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YUNNAN is a province of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, located in the far southwest of the country. It spans approximately 394,000 square kilometres (152,000 sq mi) and has a population of 45.7 million in 2009. The capital of the province is Kunming
Kunming
, formerly also known as Yunnan. The province borders the Chinese provinces Guangxi , Guizhou
Guizhou
, Sichuan
Sichuan
, and the Tibet Autonomous Region , and the countries Vietnam
Vietnam
, Laos
Laos
, and Burma
Burma
.

Yunnan
Yunnan
is situated in a mountainous area, with high elevations in the northwest and low elevations in the southeast. Most of the population lives in the eastern part of the province. In the west, the altitude can vary from the mountain peaks to river valleys as much as 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). Yunnan
Yunnan
is rich in natural resources and has the largest diversity of plant life in China. Of the approximately 30,000 species of higher plants in China, Yunnan
Yunnan
has perhaps 17,000 or more. Yunnan's reserves of aluminium , lead , zinc and tin are the largest in China, and there are also major reserves of copper and nickel .

The Han Empire first recorded diplomatic relations with the province at the end of the 2nd century BC. It became the seat of a Sino-Tibetan -speaking kingdom of Nanzhao in the 8th century AD. Nanzhao was multi-ethnic, but the elite most-likely spoke a northern dialect of Yi . The Mongols
Mongols
conquered the region in the 13th century, with local control exercised by warlords until the 1930s. From the Yuan dynasty onward, the area was part of a central-government sponsored population movement towards the Southwestern frontier, with 2 major waves of migrants arriving from Han-majority areas in northern and southeast China. As with other parts of China's southwest, Japanese occupation in the north during World War II forced another migration of majority Han people into the region. These two waves of migration contributed to Yunnan
Yunnan
being one of the most ethnically diverse provinces of China, with ethnic minorities accounting for about 34 percent of its total population. Major ethnic groups include Yi , Bai , Hani , Zhuang , Dai and Miao .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Prehistory period * 1.2 Pre- Nanzhao period * 1.3 Nanzhao period * 1.4 Post- Nanzhao period * 1.5 Naturalists

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Geology * 2.2 Paleontology * 2.3 Climate * 2.4 Topography * 2.5 Borders * 2.6 Lakes * 2.7 Rivers * 2.8 Biodiversity
Biodiversity
* 2.9 Designation

* 2.10 Natural resources

* 2.10.1 Drought
Drought

* 3 Scenic areas

* 3.1 National parks * 3.2 UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites

* 4 Governance

* 4.1 Administrative divisions * 4.2 Politics

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Ethnicity * 5.2 Languages * 5.3 Literacy * 5.4 Religion

* 6 Agriculture
Agriculture

* 7 Economy

* 7.1 Economic
Economic
and Technological Development Zones

* 8 Education

* 9 Health

* 9.1 HIV-AIDS

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Railways * 10.2 Burma
Burma
Road

* 10.3 Highways

* 10.3.1 Expressways

* 10.4 Waterways * 10.5 Airports * 10.6 Bridges

* 11 Culture

* 11.1 Eighteen Oddities of Yunnan * 11.2 Cuisine * 11.3 Tea
Tea
* 11.4 Music * 11.5 Chinese medicine * 11.6 Tourism
Tourism
* 11.7 Places of interest * 11.8 Sport

* 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Yunnan

PREHISTORY PERIOD

The Yuanmou Man , a _ Homo erectus
Homo erectus
_ fossil unearthed by railway engineers in the 1960s, has been determined to be the oldest-known hominid fossil in China. By the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, there were human settlements in the area of Lake Dian . These people used stone tools and constructed simple wooden structures.

PRE-NANZHAO PERIOD

Around the 3rd century BC, the central area of Yunnan
Yunnan
around present day Kunming
Kunming
was known as Dian . The Chu general Zhuang Qiao (庄蹻) entered the region from the upper Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and set himself up as "King of Dian". He and his followers brought into Yunnan
Yunnan
an influx of Chinese influence, the start of a long history of migration and cultural expansion. Bronze sculpture of the Dian Kingdom , 3rd century BCE

In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang unified China
China
and extended his authority south. Commanderies and counties were established in Yunnan. An existing road in Sichuan
Sichuan
– the "Five Foot Way" – was extended south to around present day Qujing , in eastern Yunnan. The Han–Dian wars began under Emperor Wu . He dispatched a series of military campaigns against the Dian during the southward expansion of the Han Dynasty . In 109 BC, Emperor Wu sent General Guo Chang (郭昌) south to Yunnan, establishing Yizhou commandery and 24 subordinate counties. The commandery seat was at Dianchi county in present-day Jinning . Another county was called "Yunnan", probably the first use of the name. To expand the burgeoning trade with Burma
Burma
and India , Emperor Wu also sent Tang Meng (zh) to maintain and expand the Five Foot Way, renaming it "Southwest Barbarian Way" (西南夷道). By this time, agricultural technology in Yunnan
Yunnan
had improved markedly. The local people used bronze tools, plows and kept a variety of livestock, including cattle, horses, sheep, goats, pigs and dogs. Anthropologists have determined that these people were related to the people now known as the Tai . They lived in tribal congregations, sometimes led by exiled Chinese.

During the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
, the territory of present-day Yunnan, western Guizhou
Guizhou
and southern Sichuan
Sichuan
was collectively called Nanzhong . The dissolution of Chinese central authority led to increased autonomy for Yunnan
Yunnan
and more power for the local tribal structures. In AD 225, the famed statesman Zhuge Liang led three columns into Yunnan to pacify the tribes. His seven captures of Meng Huo , a local magnate, is much celebrated in Chinese folklore.

International trade flowed by din of Yunnan.

In the 4th century, northern China
China
was largely overrun by nomadic tribes from the north. In the 320s, the Cuan (爨) clan migrated into Yunnan. Cuan Chen (爨琛) named himself king and held authority from Lake Dian , then known as Kunchuan . Henceforth the Cuan clan ruled eastern Yunnan
Yunnan
for over four hundred years.

NANZHAO PERIOD

Before the rise and dominance of the Nanzhao Kingdom around Yunnan
Yunnan
in the eighth century, many local tribes, clans, and other groups sprang up. Around Lake Erhai , namely, the Dali area, there emerged six zhao: Mengxi(蒙巂), Yuexi(越析), Langqiong(浪穹), Dengdan(邆赕), Shilang(施浪), and Mengshe(蒙舍). Zhao(诏) was an indigenous non- Chinese language term meaning "king" or "kingdom." Among the six regimes Mengshe was located south of the other five; therefore given the new, larger context, it was called Nanzhao (Southern Kingdom).

By the 730s Nanzhao had succeeded in bringing the Erhai Lake–area under its authority. In 738, the western Yunnan
Yunnan
was united by Piluoge , the fourth king of Nanzhao, who was confirmed by the imperial court of the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
as king of Yunnan. Ruling from Dali, the thirteen kings of Nanzhao ruled over more than two centuries and played a part in the dynamic relationship between China
China
and Tibet.

By the 750s, Nanzhao had taken eastern Yunnan
Yunnan
into its empire and had become a potential rival to Tang China. The following period inevitably saw conflicts between Tang China
China
and Nanzhao. In 750, Nanzhao attacked and captured Yaozhou, the largest Tang settlement in Yunnan.In 751, Xianyu Zhongtong (鮮于仲通), the regional commander of Jiannan (Sichuan), led a Tang campaign against Nanzhao. Geluofeng regarded the previous incident as personal and wrote to Xianyu to seek peace. Howerver, Xianyu Zhongtong detained the Nanzhao envoys and turned down the appeal. Confronted with Tang armies, Nanzhao immediately turned its allegiance to Tubo . The Tubo and Nanzhao agreed to be "fraternal states"; Geluofeng was given the titles zanpuzhong ("younger brother").The Nanzhao-Tubo alliance finally made Xianyu's expedition became a disaster.

Tang China
China
did not give up after one failure. In 753, another expedition was prepared, but thiswas also defeated by Nanzhao. In 754, the Tang organized an army of more than 100,000 troops that advanced to the Dali plain, resulting in only another slaughter. By the end of the eighth century, Tang was no longer a major threat to Nanzhao.

Nanzhao's expansion lasted for several decades. In 829, Nanzhao suddenly plundered Sichuan
Sichuan
and entered Chengdu
Chengdu
. When it retreated, hundreds of Sichuan
Sichuan
people, including skilled artisans, were taken to Yunnan. In 832, the Nanzhao army captured the capital of the Pyu kingdom in modern upper Burma
Burma
. Nanzhao also attacked the Khmer peoples of Zhenla . Generally speaking, Nanzhao was then the most powerful kingdom in mainland Southeast Asia, and played an extremely active role in multistate interactions.

In 859, Nanzhao captured Bozhou , and this event exacerbated the Nanzhao-Tang clashes. When the Tang governor of Annam took Bozhou back in the following year, Nanzhao, with the help of native peoples, occupied Hanoi
Hanoi
as the Tang army moved to Bozhou. When the Tang forces returned, Nanzhao troops retreated from Hanoi
Hanoi
but attacked and plundered Yongzhou . In the winter of 862, Nanzhao, allying with local groups, led an army of over 50,000 men to invade Annam again. It is reported that the Tang forces lost over 150,000 soldiers (either killed or captured by Nanzhao) in the two Annam battles.The autumn of 866 saw Tang victory in Hanoi
Hanoi
and soon all of the Nanzhao forces were driven away. But Tang China
China
had lost its ability to attack Nanzhao.

