(Russian: Ю́рий Алексе́евич
Гага́рин[note 1], IPA: [ˈjʉrʲɪj
ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ ɡɐˈɡarʲɪn]; 9 March 1934 – 27 March
1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He was the first human to
journey into outer space when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit
on 12 April 1961.
became an international celebrity and was awarded many medals
and titles, including Hero of the Soviet Union, the nation's highest
marked his only spaceflight, but he served as backup
crew to the
mission (which ended in a fatal crash). Gagarin
later became deputy training director of the
outside Moscow, which was later named after him.
died in 1968
when the MiG-15 training jet he was piloting crashed. The Fédération
Aéronautique Internationale awards the
Yuri A. Gagarin Gold Medal
Yuri A. Gagarin Gold Medal
1 Early life and education
2 Soviet Air Force
3 Soviet space program
3.1 Selection and training
3.2 Vostok 1
4 After the Soviet space program
5.1 Cause of jet crash
6 Personal life
7 Legacy and tributes
7.2.1 50th anniversary
7.3 Honours and awards
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Early life and education
Gagarin was born in the village of Klushino, near Gzhatsk
Gagarin in 1968 after his death), on 9 March 1934. His
parents worked on a collective farm: Alexey Ivanovich
Gagarin as a
carpenter and bricklayer, and Anna Timofeyevna Gagarina as a
milkmaid.[note 2] Yuri was the third of four children: older
brother Valentin, older sister Zoya, and younger brother Boris.
Like millions of people in the Soviet Union, the
suffered during Nazi occupation in World War II.
Klushino was occupied
in November 1941 during the German advance on Moscow, and an officer
took over the
Gagarin residence. The family was allowed to build a mud
hut, approximately 3 by 3 metres (10 by 10 ft) inside, on the
land behind their house, where they spent a year and nine months until
the end of the occupation. His two older siblings were deported by
the Germans to Poland for slave labour in 1943, and did not return
until after the war in 1945. In 1946, the family moved to
Gagarin continued his secondary education.
Gagarin entered into an apprenticeship at age 16 as a
foundryman at the
Lyubertsy Steel Plant near Moscow, and also
enrolled at a local "young workers" school for seventh grade evening
classes. After graduating in 1951 from both the seventh grade and
the vocational school with honours in moldmaking and foundry work,
he was selected for further training at the
Technical School, where he studied tractors. While in
Gagarin volunteered for weekend training as a Soviet air
cadet at a local flying club, where he learned to fly — at first in
a biplane and later in a Yak-18 trainer. He also earned extra
money as a part-time dock laborer on the Volga River.
Soviet Air Force
Valentina Gagarina, Sima Eivazova and Yuri
Bulgaria in 1966
After graduating from the technical school in 1955, the Soviet Army
drafted Gagarin. On a recommendation,
Gagarin was sent to the First
Chkalov Air Force Pilot's School in Orenburg, and soloed in a MiG-15
in 1957. After graduation, he was assigned to the Luostari
airbase in Murmansk Oblast, close to the Norwegian border, where
terrible weather made flying risky. He became a
Lieutenant in the
Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Air Forces on 5 November 1957; on 6 November 1959 he received
the rank of Senior Lieutenant.
Soviet space program
Selection and training
See also: Vostok programme
In 1960, after an extensive search and selection process,
chosen with 19 other pilots for the Soviet space program.
further selected for an elite training group known as the Sochi Six,
from which the first cosmonauts of the
Vostok programme would be
Gagarin and other prospective candidates were subjected to
experiments designed to test physical and psychological endurance; he
also underwent training for the upcoming flight. Out of the twenty
selected, the eventual choices for the first launch were
Gherman Titov due to their performance during training sessions as
well as their physical characteristics — space was limited in
the small Vostok cockpit, and both men were rather short.
1.57 metres (5 ft 2 in) tall.
