Liberals (FDP) , 14 Green Party (GPS) , 13 Green Liberal Party (GLP) , 9 Alternative List (AL) , 6 Christian Democratic People\'s Party (CVP) , and 1 member without any association to a party.

ELECTIONS

National Council

In the 2015 election for the Swiss
Swiss
National Council the most popular party was the SPS which received 31.3% of the vote. The next four most popular parties were the SVP (18.1%), the FDP (14.2%), the GPS (10.7%), the GLP (9.2%). In the federal election, a total of 114,377 voters were cast, and the voter turnout was 46.2%.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Twin Towns And Sister Cities

Zürich
Zürich
is partnered with two sister cities : Kunming
Kunming
and San Francisco .

GEOGRAPHY

The Limmat
Limmat
in Zürich
Zürich
The city stretches on both sides of the Limmat
Limmat
, which flows out of Lake Zürich . The Alps
Alps
can be seen from the city center, background to the lake

Zürich
Zürich
is situated at 408 m (1,339 ft) above sea level on the lower (northern) end of Lake Zürich (Zürichsee) about 30 kilometers (19 mi) north of the Alps
Alps
, nestling between the wooded hills on the west and east side. The Old Town stretches on both sides of the Limmat
Limmat
, which flows from the lake, running northwards at first and then gradually turning into a curve to the west. The geographic (and historic) centre of the city is the Lindenhof
Lindenhof
, a small natural hill on the west bank of the Limmat, about 700 m (2,300 ft) north of where the river issues from Lake Zürich. Today the incorporated city stretches somewhat beyond the natural confines of the hills and includes some districts to the northeast in the Glatt Valley (Glattal) and to the north in the Limmat
Limmat
Valley (Limmattal). The boundaries of the older city are easy to recognize by the Schanzengraben canal. This artificial watercourse has been used for the construction of the third fortress in the 17th and 18th centuries.

TOPOGRAPHY

The municipality of Zürich
Zürich
has an area of 91.88 km2 (35.48 sq mi), of which 4.1 km2 (1.6 sq mi) is made up of Lake Zürich. The area includes a section of the northern Swiss Plateau . The banks of the Limmat
Limmat
constitute the densest part of the city. The river is oriented in the southeast-northwest direction, with the flat valley floor having a width of two to two to three kilometres (1.2 to 1.9 miles). The partially channelled and straightened Limmat
Limmat
does not flow in the central part of the valley, but always along its right (northeastern) side. The Sihl
Sihl
meets with the Limmat
Limmat
at the end of Platzspitz, which borders the Swiss National Museum . The Limmat
Limmat
reaches the lowest point of the municipality in Oberengstringen at 392 m (1,286 ft) above sea level . Topographic map of Zürich
Zürich
and surroundings Felsenegg
Felsenegg
from Lake Zürich Zürich
Zürich
from Waidberg

On its west side the Limmat
Limmat
valley is flanked by the wooded heights of the Albis
Albis
chain, which runs along the western border. The Uetliberg is, with 869 m (2,851 ft) above sea level, the highest elevation of the surrounding area. Its summit can be reached easily by the Uetlibergbahn . From the platform of the observation tower on the summit, an impressive panorama of the city, the lake and the Alps
Alps
can be seen.

The northeast side of the Limmat
Limmat
valley includes a range of hills, which marks the watershed between the Limmat
Limmat
and the Glatt. From the northwest to the southeast, the height of the mostly wooded knolls generally increases: the Gubrist (615 m or 2,018 ft), the Hönggerberg (541 m or 1,775 ft), the Käferberg (571 m or 1,873 ft), the Zürichberg (676 m or 2,218 ft), the Adlisberg
Adlisberg
(701 m or 2,300 ft) and the Öschbrig (696 m or 2,283 ft). Between the Käferberg and the Zürichberg is located the saddle of the Milchbuck (about 470 m or 1,540 ft), an important passage from the Limmat
Limmat
valley to the Glatt valley.

The northernmost part of the municipality extends to the plain of the Glatt valley and to the saddle which makes the connection between the Glattal and Furttal. Also a part of the Katzensee
Katzensee
(nature reserve) and the Büsisee, both of which are drained by the Katzenbach to Glatt, belong to the city.

CLIMATE

Zürich
Zürich
has, depending on the definition used, an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb), with four distinct seasons. Decisive for the climate of Zürich
Zürich
are both the winds from westerly directions, which often result in precipitation and, on the other hand, the Bise
Bise
(east or north-east wind), which is usually associated with high-pressure situations, but cooler weather phases with temperatures lower than the average. The Foehn wind , which plays an important role in the northern alpine valleys also has some impact on Zürich.

The annual mean temperature at the measuring station of the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology in Zürich-Fluntern (556 m above sea level on the slope of the Zürichberg, 150 m above the level of the city centre) is 9.3 °C (48.7 °F). The lowest monthly mean of daily minimum temperature are measured in January with −2.0 °C (28.4 °F) and the highest monthly mean of daily maximum temperature are measured in July with 24.0 °C (75.2 °F). On average there are 74.9 days in which the minimum temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F) (so-called frost days), and 23.7 days in which the maximum temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F) (so-called ice days). There are on average of 30 so-called summer days (maximum temperature equal to or above 25 °C ) throughout the year, while so-called heat days (with maximum temperature equal to or above 30 °C ) are 5.8 days.

The average high temperature in July is 24.0 °C (75.2 °F) and average low temperature is 14 °C (57.2 °F). The highest recorded temperature in Zürich
Zürich
was 37.7 °C (100 °F), recorded on July 1947, and typically the warmest day reaches an average of 32.2 °C (90.0 °F).

Spring and autumn are generally cool to mild, but sometimes with large differences between warm and cold days even during the same year. The highest temperature of the month March in 2014 was on the 20th at 20.6 °C (69.1 °F) during a sunny afternoon and the lowest temperature was on the 25th at −0.4 °C (31.3 °F) during the night/early morning. Record low of average daily temperatures in March since 1864 is −12 °C (10 °F) and record high of average daily temperatures in March is 16 °C (61 °F). Record low of average daily temperatures in October is −16 °C (3 °F) and record high of average daily temperatures in October is 20 °C (68 °F).

