Al-Azhar University (
* 1952 - Alimiyya degree, College of Usul ad-Din (Religious
Fundamentals of Islam)
* 1958 - Post-Graduate Diploma in Arabic Language Studies, Institute
of Advanced Studies in Arabic Language and Literature
* 1960 - Master’s degree
* 1973 - Ph.D. degree, Department of Quranic Studies at the College
of Usul ad-Din
Hassan al Banna ,
Rashid Al-Ghannushi , M.A.M. Mansoor
King Faisal International Prize (
Saudi Arabia )
Prize of the Islamic University (
Quran Award (
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Prize (
Al-Owais Prize (
Medal of Independence, First Class (
Top 10 in
The 500 Most Influential Muslims , (
United Kingdom ) Top
20 Intellectuals Worldwide by
Foreign Policy magazine , (Washington,
United States )
Al-Qaradawi Center for Islamic Moderation and Renewal
YUSUF AL-QARADAWI (Arabic : يوسف القرضاوي Yūsuf
al-Qaraḍāwī; or Yusuf al-Qardawi; born 9 September 1926) is
Islamic theologian based in Doha, Qatar, and chairman of
International Union of Muslim Scholars . He is best known for his
programme الشريعة والحياة, al-Sharīʿa wa al-Ḥayāh
Sharia and Life"), broadcast on
Al Jazeera , which has an estimated
audience of 40-60 million worldwide. He is also known for
IslamOnline , a website he helped to found in 1997 and for which he
serves as chief religious scholar.
Al-Qaradawi's books can be found worldwide in local bookstores. He
has published more than 120 books, including his famous The Lawful
and the Prohibited in
Islam and Islam: The Future Civilization. He has
also received eight international prizes for his contributions to
Islamic scholarship, and is considered one of the most influential
such scholars living today. Al-Qaradawi has long had a prominent
role within the intellectual leadership of the
Muslim Brotherhood ,
an Egyptian political organization, although he has repeatedly stated
that he is no longer a member and twice (in 1976 and 2004) turned
down offers for the official role in the organization.
Some of al-Qaradawi's views, such as his condoning of Palestinian
suicide bombings against Israelis, have been controversial in the
West: he was refused an entry visa to the
United Kingdom in 2008,
and barred from entering France in 2012.
As of 2004, al-Qaradawi was a trustee of the Oxford Centre for
Islamic Studies . He also served as a consultant scholar for an epic
movie in English on
Muhammad , and a 30-part series on the second
Umar b. al-Khațțāb .
Also in February 2009,
Barrie M. Osborne , producer of
The Matrix and
The Lord of the Rings film trilogies, was attached to produce a new
film about the Islamic Prophet
Muhammad . The film is to be financed
Qatar and will be supervised by al-Qaradawi. The filming only
started in 2015 after rigorous consultations with leading Islamic
scholars for almost 6 years. It is expected to be aired in 2018. The
budget on this film is US$1 billion.
* 1 Biography
* 1.1 2011 return to
* 2 Views and statements
* 2.1 Religious and sectarian views
* 126.96.36.199 Extremism
* 188.8.131.52 Shi\'as
* 2.1.2 Non-Muslims
* 184.108.40.206 Jews
* 220.127.116.11 Views on the
* 2.2 Political views
* 2.2.1 Freedom and democracy
* 2.2.2 Terrorism
* 2.2.3 Israeli-Palestinian conflict
* 2.3 Women, gender and other issues
* 2.3.1 Rape
* 2.3.2 Wife beating
Female genital mutilation
Female genital mutilation (FGM)
* 2.3.4 Female Masturbation
* 2.3.5 Homosexuality
Mawlid (Muhammad\'s Birthday)
* 2.3.10 Organ transplant
* 2.4 Other views
* 3 Reception in the
* 4 Controversy
* 4.1 On Syria and
* 4.2 Entry into western countries
Fatwa controversy with
* 4.4 Alcohol fatwa controversy
* 5 Terrorist allegations
* 6 Personal life
* 7 Awards and recognition
* 8 Books
* 9 Major works
* 10 See also
* 11 Notes
* 12 External links
Al-Qaradawi, during his days at Azhari Institute at
Part of a series on:
Islamic Golden Age
Islamization (of knowledge )
* Gerakan Mujahidin
* Indonesian Mujahedeen
Islamic Courts Union
Islamic Courts Union
* Islamic Defenders
* Islamic democratic political parties
Islamic Liberation Front of Patani
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
* Jamaah Ansharut
Jamaat al Muslimeen
* Reconstruction of Religious Thought in
(Iqbal 1930s )
* Principles of State and Government
(Asad 1961 )
* Ma\'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones")
(Qutb 1965 )
* Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih")
(Khomeini 1970 )
Heads of state
* Mohammad Omar
House of Saud
House of Thani
* Zia ul Haq
* Abul A\'la Maududi
* Yusuf al-Qaradawi
Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani
Ata Abu Rashta
Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī
Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī
Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
Qazi Hussain Ahmad
* Criticism of
Islam and other religions
* Reform movements
* Modernity (Modernism )
Al-Qaradawi was born in 1926 in Saft Turab village in the Nile Delta
, now in
Gharbia Governorate , Egypt, into a poor family of devout
Muslim peasants. He became an orphan at the age of two, when he lost
his father. Following his father's death, he was raised by his uncle.