In August 1960, when
Gagarin was one of 20 possible candidates, a
Soviet Air Force doctor evaluated his personality as follows:
Modest; embarrasses when his humor gets a little too racy; high degree
of intellectual development evident in Yuriy; fantastic memory;
distinguishes himself from his colleagues by his sharp and far-ranging
sense of attention to his surroundings; a well-developed imagination;
quick reactions; persevering, prepares himself painstakingly for his
activities and training exercises, handles celestial mechanics and
mathematical formulae with ease as well as excels in higher
mathematics; does not feel constrained when he has to defend his point
of view if he considers himself right; appears that he understands
life better than a lot of his friends.
Gagarin was also a favoured candidate by his peers. When the 20
candidates were asked to anonymously vote for which other candidate
they would like to see as the first to fly, all but three chose
Gagarin. One of these candidates, Yevgeny Khrunov, believed that
Gagarin was very focused, and was demanding of himself and others when
Gagarin kept physically fit throughout his life, and was a keen
Valery Bykovsky wrote:
Service in the Air Force made us strong, both physically and morally.
All of us cosmonauts took up sports and PT seriously when we served in
the Air Force. I know that Yuri
Gagarin was fond of ice hockey. He
liked to play goal keeper... I don't think I am wrong when I say that
sports became a fixture in the life of the cosmonauts.
In addition to being a keen ice hockey player,
Gagarin was also a
basketball fan, and coached the
Saratov Industrial Technical School
team, as well as being a referee.
Main article: Vostok 1
On 12 April 1961, the Vostok 3KA-3 (Vostok 1) spacecraft with Gagarin
aboard was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome.
Gagarin thus became both
the first human to travel into space, and the first to orbit the
Earth. His call sign was Kedr (Russian: Кедр, Siberian pine or
Problems playing this file? See media help.
The radio communication between the launch control room and Gagarin
included the following dialogue at the moment of rocket launch:
Korolev: "Preliminary stage..... intermediate..... main..... lift off!
We wish you a good flight. Everything is all right."
Gagarin: "Поехали!" (Poyekhali!—Let's go!).
Gagarin's informal poyekhali! became a historical phrase in the
Eastern Bloc, used to refer to the beginning of the
Space Age in human
In his post-flight report,
Gagarin recalled his experience of
spaceflight, having been the first human in space:
The feeling of weightlessness was somewhat unfamiliar compared with
Earth conditions. Here, you feel as if you were hanging in a
horizontal position in straps. You feel as if you are suspended.
Vostok I capsule on display at the RKK Energiya museum
Following the flight,
Gagarin told the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev
that during reentry he had whistled the tune "The Motherland Hears,
The Motherland Knows" (Russian: "Родина слышит,
Родина знает"). The first two lines of the song
are: "The Motherland hears, the Motherland knows/Where her son flies
in the sky". This patriotic song was written by Dmitri
Shostakovich in 1951 (opus 86), with words by Yevgeniy Dolmatovsky.
Some sources have claimed that
Gagarin commented during the flight, "I
don't see any God up here." However, no such words appear in the
verbatim record of his conversations with Earth-based stations during
the spaceflight. In a 2006 interview, Gagarin's friend Colonel
Valentin Petrov stated that the cosmonaut never said such words, and
that the quote originated from Nikita Khrushchev's speech at the
plenum of the
Central Committee of the CPSU
Central Committee of the CPSU about the state's
anti-religion campaign, saying "
Gagarin flew into space, but didn't
see any god there." Petrov also said that
Gagarin had been
baptised into the
Orthodox Church as a child, and a 2011 Foma magazine
article quoted the rector of the Orthodox church in Star City saying,
Gagarin baptized his elder daughter Yelena shortly before his space
flight; and his family used to celebrate Christmas and Easter and keep
icons in the house."
After the Soviet space program
Gagarin's flight was a triumph for the Soviet space program. The
announcement on the Soviet radio was made by Yuri Levitan, the same
speaker who announced all major events in the Great Patriotic War.