Zürich
Zürich
has an average of 1,544 hours of sunshine per year and shines on 38% of its potential time throughout the year. During the months April until September the sun shines between 150 and 215 hours per month. The 1,134 millimetres (44.6 in) rainfall spread on 133.9 days with precipitation throughout the year. Roughly about every third day you will encounter at least some precipitation, which is very much a Swiss
Swiss
average. During the warmer half of the year and especially during the three summer months, the strength of rainfall is higher than those measured in winter, but the days with precipitation stays about the same throughout the year (in average 9.9–12.7 days per month). October has the lowest number (9.9) of days with some precipitation. There is an average of 59.5 so-called bright days (number of days with sunshine duration greater than 80%) through the year, the most in July and August (7.4, 7.7 days), and the least in January and December (2.7, 1.8 days). The average number of days with sunshine duration less than 20%, so-called cloudy days, is 158.4 days, while the most cloudy days are in November (17.8 days), December (21.7 days), and January with 19 days.

CLIMATE DATA FOR ZüRICH-FLUNTERN, ELEVATION: 556 M OR 1,824 FT, 1981–2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1901–PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 16.9 (62.4) 19.3 (66.7) 23.2 (73.8) 31.3 (88.3) 32.4 (90.3) 36.4 (97.5) 37.7 (99.9) 36.2 (97.2) 32.5 (90.5) 28.7 (83.7) 23.8 (74.8) 17.0 (62.6) 37.7 (99.9)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 2.9 (37.2) 4.6 (40.3) 9.5 (49.1) 13.8 (56.8) 18.5 (65.3) 21.6 (70.9) 24.0 (75.2) 23.3 (73.9) 18.8 (65.8) 13.7 (56.7) 7.2 (45) 3.7 (38.7) 13.5 (56.3)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 1.3 (34.3) 5.3 (41.5) 8.8 (47.8) 13.3 (55.9) 16.4 (61.5) 18.6 (65.5) 18.0 (64.4) 14.1 (57.4) 9.9 (49.8) 4.4 (39.9) 1.4 (34.5) 9.3 (48.7)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −2.0 (28.4) −1.6 (29.1) 1.7 (35.1) 4.5 (40.1) 8.8 (47.8) 11.9 (53.4) 14.0 (57.2) 13.8 (56.8) 10.5 (50.9) 7.0 (44.6) 2.0 (35.6) −0.7 (30.7) 5.8 (42.4)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −20.8 (−5.4) −24.2 (−11.6) −14.4 (6.1) −6.5 (20.3) −2.0 (28.4) 0.9 (33.6) 5.3 (41.5) 4.0 (39.2) −0.3 (31.5) −5.5 (22.1) −11.0 (12.2) −18.5 (−1.3) −24.2 (−11.6)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 63 (2.48) 64 (2.52) 78 (3.07) 83 (3.27) 122 (4.8) 128 (5.04) 124 (4.88) 124 (4.88) 99 (3.9) 86 (3.39) 79 (3.11) 83 (3.27) 1,134 (44.65)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 18.4 (7.24) 22.0 (8.66) 13.7 (5.39) 3.0 (1.18) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.8 (0.31) 8.0 (3.15) 19.1 (7.52) 85.0 (33.46)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 10.5 9.3 11.9 11.4 12.4 12.7 12.3 11.6 10.2 9.9 10.3 11.4 133.9

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 1.0 CM) 4.8 5.2 3.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.6 4.8 20.4

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 83 78 72 69 71 71 71 74 79 83 84 84 77

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 55 81 124 153 175 189 215 200 150 102 59 42 1,544

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 22 31 36 40 41 44 49 50 44 33 24 18 38

Source #1: MeteoSwiss
MeteoSwiss

Source #2: KNMI

CLIMATE PROTECTION

The city of Zürich
Zürich
is among the world-leaders in protecting the climate by following a manifold approach. In November 2008 the people of Zürich
Zürich
voted in a public referendum to write into law the quantifiable and fixed deadline of one tonne of CO2 per person per annum by 2050 . This forces any decision of the executive to support this goal, even if the costs are higher in all dimensions. Some examples are the new disinfection section of the public city hospital in Triemli (Minergie-P quality – passive house ), the continued optimisation and creation of public transportation, enlargement of the bicycle-only network, research and projects for renewable energy and enclosure of speed-ways.

URBAN AREA

The areas surrounding the Limmat
Limmat
are almost completely developed with residential, industrial, and commercial zones. The sunny and desirable residential areas in the hills overlooking Zürich, Waidberg and Zürichberg, and the bottom part of the slope on the western side of the valley on the Uetliberg, are also densely built.

The "green lungs" of the city include the vast forest areas of Adlisberg, Zürichberg, Käferberg, Hönggerberg and Uetliberg. Major parks are also located along the lakeshore (Zürichhorn and Enge), while smaller parks dot the city. Larger contiguous agricultural lands are located near Affoltern and Seebach . Of the total area of the municipality of Zürich
Zürich
(in 1996, without the lake), 45.4% is residential, industrial and commercial, 15.5% is transportation infrastructure, 26.5% is forest, 11%: is agriculture and 1.2% is water. View over Zürich
Zürich
and Lake Zürich from the Uetliberg
Uetliberg

TRANSPORT

Main articles: Verkehrsbetriebe Zürich , Trams in Zürich
Trams in Zürich
, Trolleybuses in Zürich
Trolleybuses in Zürich
, and Zürich S-Bahn See also: Zürich model

PUBLIC TRANSPORT

A paddle steamer on Lake Zürich

Public transport is extremely popular in Zürich, and its inhabitants use public transport in large numbers. About 70% of the visitors to the city use the tram or bus, and about half of the journeys within the municipality take place on public transport. Within Zürich
Zürich
and throughout the canton of Zürich, the ZVV network of public transport has traffic density ratings among the highest worldwide. When adding frequency, which in Zürich
Zürich
can be as often as seven minutes, it does become the densest across all dimensions. Three means of mass-transit exist: the S-Bahn (local trains), trams , and buses (both diesel and electric, also called trolley buses ). In addition, the public transport network includes boats on the lake and river, funicular railways and even the Luftseilbahn Adliswil-Felsenegg (LAF), a cable car between Adliswil and Felsenegg
Felsenegg
. Tickets purchased for a trip are valid on all means of public transportation (train, tram, bus, boat). The Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft
Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft
(commonly abbreviated to ZSG) operates passenger vessels on the Limmat
Limmat
and the Lake Zürich, connecting surrounding towns between Zürich
Zürich
and Rapperswil
Rapperswil
. The busy Hauptbahnhof main hall

