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Yukon[6] (/ˈjuːkɒn/; French: [jykɔ̃]; also commonly called the Yukon) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories (the other two are the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and Nunavut). The territory has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people.[7] Whitehorse is the territorial capital and Yukon's only city. The territory was split from the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
in 1898 and was named the Yukon
Yukon
Territory. The federal government's Yukon
Yukon
Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon
Yukon
as the territory's official name,[6] though Yukon
Yukon
Territory is also still popular in usage and Canada
Canada
Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT.[8] Though officially bilingual (English and French), the Yukon
Yukon
Government also recognizes First Nations
First Nations
languages. At 5,959 m (19,551 ft), Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park
Park
and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada
Canada
and the second-highest on the North American continent (after Denali
Denali
in the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Alaska). Most of Yukon
Yukon
has a subarctic climate, characterized by long cold winters and brief warm summers. The Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon
Yukon
River, after which the territory was named, as well as the Pelly, Stewart, Peel, White and Tatshenshini rivers.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Adjacent territory/province/state 3.2 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Municipalities by population 4.2 Ethnicity 4.3 Language 4.4 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Tourism

6 Culture

6.1 Ethnic groups 6.2 Languages 6.3 Music 6.4 Popular media 6.5 Events and festivals

7 Government

7.1 Federal representation 7.2 First Nations

8 Infrastructure 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Etymology[edit] The territory is named after the Yukon
Yukon
River, the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in
Gwich'in
phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to “the pale colour” of glacial runoff in the Yukon River.[9][10] History[edit] Main article: History of Yukon Long before the arrival of Europeans, central and southern Yukon
Yukon
was populated by First Nations
First Nations
people, and the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon
Yukon
hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human occupation in North America.[11][12] The sites safeguard the history of the first people and the earliest First Nations
First Nations
of the Yukon.[12] The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill
Mount Churchill
in approximately 800 AD in what is now the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Alaska
Alaska
blanketed southern Yukon
Yukon
with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, and which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations
First Nations
peoples in Yukon
Yukon
and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations
First Nations
had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area only began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries. By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush
Klondike Gold Rush
in 1897. The increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon
Yukon
district from the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. Geography[edit]

Map of Yukon

Main article: Geography of Yukon The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Alaska
Alaska
to the west and northwest for 1,210 km (752 mi) mostly along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia
British Columbia
to the south.[13] Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea. Its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon
Yukon
Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the Yukon River. The southern Yukon
Yukon
is dotted with a large number of large, long and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane
Kluane
Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush
Klondike Gold Rush
trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan
Mount Logan
(5,959 m or 19,551 ft), is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan
Mount Logan
and a large part of the Yukon's southwest are in Kluane
Kluane
National Park
Park
and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park
Park
and Vuntut National Park
Vuntut National Park
in the north.

Mount Logan
Mount Logan
from the southeast

Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed
Peel Watershed
and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, and a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon
Yukon
rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
are the Liard River
Liard River
in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon
Yukon
are the black spruce and white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of the short growing season and severe climate.[14] The capital, Whitehorse, is also the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population; the second largest is Dawson City (pop. 2,016), which was the capital until 1952. Adjacent territory/province/state[edit]

British Columbia
British Columbia
(south) Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
(east) Alaska, United States (west)

Climate[edit] See also: Climate change in the Arctic

Köppen climate types in Yukon

While the average winter temperature in the Yukon
Yukon
is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America
North America
gets as cold as the Yukon
Yukon
during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C (−76 °F) three times, 1947, 1954, and 1968. The most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F).[15] Unlike most of Canada
Canada
where the most extreme heat waves occur in July, August, and even September, The Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and even May. The Yukon
Yukon
has recorded 36 °C (97 °F) three times. The first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C (97 °F). 14 years later this record was almost beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C (97 °F) in May 1983. The old record was finally broken 21 years later in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C (97.7 °F).[16]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Yukon[16]

City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)

Whitehorse 21/8 70/46 −11/−19 12/−2

Dawson City 23/8 73/46 −22/−30 −8/−22

Old Crow 20/9 68/48 −25/−34 −13/−29

Demographics[edit]