Gagarin became a national hero of the
Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc,
and a worldwide celebrity. Newspapers around the globe published his
biography and details of his flight.
Moscow and other cities in the
USSR held mass demonstrations, the scale of which was second only to
World War II
World War II Victory Parades.
Gagarin was escorted in a long motorcade
of high-ranking officials through the streets of
Moscow to the Kremlin
where, in a lavish ceremony, he was awarded the title of Hero of the
Soviet Union, by Nikita Khrushchev.
Gagarin in Warsaw, 1961
Gagarin toured widely abroad. He visited Italy, Germany,
Canada, Brazil, Japan, Egypt and Finland to promote the Soviet
Union's accomplishment of putting the first human in space. He visited
the United Kingdom three months after the
Vostok 1 mission, going to
London and Manchester.
The sudden rise to fame took its toll on Gagarin. While acquaintances
Gagarin had been a "sensible drinker", his touring schedule placed
him in social situations where he was always expected to drink.
Gagarin was also reportedly caught by his wife in a room with another
woman, a nurse named Anna who had aided him after a boating incident
earlier in the day, at a Black Sea resort in September 1961. He
attempted to escape by leaving through a window and jumping off her
second floor balcony, hitting his face on a kerbstone and leaving a
permanent scar above his left eyebrow.
In 1962, he began serving as a Deputy to the Soviet of the Union,
and was elected to the Central Committee of the Young Communist
League. He later returned to Star City, the cosmonaut facility, where
he spent several years working on designs for a reusable spacecraft.
He became a lieutenant colonel of the
Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Air Forces on 12 June
1962, and received the rank of colonel on 6 November 1963. Soviet
officials tried to keep him away from any flights, being worried of
losing their hero in an accident.
Gagarin was backup pilot for his
Vladimir Komarov in the
Soyuz 1 flight, which was launched
despite Gagarin's protests that additional safety precautions were
necessary. When Komarov's flight ended in a fatal crash, Gagarin
was permanently banned from training for and participating in further
On 20 December 1963,
Gagarin had become Deputy Training Director of
the Star City cosmonaut training base. Two years later he was
re-elected as a deputy to the SSSU, but this time to the Soviet of
Nationalities. Next year he began to re-qualify as a fighter
pilot. On 17 February 1968 he successfully defended his aerospace
engineering thesis on the subject of spaceplane aerodynamic
configuration, passing with flying colors.
Plaque indicating Gagarin's interment in the Kremlin Wall
On 27 March 1968, while on a routine training flight from Chkalovsky
Air Base, he and flight instructor
Vladimir Seryogin died in a
MiG-15UTI crash near the town of Kirzhach. The bodies of
Seryogin were cremated and the ashes were buried in the walls of the
Kremlin on Red Square.
Gagarin is survived by his wife Valentina, and daughters Yelena and
Cause of jet crash
The cause of the crash that killed
Gagarin is not entirely certain,
and has been subject to speculation about conspiracy theories over the
Soviet documents declassified in March 2003 showed that the
conducted their own investigation of the accident, in addition to one
government and two military investigations. The KGB's report dismissed
various conspiracy theories, instead indicating that the actions of
airbase personnel contributed to the crash. The report states that an
air traffic controller provided
Gagarin with outdated weather
information, and that by the time of his flight, conditions had
deteriorated significantly. Ground crew also left external fuel tanks
attached to the aircraft. Gagarin's planned flight activities needed
clear weather and no outboard tanks. The investigation concluded that
Gagarin's aircraft entered a spin, either due to a bird strike or
because of a sudden move to avoid another aircraft. Because of the
out-of-date weather report, the crew believed their altitude to be
higher than it actually was, and could not react properly to bring the
MiG-15 out of its spin.
Another theory, advanced by the original crash investigator in 2005,
hypothesizes that a cabin air vent was accidentally left open by the
crew or the previous pilot, leading to oxygen deprivation and leaving
the crew incapable of controlling the aircraft. A similar theory,
published in Air & Space magazine, is that the crew detected the
open vent and followed procedure by executing a rapid dive to a lower
altitude. This dive caused them to lose consciousness and crash.