While Nanzhao was being defeated in Annam, it still occasionally attacked Sichuan. In 869, Shilong (世隆), the eighth king and the first empire of Nanzhao, invaded Sichuan. In 874, Nanzhao attacked Sichuan
Sichuan
again.

In 902, Zheng Maisi, the qingpingguan (清平官,"Primier Minister") of Nanzhao, murdered the infant king of Nanzhao, and established a short-lived regime, namely, Da Chang He . Nanzhao, a once-powerful empire, disappeared.

POST-NANZHAO PERIOD

In 937, Duan Siping overthrew the Nanzhao and established the Kingdom of Dali . The kingdom was conquered by the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in 1253 after Dali King Duan Xingzhi defected to the Mongols. The Duans incorporated into the Mongol dominion as Maharajahs of the new province. The Mongolian prince sent to administer the region with them was killed. In 1273, Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
reformed the province and appointed the Semuren Sayid Ajall as its governor. The Yunnan
Yunnan
Province during the Yuan Dynasty included significant portions of Upper Burma
Burma
after the Burmese campaigns in the 1270s and 1280s. But with the fall of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
destroyed the Yuan loyalists led by Basalawarmi in the Ming conquest of Yunnan by the early 1380s. The Ming installed Mu Ying and his family as hereditary aristocrats in Yunnan. A scene of the Qing campaign against the Miao people in 1795.

During the Ming and Qing dynasties, large areas of Yunnan
Yunnan
were administered under the native chieftain system . Under the Qing dynasty a war with Burma
Burma
also occurred in the 1760s due to the attempted consolidation of borderlands under local chiefs by both China
China
and Burma.

Yunnan
Yunnan
was a destination for Han Chinese during Yuan rule. Colonizers moved into the area during Ming and Qing rule.

During the Ming Dynasty, 3 million Han Chinese mostly from Nanjing (before the original Nanjing
Nanjing
population was largely replaced by Wu speakers) and some from Shanxi
Shanxi
and Hebei
Hebei
settled in Yunnan.

Although largely forgotten, the bloody Panthay Rebellion of the Muslim
Muslim
Hui people and other local minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
caused the deaths of up to a million people in Yunnan. A British officer testified that the Muslims did not rebel for religious reasons and that the Chinese were tolerant of different religions and were unlikely to have caused the revolt by interfering with the practising of Islam. Loyalist Muslim
Muslim
forces helped Qing crush the rebel Muslims. The Qing armies only massacred Muslims who had rebelled or supported the rebels and spared Muslims who took no part in the uprising.

In 1894, George Ernest Morrison , an Australian correspondent for _ The Times _, traveled from Beijing
Beijing
to British-occupied Burma
Burma
via Yunnan. His book, _An Australian in China_, details his experiences.

The 1905 Tibetan Rebellion
1905 Tibetan Rebellion
in which Tibetan Buddhist Lamas attacked and killed French Catholic missionaries spread to Yunnan.

Yunnan
Yunnan
was transformed by the events of the war against Japan
Japan
, which caused many east coast refugees and industrial establishments to relocate to the province. It assumed strategic significance, particularly as the Burma
Burma
Road from Lashio , in Burma
Burma
to Kunming
Kunming
was a fought over supply line of vital importance to China's war effort.

University
University
faculty and students in the east had originally decamped to Changsha , capital of Hunan
Hunan
. But as the Japanese forces were gaining more territory they eventually bombed Changsha in February 1938. The 800 faculty and students who were left had to flee and made the 1,000 mile journey to Kunming
Kunming
, capital of Yunnan
Yunnan
in China's mountainous southwest. It was here that the National Southwest Associated University
University
(commonly known as 'Lianda University') was established. In these extraordinary wartime circumstances for eight years, staff, professors and students had to survive and operate in makeshift quarters that were subject to sporadic bombing campaigns by the Japanese. There were dire shortages of food, equipment, books, clothing and other essential needs, but they managed to conduct the running of a modern university . Over those eight years of war (1937-1945), Lianda became famous nationwide for having and producing many, if not most, of China's most prominent academics, scholars, scientists and intellectuals. Both of China's only Nobel laureates in physics studied at Lianda in Kunming.

NATURALISTS

Thousands of plant, insect and mammal species were described in the XIXth century by scientists of the French National Museum of Natural History , Paris, in connection with permanent settlements of missionaries of the _Missions étrangères de Paris_ in north-west Yunnan, among them noticeably Jean-André Soulié and Felix Biet . From 1916 to 1917, Roy Chapman Andrews and Yvette Borup Andrews led the Asiatic Zoological Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History through much of western and southern Yunnan, as well as other provinces of China. The book, _Camps and Trails in China
China
_, records their experiences. Other notable explorers include Heinrich Handel-Mazzetti ; George Forrest ; Joseph Francis Charles Rock , who from 1922–1949 spent most of his time studying the flora, peoples and languages of southwest China, mainly in Yunnan; and Peter Goullart , a White Russian who studied Naxi culture and lived in Lijiang
Lijiang
from 1940 to 1949.

GEOGRAPHY

Snowy mountains in Diqing , northwestern Yunnan. Erhai Lake (洱海湖), Dali , Yunnan
Yunnan
Lugu Lake , northern Yunnan. The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
near the Tiger Leaping Gorge

Yunnan
Yunnan
is the most southwestern province in China, with the Tropic of Cancer running through its southern part. The province has an area of 394,100 square kilometres (152,200 sq mi), 4.1% of the nation's total. The northern part of the province forms part of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau
Plateau
. The province borders Guangxi and Guizhou
Guizhou
in the east, Sichuan
Sichuan
in the north, and the Tibet Autonomous Region in the northwest. It shares a border of 4,060 kilometres (2,520 mi) with Burma
Burma
in the west, Laos
Laos
in the south and Vietnam
Vietnam
in the southeast. For practical purposes, all of Yunnan
Yunnan
province falls within the Zomia (region) of Asia.

GEOLOGY

Yunnan
Yunnan
is at the far eastern edge of the Himalayan uplift , and was pushed up in the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
, primarily in the Middle Pleistocene
Pleistocene
, although the uplift continues into the present. The eastern part of the province is a limestone plateau with karst topography and unnavigable rivers flowing through deep mountain gorges. The main surface formations of the plateau are the Lower Permian Maokou Formation, characterized by thick limestone deposits, the Lower Permian Qixia Formation, characterised by dolomitic limestones and dolostones , the Upper Permian basalts of the Ermeishan Formation (formerly Omeishan plateau basalts), and the red sandstones , mudstones , siltstones , and conglomerates of the Mesozoic – Paleogene
Paleogene
, including the Lufeng Formation and the Lunan Group (Lumeiyi, Xiaotun, and Caijiacong formations). In this area is the noted Stone Forest or Shilin, eroded vertical pinnacles of limestone (Maokou Formation). In the eastern part the rivers generally run eastwards. The western half is characterized by mountain ranges and rivers running north and south.

PALEONTOLOGY

See also: Maotianshan Shales

* Yunnanozoon – Lower Cambrian
Cambrian
possible chordate * Jingshanosaurus – Early Jurassic long-neck prosauropod dinosaur

CLIMATE

Yunnan
Yunnan
has a generally mild climate with pleasant and fair weather because of the province's location on south-facing mountain slopes, receiving the influence of both the Pacific and Indian oceans, and although the growing period is long, the rugged terrain provides little arable land . See _ Agriculture
Agriculture
in Yunnan
Yunnan
_. Under the Köppen climate classification , much of the province lies within the subtropical highland (Köppen _Cwb_) or humid subtropical zone (_Cwa_), with mild to warm winters, and tempered summers, except in the almost tropical south, where temperatures regularly exceed 30 °C (86 °F) in the warmer half of the year. _In general_, January average temperatures range from 8 to 17 °C (46 to 63 °F); July averages vary from 21 to 27 °C (70 to 81 °F). Average annual rainfall ranges from 600 to 2,300 millimetres (24 to 91 in), with over half the rain occurring between June and August. The plateau region has moderate temperatures. The western canyon region is hot and humid at the valley bottoms, but there are freezing winds at the mountaintops.

TOPOGRAPHY

The terrain is largely mountainous, especially in the north and west. A series of high mountain chains spreads across the province. There is a distinct canyon region to the west and a plateau region to the east. Yunnan's major rivers flow through the deep valleys between the mountains.

The average elevation is 1,980 metres (6,500 ft). The mountains are highest in the north where they reach more than 5,000 m (16,000 ft); in the south they rise no higher than 3,000 m (9,800 ft). The highest point in the north is the Kawagebo Peak in Deqin County on the Diqing Plateau
Plateau
, which is about 6,740 m (22,110 ft); and the lowest is in the Red River Valley in Hekou County , near the Vietnamese border, with an elevation of 76.4 m (251 ft).

The eastern half of the province is a limestone plateau with karst scenery and unnavigable rivers flowing through deep mountain gorges; the western half is characterised by mountain ranges and rivers running north and south. These include the Nujiang (Thai : Salween) and the Lancangjiang (Thai : Mekong). The rugged, vertical terrain produces a wide range of flora and fauna, and the province has been called a natural zoological and botanical garden.