Distribution of Yukon's eight municipalities by type

Main article: Demographics of Yukon The 2016 census reported a Yukon
Yukon
population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011.[2] With a land area of 474,712.64 km2 (183,287.57 sq mi), it had a population density of 0.1/km2 (0.2/sq mi) in 2011.[17] Municipalities by population[edit] Main article: List of municipalities in Yukon

Name Status[18] Official name Incorporation date[19] 2016 Census of Population[20]

Population (2016) Population (2011) Change Land area (km²) Population density

Carmacks Town Village of Carmacks 000000001984-11-01-0000November 1, 1984 493 503 2999801192842942350♠−2.0% 7001369500000000000♠36.95 13.3/km2

Dawson Town City
City
of Dawson 000000001902-01-09-0000January 9, 1902 1,375 1,319 7000424564063684610♠+4.2% 7001324500000000000♠32.45 42.4/km2

Faro Town Town of Faro 000000001969-06-13-0000June 13, 1969 348 344 7000116279069767440♠+1.2% 7002203570000000000♠203.57 1.7/km2

Haines Junction Town Village of Haines Junction 000000001984-10-01-0000October 1, 1984 613 593 7000337268128161890♠+3.4% 7001344900000000000♠34.49 17.8/km2

Mayo Town Village of Mayo 000000001984-06-01-0000June 1, 1984 200 226 2998884955752212390♠−11.5% 7000106000000000000♠1.06 188.7/km2

Teslin Town Village of Teslin 000000001984-08-01-0000August 1, 1984 124 122 7000163934426229510♠+1.6% 7000192000000000000♠1.92 64.6/km2

Watson Lake Town Town of Watson Lake 000000001984-04-01-0000April 1, 1984 790 802 2999850374064837910♠−1.5% 7000611000000000000♠6.11 129.3/km2

Whitehorse City City
City
of Whitehorse 000000001950-06-01-0000June 1, 1950 25,085 23,276 7000777195394397660♠+7.8% 7002416540000000000♠416.54 60.2/km2

Total municipalities — — — 29,028 27,185 7000677947397461840♠+6.8% 7002733090000000000♠733.09 39.6/km2

Territory of Yukon — — — 35,874 33,897 7000583237454642000♠+5.8% 7005474712680000000♠474,712.68 0.08/km2

Ethnicity[edit]

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2017)

According to the 2006 Canada
Canada
Census the majority of the territory's population was of European descent, although it has a significant population of First Nations
First Nations
communities across the territory. The top ten ancestries were:[21]

Ranking Ethnic group Population

1. English 8,795

2. North American First Nations 7,070

3. Scottish 7,005

4. Canadian 6,075

5. Irish 5,735

6. German 4,835

7. French 4,330

8. Ukrainian 1,620

9. Dutch (Netherlands) 1,475

10. Norwegian 1,340

The 2011 National Household Survey examined Yukon's ethnocultural diversity and immigration. At that time, 87.7% of residents were Canadian-born and 24.2% were of Aboriginal origin. The most common countries of birth for immigrants were the United Kingdom (15.9%), the Philippines (15.0%), and the United States (13.2%). Among very recent immigrants (between 2006 and 2011) living in Yukon, 63.5% were born in Asia.[22] Language[edit]

First Nations
First Nations
linguistic groups by tribes/clans[23]

Linguistic group Tribe/clan

Gwich'in Vuntut Gwitchin
Gwitchin
First Nation, Old Crow

Hän Tr'ondëk Hwëch'in First Nation, Dawson City

Upper Tanana White River First Nation, Beaver Creek

Small communities near Tok (Alaska)

Northern Tutchone Selkirk First Nation

Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun, Mayo

Southern Tutchone Champagne and Aishihik First Nations, Haines Junction

Kluane
Kluane
First Nation, Burwash Landing Ta'an Kwach'an Council, Lake Laberge Kwanlin Dün First Nation, Whitehorse

Kaska Ross River Dena Council, Ross River

Liard River
Liard River
First Nation, Watson Lake

Inland Tlingit Teslin Tlingit Council

Tagish Carcross/ Tagish
Tagish
First Nation

Mother tongue, 2011 census[24]