On 12 April 2007, the Kremlin vetoed a new investigation into the
death of Gagarin. Government officials said that they saw no reason to
begin a new investigation.
A Russian MiG-15UTI, the same type as
Gagarin was flying
In April 2011, documents from a 1968 commission set up by the Central
Committee of the Communist Party to investigate the accident were
declassified. Those documents revealed that the commission's original
conclusion was that
Gagarin or Seryogin had maneuvered sharply either
to avoid a weather balloon, leading the jet into a "super-critical
flight regime and to its stalling in complex meteorological
conditions," or to avoid "entry into the upper limit of the first
layer of cloud cover".
In his 2004 book Two Sides of the Moon, Alexey Leonov, who was part of
a State Commission established to investigate the death in 1968,
recounts that he was flying a helicopter in the same area that day
when he heard "two loud booms in the distance." Corroborating other
theories, his conclusion is that a Sukhoi jet (which he identifies as
a Su-15 'Flagon') was flying below its minimum allowed altitude, and
"without realizing it because of the terrible weather conditions, he
passed within 10 or 20 meters of Yuri and Seregin's plane while
breaking the sound barrier." The resulting turbulence would have sent
the MiG into an uncontrolled spin. Leonov believes the first boom he
heard was that of the jet breaking the sound barrier, and the second
was Gagarin's plane crashing. In a June 2013 interview with
Russian television network RT, Leonov said that a declassified report
on the incident revealed the presence of a second, "unauthorized"
Su-15 flying in the area. Leonov states that this aircraft had
descended to 450 metres (1,480 ft) and that, while running
afterburners, "the aircraft reduced its echelon at a distance of
10–15 meters in the clouds, passing close to Gagarin, turning his
plane and thus sending it into a tailspin – a deep spiral, to be
precise – at a speed of 750 kilometers per hour." As a condition of
being allowed to discuss the report, however, Leonov was required to
not disclose the name of the other pilot, who was reported to be 80
years old (as of 2013) and in poor health.
In 1957, while at the First Chkalov Air Force Pilot's School in
Gagarin met Valentina Ivanovna Goryacheva, a medical
technician graduate of the
Orenburg Medical School. They were
married on 7 November 1957, the same day
Gagarin graduated from
Orenburg, and they have two daughters.
Yelena Yurievna Gagarina is an art historian who has worked as the
Director-General of the
Moscow Kremlin Museums since 2001.
Galina Yurievna Gagarina is a professor of economics and the
department chair at
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics in
Legacy and tributes
Aside from his short stature at 1.57 metres (5 ft 2 in), one
of Gagarin's most notable traits was his smile. Many commented on
how Gagarin's smile gained the attention of crowds on the frequent
tours he did in the months after the
Vostok 1 mission success.
Gagarin also garnered a reputation as an adept public figure. When he
Manchester in the United Kingdom, it was pouring rain.
Gagarin insisted that the convertible top remain down so that
the cheering crowds could catch a glimpse of him.
Gagarin stated, "If
all these people have turned out to welcome me and can stand in the
rain, so can I."
Gagarin refused an umbrella and remained standing in
Bentley so that the cheering crowds could still see
Sergei Korolev, one of the masterminds behind the early years of the
Soviet space program, later said that
Gagarin possessed a smile "that
lit up the Cold War".
Russian Rouble commemorating
Gagarin in 2001
Gagarin statue in London, near
Admiralty Arch (now in Greenwich)
John Glenn panel and Yuri
Gagarin statue in Houston, at the former
NASA office on Wayside Drive
12 April, the date of Gagarin's space flight, has been commemorated as
a special date. Since 1962, it has been celebrated in the
later in Russia and other post-Soviet states as the Cosmonautics Day.
In 2011 it was declared the
International Day of Human Space Flight by
the United Nations.