BORDERS

Bordering Chinese provincial-level divisions are Tibet
Tibet
, Sichuan
Sichuan
, Guizhou
Guizhou
and Guangxi . Starting from the east and working clockwise, bordering countries are Vietnam
Vietnam
(Hà Giang , Lào Cai , Lai Châu and Điện Biên provinces), Laos
Laos
(Phongsaly , Oudomxay and Luang Namtha provinces), Myanmar
Myanmar
(states of Shan and Kachin ). The main border crossings are:

* Hekou – Lào Cai , by road and rail, is the only Sino-Vietnamese land border crossing open to non-Chinese/non-Vietnamese. * Sino-Laotian at Boten * Ruili –Muse is the only Sino-Burmese border crossing open to non-Chinese/non-Burmese.

LAKES

There are several major lakes in Yunnan. The province has nine lakes with areas of over 30 square kilometres (12 sq mi). They include:

* Dianchi Lake , near Kunming
Kunming
* Fuxian Lake , in Yuxi , the second deepest lake in China * Xingyun Lake , directly south of Fuxian Lake and connected with it by a short river * Qilu Lake , south of Fuxian and Xingyun Lakes, separated from them by mountains, in Tonghai County * Erhai Lake , near Dali City * Lugu Lake , in Ninglang near the border with Sichuan * Yangzong Lake , in Yiliang County * Yilong Lake

RIVERS

Yunnan
Yunnan
is the source of two rivers, the Xi River (there known as the Nanpan and Hongshui ) and the Yuan River . The Hongshui is a principal source stream of the Xi River. Rising as the Nanpan in eastern Yunnan province, it flows south and east to form part of the boundary between Guizhou
Guizhou
province and Guangxi autonomous region. Flowing for 345 km (214 mi), it unites with the Yu River at Guiping to form what eventually becomes the Xi River .

The province is drained by six major river systems:

* the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
, here known as the Jinsha Jiang (River of Golden Sands), drains the province's north. * the Pearl River , with its source near Qujing , collects the waters from the east. * the Mekong
Mekong
(Lancang), which flows from Tibet
Tibet
into the South China Sea forming the boundaries between Laos
Laos
and Burma
Burma
, between Laos
Laos
and Thailand
Thailand
and through Laos, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Vietnam
Vietnam
* the Red River (Yuan or Honghe) has its source in the mountains south of Dali and enters the South China Sea
South China Sea
through Hanoi
Hanoi
, Vietnam * the Salween
Salween
(Nujiang), which flows into the Gulf of Martaban and the Andaman Sea through Burma * the Irrawaddy , which arises from the confluence of two rivers in Kachin State in Burma
Burma
, has a few small tributaries in Yunnan's far west, such as the Dulongjiang and Taping River , and rivers in the prefecture of Dehong.

BIODIVERSITY

Yunnan
Yunnan
is China's most diverse province, biologically as well as culturally. The province contains snow-capped mountains and true tropical environments, thus supporting an unusually full spectrum of species and vegetation types. The Yunnan
Yunnan
camellia (_Camellia reticulata _) is the provincial emblem.

During summer, the Great Plateau
Plateau
of Tibet
Tibet
acts as a barrier to monsoon winds, trapping moisture in the province. This gives the alpine flora in particular what one source has called a "lushness found nowhere else".

This topographic range combined with a tropical moisture sustains extremely high biodiversity and high degrees of endemism , probably the richest botanically in the world's temperate regions. Perhaps 17,000 species of higher plants, of which an estimated 2,500 are endemic, can be found in the province. The province is said to have "as much flowering plant diversity as the rest of the Northern Hemisphere put together".

Yunnan
Yunnan
Province has less than 4% of the land of China, yet contains about half of China's birds and mammals. Yunnan
Yunnan
is home to, most notably, the southeast Asian gaur , a giant forest-dwelling bovine , the Indochinese tiger and the Asian elephant . Other extremely rare species are the Yunnan box turtle and the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey , and it is feared that the Yunnan lar gibbon already is extinct.

The freshwater fish fauna is highly diverse with about 620 species, including more than 580 natives (the remaining are introduced ). This equals almost 40% of the freshwater fish species in China. Of the Yunnan
Yunnan
natives, more than 250 are endemic to the province and many of these are threatened. Several species that are restricted to single lakes (notably Dian , Erhai , Fuxian and Yilong ) are likely already are extinct. By far the most diverse order in Yunnan
Yunnan
is Cypriniformes ; both in total species number and number of endemics. See also: Distribution of orchid species

DESIGNATION

Yunnan
Yunnan
has been designated a:

* "Center of Plant Diversity" (IUCN/WWF: Davis et al. 1995) * "Global 200 List Priority Ecoregion" for biodiversity conservation (WWF: Olsen and Dinerstein 1998) * "Endemic Bird Area" (Birdlife International: Bibby, C. et al. 1992) and * "Global Biodiversity
Biodiversity
Hotspot," as a part of the Hengduan Mountain Ecosystem (Conservation International: Mittermeier and Mittermeier 1997)

NATURAL RESOURCES

A main source of wealth lies in its vast mineral resources ; indeed, mining is the leading industry in Yunnan. Yunnan
Yunnan
has proven deposits of 86 kinds of minerals in 2,700 places. Some 13% of the proved deposits of minerals are the largest of their kind in China, and two-thirds of the deposits are among the largest of their kind in the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
valley and in south China. Yunnan
Yunnan
ranks first in the country in deposits of zinc , lead , tin , cadmium , indium , thallium and crocidolite . Other deposits include iron , coal , copper , gold , mercury , silver , antimony and sulfur . More than 150 kinds of minerals have been discovered in the province. The potential value of the proven deposits in Yunnan
Yunnan
is 3 trillion yuan , 40% of which come from fuel minerals, 7.3% from metallic minerals and 52.7% from nonmetallic minerals.

Yunnan
Yunnan
has sufficient rainfall and many rivers and lakes. The annual water flow originating in the province is 200 cubic kilometres, three times that of the Yellow River
Yellow River
. The rivers flowing into the province from outside add 160 cubic kilometres, which means there are more than ten thousand cubic metres of water for each person in the province. This is four times the average in the country. The rich water resources offer abundant hydro-energy. China
China
is constructing a series of dams on the Mekong
Mekong
to develop it as a waterway and source of power; the first was completed at Manwan in 1993.

Drought

After four years of drought, in the fall of 2012, winter of 2012-13, and spring of 2013 severe drought was reported which affected flow of springs and the level of spring-fed lakes; agriculture and urban water supplies were also affected. Water levels in Yilong Lake dropped and grass was reported growing in the middle of the lake bed.

SCENIC AREAS

NATIONAL PARKS

See also: List of national parks in China

* Pudacuo National Park , opened in 2007, in Shangri-La County * Laojunshan National Park (老君山国家公园), in Lijiang Prefecture , _pending approval_

UNESCO
UNESCO
WORLD HERITAGE SITES

* Old Town of Lijiang , accepted in 1997 as a cultural site * Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas , accepted in 2003 as a natural site * South China
China
Karst , accepted in 2007 as a natural site * Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice
Rice
Terraces , accepted in 2013 as a cultural site

GOVERNANCE

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Main articles: List of administrative divisions of Yunnan and List of township-level divisions of Yunnan
Yunnan

Yunnan
Yunnan
consists of sixteen prefecture-level divisions : eight prefecture-level cities and eight autonomous prefectures :

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF YUNNAN

№ DIVISION CODE ENGLISH NAME CHINESE PINYIN AREA IN KM2 POPULATION 2010 SEAT DIVISIONS

DISTRICTS COUNTIES AUT. COUNTIES CL CITIES

530000 YUNNAN 云南省 Yúnnán Shěng 394000.00 45,966,239 Kunming
Kunming
15 70 29 15

1 530100 KUNMING 昆明市 Kūnmíng Shì 21,001.28 6,432,000 Chenggong District 6 4 3 1

2 530300 QUJING 曲靖市 Qǔjìng Shì 28,939.41 5,855,000 Qilin District 2 6

1

3 530400 YUXI 玉溪市 Yùxī Shì 14,941.53 2,304,000 Hongta District 2 4 3

4 530500 BAOSHAN 保山市 Bǎoshān Shì 19,064.60 2,506,000 Longyang District 1 3

1

5 530600 ZHAOTONG 昭通市 Zhāotōng Shì 22,439.76 5,213,000 Zhaoyang District 1 10

6 530700 LIJIANG 丽江市 Lìjiāng Shì 20,557.25 1,245,000 Gucheng District 1 2 2

7 530800 PU\\'ER 普洱市 Pǔ'ěr Shì 44,264.79 2,543,000 Simao District 1

9

8 530900 LINCANG 临沧市 Líncāng Shì 23,620.72 2,430,000 Linxiang District 1 4 3

13 532300 Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture 楚雄彝族自治州 Chǔxióng Yízú Zìzhìzhōu 28,436.87 2,684,000 Chuxiong

9

1

14 532500 Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture 红河哈尼族彝族自治州 Hónghé Hānízú Yízú Zìzhìzhōu 32,167.67 4,501,000 Mengzi

6 3 4

15 532600 Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture 文山壮族苗族自治州 Wénshān Zhuàngzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhō 31,409.12 3,518,000 Wenshan

7

1

16 532800 Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture 西双版纳傣族自治州 Xīshuāngbǎnnà Dǎizú Zìzhìzhōu 19,107.05 1,134,000 Jinghong
Jinghong

2

1

12 532900 Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture 大理白族自治州 Dàlǐ Báizú Zìzhìzhōu 28,299.43 3,456,000 Dali

8 3 1

9 533100 Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture 德宏傣族景颇族自治州 Déhóng Dǎizú Jǐngpōzú Zìzhìzhōu 11,171.41 1,211,000 Mang

3

2

10 533300 Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture 怒江傈僳族自治州 Nùjiāng Lìsùzú Zìzhìzhōu 14,588.92 534,000 Lushui

1 2 1

11 533400 Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture 迪庆藏族自治州 Díqìng Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu 23,185.59 400,000 Shangri-La

1 1 1

The sixteen prefecture-level divisions of Yunnan
Yunnan
are subdivided into 129 county-level divisions (13 districts , 14 county-level cities , 73 counties , and 29 autonomous counties ).