He read and memorized the entire
Quran by the time he was nine years
He then joined the Institute of Religious Studies at
Tanta , and
graduated after nine years of study. While in Tanta, Al-Qaradawi first
Hassan al Banna , the founder of the
when al Banna gave a lecture at his school. Al-Qaradawi has written of
the lasting impact of this encounter, describing al Banna as
“brilliantly radiating, as if his words were revelation or live
coals from the light of prophecy." He moved on to study Islamic
Theology at the
Al-Azhar University in
Cairo , from which he graduated
in 1953. He earned a diploma in Arabic Language and Literature in 1958
at the Advanced Arabic Studies Institute. He enrolled in the graduate
program in the Department of
Sunnah Sciences of the Faculty
of Religion's Fundamentals (Usul al-Din), and graduated with a
master's degree in Quranic Studies in 1960. In 1962, he was sent by
Al-Azhar University to
Qatar to head the Qatari Secondary Institute of
Religious Studies. He completed his PhD thesis titled Zakah and its
effect on solving social problems in 1973 with First Merit and was
awarded his PhD degree from Al-Azhar.
In 1977, he laid the foundation for the Faculty of Shari\'ah and
Islamic Studies in the
University of Qatar and became the faculty's
dean. In the same year he founded the Centre of Seerah and Sunna
Research. He also served at the Institute of Imams,
the Egyptian Ministry of Religious Endowments as supervisor before
moving back to
Doha as Dean of the Islamic Department at the Faculties
of Shariah and Education in
Qatar , where he continued until 1990.
His next appointment was in Algeria as Chairman of the Scientific
Council of Islamic University and Higher Institutions in 1990–91. He
Qatar once more as Director of the Seerah and Sunnah
Qatar University, a post he still occupies today.
In 1997, Al-Qaradawi helped found the European Council for
Research , a council of important and influential
dedicated to researching and writing fatwas in support of Western
Muslim minority communities based in Ireland, and he serves as its
head. He also serves as the chairman of International Union for
Muslim Scholars (IUMS).
He was imprisoned under King Farouq in 1949, then three times during
the reign of former President
Gamal Abdul Nasser , until he left Egypt
Qatar in 1961. He returned to
Egypt in 2011 in the wake of the
2011 Egyptian Revolution .
Al-Qaradawi is a principal shareholder and former
Sharia adviser to
Bank Al-Taqwa , a member bank of the Lugano-Switzerland Al-Taqwa
group, a bank that the U.S. states finances terrorism and that the UN
Security Council had listed as associated with Al Qaeda. On 2 August
2010, the bank was removed from a list of entities and individuals
associated with Al Qaeda maintained by the Security Council.
Al-Qaradawi finished 3rd in a 2008 poll on who was the world's
leading public intellectual. The poll, Top 100 Public Intellectuals ,
was of the readers of Prospect Magazine (UK) and Foreign Policy
2011 RETURN TO EGYPT
2011 Egyptian Revolution , Qaradawi made his first public
Egypt after 1981. In
Tahrir Square , he led Friday
prayers on 18 February, addressing an audience estimated to exceed two
million Egyptians. It began with an address of "O Muslims and Copts",
referring to Egypt's Coptic Christian minority instead of the
customary opening for Islamic Friday sermons "O Muslims". He was
reported to have said, "Egyptian people are like the genie who came
out of the lamp and who have been in prison for 30 years." He also
demanded the release of political prisoners in Egyptian prisons,
Copts for protecting Muslims in their Friday prayer, and
called for the new military rulers to quickly restore civilian rule.
He referred to Mubarak as a Tyrannical Pharaoh.
On 21 February 2011, he talked about the protests in Libya and issued
a fatwa permitting the killing of
Muammar Gaddafi :
To the officers and the soldiers who are able to kill Muammar
Gaddafi, to whoever among them is able to shoot him with a bullet and
to free the country and servants from him, I issue this fatwa
(uftī): Do it! That man wants to exterminate the people (sha'b). As
for me, I protect the people (sha'b) and I issue this fatwa: Whoever
among them is able to shoot him with a bullet and to free us from his
evil, to free Libya and its great people from the evil of this man and
from the danger of him, let him do so! It is not permissible (lā
yajūzu) to any officer, be he a officer pilot, or a ground forces
officer, or an air forces officer, or any other, it is not permissible
to obey this man within disobedience (ma'ṣiya) , in evil (sharr), in
injustice (ẓulm), in oppression (baghī 'alā) of servants.
He also called on Libyan ambassadors around the world to distance
themselves from Gaddafi's government.
Jerusalem Post ,
Barry Rubin drew a parallel between
Qaradawi's sermon and the
Ayatollah Khomeini returning to
Iran . He
also said that Qaradawi was encouraging the
Muslim Brotherhood to
suppress opposition when he made reference to hypocrites in his
Brookings Institution member Shadi Hamid says that Qaradawi
is in the mainstream of Egyptian society, and that he also has appeal
among Egyptians who are not
Islamist . In the Eurasia Review ,
Princeton University student Aaron Rock dismisses claims that Qaradawi
is the Khomeini of Egypt, but he does see his influence as a sign that
Islam will play a significant role in the shaping of Egypt's politics.
He writes, "Neither Qaradawi's popularity nor his rhetoric should
distract from the fact that Egyptian revolution's grievances were
based on a desire for political liberty and economic opportunity. That
Islam remains an important framework for public debate and a
reservoir of political symbolism."
VIEWS AND STATEMENTS
RELIGIOUS AND SECTARIAN VIEWS
Al-Qaradawi has written on the danger of extremist groups of Islam,
in his dissertation on the subject Islamic Awakening between Rejection
and Extremism. In it he warns of the dangers of blind obedience,
bigotry and intolerance; rigidity—which deprives people of clarity
of vision and the opportunity for dialogue with others; commitment to
excessiveness, including the excessive application of minor or
controversial Islamic issues to people in non-
Muslim countries or to
people who have only recently converted to Islam; harshness in the
treatment of people, roughness in the manner of approach, and
crudeness in calling people to Islam, all which are contrary to the
teachings of the
Qur'an and Sunnah.
On the other hand, Al-Qaradawi himself has been accused of extremism
for denouncing Jews for their "corruption" and describing Adolf Hitler
as having put Jews "in their place". While others believe
Al-Qaradawi is merely "not afraid to state firmly that 'Palestinian
martyr operations are a weapon of the weak'".