Since 2001, Yuri's Night, an international celebration, is held every
12 April to commemorate milestones in space exploration.
A number of buildings and other sites on
Earth have been named for
Cosmonaut Training Center in Star City was named in 1969.
The launch pad at
Baikonur Cosmodrome from which
Sputnik 1 and Vostok
1 were launched, is now known as Gagarin's Start.
Gagarin Raion in the
Sevastopol city (Ukraine) was named after him during the period of the
Soviet Union. The Air Force Academy was renamed
Gagarin Air Force
Academy in 1968.
Gagarin has been honored on the
Moon by both astronauts and
astronomers. He was honored by the American space program during
Apollo 11 in 1969 when astronauts
Neil Armstrong and
Buzz Aldrin left
a memorial satchel containing medals commemorating
Gagarin and fellow
Vladimir Komarov on the surface. In 1971, Apollo 15
David Scott and
James Irwin left the
Fallen Astronaut at
their landing site as a memorial to all the American astronauts and
Soviet cosmonauts who died in the Space Race, with Yuri
among 14 others. He is memorialized by the official naming of
a 265 km crater on the Far Side after him.
Several statues have been erected in his honor.
On 4 June 1980, a monument to
Gagarin was opened on
Gagarin Square in
Leninsky Avenue, Moscow. The monument is 42.4 m tall and constructed
of titanium. Beside the column is a replica of the descent module used
In 2011 a statue, Yuri Gagarin, was unveiled at the
Admiralty Arch end
of The Mall in London, opposite the permanent sculpture of James Cook.
It is a copy of the statue outside Gagarin's former school in
Lyubertsy. In 2013 the statue was moved to a permanent location
outside the Royal Observatory in Greenwich.
In 2012, a statue was unveiled at the site of NASA's original
spaceflight headquarters on South Wayside Drive in Houston. The
sculpture, completed in 2011 by artist/cosmonaut Alexsei Leonov, was a
Houston by various Russian organisations.
Houston Mayor Annise
Parker, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, and Russian Ambassador
Sergey Kislyak were present for the dedication.
Gagarin is memorialized in music, including a cycle of Soviet
patriotic songs The Constellation
Gagarin (Russian: Созвездье
Гагарина, tr. Sozvezdie Gagarina) was written by Alexandra
Nikolai Dobronravov in 1970–1971. The most famous
of these songs referred to Gagarin's poyekhali!: He said "let's go!"
He waved his hand. He was the inspiration for the pieces "Hey
Jean Michel Jarre
Jean Michel Jarre (on Métamorphoses), "Gagarin" by Public
Service Broadcasting, and "Gagarin, I loved you" by Undervud.
Vessels have been named for him. Soviet tracking ship Kosmonavt Yuri
Gagarin was built in 1971. Armenian airline
Armavia named their first
Sukhoi Superjet 100
Sukhoi Superjet 100 in Gagarin's honour in 2011.
There were two commemorative coins issued in the
Soviet Union to
honour the 20th and 30th anniversaries of his flight: 1 ruble coin
(1981, copper-nickel) and 3 ruble coin (1991, silver). In 2001, to
commemorate the 40th anniversary of Gagarin's flight, a series of four
coins bearing his likeness was issued in Russia: 2 ruble coin
(copper-nickel), 3 ruble coin (silver), 10 ruble coin (brass-copper,
nickel), and 100 ruble coin (silver). In 2011, Russia issued a
1,000 ruble coin (gold) and 3 ruble coin (silver) to mark the 50th
anniversary of his flight.
In 2008, the
Kontinental Hockey League
Kontinental Hockey League named their championship trophy
Gagarin Cup. In a 2010
Space Foundation survey,
ranked as the #6 most popular space hero, tied with Star Trek's
fictional Capt. James T. Kirk. The Russian docudrama, Gagarin:
First in Space, was released in 2013.