POLITICS

Further information: List of provincial leaders of the People\'s Republic of China
China

SECRETARIES OF THE CPC YUNNAN COMMITTEE: The Secretary of the CPC is the highest ranking and most important position in Yunnan.

* Song Renqiong (宋任穷): 1950–1952 * Xie Fuzhi (谢富治): July 1952 – August 1959 * Yan Hongyan (阎红彦): August 1959 – January 1967 * Zhou Xing (周兴): June 1971 – October 1975 * Jia Qiyun (贾启允): October 1975 – February 1977 * An Pingsheng (安平生): February 1977 – July 1985 * Pu Chaozhu (普朝柱): July 1985 – June 1995 * Gao Yan (高严): June 1995 – August 1997 * Linghu An (令狐安): August 1997 – October 2001 * Bai Enpei : October 2001 – August 2011 * Qin Guangrong : August 2011 – October 2014 * Li Jiheng : October 2014 – August 2016 * Chen Hao : August 2016 – incumbent

GOVERNORS OF YUNNAN: The Governor is the second highest office in Yunnan, after the Secretary of the CPC Yunnan
Yunnan
Committee. The Governor, who is elected by the Yunnan
Yunnan
Provincial People\'s Congress , is responsible for all economic , environmental , political , personnel and foreign affairs issues concerning Yunnan.

* Chen Geng (陈赓): March 1950 – February 1955 * Guo Yingqiu (郭影秋): February 1955 – November 1958 * Ding Yichuan (丁一川): November 1958 – January 1965 * Zhou Xing (周兴): January 1965 – 1966 * Tan Furen (谭甫仁): August 1968 – October 1970 * Zhou Xing: October 1970 – October 1975 * Jia Qiyun (贾启允): October 1975 – February 1977 * An Pingsheng (安平生): February 1977 – December 1979 * Liu Minghui (刘明辉): December 1979 – April 1983 * Pu Chaozhu (普朝柱): April 1983 – August 1985 * He Zhiqiang (和志强): August 1985 – January 1998 * Li Jiating (李嘉廷): January 1998 – June 2001 * Xu Rongkai (徐荣凯): June 2001 – November 2006 * Qin Guangrong : January 2007 – August 2011 * Li Jiheng : August 2011 – October 2014 * Chen Hao : October 2014 – incumbent

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1912 9,468,000 —

1928 13,821,000 +46.0%

1936-37 12,042,000 −12.9%

1947 9,066,000 −24.7%

1954 17,472,737 +92.7%

1964 20,509,525 +17.4%

1982 32,553,817 +58.7%

1990 36,972,610 +13.6%

2000 42,360,089 +14.6%

2010 45,966,239 +8.5%

ETHNICITY

Major Autonomous areas within Yunnan. (excluding Hui ) Sumtseling Monastery in Zhongdian
Zhongdian
.

Yunnan
Yunnan
is noted for a very high level of ethnic diversity. It has the highest number of ethnic groups among the provinces and autonomous regions in China. Among the country's 56 recognised ethnic groups , twenty-five are found in Yunnan. Some 38% of the province's population are members of minorities, including the Yi , Bai , Hani , Tai , Dai , Miao , Lisu , Hui , Lahu , Va , Nakhi , Yao , Tibetan , Jingpo , Blang , Pumi , Nu , Achang , Jinuo , Mongolian , Derung , Manchu , Sui , and Buyei
Buyei
. Several other groups are represented, but they live neither in compact settlements nor do they reach the required threshold of five thousand to be awarded the official status of being present in the province. Some groups, such as the Mosuo , who are officially recognised as part of the Naxi , have in the past claimed official status as a national minority, and are now recognised with the status of Mosuo people.

Ethnic groups are widely distributed in the province. Some twenty-five minorities live in compact communities, each of which has a population of more than five thousand. Ten ethnic minorities living in border areas and river valleys include the Hui , Manchu , Bai , Naxi , Mongolian , Zhuang , Dai , Achang , Buyei
Buyei
and Shui , with a combined population of 4.5 million; those in low mountainous areas are the Hani , Yao , Lahu , Va , Jingpo , Blang and Jino , with a combined population of 5 million; and those in high mountainous areas are Miao , Lisu , Tibetan , Pumi and Drung , with a total population of four million.

LANGUAGES

CIA map showing the territory of the settlement of ethnolinguistic groups in Yunnan
Yunnan
Province (1971).

Most dialects of the Chinese language spoken in Yunnan
Yunnan
belong to the southwestern subdivision of the Mandarin group, and are therefore very similar to the dialects of neighbouring Sichuan
Sichuan
and Guizhou
Guizhou
provinces. Notable features found in many Yunnan
Yunnan
dialects include the partial or complete loss of distinction between finals /n/ and /ŋ/, as well as the lack of /y/. In addition to the local dialects, most people also speak Standard Chinese (_ Putonghua
Putonghua
_, commonly called "Mandarin"), which is used in the media, by the government, and as the language of instruction in education.

Yunnan's ethnic diversity is reflected in its linguistic diversity. Languages spoken in Yunnan
Yunnan
include Tibeto-Burman languages such as Bai , Yi , Tibetan , Hani , Jingpo , Lisu , Lahu , Naxi ; Tai languages like Zhuang , Bouyei , Dong , Shui , Tai Lü and Tai Nüa ; as well as Hmong–Mien languages
Hmong–Mien languages
.

The Naxi, in particular, use the Dongba script , which is the only pictographic writing system in use in the world today. The Dongba script was mainly used to provide the Dongba priests with instructions on how to carry out their rituals: today the Dongba script features more as a tourist attraction. Perhaps the best known Western Dongba scholar was Joseph Rock .

LITERACY

By the end of 1998, among the province's population, 419,800 had received college education or above, 2.11 million, senior middle school education, 8.3 million, junior middle school education, 18.25 million, primary school education, and 8.25 million aged 15 or above, illiterate or semi-literate.

RELIGION

Religion in Yunnan
Yunnan
(2005) Chinese religions , ethnic minorities' folk religions, or not religious (91.3%) Buddhism
Buddhism
(6%) Islam (1.4%) Christianity
Christianity
(1.3%)

According to a demographic analysis of religions in Yunnan, as of 2005 the province has around 4 million believers of the five government-sanctioned organised religious doctrines of China
China
, almost 90% of them belonging to the ethnic minorities. Of these:

* 2.6 million or about 6% of the total population are Buddhists ; * 620,000 or 1.4% are Muslims ; * 530,000 or 1.2% are Protestants ; * 240,000 or 0.5% are Taoists (note that "Taoist" traditionally only defines priests ); * 66,000 or 0.1% are Catholics .

According to surveys conducted in 2004 and 2007, in those years approximately 32.22% of the province's population was involved in worship of ancestors and 2.75% declared a Christian identity.

Most of the population of the province practices traditional indigenous religions including the Chinese folk religion among the Han Chinese , Bimoism among the Yi peoples and Benzhuism
Benzhuism
among the Bai people . The Dai people are one of the few ethnic minorities of China that traditionally follow the Theravada
Theravada
branch of Buddhism. Most of the Hui people of the region are Muslims . Christianity
Christianity
is dominant among the Lisu , the Jingpo and the Derung ethnic groups.

*

Main hall of the Qiongzhu Buddhist Temple to the northwest of Kunming . *

Huating Buddhist Temple in the Western Mountains (Xishan) of Kunming. *

Guishan Buddhist Temple of the Tibetan tradition . *

Hall of the Golden Taoist Temple in Kunming. *

Nanjieying Mosque in Tonghai County , Yuxi . *

Dai Theravada
Theravada
Buddhist temple in Jinghong
Jinghong
, Xishuangbanna .

AGRICULTURE

The rice terraced mountains of Yuanyang County View of Duoyishu sunrise in Yuanyang

The region maintains a strong agricultural focus. Agriculture
Agriculture
is restricted to the few upland plains, open valleys, and terraced hillsides. Level land for agriculture is extremely scarce and only about 5 percent of the province is under cultivation. Rice
Rice
is the main crop; corn , barley , wheat , rapeseed , sweet potatoes , soybeans (as a food crop), tea , sugarcane , tobacco , and cotton are also grown. On the steep slopes in the west livestock is raised and timber , a valuable resource, is cut (teak in the southwest).

Tobacco
Tobacco
is the main (export) product and makes up a big part of the provincial GDP. Furthermore, Yunnan
Yunnan
has a strong competitive potential in the fruit and vegetable industries, especially in low value-added commodities such as fresh and dried vegetables and fresh apples.

Yunnan
Yunnan
is one of the regions in the world with the most abundant resources of wild edible mushrooms . In China, there are 938 kinds of edible mushrooms, and over 800 varieties can be found in Yunnan. In 2004, around 7,744 tons of wild edible mushrooms were exported, making up for 70% of the total export of this product in China. The so-called 'pine mushroom' is the main product in Yunnan
Yunnan
and is exported to Japan in large quantities.

