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Young Turks
Young Turks
(Turkish: Jön Türkler, from French: Les Jeunes Turcs)[citation needed] was a Turkish nationalist party in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers.[1] They favoured the replacement of the Ottoman Empire's absolute monarchy with a constitutional government. Later, their leaders led a rebellion against the absolute rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
in the 1908 Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
which also led to the genocide of Christians in all affected areas.[2] With this revolution, the Young Turks
Young Turks
helped to establish the Second Constitutional Era in 1908, ushering in an era of multi-party democracy for the first time in the country's history.[3] After 1908, the Young Turks' initial umbrella political party, the Committee of Union and Progress
Committee of Union and Progress
(CUP; Turkish: İttihat ve Terakki Cemiyeti),[4] began a series of political reforms and military modernization across the Ottoman Empire. However, the CUP soon began to splinter as many of the more liberal and pro-decentralization Young Turks left to form an opposition party in late 1911, the Freedom and Accord Party (also known as the Liberal Union or Liberal Entente),[5] with much of those staying in the CUP favoring a generally nationalist and pro-centralization policy.[6] In a year-long power struggle throughout 1912, Freedom and Accord and the remaining members of the CUP vied for control of the Ottoman government, the year seeing a rigged election by the CUP and a military revolt by Freedom and Accord. The struggle between the two groups of Young Turks
Young Turks
ended in January 1913, when the top leadership of the CUP seized power from the Freedom and Accord in the Raid on the Sublime Porte. The subsequent CUP-led government was headed by interior minister and Grand Vizier Talaat Pasha. Working with him were war minister Enver Pasha
Enver Pasha
and naval minister Djemal Pasha. These "Three Pashas", as they came to be known, exercised absolute control over the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1913 to 1918, bringing the country closer to Germany, signing the Ottoman–German Alliance to enter the Empire into World War I
World War I
on the side of the Central Powers,[7][8][9] and carrying out the Armenian Genocide.[10] Following the war, the struggle between the two groups of Young Turks revived, Freedom and Accord Party regaining the control of the Ottoman government and Three Pashas
Three Pashas
fleeing into exile. Freedom and Accord rule was short lived, however, and the empire soon collapsed. The term "Young Turk" is now used to signify either "an insurgent in a political party, especially one belonging to a group or faction that supports liberal or progressive policies", or "aggressively or impatiently advocating reform within an organization".[11] Various groups in different countries have been named Young Turks
Young Turks
because of their rebellious or revolutionary nature.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Congress of Ottoman Opposition 1.3 1906–1908

1.3.1 Young Turk Revolution

1.4 Second Constitutional Era

1.4.1 World War I 1.4.2 1914–1917: Armenian Genocide

2 Ideology

2.1 Materialism
Materialism
and positivism 2.2 Centralized government 2.3 Nationalism

3 Prominent Young Turks 4 Aftermath and legacy 5 References

5.1 Notes 5.2 Bibliography

6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit] Origins[edit] Like other revolutionary societies, the Young Turks
Young Turks
had their origins in secret societies of "progressive medical university students and military cadets",[12] namely the Young Ottomans, driven underground along with all political dissent after the Constitution of 1876 was abolished and the First Constitutional Era brought to a close by Abdul Hamid II in 1878 after only two years.[2] The Young Turks
Young Turks
favored a re-instatement of the Ottoman Parliament and the 1876 constitution,[2] written by the progressive Midhat Pasha.[13] Congress of Ottoman Opposition[edit]

The first congress of the Ottoman opposition (1902) in Paris

The First Congress of Ottoman Opposition was held on 4 February 1902, at 20:00, at the house of Germain Antoin Lefevre-Pontalis,[citation needed] a member of the Institut de France. The opposition was performed in compliance with the French government.[citation needed] Closed to the public, there were 47 delegates present. The Armenians wanted to have the conversations held in French, but other delegates rejected this proposition.[citation needed] The Second Congress of Ottoman Opposition took place in Paris, France, in 1907. Opposition leaders including Ahmed Rıza, Sabahaddin Bey, and Khachatur Malumian
Khachatur Malumian
of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Armenian Revolutionary Federation
were in attendance. The goal was to unite all the parties, including the Young Turks' Committee of Union and Progress, in order to bring about the revolution. 1906–1908[edit] The Young Turks
Young Turks
became a truly organized movement with the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) as an organizational umbrella. They recruited individuals hoping for the establishment of a constitutional monarchy in the Ottoman Empire. In 1906, the Ottoman Freedom Society (OFS) was established in Thessalonica
Thessalonica
by Mehmed Talaat. The OFS actively recruited members from the Third Army base, among them Major Ismail Enver. In September 1907, OFS announced they would be working with other organizations under the umbrella of the CUP. In reality, the leadership of the OFS would exert significant control over the CUP.[citation needed] Young Turk Revolution[edit] See also: Young Turk Revolution

Young Turks
Young Turks
flyer with the slogan "Long live the fatherland, long live the nation, long live liberty" written in Ottoman Turkish and French.