Al-Qaradawi has been an avid caller to what he calls "Islamic Sufism
", praising those who practice it as pious.
Al-Qaradawi has described Shi\'ites as innovators (mubtadiʿūn). In
2008 warned of the "Shiitization" of the Middle East, saying Shiite
Muslims were "invading" Sunni societies. In response, the Iranian
Mehr News Agency described Qaradawi as "a spokesman for international
Freemasonry and rabbis". Even fellow members of the International
Muslim Scholars such as
Mohammad Salim Al-Awa criticized
Qaradawi for promoting divisions among Muslims.
In May 2013, al-Qaradawi denounced the
Alawite sect, which many
describe as an offshoot of
Islam and of which President Bashir
al-Assad is a member, as "more infidel than Christians and Jews"
(أكفر من اليهود والنصارى).
However, in 2010, al-Qaradawi met with Shi\'a scholar Ayatollah
Hassan al-Saffar and urged to work their differences and come together
and promote peace and disregard for sectarian strife like what the
hardline are doing to create more dissension and discord between Shi'a
Al-Qaradawi has been a staunch critic of
Wahhabism ). He
says this group stems its roots from
Saudi Arabia and is just
200-years-old since its establishment compared to
Islam which have
existed for over 1,400 years who've lived in peace and harmony with
Christians, Jews and other faiths. He says this group was created by
Saudi Arabia's founder
Ibn Saud together with
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab whom was all from Najd (today
Riyadh ) with the help of British after toppling the legitimate
Islamic Empire of Ottomans which was mainstream Sunni
Islam at that
time and that it also see the oust of Hussein bin Ali (Sharif of
Mecca) who're the original
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques in charge
Makkah 's Al-
Masjid al-Haram and
Al-Masjid an-Nabawi for
over a thousand years since the time of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad
whom is also the Prophet's direct descendant; the
Hashemites , which
now resides and rule over
Jordan which have no natural resources and
regarded as the poorest
Arab countries in the
Middle East . Qaradawi
warns the world that it's Salafist (Wahhabist) that has caused
terrorism all over the world especially groups like Islamic State ,
Boko Haram ,
Taliban , Al-Shabaab ,
Abu Sayyaf and other
similar groups alike. He also said that
exploits from these groups by funding them since the 1970s until the
present-day to pursue their (Western) political agenda in controlling
the vast wealth of oil, gas, coal and mine to further destabilized the
Middle East and beyond. Qaradawi also said that
if more terrorist attacks were to occurred,
Israel will greatly
benefit from it as it will give boosts to the sales of Israeli
security companies and firms to promote their high-tech equipment
globally in both hard and software forms. Qaradawi says the deceitful
evil implications of those countries' complicity with this group is
irreversible and has no end in sight. He compares them (takfiri
groups) to dogs from Hell-fire for using religion to kill the
innocents. He further says that Ash\'aris ,
Maturidis can overcome
their tiny existence. He issued a fatwa (edict) in 2014 denouncing the
Islamic State (Daesh) declaration of "caliphate " and its leader Abu
Bakr al-Baghdadi as "invalid, null and void" from every aspect, every
angle of the Islamic
Sharia Law .
Al-Qaradawi has called for dialogue with Non-Muslims. He also puts
emphasis on conversations with the West, including Jews, Christians,
and secularists . He writes that this effort should differentiate
itself from a debate , for the latter does not often result in mutual
cooperation. Regarding the rights and citizenship of non-Muslim
minorities, Qaradawi has said, "those people who live under the
protection of an Islamic government enjoy special privileges. They are
referred to as 'the Protected People' (dhimmi ) ... In modern
terminology, dhimmies are 'citizens' of the Islamic state. From the
earliest period of
Islam to the present day, Muslims are in unanimous
agreement that they enjoy the same rights and carry the same
responsibilities as Muslims themselves, while being free to practice
their own faiths."
In his book titled The Lawful and the Prohibited in
al-Qaradawi wrote, "
Islam does not prohibit Muslims to be kind and
generous to peoples of other religions, even if they are idolaters and
polytheists, ... it looks upon the People of the Book, that is, Jews
and Christians, with special regard, whether they reside in a Muslim
society or outside it. The
Qur'an never addresses them without saying,
'O People of the Book' or 'O You who have been given the Book',
indicating that they were originally people of a revealed religion.
For this reason there exists a relationship of mercy and spiritual
kinship between them and the Muslims."
In May 2008, al-Qaradawi told visiting Rabbis from the Haredi,
Neturei Karta sect, "there is no enmity between Muslims
and Jews.... Jews who believe in the authentic
Torah are very close to
Muslims." He has also expressed his belief that relations between
Muslims and Jews became strained with the emergence of
Zionism and the
Israel . "Muslims are against the expansionist,
oppressive Zionist movement, not the Jews." Reportedly, in 1998 the
Associated Press quoted al-Qaradawi writing, "There should be no
dialogue with these people except with swords."
In August 2005,
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal reported that the Dublin
European Council for Fatwa and Research , of which al-Qaradhawi
is president, had used the antisemitic Protocols of the Elders of Zion
in its theological deliberations. Al-Qaradawi's remarks were sharply
criticized by the
Anti-Defamation League (ADL), which accused him of
inciting violence against Jews.
In a January 9, 2009 sermon during the Gaza War , shown on Al-Jazeera
, Qaradawi prayed (as translated by
O Allah, take your enemies, the enemies of Islam. O Allah, take the
Jews, the treacherous aggressors. O Allah, take this profligate,
cunning, arrogant band of people. O Allah, they have spread much
tyranny and corruption in the land. Pour Your wrath upon them, O our
God. Lie in wait for them. O Allah, You annihilated the people of
Thamoud (An early pagan
Arab tribe) with an overpowering blast, and
You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale, and You
destroyed the pharaoh and his soldiers – O Allah, take this
oppressive, tyrannical band of people. O Allah, take this oppressive,
Jewish Zionist band of people. O Allah, do not spare a single one of
them. O Allah, count their numbers, and kill them, down to the very
In a sermon broadcast on
Qatar TV on 26 April 2013 (as translated by
MEMRI ), Qaradawi announced that he would not participate in an
inter-faith dialogue if Jews were present, stating, "If you invite the
Jews, I will not participate. I will participate in a Muslim-Christian
meeting, but with the Jews there should be no debate." Qaradawi stated
that there can be "no debate whatsoever with those who have committed
injustice" and "Those Jews have committed clear injustice against us.