Due to China's growing consumption of dairy products, Yunnan's dairy industry is also developing very rapidly and is also aiming to export to its ASEAN
ASEAN
neighbors.

The flower industry in Yunnan
Yunnan
province started to develop towards the end of the 1980s. Yunnan
Yunnan
province accounts for 50% of China's total cut flower production. The size of the planting area for cut flowers in Yunnan
Yunnan
province amounts to 4000 hectares. In 2003, the output totaled 2.3 billion stems. In 2002 the flower industry in Yunnan
Yunnan
had a total output of RMB 3.4 billion. Export amounted to US$18 million. Apart from sales on the domestic market, Yunnan
Yunnan
also exports to a number of foreign countries and regions such as Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Thailand
Thailand
and Singapore.

ECONOMY

As of the mid-19th century, Yunnan
Yunnan
exported birds, brass, tin, gemstones, musk, nuts, and peacock feathers mainly to stores in Guangzhou
Guangzhou
. They imported silk, wool, and cotton cloth, tobacco and books. Local traders in Lijiang
Lijiang
City

Yunnan
Yunnan
is one of China's relatively undeveloped provinces with more poverty -stricken counties than the other provinces. In 1994, about 7 million people lived below the poverty line of less than an annual average income of 300 yuan per capita . They were distributed in the province's 73 counties mainly and financially supported by the central government . With an input of 3.15 billion yuan in 2002, the absolutely poor rural population in the province has been reduced from 4.05 million in 2000 to 2.86 million. The poverty alleviation plan includes five large projects aimed at improving infrastructure facilities. They involve planned attempts at soil improvement , water conservation , electric power , roads, and "green belt " building. Upon the completion of the projects, the province hopes this will alleviate the shortages of grain , water, electric power and roads.

Yunnan
Yunnan
lags behind the east coast of China
China
in relation to socio-economic development . However, because of its geographic location the province has comparative advantages in regional and border trade with countries in southeast Asia . The Lancang River (upper reaches of Mekong
Mekong
River) is the waterway to southeast Asia. In recent years land transportation has been improved to strengthen economic and trade co-operation among countries in the Greater Mekong Subregion . Yunnan's abundance in resources determines that the province's pillar industries are: agriculture , tobacco , mining , hydro-electric power , and tourism . In general, the province still depends on the natural resources . Secondary industry is currently the largest industrial tier in Yunnan, contributing more than 45 percent of GDP. Tertiary industry contributes 40 percent and agriculture 15 percent. Investment
Investment
is the key driver of Yunnan's economic growth , especially in construction .

The main challenge that Yunnan
Yunnan
faces is its lack of major development . Its low productivity and competitiveness restrict the rapid development of the province. The province also faces great challenges in social issues such as environmental protection , poverty elimination , illegal migration , drug trafficking and HIV/AIDS .

Yunnan's four pillar industries include tobacco , agriculture /biology , mining , and tourism . The main manufacturing industries are iron and steel production and copper-smelting, commercial vehicles, chemicals, fertilizers, textiles, and optical instruments. Yunnan
Yunnan
has trade contacts with more than seventy countries and regions in the world. Yunnan
Yunnan
established the Muse border trade zone (located in Ruili ) along its border with Burma. Yunnan
Yunnan
mainly exports tobacco , machinery and electrical equipment, chemical and agricultural products, and non-ferrous metals. In 2008, its total two-way trade (imports and exports) reached US$9.6 billion. The province signed foreign direct investment contracts involving US$1.69 billion, of which US$777 million were actually utilized during the year. Yunnan's unemployment rate at the end of 2008 was 4.21%.

Yunnan's nominal GDP in 2011 was 875.1 billion yuan (US$138.92 billion), an annual growth rate of 13.7%. Its per capita GDP was 13,494 yuan (US$1,975). The share of GDP of Yunnan's primary , secondary , and tertiary industries were 17.9%, 43%, and 39.1% respectively.

Yunnan
Yunnan
is one of the major production bases of copper, lead, zinc, tin and aluminum in China. Gejiu is well known as "the Kingdom of Zinc" with the reserves ranked first in the country. The Yunxi brand refined tin is one of the main products in Gejiu, which is registered on the London Metal Exchange (LME). Besides, reserves of germanium, indium, zirconium, platinum, rock salt, sylvite, nickel, phosphate, mirabilite, arsenic and blue asbestos are also high. Significant copper deposits are found at Dongchuan , iron ore at Wuding , and coal at Xuanwei and Kaiyuan . Economic
Economic
policy to locate new industry in interior areas with substantial mineral wealth, led to major industrial development in Yunnan, especially in the Kunming
Kunming
area .

The electricity industry is another important economic pillar of Yunnan, which plays a key role in the "West-East Electricity Transmission Project". The electricity produced in Yunnan
Yunnan
is mainly transported to Guangdong
Guangdong
.

ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ZONES

* Kunming
Kunming
Economic
Economic
and Technological Development Zone

First established in 1992, Kunming
Kunming
Economic
Economic
& Technology Development Zone is a national-level zone approved by the State Council. Kunming is located in east-central Yunnan
Yunnan
province with preferential location. After several years' development, the zone has formed its pillar industries, which include tobacco processing, machinery manufacturing, electronic information, and biotechnology.

*

The Kunming
Kunming
High-tech Industrial Development Zone (KMHNZ), is a state-level high-tech industrial zone established in 1992 in Northwest Kunming. It is administratively under Kunming
Kunming
Prefecture. It has covers an area of 9 km2 (3.5 sq mi). KMHNZ is located in the northwest part of Kunming
Kunming
city, 4 kilometers from Kunming
Kunming
Railway Station, 5 kilometers from Kunming
Kunming
International Airport.

* Kunming
Kunming
Dianchi Tourism
Tourism
& Vacation Zone * Kunming
Kunming
Airport Economic
Economic
Zone * Ruili Border Trade Economic
Economic
Cooperation Zone

Ruili Border Economic
Economic
Cooperation Zone (RLBECZ) is a Chinese State Council-approved Industrial Park based in Ruili, Dehong Prefecture, founded in 1992 and was established to promote trade between China
China
and Burma. The area's import and export trade include the processing industry, local agriculture and biological resources are very promising. Sino-Burmese business is growing fast. Burma
Burma
is now one of Yunnan's biggest foreign trade partners. In 1999, Sino-Burmese trade accounted for 77.4% of Yunnan's foreign trade. In the same year, exports for electromechanical equipments came up to US$55.28 million. Main exports here include fiber cloth, cotton yarn, ceresin wax, mechanical equipments, fruits, rice seeds, fiber yarn and tobacco.

* Wanding Border Economic
Economic
Cooperation Zone

Wanding Border Economic
Economic
Cooperation Zone (WTBECZ) is a Chinese State Council-approved Industrial Park based in Wanding Town, Ruili, Dehong, founded in 1992 and was established to promote trade between China
China
and Burma. The zone spans 6 km2 (2.3 sq mi) and is focuses on developing trading, processing, agriculture resources and tourism.

* Qujing Economic
Economic
and Technological Development Zone

Qujing Economic
Economic
and Technological Development Zone (QETDZ) is a provincial development zone approved by Yunnan
Yunnan
Provincial Government in August 1992. It is located in the east of urban Qujing, the second largest city in Yunnan
Yunnan
in terms of economic strengths. The location of the development zone is the economic, political and cultural center of Qujing. As an agency under Qujing municipal Party committee and municipal government, the administrative commission of QETDZ functions as an economy supervising body at the prefecture level and an administration body at the county level. It has 106 km2 (41 sq mi) under its jurisdiction. It shoulders the task of building a new 40-square-kilometer city area and providing service for a population of 400,000 in the upcoming 10 years.

* Yuxi Economic
Economic
and Technological Development Zone * Dali Economic
Economic
and Technological Development Zone * Chuxiong Economic
Economic
and Technological Development Zone

Chuxiong Economic
Economic
Development Zone is an important zone in Yunnan. Now the zone has attracted a number of investment projects. It is an important industry for the development of new-type industry platform. The zone covers an area of 12 km2, composed of four parks.

* Songming Yanglin Experimental Zone for County & Township Industries * Hekou Border Economic
Economic
Cooperation Zone

First established in 1992, Hekou Border Economic
Economic
Cooperation Zone is a border zone approved by State Council to promote Sino-Vietnamese trade. It has a planned area of 4.02 km2 (1.55 sq mi). The zone implemented several policies to serve its clients in China
China
from various industries and sectors including investment, trade, finance, taxation, immigration, etc.

* Jiegao Border Trade Economic
Economic
Zone * Lijiang
Lijiang
Yulong Snow Mountain Tourism
Tourism
Zone * Cang Mountain 2,562 secondary schools with an enrollment of more than 2,137,400 students and 120,461 teachers; and 22,151 primary schools with an enrollment of 4,720,600 pupils and a faculty of 210,507. The gross enrollment rate of school-age children was 99.02%.

_See also_: List of universities and colleges in Yunnan

HEALTH

Yunnan
Yunnan
Province is responsible for about 50% of officially reported malaria cases in China.

It is presently considered to be the main source of plague in China.