In 1908, the Macedonian Question
Macedonian Question
was facing the Ottoman Empire. Tsar Nicholas II and Franz Joseph, who were both interested in the Balkans, started implementing policies, beginning in 1897, which brought on the last stages of the balkanization process. By 1903, there were discussions on establishing administrative control by Russian and Austrian advisory boards in the Macedonian provinces. The ruling House of Osman was forced to accept this idea, although for quite a while they were able to subvert its implementation.[citation needed] However, eventually, signs were showing that this policy game was coming to an end. On May 13, 1908, the leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress, with the newly gained power of its organization, was able to communicate to Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
the unveiled threat that "the [Ottoman] dynasty would be in danger" if he were not to bring back the Ottoman constitution that he had previously suspended since 1878. On June 12, 1908, the Third Army, which was in Macedonia, began its march towards the Palace in Constantinople. Although initially resistant to the idea of giving up absolute power, Abdul Hamid was forced on July 24, 1908, to restore the constitution, beginning the Second Constitutional Era
Second Constitutional Era
of the Ottoman Empire.[citation needed] Second Constitutional Era[edit] See also: Second Constitutional Era
Second Constitutional Era
and Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire

Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908

The unity among the Young Turks
Young Turks
that originated from the Young Turk Revolution began to splinter in face of the realities of the ongoing dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, especially with the onset of the Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars
in 1912.[citation needed] World War I[edit] See also: Middle Eastern theatre of World War I On November 2, 1914, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
entered World War I
World War I
on the side of the Central Powers. The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I became the scene of action. The combatants were the Ottoman Empire, with some assistance from the other Central Powers, against primarily the British and the Russians among the Allies. Rebuffed elsewhere by the major European powers, the Young Turks, through highly secret diplomatic negotiations, led the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to ally itself with Germany. The Young Turks
Young Turks
needed to modernize the Empire’s communications and transportation networks without putting themselves in the hands of European bankers. Europeans already owned much of the country’s railroad system,[citation needed] and since 1881, the administration of the defaulted Ottoman foreign debt had been in European hands. During the War, the Young Turk empire was "virtually an economic colony on the verge of total collapse."[12] At the end of the War, with the collapse of Bulgaria and Germany's capitulation, Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
and the CUP ministry resigned on October 13, 1918, and the Armistice of Mudros
Armistice of Mudros
was signed aboard a British battleship in the Aegean Sea.[14] On November 2, Enver, Talaat and Djemal, along with their German allies, fled from Istanbul into exile.[citation needed] 1914–1917: Armenian Genocide[edit] Main article: Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
was the Young Turk government's systematic extermination of its Armenian subjects. An estimated 1.5 million people were killed.

The conflicts at the Caucasus Campaign, the Persian Campaign, and the Gallipoli Campaign
Gallipoli Campaign
affected places where Armenians
Armenians
lived in significant numbers. Before the declaration of war at the Armenian congress at Erzurum, the Ottoman government asked Ottoman Armenians
Armenians
to facilitate the conquest of Transcaucasia by inciting a rebellion among the Russian Armenians
Armenians
against the tsarist army in the event of a Caucasian Front. Jakob Künzler, head of a missionary hospital in Urfa, documented the large scale ethnic cleansing of both Armenians
Armenians
and Kurds under the Three Pashas
Three Pashas
during World War I.[15] He gave a detailed account of deportation of Armenians
Armenians
from Erzurum
Erzurum
and Bitlis
Bitlis
in the winter of 1916. The Armenians
Armenians
were perceived to be subversive elements (a fifth column) that would take the Russian side in the war. In order to eliminate this threat, the Ottoman government embarked on a large scale deportation of Armenians
Armenians
from the regions of Djabachdjur, Palu, Musch, Erzurum, and Bitlis. Around 300,000 Armenians
Armenians
were forced to move southwards to Urfa
Urfa
and then westwards to Aintab and Marash. In the summer of 1917, Armenians
Armenians
were moved to the Konya
Konya
region in central Anatolia. Through these measures, the CUP leaders aimed to eliminate the Armenian threat by deporting them from their ancestral lands and by dispersing them in small pockets of exiled communities. By the end of World War I, up to 1,200,000 Armenians
Armenians
were forcibly deported from their home vilayets. As a result, about half of the displaced died of exposure, hunger, and disease, or were victims of banditry and forced labor.[16] Around this period, the CUP's relationship to the Armenian Genocide shifted. Early on, Armenians
Armenians
had perceived the CUP as allies;[citation needed] and the beginnings of the Genocide, in the 1909 Adana massacre, had been rooted in reactionary Ottoman backlash against the Young Turks. But during World War I, the CUP’s increasing nationalism began to lead them to participate in the genocide. In 2005, the International Association of Genocide Scholars
International Association of Genocide Scholars
affirmed[17] that scholarly evidence revealed the CUP "government of the Ottoman Empire began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens and unarmed Christian minority population. More than a million Armenians were exterminated through direct killing, starvation, torture, and forced death marches." Ideology[edit]