They have shed our blood, killed our children, displaced our people,
seized our lands, and usurped our rights." Later in his sermon,
Qaradawi restated: "I cannot be a part of a conference in which
wrongdoing Jews participate. They have committed great injustice, and
I cannot possibly shake hands with them. Their hands are soiled with
blood. They have murderous, violent, and oppressive hands. I cannot
soil my hands by shaking theirs."
Views On The Holocaust
In a statement that aired on
Al-Jazeera TV on 28 January 2009 during
the Gaza War , al-Qaradawi said the following regarding Adolf Hitler
Holocaust (as translated by
Allah has imposed upon the Jews people who would
punish them for their corruption ... The last punishment was carried
out by Hitler. By means of all the things he did to them – even
though they exaggerated this issue – he managed to put them in their
place. This was divine punishment for them....
Allah Willing, the next
time will be at the hand of the believers.
Al-Qaradawi says that apostasy – Muslims leaving
Islam – is a
grave danger to the
Muslim community and that it is the duty of all
Muslims "is to combat apostasy in all its forms and wherefrom it
comes, giving it no chance to pervade in the
With regards to the punishment of apostasy, al-Qaradawi supports the
classical Islamic tradition on some points but differs on others. He
considers execution as a penalty in principle, but the only apostates
that are to be executed are those that combine other crimes with
apostasy (e.g., "incit a war against
Islam "). He also advocates
apostates to be given a chance to repent. Finally, he believes that
"hidden apostasy" (where the apostate does not "proclaim" his
conversion) may be left to the judgement of God in the
While al-Qaradawi believes that the
Muslim community is not allowed
to punish "intellectual apostasy", where the apostates do not
"swagger" about their conversion, he still strongly condemns it. He
says "These people are not noticed when they invade or begin to
disseminate their falsehood, but they are mostly felt when they affect
the minds. They do not use guns in their attacks, however, their
attacks are fierce and cunning." Nevertheless, he concedes, "Erudite
scholars and well versed jurists ... can not take an action in face of
such professional criminals who have firmly established themselves and
have not left a chance for law to be enforced on them."
Freedom And Democracy
Al-Qaradawi has spoken in favor of democracy in the
speaking of a need for reform of political climates in the Middle East
specifically. On 22 February 2011, he held an exclusive interview
with OnIslam.net, dismissing the allegation that he wanted a religious
state established in Egypt: "On the contrary, my speech supported
establishing a civil state with a religious background, I am totally
against theocracy . We are not a state for mullahs ."
September 11 attacks , al-Qaradawi urged Muslims to donate
blood for the victims and said:
Islam, the religion of tolerance, holds the human soul in high
esteem, and considers the attack against innocent human beings a grave
sin; this is backed by the Qur'anic verse that reads: "Who so ever
kills a human being for other than manslaughter or corruption in the
earth, it shall be as if he has killed all mankind, and who so ever
saves the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all
mankind," (Al-Ma'idah:32). The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon
him, is reported to have said, 'A believer remains within the scope of
his religion as long as he doesn't kill another person illegally.'
Islam never allows a
Muslim to kill the innocent and the helpless.
He denies that Palestinian suicide bombing attacks constitute
terrorism, claiming, "when Palestinians face such unjust aggression,
they tend to stem bloodletting and destruction and not to claim the
lives of innocent civilians," but qualifies that with "I do agree with
those who do not allow such martyr operations to be carried out
outside the Palestinian territories."
Al-Qaradawi has suggested the legitimate use of (defensive) suicide
bombings against enemy combatants in modern times if the defending
combatants have no other means of self-defense. The Oxford-based
Malaysian Islamic Scholar,
Afifi al-Akiti , rules that there is no
Islamic legal precedent for this view and that female soldiers can
only be killed in direct combat. With regards to suicide bombings he
says that they are "breaching the scholarly consensus ... because to
endanger one's life is one thing and to commit suicide during the
attack is obviously another". With regards to male soldiers he
states, "It goes without saying that they are considered combatants as
soon as they arrive on the battlefield even if they are not in direct
combat – provided of course that the remaining conventions of war
have been observed throughout, and that all this is during a valid war
when there is no ceasefire ."
Western governments have met al-Qaradawi to request release of
European civilians kidnapped in
Iraq and have thanked him officially,
praising his cooperation. The
French Foreign Minister
French Foreign Minister Michel Barnier
wrote to al-Qaradawi: "With such a clear condemnation of the abduction
of the French hostages you have sent a clear-cut message demonstrating
respect for the tenets of Islam."
Al-Qaradawi condones Palestinian attacks on Israelis only if Israel
continues its oppression and averts peace. A resolution issued by The
Fiqh Council affiliated to the
Muslim World League
in its 14th session, held in
Qatar ) on 11–16 January 2003 has
upheld his views on the matter. Defending bombings against Israeli
civilians, al-Qaradawi told
BBC Newsnight in 2005 that:
* "An Israeli woman is not like women in our societies, because she
is a soldier."
* "I consider this type of martyrdom operation as an evidence of
Allah Almighty is Just; through His infinite Wisdom He has given
the weak a weapon the strong do not have and that is their ability to
turn their bodies into bombs as Palestinians do."