Rank Language Population Percent

1. English 28,065 82.9%

2. French 1,455 4.3%

3. German 805 2.4%

4. Tagalog 425 1.3%

5. Kaska 265 0.8%

6. Northern Tutchone 200 0.6%

7. Spanish 180 0.5%

8. Southern Tutchone 140 0.4%

8. Dutch 130 0.4%

10. Chinese 130 0.4%

The most commonly reported mother tongue among the 33,145 single responses to the 2011 Canadian census was English at 28,065 (7001850000000000000♠85%).[24] The second-most common was 1,455 (7000400000000000000♠4%) for French.[24] Among 510 multiple respondents, 140 of them (7001270000000000000♠27%) reported a mother tongue of both English and French, while 335 (7001660000000000000♠66%) reported English and a 'non-official language' and 20 (7000400000000000000♠4%) reported French and a 'non-official language'.[24] The Yukon
Yukon
Language Act "recognises the significance" of aboriginal languages in Yukon; however, only English and French are available for laws, court proceedings, and legislative assembly proceedings.[25] Religion[edit]

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (May 2012)

The 2011 National Household Survey reported that 49.9% of Yukoners reported having no religious affiliation, the highest percentage in Canada. The most frequently reported religious affiliation was Christianity, reported by 46.2% of residents. Of these, the most common denominations were the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(39.6%), the Anglican Church of Canada
Canada
(17.8%) and the United Church of Canada
Canada
(9.6%).[26] Economy[edit] Yukon's historical major industry was mining (lead, zinc, silver, gold, asbestos and copper). The government acquired the land from the Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
in 1870 and split it from the Northwest Territories in 1898 to fill the need for local government created by the population influx of the gold rush. Thousands of these prospectors flooded the territory, creating a colourful period recorded by authors such as Robert W. Service
Robert W. Service
and Jack London. The memory of this period and the early days of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as well as the territory's scenic wonders and outdoor recreation opportunities, makes tourism the second most important industry. Manufacturing, including furniture, clothing, and handicrafts, follows in importance, along with hydroelectricity. The traditional industries of trapping and fishing have declined. Today, the government sector is by far the biggest employer in the territory, directly employing approximately 5,000 out of a labour force of 12,500, on a population of 36,500.[27] On 1 May 2015, Yukon
Yukon
modified its Business Corporations Act,[28][29][30] in an effort to attract more benefits and participants to its economy. One amendment to the BCA lets a proxy be given for voting purposes. Another change will allow directors to pursue business opportunities declined by the corporation, a practice off-limits in most other jurisdictions due to the inherent potential for conflicts of interest.[27] One of the changes will allow a corporation to serve as a director of a subsidiary registered in Yukon.[31] The legislation also allows companies to add provisions in their articles of incorporation giving directors blanket approval to sell of all of the company’s assets without requiring a shareholder vote.[31] If provided for by a unanimous shareholders agreement, a corporation is not required to have directors at all.[32] There is increased flexibility regarding the location of corporate records offices, including the ability to maintain a records office outside of the Yukon
Yukon
so long as it is accessible by electronic means.[32] Tourism[edit]