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Materialism
Materialism
and positivism[edit] See also: Ahmed Riza, Namık Kemal, Ziya Gökalp, and Yusuf Akçura Another guiding principle for the Young Turks
Young Turks
was the transformation of their society into one in which religion played no consequential role, a stark contrast from the theocracy that had ruled the Ottoman Empire since its inception. However, the Young Turks
Young Turks
soon recognized the difficulty of spreading this idea among the deeply religious Ottoman peasantry and even much of the elite, as the Ottoman Empire had not experienced the Enlightenment in the same way that Western Europe had. The Young Turks
Young Turks
thus began suggesting that Islam itself was materialistic. As compared with later efforts by Muslim intellectuals, such as the attempt to reconcile Islam and socialism, this was an extremely difficult endeavor. Although some former members of the CUP continued to make efforts in this field after the revolution of 1908, they were severely denounced by the Ulema, who accused them of "trying to change Islam into another form and create a new religion while calling it Islam".[18][page needed] Positivism, with its claim of being a religion of science, deeply impressed the Young Turks, who believed it could be more easily reconciled with Islam than could popular materialistic theories. The name of the society, Committee of Union and Progress, is believed to be inspired by leading positivist Auguste Comte's motto Order and Progress. Positivism
Positivism
also served as a base for the desired strong government.[18] Centralized government[edit] After the Committee of Union and Progress
Committee of Union and Progress
grabbed power in the 1913 coup, it embarked on a series of reforms in order to increase centralization in the Empire, an effort that had been ongoing since the last century’s Tanzimat
Tanzimat
reforms under sultan Mahmud II.[19] Many of the original Young Turks
Young Turks
rejected this idea, especially those that had formed the Freedom and Accord Party against the CUP.[6] Other opposition parties against the CUP like Prince Sabahaddin’s Private Enterprise and Decentralization Association (tr) and the Arab Ottoman Party for Administrative Decentralization, both of which made opposition to the CUP’s centralization their main agenda. Nationalism[edit] Further information: Millet, Ottomanism, Turanism, Turkish nationalism, Kemalism In regards to nationalism, the Young Turks
Young Turks
underwent a gradual transformation. Beginning with the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
with ethnically non-Turkish members participating at the outset, the Young Turks embraced the official state ideology: Ottomanism. However, Ottoman patriotism failed to strike root during the First Constitutional Era and the following years. Many ethnically non-Turkish Ottoman intellectuals rejected the idea because of its exclusive use of Turkish symbols. Turkish nationalists gradually gained the upper hand in politics, and following the 1902 Congress, a stronger focus on nationalism developed. It was at this time that Ahmed Rıza
Ahmed Rıza
chose to replace the term "Ottoman" with "Turk", shifting the focus from Ottoman nationalism to Turkish nationalism.[citation needed] Prominent Young Turks[edit] The prominent leaders and ideologists included:

Pamphleteers and activists

Yusuf Akçura, a Tatar
Tatar
journalist with a secular national ideology, who was against Ottomanism
Ottomanism
and supported separation of church and state Ayetullah Bey Osman Hamdi Bey, an Ottoman-Greek painter and owner of the first specialized art school in Istanbul (founded 1883) Emmanuel Carasso Efendi, a lawyer and a member of the prominent Sephardic Jewish
Jewish
Carasso family Mehmet Cavit Bey, a Dönmeh
Dönmeh
from Thessalonica, Jewish
Jewish
by ancestry but Muslim by religion since the 17th century, who was Minister of Finance;[20] he was hanged for treason in 1926 Abdullah Cevdet, a supporter of biological materialism and secularism Marcel Samuel Raphael Cohen (aka Tekin Alp), born to a Jewish
Jewish
family in Salonica
Salonica
under Ottoman control (now Thessaloniki, Greece), became one of the founding fathers of Turkish nationalism
Turkish nationalism
and an ideologue of Pan-Turkism Agah Efendi, founded the first Turkish newspaper and, as postmaster, brought the postage stamp to the Ottoman Empire Ziya Gökalp, a Turkish nationalist from Diyarbakir, publicist and pioneer sociologist, influenced by modern Western European culture Talaat Pasha, whose role before the revolution is not clear Ahmed Riza, worked to improve the condition of the Ottoman peasantry; he served as agricultural minister, and later as education minister