He supports suicide attacks on all Israelis, including women since
he views the Israeli society as a "completely military" society that
did not include any civilians. He also considers pregnant women and
their unborn babies to be valid targets on the ground that the babies
could grow up to join the
Israeli Army .
At the press conference held by the organizations sponsoring his
visit to London, al-Qaradawi reiterated his view that suicide attacks
are a justified form of resistance to Israeli occupation of the
Palestinian Territories . He has also justified his views
by stating that all Israeli civilians are potential soldiers, since
Israel is a "militarized society". Because of these views, al-Qaradawi
has been accused by Western countries and
Israel of supporting
An article wrote by
Michael Slackman from Los Angeles
Times later (
The New York Times
The New York Times ), commenting on suicide bombings
conducted by Palestinians against Israelis al-Qaradawi declared during
an interview with the newspaper Al Raya in April 2001: "They are not
suicide operations. These are heroic martyrdom operations, and the
heroes who carry them out don't embark on this action out of
hopelessness and despair but are driven by an overwhelming desire to
cast terror and fear into the hearts of the oppressors."
Al-Qaradawi is opposed to attacks outside of the Palestinian
Territories and Israel, and against non-Israeli targets. For example,
on 20 March 2005, he condemned a car bombing that had occurred in
Qatar the previous day. One Briton, Jon Adams was killed.
Al-Qaradawi issued a statement that said
Such crimes are committed by insane persons who have no religious
affiliation and play well into the hands of the enemies ... I urge all
Qataris to stand united in facing such an epidemic and uproot it to
nip the infection in the bud, otherwise it will spread like wildfire.
I, in the name of all scholars in Qatar, denounce such a horrendous
crime and pray that it would be the last and implore God to protect
this secure country.
According to IslamOnline, Qaradawi released a fatwa on 14 April 2004
stating boycott of American and Israeli products was an obligation for
all who are able. The fatwa reads in part :
If people ask in the name of religion we must help them. The vehicle
of this support is a complete boycott of the enemies' goods. Each
riyal, dirham ... etc. used to buy their goods eventually becomes
bullets to be fired at the hearts of brothers and children in
Palestine. For this reason, it is an obligation not to help them (the
enemies of Islam) by buying their goods. To buy their goods is to
support tyranny, oppression and aggression. Buying goods from them
will strengthen them; our duty is to make them as weak as we can. Our
obligation is to strengthen our resisting brothers in the Sacred Land
as much as we can. If we cannot strengthen the brothers, we have a
duty to make the enemy weak. If their weakness cannot be achieved
except by boycott, we must boycott them.... American goods, exactly
like "Israeli" goods, are forbidden. It is also forbidden to advertise
America today is a second Israel. It totally supports the
Zionist entity. The usurper could not do this without the support of
America. "Israel's" unjustified destruction and vandalism of
everything has been using American money, American weapons, and the
America has done this for decades without suffering the
consequences of any punishment or protests about their oppressive and
prejudiced position from the Islamic world.
On 8 May 2013, Qaradawi visited Gaza and gave a speech in support of
Hamas . He asked all of the
Palestinian people to work with other Arab
people and Muslims around the world to destroy Israel, saying
inflammatory things such as "Our wish should be that we carry out
Jihad to death" and "We should seek to liberate Palestine, all of
Palestine, inch by inch."
More recently according to The Investigative Project on Terrorism
report wrote by Anti-
Steven Emerson , al-Qaradawi
published a message in Arabic on his website which was translated by
Investigative Project on Terrorism in which he called on Muslims
to join the “greatest battle of liberation” against
against the Jews in general. The preacher allegedly protested the
closure of Temple Mount after the assassination attempt that killed an
Israeli activist, where the third holiest shrine for
Islam is located,
namely Jerusalem’s Al-Aqsa mosque.
Along the same line citing from New York-based
Jewish -run ADL
Anti-Defamation League ) report, in January 24, 2011 al-Qaradawi had
voiced his desire to see Jerusalem conquered in a fatwa in which he
claimed that it was the Muslims’ duty to "defend" Jerusalem with
"their lives, their money and all they pos-sess, or else they will be
subject to Allah's punishment.”
In July 2015, al-Qaradawi argued on the TV show Ala-Masouliyati (I Am
Responsible) that it is permissible for suicide bombers to
self-detonate if requested by a group. Conversely, individuals are
prohibited from carrying out suicide bombings on their own.
On the subject of the
Western Wall , Qaradawi said:
The Jews' claim to Al-Buraq Wall dates back only to recent times. The
longest reign of the Jews lasted for 434 years. Their reign in
Palestine dates back to the times of Kings Saul, David and Solomon.
Solomon's sons split after his decease: Jude headed for Jerusalem
while the state of
Israel was established in Shechem, that is Nablus.
Jewish state in Nablus lasted for 298 years and the former for
434. This is the longest period that the Jews reigned. So those who
claim that they have a long history in
Israel are liars. That history
lasted for only 434 years. The Arabs, on the other hand, have been
present in Palestine since the days of the Jebusites and the
Canaanites, that is 30 centuries before the birth of Christ. Their
history under the umbrella of
Islam lasted for more than 14 centuries
or even longer. Before the advent of Islam, there had been no Jews in
Palestine because since 70 C.E. there had been no trace of Jews or
Israelis in Palestine.
In 2004 the International Union of
Muslim Scholars, an organization
chaired by al-Qaradawi which counts a great number of prominent
individual affiliated to the
Muslim Brotherhood and/or
Hamas among its
members, ruled that “resisting occupation troops in
Iraq is a
‘duty’ on able Muslims in and outside the war-torn country and
that aiding the occupier is impermissible.”