Yukon
Yukon
welcome sign

Yukon's tourism motto is "Larger than life".[33] Yukon's major appeal is its nearly pristine nature. Tourism
Tourism
relies heavily on this, and there are many organized outfitters and guides available to hunters and anglers and nature lovers of all sorts. Sports enthusiasts can paddle lakes and rivers with canoes and kayaks, ride or walk trails, ski or snowboard in an organized setting or access the backcountry by air or snowmobile, climb the highest peaks in Canada
Canada
or take a family hike up smaller mountains, or try ice climbing and dog sledding. There are also various festivals and sporting events such as the Adäka Cultural Festival, Yukon International Storytelling Festival and Yukon Sourdough Rendezvous. There are many opportunities to experience pre-colonial lifestyles by learning about Yukon's First Nations.[34] Wildlife and nature observation is exceptional and a wide variety of large mammals, birds, and fish are easily accessible, whether or not within Yukon's many territorial[35] parks ( Herschel Island
Herschel Island
Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park,[36] Tombstone Territorial Park,[37] Fishing
Fishing
Branch Ni'iinlii'njik Park,[38] Coal River Springs Territorial Park)[39] and national parks ( Kluane
Kluane
National Park
Park
and Reserve, Vuntut National Park, Ivvavik National Park) and reserves, or nearby Liard River
Liard River
Hot Springs Provincial Park
Park
in British Columbia. The latitude enables the view of aurora borealis in Yukon. Culture[edit] Ethnic groups[edit] As noted above, the "aboriginal identity population" makes up a substantial minority, accounting for about 25 percent. Notwithstanding, the aboriginal culture is strongly reflected in such areas as winter sports, as in the Yukon Quest
Yukon Quest
sled dog race. The modern comic-book character Yukon Jack depicts a heroic aboriginal persona. Languages[edit] Although English is the main language used in the territory, as evidenced by the census, the Government of Yukon
Yukon
recognizes several aboriginal languages as part of the cultural heritage of the territory: the Tlingit, and the less common Tahltan, as well as seven Athapaskan languages, Upper Tanana, Gwitchin, Hän, Northern Tutchone, Southern Tutchone, Kaska and Tagish, some of which are rare.[40] Music[edit] Main article: Music of Yukon With the Klondike Gold
Gold
Rush, a number of folk songs from Yukon
Yukon
became popular, including "Rush to the Klondike" (1897, written by W. T. Diefenbaker), "The Klondike Gold
Gold
Rush", "I've Got the Klondike Fever" (1898) and "La Chanson du Klondyke". Popular media[edit] By far the strongest cultural and tourism aspect of the Yukon
Yukon
is the legacy of the Klondike Gold Rush
Klondike Gold Rush
(1897–1899), which inspired such contemporary writers at the time as Robert W. Service, Jack London
Jack London
and Jules Verne
Jules Verne
and which continues to inspire films and games from Mae West's Klondike Annie
Klondike Annie
to The Yukon Trail
The Yukon Trail
(see Cultural legacy of the Klondike Gold
Gold
Rush). Notable residents have included Leslie Nielsen, Erik Nielsen and Pierre Berton. Events and festivals[edit] See also: Category:Festivals in Yukon Yukon
Yukon
also has a wide array of cultural and sporting events and infrastructures that attract artists, participants and tourists from all parts of the world; Yukon
Yukon
International Storytelling Festival, Dawson City
City
Music Festival,[41] Yukon
Yukon
Quest, Yukon
Yukon
Sourdough Rendezvous, the Adäka Cultural Festival, the Yukon
Yukon
Beringia Interpretive Centre,[42] Northern Lights Centre,[43] Klondike Gold Rush memorials and activities, Takhini Hot Springs, and the Whitehorse fish ladder.[44] Government[edit]