HIV-AIDS

* HIV/AIDS in Yunnan

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Yunnan

RAILWAYS

Viaduct of the Dali– Lijiang
Lijiang
Railway near Dali

The first railway in Yunnan
Yunnan
was the narrow gauge Yunnan–Vietnam Railway built by France from 1904 to 1910 to connect Kunming
Kunming
with Vietnam
Vietnam
, then a French colony. In Yunnan, the Chinese section of this railway is known as the Yunnan-Hekou Railway and the line gave Yunnan access to the seaport at Haiphong . During the Second World War, Britain and the United States began building a railway from Yunnan
Yunnan
to Burma
Burma
but abandoned the effort due to Japanese advance.

Due in part to difficult terrain both locally and in surrounding provinces and the shortage of capital for rail construction, Yunnan remained outside of China's domestic rail network until 1966 when the Guiyang– Kunming
Kunming
Railway was completed. The line would not enter into operation until 1970, the same year that the Chengdu- Kunming
Kunming
was completed. The Nanning– Kunming
Kunming
Railway to Guangxi was completed in 1997, followed by the Neijiang– Kunming
Kunming
Railway in 2001. The Panxi Railway , originally built in 1975 to draw coal from neighboring Guizhou, was electrified in 2001 and adds to eastern Yunnan's outbound rail transport capacity.

Within the province, the Kunming– Yuxi , opened in 1993, and the Guangtong–Dali , opened in 1998, expanded the rail network to southern and western Yunnan, respectively. The Dali– Lijiang
Lijiang
Railway , opened in 2010, brought rail service to northwestern Yunnan. That line is planned to be extended further north to Xamgyi\'nyilha County .

The province is extending the railway network to neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. From Yuxi , the Yuxi–Mengzi Railway , built from 2005 to 2013, and the Mengzi–Hekou Railway , under construction since 2008, will form a standard gauge railway connection with Vietnam
Vietnam
. The Dali– Ruili Railway , under construction since May 2011, will bring rail service to the border with Myanmar
Myanmar
. Also under planning is a rail line from Yuxi to Mohan, in Xishuangbana Prefecture, on the border with Laos. This line could be extended further south to Thailand
Thailand
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
.

BURMA ROAD

The Burma
Burma
Road was a highway extending about 1,100 kilometres (680 mi) through mountainous terrain from Lashio , northeast Burma northeastward to Kunming, China. Undertaken by the Chinese after the start of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and completed in 1938, it was a vital transportation route for wartime supplies to the Chinese government from Rangoon and shipped by railroad to Lashio from 1938 to 1946. An extension runs east through China
China
from Kunming, then north to Chongqing. This traffic increased in importance to China
China
after the Japanese took effective control of the Chinese coast and of Indochina. It was seized by the Japanese in 1942 and reopened when it was connected to the Stilwell Road from India. The Ledo Road
Ledo Road
(later called the Stilwell Road) from Ledo , India, into Burma
Burma
was begun in December 1942. In 1944 the Ledo Road
Ledo Road
reached Myitkyina
Myitkyina
and was joined to the Burma
Burma
Road. Both roads have lost their former importance and are in a state of disrepair. The Burma
Burma
Road's importance diminished after World War II, but it has remained a link in a 3,400-km road system from Yangon
Yangon
, Burma
Burma
, to Chongqing
Chongqing
.

HIGHWAYS

Road construction in Yunnan
Yunnan
continues unabated: over the last years the province has added more new roads than any other province. Today expressways link Kunming
Kunming
through Dali to Baoshan, Kunming
Kunming
to Mojiang (on the way to Jinghong), Kunming
Kunming
to Qujing, Kunming
Kunming
to Shilin (Stone Forest). The official plan is to connect all major towns and neighbouring capitals with expressways by 2010, and to complete a high-speed road network by 2020. Roadway in Lijiang
Lijiang
with the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain in the distance. Road sign in Xamgyi\'nyilha County . A street in Jinghong
Jinghong
lined with palm trees.

All county towns are now accessible by paved, all-weather roads from Kunming, all townships have a road connection (the last to be connected was Yangla, in the far north, but Dulongjiang remains cut off for about six months every year), and about half of all villages have road access.

Second-level national highways stretch 958 km (595 mi), third-level highways, 7,571 km (4,704 mi) and fourth-level highways, 52,248 km (32,465 mi). The province has formed a network of communication lines radiating from Kunming
Kunming
to Sichuan
Sichuan
and Guizhou
Guizhou
provinces and Guangxi and Tibet
Tibet
autonomous regions, and further on to Burma, Laos, Vietnam and Thailand.

National highways running through Yunnan
Yunnan
province are:

* China National Highway 108 * China National Highway 213 * China National Highway 214 * China National Highway 320 * China National Highway 323 * China National Highway 324 * China National Highway 326

Expressways

After the opening of the Suolongsi to Pingyuanjie expressway, Luofu expressway, the first between Yunnan
Yunnan
and Guangxi Province, opened on October 2007. It has made material and passenger transportation between the two provinces much more convenient. Moreover, Luofu Expressway has also become the main road from Yunnan
Yunnan
to Guangxi and the coastal ports. Luofu Expressway begins from the crossroads of Luo Village between Yunnan
Yunnan
and Guangxi Provinces and ends at Funing County of Wenshan State . The total length of the expressway is 79.3 kilometers which has shortened the commute between Yunnan
Yunnan
and Guangxi from the previous 3 and half hours to just 50 minutes.

Expressways running through Yunnan
Yunnan
province are:

* Kunming–Bangkok Expressway * G5611 Dali Expressway from Dali to Lijiang
Lijiang
* G78 Shankun Expressway from Shantou to Kunming * G80 Guangkun Expressway from Guangzhou
Guangzhou
to Kunming * G8011 Kaihe Expressway from Kaiyuan to Hekou on the Vietnamese border

WATERWAYS

Yangzi River
Yangzi River

Generally, rivers are obstacles to transport in Yunnan. Only very small parts of Yunnan's river systems are navigable. However, China
China
is constructing a series of dams on the Mekong
Mekong
to develop it as a waterway and source of power; the first was completed at Manwan in 1993.

In 1995, the province put an investment of 171 million yuan to add another 807 km (501 mi) of navigation lines. It built two wharfs with an annual handling capacity of 300,000 to 400,000 tons each and four wharfs with an annual handling capacity of 100,000 tons each. The annual volume of goods transported was two million tons and that of passengers transported, two million.

AIRPORTS

Dali Airport

The province has twenty domestic air routes from Kunming
Kunming
to Beijing
Beijing
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, Guangzhou
Guangzhou
, Chengdu
Chengdu
, Haikou
Haikou
, Chongqing
Chongqing
, Shenyang , Harbin
Harbin
, Wuhan
Wuhan
, Xi\'an , Lanzhou
Lanzhou
, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, Xiamen
Xiamen
, Nanning , Shenzhen
Shenzhen
, Guiyang , Changsha , Guilin , Lhasa
Lhasa
and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
; ten provincial air routes from Kunming
Kunming
to Jinghong
Jinghong
, Mangshi, Lincang, Tengchong, Lijiang
Lijiang
, Dali , Xamgyi\'nyilha , Zhaotong , Baoshan and Simao ; and ten international air routes from Kunming
Kunming
to Bangkok
Bangkok
, Kolkata
Kolkata
, Chiang Mai , Yangon
Yangon
, Singapore
Singapore
, Seoul
Seoul
, Hanoi
Hanoi
, Ho Chi Minh City , Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
and Vientiane
Vientiane
.

Replacing Kunming
Kunming
Wujiaba International Airport is Kunming
Kunming
Changshui International Airport , which opened June 28, 2012.

BRIDGES

Bridge-building in Yunnan
Yunnan
date back at least 1,300 years when the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
built an iron chain bridge over the Yangtze
Yangtze
to the neighboring Nanzhao Kingdom at what is today Weixi Lisu Autonomous County during the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
. Iron
Iron
chain bridges are still found across high river valleys of Yunnan. The Jinlong Bridge on the Jinsha River in Lijiang
Lijiang
remains the oldest bridge over the Yangtze. With the expansion of the highway and railway network in Yunnan, numerous large-scale bridges have been built across the region's myriad of rivers, including the Yangtze
Yangtze
which has dozens of crossings in Yunnan.

CULTURE

See also: Major national historical and cultural sites (Yunnan) Hand-painted Chinese New Year's poetry pasted on the sides of doors leading to people's homes, Old Town, Lijiang
Lijiang
.

Yunnan's cultural life is one of remarkable diversity. Archaeological findings have unearthed sacred burial structures holding elegant bronzes in Jinning , south of Kunming
Kunming
. In Zhaotong in northeastern Yunnan, there has been discovered, frescos of the Jin Dynasty (265–420) . Many Chinese cultural relics have been discovered in later periods. The lineage of tribal way of life of the indigenous peoples persisted uninfluenced by modernity until the mid-20th century. Tribal traditions, such as Yi slaveholding and Wa headhunting , have since been abolished. After the Cultural Revolution (1966–76), when many minority culture and religious practices were suppressed, Yunnan
Yunnan
has come to celebrate its cultural diversity and subsequently many local customs and festivals have flourished.

EIGHTEEN ODDITIES OF YUNNAN

Main article: Eighteen Oddities of Yunnan

CUISINE

Main article: Yunnan cuisine

TEA

For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea .

Yunnan
Yunnan
has several different tea growing regions. One of Yunnan's best known products is Pu-erh tea (or Puer), named after the old tea trading town of Pu-erh (Puer). The province is also known for its Yunnan
Yunnan
Gold
Gold
and other Dianhong teas, developed in the 20th century.