50th anniversary stamp of Ukraine
The 50th anniversary of Gagarin's journey into space was marked in
2011 by tributes around the world. A film titled First
Orbit was shot
from the International Space Station, combining the original flight
audio with footage of the route taken by Gagarin. The Russian,
American, and Italian
Expedition 27 crew aboard the ISS sent a special
video message to wish the people of the world a "Happy Yuri's Night",
wearing shirts with an image of Gagarin.
Swiss-based German watchmaker Bernhard Lederer created a limited
edition of 50
Gagarin Tourbillons to commemorate the 50th anniversary
of Yuri Gagarin's flight.
The launch of
Soyuz TMA-21 on 4 April 2011 was devoted to the 50th
anniversary of the first manned space mission.
Honours and awards
Gagarin (with Maradona and Castro), in Drvengrad, Serbia.
Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" (USSR, 1958)
Hero of the Soviet Union
Hero of the Soviet Union (14 April 1961)
Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin (USSR, 14 April 1961)
Hero of Socialist Labour
Hero of Socialist Labour (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, 29 April
Hero of Socialist Labour, (People's Republic of Bulgaria, 24 May 1961)
Order of Georgi Dimitrov
Order of Georgi Dimitrov (Bulgaria, 24 May 1961)
Order of the Star of Indonesia, 2nd Class (Indonesia, 10 June 1961)
Cross of Grunwald, 1st class (Poland, 20 June 1961)
Cosmonaut of the
USSR (27 June 1961)
The first Commander of the
Order of Playa Girón
Order of Playa Girón (Cuba, 18 July 1961)
"For achievements in aeronautics" (Brazil, 2 August 1961)
Order of the Southern Cross (Brazil, 3 August 1961)
Order of the Flag of the Hungarian Republic, 1st class with diamonds
(Hungary, 21 August 1961)
Honored Master of Sports of the
USSR (1961, title obtained as a reward
for a space flight)
Military Pilot 1st Class (1961, awarded the qualification of space
Gold Medal of the British Interplanetary Society, 1961
Honorary suvorovets (
Moscow Suvorov Military School, 1962)
Order of the Nile
Order of the Nile (Egypt, 31 January 1962)
Order of the African Star (Liberia, 6 February 1962)
Hero of Labour, (Democratic Republic of Vietnam, 28 April 1962)
Gold Medal of the Austrian Government, 1962
Honorary president of the Soviet-Cuban friendship society
Honorary Member of the Society, "the Finland-Soviet Union"
Order of Karl Marx
Order of Karl Marx (German Democratic Republic, 22 October 1963)
Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War
1941–1945" (USSR, 9 May 1965)
Medal "For Impeccable Service", 3rd class (Soviet Union, March 1966)
Honorary member of the
International Academy of Astronautics (1966)
Order of Klement Gottwald
Order of Klement Gottwald (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic)
Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" (USSR,
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Gold Medal "for outstanding work in the field
of interplanetary communications" (USSR)
Medal of de Lavaux (FAI)
Gold medal and diploma "Man in Space", the Italian Association of
Gold Medal "For outstanding difference" and the Royal Aero Club
Medal of Columbus (Italy)
Gold Medal of Saint-Denis (France)
Gold Medal Award "for courage" of the Fund Matstsotti (Italy), 2007
Gagarin was elected an honorary citizen of the following cities:
USSR: Kaluga, Novozybkov, Klintsy, Novocherkassk, Lyubertsy, Sumqayit
(in modern-day Azerbaijan), Smolensk,
Vinnytsia (in modern-day
Sevastopol (in Crimea), Saratov, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Tyumen
Bulgaria: Sofia, Pernik, Plovdiv
Cyprus: Famagusta, Limassol
Czechoslovakia: Trenčianske Teplice
He was also awarded the golden keys to the gates of the Egyptian
Cairo and Alexandria.
Soviet Union portal
^ Gagarin's first name is sometimes transliterated as Yuriy, Youri, or
^ Alexey and Anna's names are sometimes transliterated as Aleksei
Ivanovich and Anna Timofeevna, respectively (Bassin 2012).