Chief Isaac of the Hän, Yukon
Yukon
Territory, 1898

In the 19th century, Yukon
Yukon
was a segment of North-Western Territory that was administered by the Hudson's Bay Company, and then of the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
administered by the federal Canadian government. It only obtained a recognizable local government in 1895 when it became a separate district of the Northwest Territories.[45] In 1898, it was made a separate territory with its own commissioner and an appointed Territorial Council.[46] Prior to 1979, the territory was administered by the commissioner who was appointed by the federal Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The commissioner had a role in appointing the territory's Executive Council, served as chair, and had a day-to-day role in governing the territory. The elected Territorial Council had a purely advisory role. In 1979, a significant degree of power was devolved from the commissioner and the federal government to the territorial legislature which, in that year, adopted a party system of responsible government. This change was accomplished through a letter from Jake Epp, the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, rather than through formal legislation. In preparation for responsible government, political parties were organized and ran candidates to the Yukon Legislative Assembly
Yukon Legislative Assembly
for the first time in 1978. The Progressive Conservatives won these elections and formed the first party government of Yukon
Yukon
in January 1979. The Yukon New Democratic Party
Yukon New Democratic Party
(NDP) formed the government from 1985 to 1992 under Tony Penikett
Tony Penikett
and again from 1996 under Piers McDonald until being defeated in 2000. The conservatives returned to power in 1992 under John Ostashek after having renamed themselves the Yukon Party. The Liberal government of Pat Duncan was defeated in elections in November 2002, with Dennis Fentie
Dennis Fentie
of the Yukon Party
Yukon Party
forming the government as Premier. The Yukon
Yukon
Act, passed on April 1, 2003, formalized the powers of the Yukon
Yukon
government and devolved additional powers to the territorial government (e.g., control over land and natural resources). As of 2003, other than criminal prosecutions, the Yukon
Yukon
government has much of the same powers as provincial governments, and the other two territories are looking to obtaining the same powers.[citation needed] Today the role of commissioner is analogous to that of a provincial lieutenant governor; however, unlike lieutenant-governors, commissioners are not formal representatives of the Queen but are employees of the federal government. Although there has been discussion in the past about Yukon
Yukon
becoming Canada's 11th province, it is generally felt[by whom?] that its population base is too sparse for this to occur at present. At the federal level, the territory is represented in the Parliament of Canada
Canada
by a single Member of Parliament and one senator. Members of Parliament from Canadian territories are full and equal voting representatives and residents of the territory enjoy the same rights as other Canadian citizens. One Yukon
Yukon
Member of Parliament, Erik Nielsen, was the Deputy Prime Minister under the government of Brian Mulroney, while another, Audrey McLaughlin, was the leader of the federal New Democratic Party from 1989 to 1995. Federal representation[edit] Main article: Yukon
Yukon
(electoral district) The entire territory is one riding (electoral district) in the Canadian House of Commons, also called Yukon. The current holder of the seat is Liberal Member of Parliament Larry Bagnell following his victory in the 2015 federal election. Yukon
Yukon
is allocated one seat in the Senate of Canada
Senate of Canada
and has been represented by three Senators since the position was created in 1975. The Senate position is held by Conservative senator Daniel Lang, who was appointed on the advice of then-Prime Minister Stephen Harper
Stephen Harper
on December 22, 2008.[47][48] It was previously filled by Ione Christensen, of the Liberal Party. Appointed to the Senate in 1999 by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, Christensen resigned in December 2006 to help her ailing husband. From 1975 to 1999, Paul Lucier (Liberal) served as Senator for Yukon. Lucier was appointed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.

First Nations[edit]

Much of the population of the territory is First Nations. An umbrella land claim agreement representing 7,000 members of 14 different First Nations was signed with the federal government in 1993. Eleven of the 14 Yukon
Yukon
First Nations
First Nations
have negotiated and signed comprehensive land claim and self-government agreements. The 14 First Nations
First Nations
speak eight different languages. The territory once had an Inuit
Inuit
settlement, located on Herschel Island
Herschel Island
off the Arctic coast. This settlement was dismantled in 1987 and its inhabitants relocated to the neighbouring Northwest Territories. As a result of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement, the island is now a territorial park and is known officially as Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park, Qikiqtaruk being the name of the island in Inuvialuktun.

Government Seat Chief

Carcross/ Tagish
Tagish
First Nation Carcross Khà Shâde Héni Andy Carvill[49]

Champagne and Aishihik First Nations Haines Junction Steve Smith[50]

First Nation of Na-cho Nyak Dun Mayo Simon Mervyn[51]

Kluane
Kluane
First Nation Burwash Landing Mathieya Alatini[52]

Kwanlin Dün First Nation Whitehorse Doris Bill[53]

Liard River
Liard River
First Nation Watson Lake Daniel Morris[54]

Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation Carmacks Eric Fairclough[55]

Ross River Dena Council Ross River Jack Caesar[56]

Selkirk First Nation Pelly Crossing Kevin McGinty[57]

Ta'an Kwach'an Council Whitehorse Kristina Kane[58]

Teslin Tlingit Council Teslin Richard Sidney[59]

Tr'ondëk Hwëch'in Dawson City Roberta Joseph[60]

Vuntut Gwitchin
Gwitchin
First Nation Old Crow Bruce Charlie[61]

White River First Nation Beaver Creek Angela Demit[62]

Infrastructure[edit]

