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( zh, 元帥) was a Chinese military rank that corresponds to a
marshal Marshal is a term used in several official titles in various branches of society A society is a group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. Th ...

marshal
in other nations. It was given to distinguished generals during China's dynastic and republican periods. A higher level rank of ''
da yuan shuai Da yuan shuai (ta yuan shuai; ) was a China, Chinese military rank, usually translated as grand marshal or generalissimo. During the early Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China, the rank of "grand marshal of the army and navy" (陸海 ...
'' (大元帥), which corresponds to ''
generalissimo ''Generalissimo'' ( ) is a Highest military ranks, military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the states where they are used. Usage The word (), an Italian language, Italian term, is the superla ...
'' was awarded to
Chiang Kai Shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of ...
of the Republic of China. It was also proposed for
Mao Zedong Mao Zedong pronounced ; also Romanization of Chinese, romanised traditionally as Mao Tse-tung. (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who was the Proclamation of the P ...

Mao Zedong
on the mainland, but he ultimately never accepted it.


Song dynasty

File:Yue Fei scth.jpg,
Yue Fei Yue Fei (March 24, 1103 – January 28, 1142), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the Sinosphere, includin ...

Yue Fei


Jin dynasty

File:Púxiān Wànnú.jpg,
Puxian Wannu Púxiān Wànnú ({{zh, t=蒲鮮萬奴, s=蒲鲜万奴, w=P'u-hsien Wan-nu) was a Jurchen warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state beca ...


Republic of China

File:Chiang Kai-shek(蔣中正).jpg,
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and Romanization of Chinese, romanized via Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin as Chiang Chieh-shih and Jiang Jieshi, was a Chinese Kuomintang, Nationalist politician, ...

Chiang Kai-shek
File:Lu Rongting.jpg,
Lu Rongting Lu Rongting (; September 9, 1859 – November 6, 1928), also spelled as Lu Yung-ting and Lu Jung-t'ing, was a late Qing/early Beiyang government, Republican military and political leader from Wuming District, Wuming, Guangxi. Lu belonged to the Z ...

Lu Rongting
File:Tang_Jiyao_9.jpg,
Tang Jiyao Tang Jiyao () (August 14, 1883 – May 23, 1927) was a Chinese general and warlord A warlord is a strong leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state because of the ...

Tang Jiyao


People's Republic of China

The rank Marshal of the People's Republic of China () was awarded to ten veteran generals of the
People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sover ...
in 1955. However, it was abolished in 1965 and was never restored. Deng Xiaoping and Zhou Enlai were also offered the rank, but they declined, citing they had entered government work and were no longer involved with military affairs. Chen Yi also initially refused the rank for the same reason but Zhou Enlai insisted he took it, citing that because all of the other nine Marshals came from the
Eighth Route Army Former site of the Eighth Route Army Office in Guilin. The Eighth Route Army (), officially known as the 18th Group Army of the National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Arm ...
, if he didn't take the rank, there would be nobody of the Marshal rank to represent the legacy of the
New Fourth Army The New Fourth Army () was a unit of the National Revolutionary Army The National Revolutionary Army (NRA; ), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army () before 1928, and as National Army () after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang ...
, whilst simultaneously citing
Nikolai Bulganin Nikolai Alexandrovich Bulganin (russian: Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Булга́нин; – 24 February 1975) was a Soviet politician who served as Minister of Defense (1953–1955) and Premier of the Soviet Union (1955–195 ...

Nikolai Bulganin
who held the rank of
Marshal of the Soviet Union Marshal of the Soviet Union (russian: Маршал Советского Союза, ) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was created in 1935 and abolished in 1991. Forty-one people held this ...

Marshal of the Soviet Union
whilst working primarily in government. Thus, the recipients of the rank were: File:Zhu De.jpg, 1.
Zhu De Zhu De (; also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, ...

Zhu De
File:General Peng Dehuai.jpg, 2.
Peng Dehuai Peng Dehuai (; October 24, 1898November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, who served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959. Peng was born into a poor peasant family, and received several years of primary edu ...

Peng Dehuai
File:Lin Biao.jpg, 3.
Lin Biao Lin Biao (December 5, 1907 – September 13, 1971) was a Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the ...

Lin Biao
File:Liu Bocheng.jpg, 4.
Liu Bocheng Liu Bocheng (; December 4, 1892 – October 7, 1986) was a Chinese Communist military commander and Marshal of the People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the regular army, regular armed forces of the China, ...

Liu Bocheng
File:He Long.jpg, 5.
He Long He Long (; March 22, 1896 – June 9, 1969) was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the regular army, regular armed forces of the China, People ...

He Long
File:Chen Yi(communist).jpg, 6. Chen Yi File:Luo_Ronghuan.jpg, 7.
Luo Ronghuan Luo Ronghuan (; November 26, 1902 – December 16, 1963) was a Chinese Communist Party of China, communist military leader. He served as a Vice Chairperson of the National People's Congress, Vice Chair of the Standing Committee of the National ...

Luo Ronghuan
File:Xu Xiangqian.jpg, 8.
Xu Xiangqian Xu Xiangqian (November 8, 1901 – September 21, 1990) was a Chinese Communist military leader and one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the regular army, regular armed forces of ...

Xu Xiangqian
File:Marshal_Nie_Rongzhen.jpg, 9.
Nie Rongzhen Nie Rongzhen (; December 29, 1899 – May 14, 1992) was a prominent Communist Party of China, Chinese Communist military leader, and one of ten Yuan Shuai, Marshals in the People's Liberation Army of China. He was the last surviving PLA officer w ...

Nie Rongzhen
File:Ye Jianying.jpg, 10.
Ye Jianying Ye Jianying (; 28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist Communism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was origin ...

Ye Jianying


See also

*Other pronunciations of the characters 元帥 **'' Gensui'', the Japanese equivalent **''
Wonsu ''Wonsu'' is the highest military rank in the armed forces of North Korea North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. It bor ...
'', the Korean equivalent **''Nguyên soái'', the Vietnamese equivalent *''Grand yuan shuai'' (大元帥), a rank higher than ''yuan shuai'' **''Da yuan shuai'' in Chinese **''Dai-gensui'', the Japanese equivalent **''Taewonsu'', the Korean equivalent **''Đại nguyên soái'', the Vietnamese equivalent


External links

* {{italic title Chinese-language titles, Yuanshuai Marshals of China, Military ranks of the People's Republic of China Military history of China