^ Hanbury-Tenison, Robin, ed. (2010). The Great Explorers. London:
Thames & Hudson. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-500-25169-0.
^ a b Tito, Dennis (13 November 2006). "Yuri Gagarin". Time Europe via
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^ a b c Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Yuri Gagarin: The First Man in Space".
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^ a b c d e f Rodgers, Paul (3 April 2011). "Yuri Gagarin: The man who
fell to Earth". The Independent. Archived from the original on 4 April
^ a b c Moskvitch, Katia (3 April 2011). "Yuri Gagarin's Klushino:
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Archived from the original on 23 May 2012.
^ a b c d Rincon, Paul; Moskvitch, Katia (4 April 2011). "Profile:
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^ a b Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин. Astronaut.ru (in
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^ Quoted in Siddiqi 2000, p. 262.
^ Siddiqi 2000, p. 262.
^ Siddiqi 2000, p. 261.
^ Bykovsky quoted in Gavrilin 1973, p. 26-27.
^ Louis, Victor E; Louis, Jennifer M (1980). Sport in the Soviet
Union. Oxford: Pergamon. p. 43. ISBN 0-08-024506-4.
^ Siddiqi 2000, p. 275.
^ Hall and Shayler, p. 150
^ a b Душенко, Константин (2014). Большой
словарь цитат и крылатых выражений (in
Russian). Litres. ISBN 978-5-699-40115-4.
^ Первушин, Антон (2011). "6.2 Он сказал
«Поехали!»". 108 минут, изменившие мир (in
Russian). Эксмо. ISBN 9785457022300.
^ Quoted in Siddiqi 2000, p. 278.
^ Гагарин, Юрий (3 December 2004). Дорога в
космос. Pravda via TestPilot.ru (in Russian). Archived from the
original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 30 March 2008.
^ "Motherland Hears (download)". SovMusic.ru. Retrieved 30 March
^ "Motherland Hears (lyrics)". SovMusic.ru. Retrieved 30 March
^ Полная стенограмма переговоров Юрия
Гагарина с Землей с момента его
посадки в корабль (за два часа до
старта) до выхода корабля "Востока-1" из
зоны радиоприема. Cosmoworld.ru (in Russian). Retrieved
30 March 2008.
^ "I am proud to be accused of having introduced Yury
Orthodoxy". Interfax-religion.com. 12 April 2006. Archived from the
original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2008.
^ "Gagarin's family celebrated Easter and Christmas, Korolev used to
pray and confess". Interfax-religion.com. 11 April 2011. Archived from
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^ Первушин, Антон (October 2013). "7.1 Гражданин
мира". 108 минут, изменившие мир (in Russian).
Litres. ISBN 9785457022300.
^ На орбите дружбы. МК в Египте (in Russian).
24 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012.
^ Callow, John (17 January 2009). "Yuri
Gagarin in Manchester".
WCML.org.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
^ a b c French, Francis (July 1998). "Yuri Gagarin's Visit to
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Wikiquote has quotations related to: Yuri Gagarin
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yuri Gagarin.
Gagarin and Seregin at crash location
Memorial obelisk photo
Memorial obelisk closeup photo
Coordinates 56°02′48″N 39°01′35″E / 56.04664°N
39.0265°E / 56.04664; 39.0265
Biography by Encyclopedia Astronautica
Biography by Colin Burgess
Yuri's Night, an annual worldwide space party
YuriGagarin50.org, the 50th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight into
Obituary by The New York Times, 28 March 1968
Gagarin at Find a Grave
First Orbit, feature film on YouTube by First Orbit
First Man in Space: Yuri Gagarin, short film on YouTube by Roscosmos
Soviet Man in Space (1961) is available for free download at the
Soviets Hail Space Hero (1961) is available for free download at the
Photo gallery by KP.ru
Photo gallery by Sputnik News
ISNI: 0000 0000 8387 5419
BNF: cb127780570 (data)