Road sign on Dempster Highway, Eagle Plains

Before modern forms of transportation, the rivers and mountain passes were the main transportation routes for the coastal Tlingit people trading with the Athabascans of which the Chilkoot Pass
Chilkoot Pass
and Dalton Trail, as well as the first Europeans. From the Gold
Gold
Rush until the 1950s, riverboats plied the Yukon
Yukon
River, mostly between Whitehorse and Dawson City, with some making their way further to Alaska
Alaska
and over to the Bering Sea, and other tributaries of the Yukon River
Yukon River
such as the Stewart River. Most of the riverboats were owned by the British- Yukon
Yukon
Navigation Company, an arm of the White Pass and Yukon
Yukon
Route, which also operated a narrow gauge railway between Skagway, Alaska, and Whitehorse. The railway ceased operation in the 1980s with the first closure of the Faro mine. It is now run during the summer months for the tourism season, with operations as far as Carcross. Today, major land routes include the Alaska
Alaska
Highway, the Klondike Highway (between Skagway and Dawson City), the Haines Highway
Haines Highway
(between Haines, Alaska, and Haines Junction), and the Dempster Highway (linking Inuvik, Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
to the Klondike Highway), all paved except for the Dempster. Other highways with less traffic include the "Robert Campbell Highway" linking Carmacks (on the Klondike Highway) to Watson Lake ( Alaska
Alaska
Highway) via Faro and Ross River, and the " Silver
Silver
Trail" linking the old silver mining communities of Mayo, Elsa and Keno City
City
to the Klondike Highway
Klondike Highway
at the Stewart River bridge. Air travel is the only way to reach the far north community of Old Crow. Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport infrastructure hub, with scheduled direct flights to Vancouver, Kelowna, Calgary, Edmonton, Yellowknife, Inuvik, Ottawa, Dawson City, Old Crow and Frankfurt[63]. Whitehorse International Airport is also the headquarters and primary hub for Air North, Yukon's Airline. Every Yukon
Yukon
community is served by an airport or community aerodrome.[citation needed] The communities of Dawson City
City
and Old Crow have regular scheduled service through Air North. Air charter businesses exist primarily to serve the tourism and mining exploration industries.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Yukon
Yukon
portal Canada
Canada
portal Arctic portal

Main article: Outline of Yukon

Canada

Outline of Canada Index of Canada-related articles Bibliography of Canada Canada
Canada
– book

History of the west coast of North America Bluefish Caves, archeological site Peel Watershed Yukon
Yukon
College Yukon
Yukon
Energy Corporation Yukon
Yukon
Field Force Yukon
Yukon
Members of Parliament Yukon
Yukon
Quest

References[edit]