Zürich
Zürich
is a mixed hub for railways, roads, and air traffic. Zürich Hauptbahnhof ( Zürich
Zürich
HB) is the largest and busiest station in Switzerland
Switzerland
and is an important railway hub in Europe. There are between 350,000 and 500,000 commuters daily making use of this central network node – a significant figure in comparison to Zürich's population. With regard to the number of trains daily entering and leaving a single railway station, Zürich
Zürich
HB is the world's most frequently served railway station, with 2915 trains every day. Among the 16 railway stations (and 10 additional train stops) within Zürich's city borders, there are five other major passenger railway stations. Three of them belong to the ten most frequented railway stations in Switzerland: Stadelhofen , Oerlikon , Altstetten , Hardbrücke , and Enge . The railway network is mainly operated by the Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS) , but Zürich
Zürich
is also served by major EuroCity
EuroCity
trains from the neighbouring countries and is a destination for both French/ Swiss
Swiss
( TGV Lyria ) and German (ICE ) high-speed trains, as well as by Austrian RailJet .

ZURICH AIRPORT

Zürich Airport
Zürich Airport
is located less than 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) northeast of the city in Kloten
Kloten
. Zürich Airport
Zürich Airport
has its own railway station, which is located underground. It is directly connected to Zürich
Zürich
and most of the major Swiss
Swiss
cities. Zürich
Zürich
airport is served by more than 60 passenger airlines from around the world. It is also served by one cargo airline and is a hub for Swiss International Air Lines
Swiss International Air Lines
. There is also an airfield in Dübendorf .

ROAD TRAFFIC

The A1 , A3 and A4 motorways pass close to Zürich. The A1 heads west towards Bern
Bern
and Geneva
Geneva
and eastwards towards St. Gallen ; the A4 leads northwards to Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen
and southwards to Altdorf connecting with the A2 towards Chiasso
Chiasso
; and the A3 heads northwest towards Basel and southeast along Lake Zürich and Lake Walen
Lake Walen
towards Sargans
Sargans
.

BICYCLE TRANSPORT

In 2012, the city council launched a program to improve the city's attractiveness for bicycle traffic. The so-called Masterplan Velo is part of the superordinate framework Stadtverkehr 2025 which shapes the future of the different means of transport. Research revealed that infrastructure and the social environment are essential factors in improving a city's appeal to bicycle traffic. Three main goals are specified: First, the modal share of bicycle traffic should be enhanced to twice the value of 2011 by 2015. Second, cyclists' safety should be improved to lower the overall accident risk. Third, cycling should be established as an everyday means of transport with a special focus on children and young people.

In terms of infrastructure, the city aims to build up a network of distinctive bicycle routes in order to achieve these objectives. At a final stage, the network will consist of main routes (Hauptrouten) for everyday use and comfort routes (Komfortrouten), with the latter focussing on leisure cycling. Additional measures such as special Velostationen providing bike related services are expected to help to further improve the quality. One of the key projects of the system is a tunnel beneath the tracks of the main railway station planned to combine a main connection with staffed possibilities where commuters can leave their bikes throughout the day. Apart from infrastructural measures, further approaches are planned in the fields of communication, education and administration.

However, these efforts cause critique, mainly due to postponing. The institution of the bike tunnel at the main railway station, originally planned for 2016, is currently (2016) delayed to at least 2019. Pro Velo, a nationwide interest group, has publicly questioned whether the masterplan already failed. The critique aims at badly governed traffic management at construction sites, missing possibilities to park bikes in the city as well as rather diffident ambitions. In response, the responsible city department points to the big investments made every year and mentions ongoing discussions that would finally lead to even better results.

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION

Augustinergasse
Augustinergasse
in the old town

There are 402,762 people living in Zürich
Zürich
(as of 31 December 2016), making it Switzerland's largest city. Of registered inhabitants (in 2016), 32% (133,473) do not hold Swiss
Swiss
citizenship. Of these, German citizens make up the largest group with 8% (33,548), followed by Italians 3.5% (14,543). The population of the city including suburbs totals 1.19 million people. The entire metropolitan area (including the cities of Winterthur
Winterthur
, Baden , Brugg
Brugg
, Schaffhausen
Schaffhausen
, Frauenfeld , Uster
Uster
/ Wetzikon
Wetzikon
, Rapperswil-Jona
Rapperswil-Jona
and Zug ) has a population of around 1.83 million people.

LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS 2016

NATIONALITY NUMBER % total (foreigners)

Germany
Germany
33,548 8.1% (25.1%)

Italy
Italy
14,543 3.5% (10.9%)

Portugal
Portugal
8,274 2.0% (6.2%)

Spain
Spain
6,207 1.5% (4.7%)

Austria
Austria
4,809 1.2% (3.6%)

France
France
4,244 1.0% (3.2%)

Serbia
Serbia
3,597 0.9% (2.7%)

United Kingdom
United Kingdom
3,483 0.8% (2.6%)

Turkey
Turkey
3,402 0.8% (2.5%)

Kosovo
Kosovo
2,437 0.6% (1.8%)

LANGUAGES

The official formal language used by governmental institutions, print, news, universities/schools, courts, theater and in any kind of written form is (the Swiss
Swiss
variety of Standard) German , while the spoken language is Zürich German (Züritüütsch), one of the several more or less distinguishable, but mutually intelligible Swiss
Swiss
German dialects of Switzerland
Switzerland
with roots in the medieval Alemannic German dialect groups. However, because of Zürich's national importance, and therefore its existing high fluctuation, one can hear all kinds of Swiss German dialects spoken by its inhabitants and commuters. As of the December 2010 census, 69.3% of the population speaks diglossic Swiss German / Swiss Standard German as their mother-tongue at home. Some 22.7% of inhabitants speak Standard German in their family environment ("at home"). Dramatically increasing, according to the last census in 2000, 8.8% now speak English. Italian follows behind at 7.1% of the population, then French at 4.5%. Other languages spoken here include Croatian and Serbian (4.1%), Spanish (3.9%), Portuguese (3.1%), and Albanian (2.3%). (Multiple choices were possible.) Thus 20% of the population speak two or more languages at home.