In an address aired on
Qatar TV on 5 January 2007, al-Qaradawi
questioned the trial of
Saddam Hussein under American supervision in
Iraq, but agreed to it if it were conducted by the Iraqi people "after
Iraq from American colonialism". He also suggested that the
trial was "an act of vengeance by the Americans" for his missile
attacks on Israel. He strongly criticized the way Saddam was hanged:
A human soul must be respected. These people did not respect the
human soul. The man was calm and kept his cool. He refused to be
blindfolded, and insisted upon facing death with open eyes.. and said
the two parts of the shahada.... The man died saying: 'There is no God
but Allah'.... Anybody whose last words are 'There is no God but
Allah' goes to Paradise. The thing that improves of
Saddam Hussein is
that in his final years – as the brothers in
Iraq tell us – he was
a changed man. He began to strictly observe the prayers, to read the
Quran, and to do charitable work. He would hasten to do anything that
may help people. He would help build mosques, and would say that if
anybody wants to build a mosque, the government should pay half the
cost of the building materials. When they entered his secret hideout
and caught him, they found a prayer carpet and an open Quran.
In 2006, in response to
Abdullah Ibn Jibreen 's fatwa
declaring that it was forbidden for Muslims to support or pray for
Hezbollah because they are
Shia , al-Qaradawi said that supporting
Hezbollah is a religious duty for all Muslims and that resistance,
whether in Palestine or Lebanon, is the most noble act. He added
"Shias agree with the Sunnis in the main principles of
Islam while the
differences are only over the branches" and also called upon the
Iraq to end the civil war.
Seven years later, during the Syrian Civil War, Qaradawi urged all
Sunnis to fight Hezbollah, attacking Hezbollah's leader Hassan
Iran : "The leader of the Party of Satan comes to fight
the Sunnis.... Now we know what the Iranians want.... They want
continued massacres to kill Sunnis." Qaradawi also stated that he now
regretted having advocated rapprochement between Sunnis and Shias and
his 2006 defense of Hezbollah.
Qaradawi declared his support for the rebels led by the National
Transitional Council in the
2011 Libyan civil war
2011 Libyan civil war , urging Arab
nations to recognize them and "to confront the tyranny of the regime
in Tripoli". He suggested weapons be sent to the rebels to assist the,
and said "Our Islamic nation should stand against injustice and
corruption and I urge the Egyptian government to extend a helping hand
to Libyan people and not to Gaddafi."
In response to the
2011 Bahrain protests , Qaradawi was reluctant to
give support: "The protests in Bahrain are sectarian in nature. The
Shias are revolting against the Sunnis." He claimed that Shia
protesters attack Sunnis and occupied their mosques. He acknowledged
Shia majority had legitimate concerns in regards to fairness
with the Sunnis: "I want them to be real citizens of their country."
Qaradawi said that all Arabs should back up the protesters in the
2011 Syrian uprising , saying "Today the train of revolution has
reached a station that it had to reach: The Syria station," and "It is
not possible for Syria to be separated from the history of the Arab
community." He declared his support for the protests against what he
called Syria's "oppressive regime", claiming "atrocities" were
committed by it. He called for victory against the ruling Ba'ath party
and claimed the army would be the major factor in the revolt. He
claimed that when he offered to mediate negotiations between the
Muslim Brotherhood and the Syrian government, someone deliberately
sabotaged it. Qaradawi also expressed his support for the No Fly zone
put in place by western nations over Libya , saying "The operation in
Libya is to protect the civilians from Gaddafi's tyranny" and slamming
Arab League leader
Amr Moussa for criticism of it.
WOMEN, GENDER AND OTHER ISSUES
Commenting on the role women played in social active issues:
Although over sixty years have passed since the Movement emerged into
existence, no women leaders have appeared that can confront secular
Marxist trends single-handedly and efficiently. This has come
about as a result of men's unrelenting attempts to control women's
movement, as men have never allowed women a real chance to express
themselves and show special leadership talents and abilities that
demonstrate their capability of taking command of their work without
I believe that women's Islamic work will succeed and prove itself in
the arena of the Islamic Movement only when it gives birth to female
Islamic leaders in the fields of Call, thought, science, literature
Accordingly, women as well as men can dedicate themselves to Allah,
and play a role in jihad.
I do not think that this is impossible or even difficult. There are
genius women just as there are genius men. Ingenuity is not a monopoly
for men. It is not in vain that the Holy
Quran tells us the story of a
woman who led men wisely and bravely and made her people fare the best
end: it is the
Queen of Sheba , whose story with
Solomon is told in
Surat Al Naml . I have observed in the
University of Qatar that girls
make better students than boys.
The Daily Telegraph reported that
IslamOnline was asked the
following question "Are raped women punished in Islam?", and a panel
headed by Qaradawi replied: "To be absolved from guilt, the raped
woman must have shown some sort of good conduct....
women to maintain their modesty, as not to open the door for evil....
The Koran calls upon
Muslim women in general to preserve their dignity
and modesty, just to save themselves from any harassment.... So for a
rape victim to be absolved from guilt, she must not be the one that
opens ... her dignity for deflowering."
Officials from IslamOnline.net, however, denied that al-Qaradawi
wrote the answer and reported that the article by the Sunday Telegraph
was challenged by the
Muslim Association of Britain , who also
believed the article falsely attributed the comments to al-Qaradawi
and was part of a "right-wing media" attempt to "stoke up the flames
of hate" against al-Qaradawi. They demanded that The Telegraph issue a
full apology as well as the resignation of the two writers of the
The Guardian that wife beating was neither
"obligatory nor desirable" but that he "accepts it as a method of last
resort – though only lightly". He stated on Channel 4 News that it
was justifiable in certain circumstances but the "ideal was for
Muslim men never to beat their wives, and if husbands wrongly beat
their wives, they have the right to fight back". The British
The Daily Telegraph writes that al-Qaradawi, in his book The
Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, states that wife-beating is
permissible after the failure of all other means of persuasion. In
such circumstances, a husband may beat his wife "lightly with his
hands, avoiding her face and other sensitive areas".