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Yunnan

CHINESE MEDICINE

Yunnan
Yunnan
is host to 15,000 species of plants, including 60 percent of the plants used in traditional Chinese medicine .

* Yunnan Baiyao

TOURISM

Rice-terraced mountains of Yuanyang county

Yunnan
Yunnan
Province, due to its beautiful landscapes, mild climate and cultural diversity, is one of China's major tourist destinations. Most visitors are Chinese tourists, although trips to Yunnan
Yunnan
are organized by an increasing number of foreign travel agencies as well. Mainland tourists travel by the masses; 2.75 million Chinese visited Yunnan last October during National Holiday. Also a different trend is slowly developing; small scale and environmentally friendly ecotourism . At the moment projects in this field are often being set up with help of NGO's.

In 2004, tourism revenues amounted to 37 billion RMB, and thus accounting for 12, 6% of the provincial GDP. Another fact indicating the importance of tourism in Yunnan
Yunnan
Province is capital Kunming hosting the China
China
International Travel Mart every two years. This tourism trade fair is the largest of its kind in Asia and serves as an important platform for professionals in the sector. More than 80 countries and regions were present during the 2005 edition.

Tourism
Tourism
is expected to grow further. In 2010, the province welcomed over 2.3 million overseas tourists and the Yunnan
Yunnan
Provincial Tourism Bureau aims to draw 4.3 million overseas arrivals under the 12th Five-Year Tourism
Tourism
Development Plan. Kunming
Kunming
city is expected to add 11 new mid- to high-end hotels with an inventory of under 4,000 rooms between 2012 and 2016.

The Nature Conservancy and the Chinese government came together to form a partnership and explore the possibility of bringing adventure tourism onto the rivers of Southwest China. A two-month white-water expedition explored from the Mekong
Mekong
River's Moon Gorge to Yangze River's Great Bend. The expedition provided valuable information to the partnership, encouraging them to take into account the safety, culture, economics, and conservation of the Yunnan
Yunnan
Province. Creating an adventure tourism sector would bring valuable economic resources to the economically struggling population, who had once relied on logging as income prior to it being banned due to deforestation.

Tourist centres in Yunnan
Yunnan
include:

* Dali , the historic center of the Nanzhao and Dali kingdoms. * Chuxiong , the first stop on the way to Dali and Lijiang. Home of the Yi ethnic minority and their respective ancient town. * Jinghong
Jinghong
, the center and prefectural capital of the Xishuangbanna Dai minority autonomous prefecture. * Lijiang
Lijiang
, a Naxi minority city. It has been a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site since 1997. * Xamgyi\'nyilha County (also known as Shangri-La and formerly Zhongdian), an ethnic Tibetan township and county set high in Yunnan's northwestern mountains. * Shilin (Stone Forest) , a series of karst outcrops east of Kunming . * Yuanyang , a Hani minority settlement with vast rice-terraced mountains. * Xishuangbanna , a national scenic resort, noted for its natural and cultural attractions.

PLACES OF INTEREST

The Three Pagodas of Dali City The Gucheng Mosque of Yunnan
Yunnan

* Black Dragon Pool * Baishutai * Cangshan * Erhai Lake * Ganlan Basin * Green Lake Park * Jade Dragon Snow Mountain * Lancang River ( Mekong
Mekong
River) * Manting Park (Chunhuan Park) in Jinghong
Jinghong
* Meili Snow Mountain in Deqin * Pujian Temple * Sanchahe Nature Reserve in Jinghong * ShaPing Market , Dali * Shaxi * Stone Forest * Three Pagodas * Tengchong (hot springs) * Tiger Leaping Gorge * Visitor Center for Nature and Culture in Northwest Yunnan
Yunnan
* Wase markets, near Dali * Xishuangbanna Tropical
Tropical
Flower -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ "Doing Business in Yunnan
Yunnan
Province of China". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013. * ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People\'s Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 2)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013. * ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (IN CHINESE). UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME CHINA. 2013. RETRIEVED 2014-05-14. * ^ _A_ _B_ David Paterson, Kunming
Kunming
Institute of Botany’s honorary senior horticulturalist and former director of the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland
Scotland
. * ^ Lee, James (1982). "The Legacy of Immigration in Southwest China, 1250-1850". _Annals de démographie historique_. 1982: 279–304. * ^ Yang, Bin (2008). "Chapter 2 The Southwest Silk Road: Yunnan
Yunnan
in a Global Context". _Between Winds and Clouds The Making of Yunnan Second Century BCE to Twentieth Century CE_ (PDF). Columbia University Press. * ^ John Man-Kublai Khan, p.80 * ^ Robinson, David M., _Delimiting the Realm under the Ming Dynasty_ (PDF), p. 15 * ^ John W. Dardess (2012). _Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire_. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0490-4 . * ^ Dardess, John W. (2003). "CHAPTER 3 Did the Mongols
Mongols
Matter? Territory, Power, and the Intelligentsia in China
China
from the Northern Song to the Early Ming". In Smith, Paul Jakov; von Glahn, Richard. _The Song –Yuan-Ming Transition in Chinese History_ (PDF). Cambridge: Harvard University
University
Asia Center. p. 111. ISBN 9780674010963 . * ^ Lee, James (1982). "The legacy of immigration in Southwest China, 1250-1850". _Annales de démographie historique_. 1982 (1): 279–304. Retrieved 11 July 2016. * ^ Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: Cambridge University
University
Press, 1996.ISBN 0-521-49712-4 * ^ Fytche 1878 , p. 301 * ^ Dillon 1999 , p. 77 * ^ GE Morrison, An Australian in China, 1895 * ^ Yunnan
Yunnan
Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources (1990). _Regional Geology of Yunnan
Yunnan
Province_. Geological Memoirs of the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources of the People’s Republic of China: Regional Geology, no.21 (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House. p. 10. ISBN 978-7-116-00567-9 . * ^ 中央气象台>> 全国 >> 云南省 >> 景洪天气预报 (IN CHINESE). NATIONAL METEOROLOGICAL CENTRE OF THE CHINA METEOROLOGICAL ADMINISTRATION. RETRIEVED 2012-06-26. * ^ _A_ _B_ Smith, A.T.; and Xie, Y. (2008). _A Guide to the Mammals of China._ Princeton University
University
Press, New Jersey. ISBN 978-0-691-09984-2 . * ^ Blanck, Zhou, and McCord (2006). The Yunnan
Yunnan
box turtle, Cuora yunnanensis (BOULENGER 1906); historical background and an update on the morphology, distribution and vulnerabilities of the only known living specimens. Sacalia 13(4): 14-35. * ^ Grueter, Jiang, Konrad, Fan, Guan, and Geissmann (2009). Are Hylobates lar Extirpated from China? International Journal of Primatology 30:553–567. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Chen, X.Y. (2013). Checklist of fishes of Yunnan. Dongwuxue Yanjiu 34(4):281-343. doi: 10.11813/j.issn.0254-5853.2013.4.0281 * ^ Wang, Wang, Li, Du, Yang, Lassoie, and Hassan (2013). _Six decades of changes in vascular hydrophyte and fish species in three plateau lakes in Yunnan, China._ Biodivers. Conserv. 22: 3197–3221. doi: 10.1007/s10531-013-0579-0 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Dry spell grips Yunnan
Yunnan
Province". _CCTV_. February 26, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013. * ^ Coco Liu (April 16, 2013). "DROUGHT: What happens when Asia\'s \'water tower\' dries up?". _ClimateWire E&E News_. Retrieved April 17, 2013. * ^ " Yunnan
Yunnan
issues Level IV emergency response plan to drought". _In Kunming_. March 21, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013. * ^ Zheng Jinran (February 21, 2013). "Home / China
China
/ Society Drought
Drought
affects 660,000 people in Yunnan, Gansu
Gansu
and Hebei". _China Daily_. * ^ Mamta Badkar (March 1, 2013). "660,000 People In China
China
Have Been Living With Almost No Water For Four Years". _Business Insider_. Retrieved April 17, 2013. * ^ " Lijiang
Lijiang
is to build Laojunshan National Park". Kunming. 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2013-11-17. * ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. "South China
China
Karst - UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2013-11-17. * ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部. * ^ 深圳市统计局. _《深圳统计年鉴2014》_. _深圳统计网_. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29. * ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). _Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao_ (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2 . * ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (2014.08). _《中国民政统计年鉴2014》_. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9 . Check date values in: date= (help ) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ " Qin Guangrong re-elected governor of Yunnan
Yunnan
Province". _ Xinhua
Xinhua
_. 2008-01-24. Retrieved 2008-02-23. * ^ "1912年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "1928年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "1936-37年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "1947年全国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014. * ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China . Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. * ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China . Archived from the original on September 14, 2012. * ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China . Archived from the original on May 10, 2012. * ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China . Archived from the original on June 19, 2012. * ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China . Archived from the original on August 29, 2012. * ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People\'s Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China . Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. * ^ "中国云南省五个民族DYS287位点多态性的调查". Windrug.com. Retrieved 2013-11-17. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ 毕迎春: 云南省宗教信教群众达400余万人, 2005-7-27. * ^ China
China
General Social Survey 2004, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived September 25, 2015, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ _A_ _B_ " China
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Economy @ China
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Perspective". Thechinaperspective.com. 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-11-17. * ^ Roberts, Edmund (1837). _Embassy to the Eastern Courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat_. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 123. * ^ " Myanmar
Myanmar
to open second largest border trade zone". People's Daily Online. February 13, 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-14. * ^ Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 09:00. " Kunming
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Economic
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& Technology Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2013-11-17. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 09:00. " Kunming
Kunming
High-tech Industrial Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2013-11-17. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 09:00. " Ruili Border Economic Cooperation Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2013-11-17. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 09:00. "Wanding Border Economic Cooperation Zone China
China
Industrial Space". Rightsite.asia. Retrieved 2013-11-17. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 09:00. " Qujing Economic
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and Technological Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2013-11-17. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 09:00. "Chuxiong Economic Development Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2013-11-17. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Wednesday, November 20, 2013 - 09:00. "Hekou Border Economic Cooperation Zone". RightSite.asia. Retrieved 2013-11-17. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ L. Tian, J. Li, K. Zhang, P. Guest. "Women's status, institutional barriers and reproductive health care: A case study in Yunnan, China". _Health Policy_, Volume 84, Issue 2, Pages 284–297 * ^ "Literacy Co-ordination Office of Yunnan
Yunnan
Province". Portal.unesco.org. Retrieved 2013-11-17. * ^ Yunnan
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DQ Testing Turns Up Fake Artesunates, Health Officials Alerted USP Drug Quality and Information Program * ^ Zhang Z, Hai R, Song Z, Xia L, Liang Y, Cai H, Liang Y, Shen X, Zhang E, Xu J, Yu D, Yu XJ. (2009) Spatial variation of _Yersinia pestis_ from Yunnan
Yunnan
Province of China. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 81(4):714-717 * ^ http://www.kmgairport.com/notice/690.jhtml * ^ Thomson Reuters Foundation. "Thomson Reuters Foundation News, Information and Connections for Action". Alertnet.org. Retrieved 2013-11-17. * ^ "Article on the tea growing regions of Yunnan". The-leaf.org. 1985-06-11. Retrieved 2013-11-17. * ^ " Yunnan
Yunnan
catches up". TTGmice. Retrieved 10 December 2012.