RELIGION

Further information: Reformation in Zürich

RELIGION IN ZüRICH - 2010

RELIGION NATIONALITY

TOTAL-POP.

Roman Catholic Swiss   28% 30%

Other   35%

Unaffiliated Swiss   25% 27%

Other   31%

Swiss
Swiss
Reformed Swiss   33% 26%

Other   9%

Other Christians Swiss   6% 7%

Other   9%

Islam Swiss   3% 5%

Other   9%

Other Religion Swiss   2% 2%

Other   4%

No answer Swiss   2% 2%

Other   2%

Jewish Swiss   1% 1%

Other   1%

Before the Protestant Reformation reached Zürich, it was de jure and de facto Roman Catholic .

The Protestant Reformation led by Huldrych Zwingli made Zürich
Zürich
both a theological centre and a stronghold of Protestantism in Switzerland . Another Swiss
Swiss
city with a comparable status was Geneva
Geneva
, the so-called Protestant Rome, where John Calvin
John Calvin
and his Protestant Reformers operated. Zürich
Zürich
attracted other influential Protestant Reformers like Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger
. Zwingli translated the Bible ( Zürich Bible ) into the local variety of German and introduced the Reformation by winning support of the magistrates, the princess abbess Katharina von Zimmern
Katharina von Zimmern
and the largely peasant population of the Canton of Zürich
Zürich
. The canton unanimously adopted the Reformed tradition as represented by Zwingli. Religious wars between Catholics and Protestants tormented the Swiss
Swiss
Confederacy . Zwingli died for political and religious reasons by defending the Canton of Zürich in the Battle of Kappel . Bullinger took over his role as the city's spiritual leader.

In 1970, about 53% of the population were Swiss
Swiss
Reformed , while almost 40% were Roman Catholic . Since then both large Swiss
Swiss
churches, the Roman Catholic Church and Swiss
Swiss
Reformed Church , have been constantly losing members, though for the Catholic Church the decrease started 20 years later in around 1990. Nevertheless, for the last twenty years both confessions have been reduced by 10% to the current figures (census 2010): 30% Roman Catholic and 26% Swiss
Swiss
Reformed (organized in Evangelical Reformed Church of the Canton of Zürich ). In 1970, only 2% of Zürich's inhabitants claimed to be not affiliated with any religious confession. In accordance with the loss by the large Swiss
Swiss
churches, the number of people declaring themselves as non-affiliated rose to 17% in the year 2000. In the last ten years, this figure rose to more than 25%. For the group of people, being between 24 and 44 years old, this is as high as one in every third person.

5% of Zürich's inhabitants are Muslims , a slight decrease of 1% compared to the year 2000. The Mahmood Mosque Zürich
Zürich
, situated in Forchstrasse is the first mosque built in Switzerland.

The population of Jewish ethnicity and religion has been more or less constant since 1970 at about 1%. The Synagoge Zürich Löwenstrasse is the oldest and largest synagogue of Zürich.

Nearly one tenth of the city's population are members of non-state-recognized Christian denominations (for example the Eastern Orthodox Church ).

More than 2% of Zürich's population account for non-monotheistic religions (such as Buddhism or Hinduism ).

SOCIAL

The level of unemployment in Zürich
Zürich
was 3.2% in July 2012. In 2008, the average monthly income was about CHF 7000 before any deductions for social insurances and taxes. In 2010, there were 12,994 cases (on average per month) of direct or indirect welfare payments from the state.

MAIN SITES

Further information: Zürich old town The Bahnhofstrasse
Bahnhofstrasse
seen from Paradeplatz
Paradeplatz

Most of Zürich's sites are located within the area on either side of the Limmat, between the Main railway station and Lake Zürich . The churches and houses of the old town are clustered here, as are the most expensive shops along the famous Bahnhofstrasse. The Lindenhof
Lindenhof
in the old town is the historical site of the Roman castle, and the later Carolingian Imperial Palace .

CHURCHES

* Grossmünster (Great Minster) According to legend, Charlemagne discovered the graves of the city's martyrs Felix and Regula and had built the first church as a monastery; start of current building around 1100; in the first half of the 16th century, the Great Minster was the starting point of the Swiss-German Reformation led by Huldrych Zwingli and Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger
; declared by Charlemagne
Charlemagne
imperial church; romanesque crypt, romanesque capitals in the church and cloister; choir windows by Augusto Giacometti (1932) and Sigmar Polke (2009), bronze doors by Otto Münch (1935 and 1950). * Fraumünster (Women's Minster) Church of a former abbey for aristocratical women from southern Germany
Germany
which was founded in 853 by Louis the German for his daughter Hildegard; first church built before 874; the romanesque choir dates from 1250–70; the church enjoyed the patronage of kings and had the right of coinage from Zürich
Zürich
to the 13th century; after the Reformation, church and convent passed into the possession of the city; the most important jewelry – in addition to the largest organ in the canton with its 5,793 pipes and 92 stops – are color windows: the window in the north transept of Augusto Giacometti (1945), the five-part cycle in the choir (1970) and the rosette in the southern transept (1978) are by Marc Chagall ; also the church of Zürich's largest choir with 100 and more singers. * St. Peter romanesque-gothic-baroque church built on remains of former churches from before the 9th century; with the largest church clock face in Europe built 1538; baptismal font of 1598, baroque stucco; individual stalls from the 15th century from city repealed monasteries with rich carvings and armrests; Kanzellettner (increased barrier between the nave and choir with built-pulpit) of 1705 pulpit sounding board about 1790; rich Akanthus embellishment with Bible verse above the pulpit; 1971 new crystal chandelier modeled according 1710 design; organ in 1974 with 53 stops; Bells: five from 1880, the largest, A minor, without clapper weighs about 6,000 kg (13,228 lb); fire guard in the tower to the Middle Ages to 1911. * Predigerkirche is one of the four main churches of the old town, first built in 1231 AD as a Romanesque church of the then Dominican Predigerkloster nearby the Neumarkt . It was converted in the first half of the 14th century, and the choir rebuilt between 1308 and 1350. Due to its construction and for that time unusual high bell tower, it was regarded as most high Gothic edifice in Zürich.