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
Qaradawi says female genital mutilation surgery is forbidden in
Islam. He calls on ending and banned to Female Circumcision in some
parts of the
Muslim world, especially in rural Africa where most still
practice it. His views was supported by Sheikhs in Al-Azhar .
Qaradawi urged women to not masturbate and elaborated that its
dangerous to stick things into the vagina.
On 5 June 2006, on the
Al Jazeera program
Sharia and Life,
al-Qaradawi (a regular on the program) reiterated orthodox views on
homosexuality. When asked about the punishment for people who
"practise liwaat (sodomy) or sihaaq (lesbian activity)", al-Qaradawi
replied: "The same punishment as any sexual pervert – the same as
the fornicator." (
MEMRI translation). The punishment for fornication
is lashing .
In an interview with
Der Spiegel , Qaradawi said that his attitude
towards homosexuality is the same as that found in Christianity. In
the interview he stated, "One year ago, there was a demonstration
against me in
London because I spoke out against homosexuality. People
seem to have forgotten that it wasn't me who came up with this
mindset. It's part of God's order spoken of by Moses and even
mentioned by Jesus."
Islam progresses with
Science , there are rigorous
scholarly debates among the Islamic School of Law (
Fiqh ) as to
LGBT are define by genetic disorders and that it may be
permissible or not for those who're scientifically-medically-proven to
be part of the
LGBT category as with hermaphrodite denoting whether a
person is incline towards the naturality of female or male instinct.
Mukhannathun (Transgender), in which there are many prophetic
Hadith that allows male who have inclinations towards being female
(effeminate) that occurred during the Islamic prophet Muhammad's time
and that they were accepted as part of the larger community in Madinah
having equal rights. Qaradawi is one of many among the leading
Islamic scholars who's in this ongoing debate.
Al-Qaradawi calls "stoning " un-Islamic for it has nothing to do with
Islam at all but laws made by the religion of
Judaism ; Jewish
Religious Laws. He says there are more than dozens of verses in the
Torah that support stoning for adulterers, fornicators,
and for many other reasons.
Al-Qaradawi says that honor killing is a tradition that was carried
out thousands of years ago by ancient civilization; the Romans , the
Dark Ages , Chinese Emperors , etc. He says, it has nothing to do with
Islam; neither Qur\'an nor
Hadith ). He calls on
those who done it to be punishable with death for their crime; a life
for a life.
Mawlid (Muhammad\'s Birthday)
Al-Qaradawi fully supports and advocates
Mawlid . He says that to
used the birth date of
Muhammad in remembrance of his life story is
not Bid\'ah (Innovation). In fact it's encourage in
Islam to do good
action (Man Sanna Sunnatun Hassanah) based on a Sahih Hadith. And that
Allah (God) himself have said in Al-Qur'an, Chapter 21, Verse 107:
"And We have not sent you, , except for mercy (rahmah) to all
— Al-Qur\'an , 21:107
Al-Qaradawi explains that
Allah (God) is talking about Muhammad's
miracle birth as the verse mentions "sent you". In other words, his
presence, his birth, his coming. A "mercy" (rahmah) to the worlds.
Means mercy to all mankind. It means everything; all of his creations
"Whoever starts a good action (sunnah) in Islam. He will be rewarded
for his actions as well as getting the reward of those who've followed
it successively until the
Day of Judgment ."
Muhammad , narrated by Sahih
Hadith no. 1017
It's in this Sahih
Dr. Yusuf al-Qaradawi
emphasizes that GOOD INNOVATIVE ACTIONS is strongly encouraged for as
long as it doesn't goes against the
Sharia (Islamic Law). What more
involving religion itself than worldly good deeds like holding an old
person's hand while crossing the road guiding him/her to safety and
many more. It's encouraging for both. He says these is the true
meaning and emphasis of Islam, to be the religion of mercy (rahmah)
and to do more good than just good so that others may lead by our good
examples and that they may successively follows them till End of Time
Al-Qaradawi says that
Niqab (Veil) is not obligatory in Islam. He has
pointed out that a woman's face is not an Awrah . He calls those who
don the Niqabs as following tradition and culture before
Islam came to
Arabia. Those people, be it male or female at that time had to cover
their faces from dusty desert and from inhaling dust especially during
sandstorm . Al-Azhar 's Grand Imam, also an Egyptian Grand Mufti
Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy have also called out that
nothing to do with Islam.
At the same time Qaradawi issued a fatwa (edict) that organ
transplant from living to a living person is permissible in
through donation as donation is considered charity. As for a dead
person, only when the brain stops, the transplant can then be carried
In April 2008, at a conference in
Qatar titled "Mecca: the Center of
the Earth, Theory and Practice", al-Qaradawi advocated the
Mecca Time to replace the
Greenwich Meridian as the
basis of the world time zone system. Muhammed Cartoon Controversy
Al-Qaradawi called for a "Day of Anger" over the cartoons , but
condemned violent actions in response to them.
Al-Qaradawi is one of the
Ulama signatories of the
Amman Message ,
which gives a broad foundation for defining
Muslim orthodoxy. Salman
Al-Qaradawi said, "Rushdie disgraced the honor of the Prophet and his
family and defiled the values of Islam," but he never backed the fatwa
calling for his death.
In 1997, Qaradawi's affiliation with the
Muslim Brotherhood led to
his expulsion from Egypt, a country where this organisation was at the
Al-Qaradawi was a follower of
Hasan al-Banna during his youth and a
longtime member of the
Muslim Brotherhood . He has twice turned down
offers to be its leader. In an interview on the Dream channel ,
al-Qaradawi states the following about his relationship with the
Muslim Brotherhood (MB):
I joined the
Muslim Brotherhood Group and worked with Imam al-Banna.
I was influenced by al-Banna's moderate thoughts and principles ...