FURTHER READING

Books

* Dillon, Michael (26 July 1999), _China\'s Muslim
Muslim
Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects_, Richmond, UK: Routledge / Curzon Press, ISBN 0-7007-1026-4 , retrieved 28 June 2010 * Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2011). _Traders of the Golden Triangle_. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B006GMID5K * Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (2011). _China's Ancient Tea
Tea
Horse Road_. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B005DQV7Q2 * Fytche, Albert (1878), _ Burma
Burma
past and present_, London: C. K. Paul & Co, retrieved 28 June 2010 * Jim Goodman (2002). _The Exploration of Yunnan_. ISBN 7-222-03276-2 . * Stephen Mansfield (2007). _China: Yunnan
Yunnan
Province_. (Bradt Travel Guide China: Yunnan
Yunnan
Province) ISBN 1-84162-169-2 . * Ann Helen Unger and Walter Unger. (2007) _Yunnan: China's Most Beautiful Province_. (Orchid Press) ISBN 3-7774-8390-7 . * Damien Harper (2007). _China's Southwest_. (Lonely Planet Country padding:0.75em; background:#f9f9f9;"> Find more aboutYUNNANat Wikipedia's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity * Data from Wikidata

* Yunnan
Yunnan
Province e-Government website * Yunnan
Yunnan
Statistical Yearbook

‹ The template below (Geographic location _) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

_ Tibet Autonomous Region Sichuan
Sichuan
Guizhou
Guizhou

Guangxi

YUNNAN

Kachin State and Shan States , Myanmar
Myanmar
Luang Namtha , Oudomxay , and Phongsaly Provinces , Laos
Laos
Hà Giang , Lào Cai , Lai Châu , and Điện Biên provinces, Vietnam
Vietnam

* v * t * e

Yunnan
Yunnan
topics

Kunming
Kunming
(capital )

GENERAL

* History * Politics * Economy

GEOGRAPHY

* Cities * Yunnan- Guizhou
Guizhou
Plateau
Plateau
* Diqing Plateau
Plateau
* Honghe River * Dianchi Lake * Fuxian Lake * Erhai Lake * Lugu Lake * Yangzong Lake * Yilong Lake * Xi River * Yuan River * Pearl River * Red River * Pudacuo National Park

EDUCATION

* Yunnan
Yunnan
University
University
* Yunnan
Yunnan
Agricultural University
University

CULTURE

* Music * Eighteen Oddities

CUISINE

* Barbeque * Pineapple rice * Erkuai _ * Ferns * Crossing the bridge noodles * Honey
Honey
* Hot pot * _ Jidou liangfen _ * _Lufu _ * _Mi gan _ * _Mi xian _ * Mushrooms * Pu\'er tea * Steam pot chicken * _ Rubing _ * _Rushan _ * Sichuan
Sichuan
pepper * Shiping tofu * Xuanwei ham * _Zhe\'ergen _

VISITOR ATTRACTIONS

* Old Town of Lijiang * Dali Old Town * Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas * South China
China
Karst

* _ CATEGORY * COMMONS

* v * t * e

County-level divisions of Yunnan
Yunnan
Province

Kunming
Kunming
(capital )

PREFECTURE-LEVEL CITIES

KUNMING

* Panlong District * Wuhua District * Guandu District * Xishan District * Chenggong District * Dongchuan District * Jinning District * Anning City * Fumin County * Yiliang County * Songming County * Shilin Autonomous County * Luquan Autonomous County * Xundian Autonomous County

QUJING

* Qilin District * Xuanwei City * Malong County * Zhanyi County * Fuyuan County * Luoping County * Shizong County * Luliang County * Huize County

YUXI

* Hongta District * Jiangchuan District * Chengjiang County * Tonghai County * Huaning County * Yimen County * Eshan Autonomous County * Xinping Autonomous County * Yuanjiang Autonomous County

BAOSHAN

* Longyang District * Tengchong City * Shidian County * Longling County * Changning County

ZHAOTONG

* Zhaoyang District * Ludian County * Qiaojia County * Yanjin County * Daguan County * Yongshan County * Suijiang County * Zhenxiong County * Yiliang County * Weixin County * Shuifu County

LIJIANG

* Gucheng District * Yongsheng County * Huaping County * Yulong Autonomous County * Ninglang Autonomous County

PU\\'ER

* Simao District * Ning\'er Autonomous County * Mojiang Autonomous County * Jingdong Autonomous County * Jinggu Autonomous County * Zhenyuan Autonomous County * Jiangcheng Autonomous County * Menglian Autonomous County * Lancang Autonomous County * Ximeng Autonomous County

LINCANG

* Linxiang District * Fengqing County * Yun County * Yongde County * Zhenkang County * Shuangjiang Autonomous County * Gengma Autonomous County * Cangyuan Autonomous County

AUTONOMOUS PREFECTURES

CHUXIONG

* Chuxiong City * Shuangbai County * Mouding County * Nanhua County * Yao\'an County * Dayao County * Yongren County * Yuanmou County * Wuding County * Lufeng County

HONGHE

* Mengzi City * Gejiu City * Kaiyuan City * Mile City * Lüchun County * Jianshui County * Shiping County * Luxi County * Yuanyang County * Honghe County * Jinping Autonomous County * Hekou Autonomous County * Pingbian Autonomous County

WENSHAN

* Wenshan City * Yanshan County * Xichou County * Malipo County * Maguan County * Qiubei County * Guangnan County * Funing County

XISHUANGBANNA

* Jinghong
Jinghong
City * Menghai County * Mengla County

DALI

* Dali City * Xiangyun County * Binchuan County * Midu County * Yongping County * Yunlong County * Eryuan County * Jianchuan County * Heqing County * Yangbi Autonomous County * Nanjian Autonomous County * Weishan Autonomous County

DEHONG

* Mang City * Ruili City * Lianghe County * Yingjiang County * Longchuan County

NUJIANG

* Lushui City * Fugong County * Gongshan Autonomous County * Lanping Autonomous County

DIQING

* Shangri-La City * Dêqên County * Weixi Autonomous County

* v * t * e

Provincial-level divisions of the People\'s Republic of China
China

PROVINCES

* Anhui
Anhui
* Fujian
Fujian
* Gansu
Gansu
* Guangdong
Guangdong
* Guizhou
Guizhou
* Hainan
Hainan
* Hebei
Hebei
* Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
* Henan * Hubei
Hubei
* Hunan
Hunan
* Jiangsu
Jiangsu
* Jiangxi
Jiangxi
* Jilin
Jilin
* Liaoning
Liaoning
* Qinghai * Shaanxi
Shaanxi
* Shandong
Shandong
* Shanxi
Shanxi
* Sichuan
Sichuan
* Yunnan * Zhejiang
Zhejiang

AUTONOMOUS REGIONS

* Guangxi * Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
* Ningxia
Ningxia
* Tibet
Tibet
* Xinjiang
Xinjiang

MUNICIPALITIES

* Beijing
Beijing
* Chongqing
Chongqing
* Shanghai
Shanghai
* Tianjin
Tianjin

SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS

* Hong Kong
Hong Kong
¹ * Macau
Macau
¹

OTHER

* Taiwan
Taiwan
¹_

NOTE: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People\'s Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political
Political
status of Taiwan ). Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
are claimed as provincial-level divisions, but as listed on the constitutional documents and joint declarations their statuses are better to be interpreted as first-level divisions instead.

AUTHORITY CONTROL

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