MUSEUMS

* Zürich
Zürich
Museum of Art – The Museum of Art, also known as Kunsthaus Zürich, is one of the significant art museums of Europe. It holds one of the largest collections in Classic Modern art in the world (Munch, Picasso, Braque, Giacometti, etc.). The museum also features a large library collection of photographs. * Swiss National Museum – The National Museum (German: Landesmuseum) displays many objects that illustrate the cultural and historical background of Switzerland. It also contains many ancient artifacts, including stained glass, costumes, painted furniture and weapons. The museum is located in the Platzspitz park opposite to the Hauptbahnhof. * Centre Le Corbusier
Centre Le Corbusier
– Located on the shore of the Lake Zürich nearby Zürichhorn, the Centre Le Corbusier
Centre Le Corbusier
(also named: Heidi Weber Museum), is an art museum dedicated to the work of the Swiss
Swiss
architect Le Corbusier , inside the last house he designed. * Rietberg Museum
Rietberg Museum
– The Rietberg Museum, situated in Gablerstrasse, is one of the great repositories of art and culture in Zürich. The museum also displays exhibits gathered from various corners of the world: bronze artifacts from Tibet, ceramics and jade, Indian sculpture, Chinese grave decorations, masks by African tribes etc. * Museum of Design – The Museum of Design is a museum for industrial design, visual communication, architecture and craft. It is part of the Department of Cultural Analysis of the Zürich
Zürich
University of the Arts. * Haus Konstruktiv – The Haus Konstruktiv is a museum with Swiss-wide and international recognition. The museum is about constructive, concrete and conceptual art and design. It testimonies to Zürich's industrial architecture in the immediate vicinity of the Main Station. * Uhrenmuseum Beyer
Uhrenmuseum Beyer
– The Uhrenmuseum is located in the heart of the city. Documenting the history of timekeeping and timekeepers, the museum is home to a large collection of mechanical timepieces as well as a collection of primitive time keeping devices such as water clocks, sundials and hourglasses * No Show Museum – the No Show Museum is the first museum dedicated to nothing and its various manifestations throughout the history of art. * Guild houses – The Guild houses (German: Zunfthaus) are located along the Limmat
Limmat
(downstream from the Grossmünster): Meisen (also a porcelain and fayence museum), Rüden , Haue , Saffran , Schneidern, Schmiden, Zimmerleuten , and some more. * Tram Museum – The Tram Museum is located at Burgwies in Zürich's eastern suburbs, and chronicles the history of Zürich\'s iconic tram system with exhibits varying in date from 1897 to the present day. * North America Native Museum – The North American Native Museum specializes in the conservation, documentation and presentation of ethnographic objects and art of Native American, First Nation and Inuit cultures.

PARKS AND NATURE

* Zoological Garden – The zoological garden holds about 260 species of animals and houses about 2200 animals. One can come across separate enclosures of snow leopards, India lions, clouded leopards, Amur leopards, otters and pandas in the zoo. * Botanical Garden – The Botanical Garden houses about 15,000 species of plants and trees and contains as many as three million plants. In the garden, many rare plant species from south western part of Africa, as well as from New Caledonia can be found. The University of Zürich
Zürich
holds the ownership of the Botanical Garden. * Chinese Garden – The Chinese Garden is a gift by Zürich's Chinese partner town Kunming
Kunming
, as remiscence for Zürich's technical and scientific assistance in the development of the Kunming
Kunming
city drinking water supply and drainage. The garden is an expression of one of the main themes of Chinese culture, the «Three Friends of Winter » – three plants that together brave the cold season – pine , bamboo , and plum . * Uetliberg
Uetliberg
– Located to the west of the city at an altitude of 813 meters (2,667 ft) above sea level , the Uetliberg
Uetliberg
is the highest hill and offers views over the city. The summit is easily accessible by train from Zürich
Zürich
main station .

ARCHITECTURE

The 88-metre Sunrise Tower (2005) was the first approved high-rise building in twenty years

Compared to other cities, there are few tall buildings in Zürich. The municipal building regulations (Article 9) limit the construction of high-rise buildings to areas in the west and north of the city. In the industrial district, in Altstetten and Oerlikon, buildings up to 80 meters (260 ft) in height are allowed (high-rise area I). In the adjacent high-rise areas II and III the height is limited to 40 meters (130 ft). Around the year 2000, regulations became more flexible and high-rise buildings were again planned and built. The people's initiative "40 metres (130 feet) is enough," which would have reduced both the maximum height and the high-rise buildings area, was clearly rejected on 29 November 2009. At this time in Zürich
Zürich
about a dozen high-rise buildings were under construction or in planning, including the Prime Tower as the tallest skyscraper in Switzerland. Panoramic view of Münsterhof
Münsterhof
square with some of the Guild houses

WORLD HERITAGE SITES

The prehistoric settlements at Enge Alpenquai and Grosser Hafner
Grosser Hafner
and Kleiner Hafner
Kleiner Hafner
are part of the Prehistoric Pile dwellings around the Alps
Alps
a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site .

ECONOMY

Zürich
Zürich
is a leading financial center and global city . In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index , Zürich
Zürich
was ranked as having the 11th most competitive financial center in the world, and second most competitive in Europe after London . The Greater Zürich
Zürich
Area is Switzerland's economic centre and home to a large number of international companies. By far the most important sector in the economy of Zürich
Zürich
is the service industry, which employs nearly four-fifths of workers. Other important industries include light industry, machine and textile industries and tourism. Most Swiss
Swiss
banks have their headquarters in Zürich
Zürich
and there are numerous foreign banks in the Greater Zürich
Zürich
Area. Located in Zürich, the Swiss
Swiss
Stock Exchange was established in 1877 and is nowadays the fourth most prominent stock exchange in the world. In addition Zürich
Zürich
is the world's largest gold trading centre. Ten of the country's 50 largest companies have their head offices in Zürich, among them ABB , UBS
UBS
, Credit Suisse , Swiss
Swiss
Re and Zürich Financial Services .