(Later) MB asked me to be a chairman, but I preferred to be a
spiritual guide for the entire nation.... MB consider me their Mufti,
but I don't have a relation with the organization, because being an MB
chairman is something difficult requiring a highly sophisticated
wisdom, and I prefer to be devoted to the entire nation, and I feel
comfortable with this decision. I like MB and consider them the
nearest group to be righteous.
On May 16, 2015 al-Qaradawi has been sentenced to death in absentia
by an Egyptian court along with the ousted President
Mohamed Morsi and
over 100 other Egyptians affiliated with the
Muslim Brotherhood. As
reported by the Interpol website, Qaradawi is wanted by the judicial
Egypt for “Agreement, incitement and assistance to
commit intentional murder, helping the prisoners to escape, arson,
vandalism and theft.” Reality TV
Qaradawi has criticised reality TV programs, saying that the aim of
these is to 'mislead the nation'.
RECEPTION IN THE MUSLIM WORLD
Al-Qaradawi, a forefront of contemporary
Muslim thinkers and
scholars. His vast contributions include more than 80 books and
hundreds of articles on different Islamic issues, ranging from the
fundamental principles and laws of
Islam to the needs and challenges
Muslim societies. His knowledge, intellect, moderation and
unrelenting efforts to bring
Islam to a larger audience have gained
him the respect of millions of Muslims and non-Muslims worldwide. His
famous Television program Ash-Shariah wal-Hayat (
Sharia and Life) has
an estimated 700-800 million viewers worldwide.
Despite his fame. In 2012, Qardawi traded barbs with fellow Muslim
Abu Abd al-Rahman Ibn Aqil al-Zahiri due to what Ibn Aqil
perceived as hypocritical positions of Qardawi during the
, a charge he denied.
Muhammad Taqi Usmani stated, "There is no doubt
that I—as the lowest student of Islamic
Fiqh —with my benefitting
from the books of the outstanding Dr al-Qaradāwī to a very large
extent, and my supreme wonderment at the majority of , have found
myself, in some particular issues, not in agreement with him in the
results that he has arrived at, but these sorts of differences
(ikhtilāf) in views based on juristic judgement (ijtihādī) are
natural, and cannot be the basis for judging so long as the people
of knowledge do not deem to be weak intellectually, or in religion,
and the importance of these books and their value in scholarship and
da'wa are not affected by this to even the slightest, most
In addition, he refers to some modern scholars by writing, "What we
see today, very unfortunately, is that the one who brings forward
elevated ideas in his writings and lofty theories in his speech and
his sermons often does not rise above the level of the layman" but
exempts Qardawi by saying, "As for the outstanding, erudite scholar,
Dr Yūsuf al-Qaradāwī, may God (Most High) preserve him, God (Most
High) has indeed made me fortunate enough to accompany him in travels
and in residence, and sit with him and closely associate with him in
long and repeated meetings. I found him manifest in his personality
exemplary Islamic qualities, for he is a human being before he is a
Muslim, and a devoted
Muslim before he is a caller to
and a caller to
Islam before he is a scholar and jurist."
The Doğu Türkistan Bülteni Haber Ajansı, which supports the
Turkistan Islamic Party , attacked
Yusuf al-Qaradawi and called his
creed “perverted” and claimed that he was followed by
“democratic polytheists”. Qaradawi was attacked by Hani
ON SYRIA AND RUSSIA
Qaradawi stated that
Russia is an "enemy of Islam" due to the
country's military relations with the Syrian regime.
His remarks drew harsh criticism from Muslims in Russia. According to
Ramzan Kadyrov , "Qaradawi's statements had given
rise to amazement among the Muslims of Russia." Kadyrov asserted that
Qaradawi's statements are mainly "directed against the Muslims of
Russia , who are citizens of this country, were born here and live
here, and who care about their country".
Kadyrov claimed that "It is not
Russia that is supplying weapons and
money for the thousands of mercenaries from all over the world who
have flooded Syria and are committing daily terrorist attacks, in
which the blood of women, old people and children is shed,"
ENTRY INTO WESTERN COUNTRIES
Al-Qaradawi has been banned from entering the
United States since
1999 and the
United Kingdom since 2008, though he visited
2004. The lobby group
MEMRI said it helped play a role in the
measures. In July 2003, he visited
Stockholm , Sweden, for a
conference at the
Stockholm Mosque arranged by the
of Sweden . During the conference al-Qaradawi expressed his support
for suicide attacks against Israeli civilians, calling the fight
against the Israeli occupation of the
Palestinian Territories a
"necessary Jihad". France announced in March 2012 it will not let him
FATWA CONTROVERSY WITH MEMRI
Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) (citing Asharq
Al-Awsat ), alleges that al-Qaradawi issued a
Fatwa following the
Iraqi insurgency , saying,
All of the Americans in
Iraq are combatants, there is no difference
between civilians and soldiers, and one should fight them, since the
American civilians came to
Iraq in order to serve the occupation. The
abduction and killing of Americans in
Iraq is a obligation so as to
cause them to leave
Iraq immediately. The mutilation of corpses is
forbidden in Islam.
Al-Qaradawi, however, denies this allegation:
I have not published a
Fatwa on this issue. At the Egyptian
Journalists' Union a few days ago I was asked about the permissibility
of fighting against the occupation in Iraq, and I answered that it is
permitted. Afterwards I was asked concerning the American civilians in
Iraq and I merely responded with the question – are there American
civilians in Iraq? It is a matter of common knowledge that in Fatwas
such as these I do not use the word "killing" but rather I say
"struggle", which is a more comprehensive word than the word "killing"
and whose meaning is not necessarily to kill. In addition, I have
condemned the taking of hostages on a number of occasions in the past
and have demanded that they be released and that their lives not be
Shaker Al-Nabulsi , a former
Muslim who writes for the liberal site
Ethal, called for the creation of a petition to the UN calling to put
Qaradawi and his like on trial for incitement and support of
ALCOHOL FATWA CONTROVERSY
Al-Qaradawi issued a fatwa in 2008 stating that the consumption of
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