^ Mardy Derby (January 31, 2016). "Whitehorse Legion looking for a Yukon
Yukon
motto". CBC News. Retrieved February 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". Statistics Canada. February 2, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.  ^ "Population by year of Canada
Canada
of Canada
Canada
and territories". Statistics Canada. September 26, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2018.  ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2011)". Statistics Canada. November 19, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.  ^ "Government of Yukon: Emblems and Symbols". Archived from the original on February 12, 2012.  ^ a b " Yukon
Yukon
Act, SC 2002, c 7". CanLII. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2017-02-08.  ^ "Table 8 Abbreviations and codes for provinces and territories, 2011 Census". Statistics Canada. December 30, 2015. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ “Dear Sir, I have great pleasure in informing you that I have at length after much trouble and difficulties, succeed[ed] in reaching the ‘Youcon’, or white water River, so named by the (Gwich’in) natives from the pale colour of its water. …, I have the honour to Remain Your obᵗ Servᵗ, John Bell” Hudson’s Bay Company Correspondence to George Simpson from John Bell (August 1, 1845), HBC Archives, D.5/14, fos. 212-215d, also quoted in, Coates, Kenneth S. & William R. Morrison (1988). Land of the Midnight Sun: A History of the Yukon. Hurtig Publishers. p. 21. ISBN 0-88830-331-9. Retrieved 2017-10-16.  ^ In Gwich’in, adjectives, such as choo [big] and gąįį [white], follow the nouns that they modify. Thus, white water is chųų gąįį [water white]. White water river is chųų gąįį han [water white river]. Peter, Katherine (1979). Dinjii Zhuh Ginjik Nagwan Tr’iłtsąįį: Gwich’in
Gwich’in
Junior Dictionary (PDF). Univ. of Alaska. pp. ii (ą, į, ų are nasalized a, i, u), xii (adjectives follow nouns), 19 (nitsii or choo [big]), 88 (ocean = chųų choo [water big]), 105 (han [river]), 142 (chųų [water]), 144 (gąįį [white]). Retrieved 2017-10-16.  ^ Borkhataria, Cecile (January 16, 2017). "Did the first humans arrive in North America
North America
10,000 years earlier than thought? Bones fund in Canada
Canada
cave show 'indisputable' marks from stone tools". Daily Mail.  ^ a b Services, Cultural. Archaeology
Archaeology
Program. Department of Tourism and Culture. [Online] March 8th, 2011. [Cited: April 7th, 2012.] http://www.tc.gov.yk.ca/archaeology.html.[permanent dead link] ^ "Boundary Facts". International Boundary Commission. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011. Length of boundary by province — Yukon- 1,210 km or 752 miles  ^ Carl Duncan, "The Dempster: Highway to the Arctic Archived May 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." accessed 2009.10.22. ^ "Life At Minus 80: The Men Of Snag". The Weather Doctor. Retrieved 2014-12-19.  ^ a b "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. Retrieved 2014-12-19.  ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Yukon)". Statistics Canada. January 13, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.  ^ " Yukon
Yukon
Communities". Yukon
Yukon
Government: Department of Community Services. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.  ^ "Association of Yukon
Yukon
Communities Incorporation Dates". Association of Yukon
Yukon
Communities. Archived from the original on June 15, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2014.  ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Yukon)". Statistics Canada. February 8, 2017. Retrieved February 11, 2017.  ^ Statistics Canada. "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories".  ^ "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, 2011 National Household Survey" (PDF). Statistics Canada. Retrieved July 20, 2015.  ^ Council of Yukon
Yukon
First Nations ^ a b c d "Focus on Geography Series, 2011 Census, Yukon". Statistics Canada. Retrieved July 20, 2015.  ^ "Language Act, Statues of the Yukon
Yukon
(2002)" (PDF). Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity, 2011 National Householder" (PDF). 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ a b cbc.ca: "Go north, not west: Yukon
Yukon
lures businesses with new company rules", 1 May 2015 ^ gov.yk.ca: "BUSINESS CORPORATIONS ACT" Archived October 16, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., 1 May 2015 ^ gov.yk.ca: "O.I.C. 2015/06 BUSINESS CORPORATIONS ACT" Archived October 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., 1 May 2015 ^ gov.yk.ca: "O.I.C. 2015/07 SOCIETIES ACT" Archived October 9, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., 1 May 2015 ^ a b theglobeandmail.com: "Yukon's move to draw corporations worries shareholders coalition", 18 Jun 2015 ^ a b deallawwire.com: "Changes of note to the Yukon
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Business Corporations Act", 2 Jun 2015 ^ Travel Yukon
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Archived October 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Yukon
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Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park". Environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ "Tombstone Territorial Park". Environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ " Fishing
Fishing
Branch Ni'iinlii'njik Park". Environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ "Coal River Springs Territorial Park". Environmentyukon.gov.yk.ca. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ Yukon
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Beringia Interpretive Centre". Beringia.com. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ "Northern Lights Centre". Northernlightscentre.ca. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ "Whitehorse fish ladder". Yukonenergy.ca. February 1, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.  ^ Coates and Morrison, p.74 ^ Coates and Morrison, p.103 ^ "Senators - Detailed Information". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved December 23, 2008.  ^ "Former Yukon
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Further reading[edit]

Coates, Kenneth (1985), Canada's colonies: a history of the Yukon
Yukon
and Northwest Territories, Lorimer, ISBN 0-88862-931-1  Coates, Ken S. & Morrison, William R. (1988), Land of the Midnight Sun: A History of the Yukon, Edmonton: Hurtig Publishers, ISBN 0-88830-331-9  Cody, William J (2000), Flora of the Yukon
Yukon
Territory, National Research Press, ISBN 0-660-18110-X  Hart, Ann (2000), Alaska
Alaska
and the Yukon, JPM Publications, ISBN 2-88452-051-1  Laguna, Frederica De (2000), Travels among the Dena : exploring Alaska's Yukon
Yukon
Valley, Univ. of Washington Press, ISBN 0-295-97902-X  O'Reilly, Shauna; Brennan O'Reilly (2009), Alaska
Alaska
Yukon
Yukon
Pacific Exposition, Arcadia Pub, ISBN 978-0-7385-7132-4  Webb, Melody (1993), Yukon: The Last Frontier, University of British Columbia Press, ISBN 0-7748-0441-6 

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