CONTRIBUTORY FACTORS TO ECONOMIC STRENGTH

The high quality of life has been cited as a reason for economic growth in Zürich. The consulting firm Mercer has for many years ranked Zürich
Zürich
as a city with the highest quality of life in the world. In particular, Zürich
Zürich
received high scores for work, housing, leisure, education and safety. Local planning authorities ensure clear separation between urban and recreational areas and there are many protected nature reserves. Other Swiss
Swiss
cities, Bern
Bern
and Geneva
Geneva
, were also listed among the top ten. Zürich
Zürich
is also ranked the sixth most expensive city in the world . In 2008, Zürich
Zürich
was ranked ninth. The city ranked behind Hong Kong and ahead of Copenhagen . It is the third most expensive city in Europe and second most expensive city in Switzerland
Switzerland
after Geneva
Geneva
.

Zürich
Zürich
benefits from the high level of investment in education that is typical of Switzerland
Switzerland
in general and provides skilled labour at all levels. The city is home to two major universities, thus enabling access to graduates and high technology research. Professional training incorporates a mix of practical work experience and academic study while, in general, emphasis is placed on obtaining a good level of general education and language ability. As a result, the city is home to many multilingual people and employees generally demonstrate a high degree of motivation and a low level of absenteeism. Such characteristics are reflected in the high level of productivity the region enjoys and account for the opening of offices and research centres in the city by large corporations.

THE SWISS STOCK EXCHANGE

The Swiss
Swiss
stock Exchange on Selnaustrasse

The Swiss
Swiss
stock exchange is called SIX Swiss Exchange , formerly known as SWX. The SIX Swiss Exchange is the head group of several different worldwide operative financial systems: Eurex
Eurex
, Eurex
Eurex
US , EXFEED, STOXX , and virt-x . The exchange turnover generated at the SWX was in 2007 of 1,780,499.5 million CHF ; the number of transactions arrived in the same period at 35,339,296 and the Swiss Performance Index (SPI) arrived at a total market capitalization of 1,359,976.2 million CHF .

The SIX Swiss Exchange goes back more than 150 years. In 1996, fully electronic trading replaced the traditional floor trading system at the stock exchanges of Geneva
Geneva
(founded in 1850), Zürich
Zürich
(1873) and Basel
Basel
(1876).

Since 2008, the SIX Swiss Exchange has been part of the SIX Group, as SWX Group, SIS Group and Telekurs Group merged.

EDUCATION AND RESEARCH

Main building of the University of Zürich

About 60,000 people study at the 20 universities, colleges and institutions of higher education in Zürich. Two of Switzerland's most distinguished universities are located in the city. The Swiss
Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich) which is controlled by the (federal) state and the University of Zürich that is under direction of the canton of Zürich. Both universities were listed in the top 50 world universities rated in 2007.

ETH was founded in 1854 by the Swiss
Swiss
Confederation and opened its doors in 1855 as a polytechnic institute. ETH achieved its reputation particularly in the fields of chemistry, mathematics and physics and there are 21 Nobel Laureates who are associated with the institution. ETH is usually ranked the top university in continental Europe. The institution consists of two campuses, the main building in the heart of the city and the new campus on the outskirts of the city.

The University of Zürich was founded in 1833, although its beginnings date back to 1525 when the Swiss
Swiss
reformer Ulrich Zwingli founded a college of theology. Nowadays with its 24,000 students and 1,900 graduations each year, the University of Zürich is the largest in Switzerland
Switzerland
and offers the widest range of subjects and courses at any Swiss
Swiss
higher education institution.

The Pedagogical College, the Zürich
Zürich
University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) and the Zürich
Zürich
University of the Arts (ZHdK) are another three top-class technical colleges which contribute to Zürich's reputation as a knowledge and research pole by providing applied research and development. Zürich
Zürich
is also one of the co-location centres of the Knowledge and Innovation Community (Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation) of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology .

STATE UNIVERSITIES BY SIZE IN CANTON ZüRICH

Only (federal) state Universities and higher education institutions,

INSTITUTION TOTAL STUDENTS

University of Zürich – UZH 25,618

Zürich University of Applied Sciences – ZHAW 15,334

Swiss
Swiss
Federal Institute of Technology Zürich
Zürich
– ETH 15,093

List of largest universities by enrollment in Switzerland
Switzerland

MEDIA

Many large Swiss
Swiss
media conglomerates are headquartered in Zürich, such as tamedia , Ringier
Ringier
and the NZZ-Verlag . Zürich
Zürich
is one of the most important media locations in the German-speaking part of the country. This status has been recently reinforced by the increase in availability of online publications published in Zürich.

TELEVISION AND RADIO

Swiss
Swiss
television's building

The headquarters of Switzerland's national licence fee funded German language television network ("SF ") are located in the Leutschenbach neighborhood, to the north of the Oerlikon railway station. Regional commercial television station " TeleZüri " ( Zürich
Zürich
Television) has its headquarters near Escher-Wyss Platz. The production facilities for other commercial stations "Star TV", "u1" TV and "3+" are located in Schlieren .

One section of the Swiss
Swiss
German language licence fee funded public radio station " Schweizer Radio DRS " is located in Zürich. There are commercial local radio stations broadcasting from Zürich, such as "Radio 24" on the Limmatstrasse, "Energy Zürich" in Seefeld on the Kreuzstrasse, Radio "LoRa" and "Radio 1". There are other radio stations that operate only during certain parts of the year, such as "CSD Radio" (May/June), "Radio Streetparade " (July/August) and "rundfunk.fm" (August/September).

