Ytterby (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈʏtːərˌbyː]) is a village
on the Swedish island of Resarö, in
Vaxholm Municipality in the
Stockholm archipelago. Today the residential area is dominated by
The name of the village translates to "outer village".
2 Chemical discoveries
3 See also
5 External links
Quartz was mined in the area beginning in the 1500s for the ironworks
Feldspar was mined for local porcelain manufacture, such
as Gustavsberg, and the porcelain trade with Britain and Poland.
The mine is likely the first feldspar mine in Sweden, starting in
Feldspar mining was likely sporadic, and based on manufactures
demand. This demand took off in the 1860s, leading to deeper mining
efforts at Ytterby. The mine became one of the most productive quartz
and feldspar mines in the country.
Feldspar and quartz mining
continued until 1933 when the mine was shut down. With 177 years of
feldspar mining, it was the longest mined feldspar mine in Sweden.
Towards the end of the 1940s, the Swedish state, through the REF
(Riksnämnden för ekonomisk försvarsberedskap) became interested in
possible usage of the mine. In 1953, the mine was renovated and used
for the storage of jet fuel - MC 77. The storage method led to
contamination of the jet fuel, leading to problems in jet engines that
used the fuel. The storage of jet fuel ended in 1978. It was
subsequently used to store diesel. In 1995, the mine was completely
emptied, and in the following years the area began rehabilitation.
The mine's elemental history began in 1787, when Lieutenant Carl Axel
Arrhenius found an unidentified black mineral. He had previously
explored the area for a potential fortification. His hobby interest
in chemistry led him to notice the unusually heavy black rock, which
he and friend Bengt Geijer examined with Sven Rinman. It was not until
Johan Gadolin fully analysed the mineral in 1794 and
found that it 38% of its composition was a new, unidentified earth
element. Swedish chemist Andres Gustaf Ekeberg confirmed the discovery
the following year, and named it yttria, with the mineral named
Many rare earth elements were discovered in the mineral gadolinite,
which eventually proved to be the source of seven new elements that
were named after the mineral ore and the area. These elements include
yttrium (Y), erbium (Er), terbium (Tb), and ytterbium (Yb) and were
first described in 1794, 1842, 1842, and 1878, respectively. In 1989
the ASM International society installed a plaque at the former
entrance to the mine, commemorating the mine as a historical
In addition, three other lanthanides, holmium (Ho, named after
Stockholm), thulium (Tm, named after Thule, a mythic analog of
Scandinavia), and gadolinium (Gd, after the chemist Johan Gadolin) can
trace their discovery to the same quarry making it the location
with most elements named after it.
Timeline of chemical element discoveries
Geography of Stockholm
^ a b Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford University
Press. p. 496. ISBN 0-19-850341-5.
^ Voncken, J.H.L (2015). The Rare Earth Elements: An Introduction.
Springer. p. 6. ISBN 978-3-319-26809-5. More than one
of pages= and page= specified (help)
^ a b c Knutson Udd, Lena; Leek, Tommy (2012). "
Ytterby Gruva" (pdf).
Fortifikationsverket (in Swedish). Fortifikationsverket. Retrieved 6
^ Krishnamurthy, Nagaiyar (2015). Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths
(2nd Edition ed.). CRC Press. p. 2.
ISBN 9781466576384. More than one of pages= and page=
specified (help)CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
^ Blom, Carl-Hugo (18 June 2006). "
Ytterby gruva" (in Swedish).
Stockholms läns hembygdsförbund. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
^ Kean, Sam (16 July 2010). "Ytterby: The Tiny Swedish Island That
Gave the Periodic Table Four Different Elements". Slate. Retrieved 14
Coordinates: 59°25′35.4″N 18°21′12.69″E / 59.426500°N
18.3535250°E / 59.426500; 18.3535250
Blog entry on Ytterby
YouTube tour of the mine site
Location on Google Maps
Google Earth view of Ytterby
Web log — What do these elements hav