PRINT MEDIA

There are three large daily newspapers published in Zürich
Zürich
that are known across Switzerland. The Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ), the Tages-Anzeiger and the Blick
Blick
, the largest Swiss
Swiss
tabloid . All three of those newspapers publish Sunday editions. These are the "NZZ am Sonntag", "SonntagsZeitung" and "SonntagsBlick". Besides the three main daily newspapers, there are free daily commuter newspapers which are widely distributed: 20 Minuten (20 minutes), published weekdays in the mornings and Blick
Blick
am Abend , weekdays but in the late afternoon.

There are a number of magazines from major publishers that are based in Zürich. Some examples are: Bilanz , Die Weltwoche , and Annabelle.

CULTURE

See also: List of annual events in Zürich Opening of the Zürich
Zürich
Film Festival (2008)

Zürich
Zürich
has a rich cultural tradition. In addition to high-quality museums and galleries, Zürich
Zürich
has high-calibre chamber and symphony orchestras and several important theatres.

The Zürich
Zürich
Film Festival is one of the most important upcoming international film festivals. In just a few years, the Festival became firmly established upon the national and international festival landscape. Over the course of 11 days, it attracts both stars and new talents and celebrates popular international productions. More recently, the kickstarter.com funded Mobile Motion Film Festival held its first event in May 2015. Zürich
Zürich
during the Street Parade (2008)

One of the largest and most popular annual events in Zürich
Zürich
is the Street Parade , which is also one of the largest techno and dance music festivals in the world. Proceeding along the side of Lake Zürich, it normally occurs on the second Saturday in August. The first edition was held in 1992 with about 1,000 participants. By 2001 the event had reached the size of 1 million participants. The Zürifäscht, on the other hand, is a triennial public festival. It features music, fireworks set to music, and other attractions throughout the old town. It is the largest public festival in Switzerland
Switzerland
and is attended by up to 2 million visitors.

The Kunst Zürich
Zürich
is an international contemporary art fair with an annual guest city; it combines most recent and youngest art with the works of well-established artists. Another annual public art exhibit is the city campaign, sponsored by the City
City
Vereinigung (the local equivalent of a chamber of commerce ) with the cooperation of the city government . It consists of decorated sculptures distributed over the city centre, in public places. Past themes have included lions (1986), cows (1998), benches (2003), teddy bears (2005), and huge flower pots (2009). From this originated the concept of the CowParade
CowParade
that has been featured in other major world cities.

Zürich
Zürich
is also the home to several art movements. The Cabaret Voltaire where the Dada
Dada
movement was founded in 1916. Constructive Art movement took also one of the first steps in Zürich. Artists like Max Bill , Marcel Breuer
Marcel Breuer
, Camille Graeser or Richard Paul Lohse had their ateliers in Zürich, which became even more important after the takeover of power by the Nazi-Regime in Germany
Germany
and World War II
World War II
.

The best known traditional holiday in Zürich
Zürich
is the Sechseläuten (Sächsilüüte), including a parade of the guilds and the burning of "winter" in effigy at the Sechseläutenplatz . Another is the Knabenschiessen target shooting competition for teenagers (originally boys, open to female participants since 1991).

OPERA, BALLET AND THEATERS

Opernhaus

The Zürich Opera House (German: Zürcher Opernhaus) is one of the principal opera houses in Europe. Built in 1834, it was the first permanent theatre in the heart of Zürich
Zürich
and was at the time, the main seat of Richard Wagner 's activities. Later in 1890, the theatre was re-built as an ornate building with a neo-classical architecture. The portico is made of white and grey stone ornamented with the busts of Wagner, Weber and Mozart. Later, busts of Schiller, Shakespeare and Goethe were also added. The auditorium is designed in the rococo style. Once a year, it hosts the Zürcher Opernball with the President of the Swiss
Swiss
Confederation and the economic and cultural élite of Switzerland. The Ballet Zürich
Ballet Zürich
performs at the opera house.

The Schauspielhaus Zürich is the main theatre complex of the city. It has two dépendances: Pfauen in the Central City
City
District and Schiffbauhalle, an old industrial hall, in Zürich
Zürich
West. The Schauspielhaus was home to emigrants such as Bertolt Brecht or Thomas Mann , and saw premieres of works of Max Frisch , Friedrich Dürrenmatt , Botho Strauss or Elfriede Jelinek . The Schauspielhaus is one of the most prominent and important theatres in the German-speaking world.

The Theater am Neumarkt
Theater am Neumarkt
is one of the oldest theatres of the city. Established by the old guilds in the Old City
City
District, it is located in a baroque palace near Niederdorf Street. It has two stages staging mostly avantgarde works by European directors.

The Zürcher Theater Spektakel is an international theatre festival, ranking among the most important European festivals for contemporary performing arts .

FOOD

The traditional cuisine of Zürich
Zürich
consists of traditional fare, reflecting the centuries of rule by patrician burghers as well as the lasting imprint of Huldrych Zwingli 's puritanism . Traditional dishes include Zürcher Geschnetzeltes and Tirggel .

NIGHTLIFE AND CLUBBING

Zürich
Zürich
at night

Zürich
Zürich
offers a great deal of variety when it comes to night-time leisure. It is the host city of the world-famous Street Parade , which takes place in August every year.

The most famous districts for Nightlife are the Niederdorf in the old town with bars, restaurants, lounges, hotels, clubs, etc. and a lot of fashion shops for a young and stylish public and the Langstrasse in the districts 4 and 5 of the city. There are authentic amusements: bars, punk clubs, HipHop stages, caribbean restaurants, arthouse cinemas, Turkish kebabs and Italian espresso-bars, but also sex shops or the famous red light district of Zürich.

In the past ten years new parts of the city have risen into the spotlight. Notably, the area known as Zürich West in district 5, near the Escher-Wyss square and the S-Bahn Station of Zürich
Zürich
Hardbrücke .

SPORTS

Several international sport federations are located in the city: FIFA Headquarters
FIFA Headquarters

Association football is an essential aspect of sports in Zürich. The city is home to two major Swiss
Swiss
football teams ; Grasshopper Club Zürich
Zürich
founded in 1886 and listed in Switzerland\'s highest league and FC Zürich , playing in the Switzerland\'s second division , which has existed since 1896. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) is headquartered in the city. In 2007 were inaugurated the new FIFA
FIFA
headquarters building, designed by architect Tilla Theus

Among the most popular sports in Switzerland
Switzerland
is ice hockey . In Zürich
Zürich
it is represented by the ZSC Lions
ZSC Lions
. The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) officiating as head organisation for ice hockey leagues worldwide is based in Zürich
Zürich
as well.

Biking is a popular sport as well as a mean of transport in Zürich. Biking routes are generally marked with red and white signs and the yellow lanes are exclusively meant for the bikers. Also hiking trails are well marked with yellow signs, which give the hiker the probable time it will take him to reach his destination. There are specific maps available for hiking and walking trails throughout Switzerland. Some of the most accessible walks in the Zürich
Zürich
area are the Uetliberg
Uetliberg
and the Zürichberg.

As many as 30 clubs and 7 indoor Curling facilities can be found in the greater Zürich
Zürich
area. The Curling season starts in early September and continues until the end of April.

EVENTS

2007 Zürich
Zürich
Weltklasse

Weltklasse Zürich
Weltklasse Zürich
, sometimes referred to as the one-day Olympics, is one of prestigious one day athletics meet held annually at the Letzigrund Stadium. The Weltklasse is reputed as one of the best and most classy athlete meet in the world after the Olympics. Since it started on 12 August 1928, the sporting event has witnessed new world records and national records. To date as many as 24 world records were set in Weltklasse.

Zürich
Zürich
Marathon is a popular sport event, inviting numerous athletes from every corner of the globe. Zürich
Zürich
Marathon is a long distance running event, covering 42.195 kilometers (26.219 mi) at one stretch. The running course starts from Zürich
Zürich
and passes through Bahnhofstrasse, Bellevueplatz , Mythenquai , Quaibrücke , Talstrasse and Utoquai , and along Lake Zürich to several other places. New Year\'s Eve run is another important running event. The race is held on 1 January each year and the start takes place at midnight exactly.

Zürich
Zürich
was one of six venues of the 1954 FIFA
FIFA
World Cup and one of eight venues of the UEFA Euro 2008 . The Euro 2008 games were held in the Letzigrund Stadium. Work on the new Letzigrund was completed in exceptionally quick time and the stadium opened in August 2007 just one year after the demolition of the old arena.

Zürich
Zürich
hosted six times the UCI Track Cycling World Championships at the Oerlikon Velodrome. The first time was in 1929 and the last time in 1983.

Since 2013, the international Openair Literatur Festival Zürich takes place annually in Zurich, presented by Literaturhaus Zürich
Zürich
and Kaufleuten.

Zürich
Zürich
also hosted the 1998 World Ice Hockey Championships . The city previously co-hosted the 1953 and 1939 editions.

Zürich
Zürich
was also host to the 2012 Men's World Floorball Championships. This was the first time the event had been held in Zürich.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Main article: List of people from Zürich

FURTHER READING

ARCHITECTURE

* Hönig, Roderick: Zürich
Zürich
wird gebaut. Architekturführer Zürich 1990–2010. Hochparterre, Zürich
Zürich
2010, ISBN 978-3-85881-127-1 . * Oechslin, Werner: Hochschulstadt Zürich. Bauten der ETH 1855–2005. GTA, Zürich
Zürich
2005, ISBN 3-85676-154-3 . * Bonte, Alexander, Bürkle, J. Christoph: Max Dudler Die neue Dichte – Der neue Stadtteil Europaallee und die Pädagogische Hochschule Zürich, Jovis, Berlin
Berlin
2012, ISBN 978-3-86859-198-9

CULTURE

* Kröger, Ute: Zürich, du mein blaues Wunder. Literarische Streifzüge durch eine europäische Kulturstadt. Limmat, Zürich
Zürich
2004, ISBN 3-85791-447-5 . * Staub, Ueli: Jazzstadt Zürich. Von Louis Armstrong bis Zürich Jazz Orchestra. Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Zürich
Zürich
2003, ISBN 3-03823-012-X .

OTHERS

* Foppa, Daniel: Berühmte und vergessene Tote auf Zürichs Friedhöfen. Limmat
Limmat
, Zürich
Zürich
2003, ISBN 3-85791-446-7 . * Hegi, Christof u. a.: Zürich. Mairs, Ostfildern 2006, ISBN 3-8297-0315-5 (= Marco Polo Reiseführer). * Heimgartner, Susanna: Zürich
Zürich
komplett. Regenbogen, Zürich
Zürich
2005, ISBN 3-85862-458-6 (= Regenbogen Reiseführer). * Smith, Duncan J. D.: Nur in Zürich
Zürich
– Ein Reiseführer zu einzigartigen Orten, geheimen Plätzen und ungewöhnlichen Sehenswürdigkeiten (übersetzt von Walter Goidinger), Brandstätter, Wien
Wien
2012, ISBN 978-3-85033-546-1 .

SEE ALSO

* Book: Zürich
Zürich

* Switzerland
Switzerland
portal

* Eastern Switzerland
Switzerland
* List of mayors of Zürich * PS Stadt Zürich
Zürich

NOTES AND REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ also ZUERICH * ^ Comment: The official language in any municipality in German-speaking Switzerland
Switzerland
is always German. In this context, the term 'German' is used as an umbrella term for any variety of German. So, according law, you are allowed to communicate with the authorities by using any kind of German, in written or oral form. However, the authoratives will always use Swiss Standard German (aka the Swiss variety of Standard German ) in documents, or any written form. And orally, it's either Hochdeutsch (i.e., Swiss Standard German or what the particular speaker considers as High German), or then it depends on the speaker's origin, what dialectal variant (s)he is using.

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EXTERNAL LINKS

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* Stadt Zürich
Zürich
– official website (in German) * City
City
of Zürich
Zürich
– official website (in English) * Zürich
Zürich
Tourism – official website * Zürich
Zürich
Chamber of Commerce – official website * Event ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Cities in Switzerland
Switzerland
by population

300,000+

* Zürich

100,000+

* Basel
Basel
* Bern
Bern
* Geneva
Geneva
* Lausanne
Lausanne
* Winterthur
Winterthur

30,000+

* Bienne * Chur
Chur
* Fribourg
Fribourg
* Köniz * La Chaux-de-Fonds
La Chaux-de-Fonds

.