Military officers

Ahmed Niyazi Bey Enver Pasha Subhi Bey Abaza (lived in Sidon) Resat Bey

Aftermath and legacy[edit] The founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, is quoted on the front page of the 1 August 1926 The Los Angeles Examiner
The Los Angeles Examiner
as denouncing the Young Turks
Young Turks
and especially the CUP (the "Young Turk Party"):

These left-overs from the former Young Turk Party, who should have been made to account for the millions of our Christian subjects who were ruthlessly driven en masse from their homes and massacred, have been restive under the Republican rule. […] They have hitherto lived on plunder, robbery and bribery and become inimical to any idea, or suggestion to enlist in useful labor and earn their living by the honest sweat of their brow… Under the cloak of the opposition party, this element, who forced our country into the Great War against the will of the people, who caused the shedding of rivers of blood of the Turkish youth to satisfy the criminal ambition of Enver Pasha, has, in a cowardly fashion, intrigued against my life, as well as the lives of the members of my cabinet.[citation needed]

As to the fate of the Three Pashas, two of them, Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
and Djemal Pasha, were assassinated by Armenian nationals shortly after the end of World War I
World War I
while in exile in Europe during Operation Nemesis, a revenge operation against perpetrators of the Armenian Genocide. Soghomon Tehlirian, whose family was killed in the Armenian Genocide, assassinated the exiled Talaat Pasha
Talaat Pasha
in Berlin and was subsequently acquitted by a German jury.[4] Djemal Pasha
Djemal Pasha
was similarly killed by Stepan Dzaghikian, Bedros Der Boghosian, and Ardashes Kevorkian for "crimes against humanity"[21] in Tbilisi, Georgia.[22] The third pasha, Enver Pasha, was killed in fighting against the Red Army unit under the command of Hakob Melkumian near Baldzhuan in Tajikistan (then Turkistan).[23] References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ A history of the Modern Middle East, Cleveland and Bunton p. 123 ^ a b c Hanioğlu 1995, p. 12. ^ Akçam 2006, p. 48. ^ a b Balakian 2003, p. 143. ^ Alkan, Mehmet Öznur (May 1999). "Osmanlı'dan Günümüze Türkiye'de Seçimlerin Kısa Tarihi" (PDF). Setav. p. 50. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2013. Retrieved April 14, 2013.  ^ a b Wilson, Mary Christina (28 June 1990). King Abdullah, Britain and the Making of Jordan. Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-521-39987-6.  ^ Akçam 2006, p. 153. ^ Walker, Christopher J. (1980), Armenia: The Survival of A Nation, London: Croom Helm, pp. 200–3  ^ Bryce, Viscount; Bryce, James; Toynbee, Arnold (2000), Sarafian, Ara, ed., The Treatment of Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden (uncensored ed.), Princeton, NJ: Gomidas Institute, pp. 635–49, ISBN 0-9535191-5-5  ^ Akçam, Taner (2012), Young Turks’ Crime Against Humanity :, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p. 203  ^ "young turk". Dictionary.com (10th ed.). HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 27 January 2017.  ^ a b Demonian 1996, p. 11. ^ Balakian 2003, p. 136. ^ Karsh, Efraim (2001), Empires of the Sand: The Struggle for Mastery in the Middle East, Harvard University Press, p. 327 . ^ Fisk, p. 322. ^ Schaller & Zimmerer 2008, p. 8. ^ International Association of Genocide Scholars
International Association of Genocide Scholars
2005. ^ a b Hanioğlu. ^ Landau, Jacob M. (1984). Atatürk and the Modernization of Turkey. Brill. p. 108. ISBN 90-04-07070-2.  ^ Lord Kinross, The Ottoman Centuries[page needed] ^ Demonian 1996, p. 69. ^ Demonian 1996, p. 101. ^ Akçam 2006, p. 353.

Bibliography[edit]

Akçam, Taner (2006), A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
and the Question of Turkish Responsibility . Balakian, Peter (2003), The Burning Tigris: the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
and America’s response . Demonian, Hripsimé (1996), The Sick Men of Europe, Gyumri State Pedagogical Institute . Fisk, R, The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East, Vintage, ISBN 978-1-4000-7517-1 . Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü, The Political Ideas of the Young Turks . ——— (1995), The Young Turks
Young Turks
in Opposition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-509115-9 . International Association of Genocide Scholars
International Association of Genocide Scholars
(June 13, 2005). "Letter to Prime Minister Erdogan". Genocide Watch. Archived from the original on June 4, 2007. Retrieved June 30, 2007.  Schaller, Dominik J; Zimmerer, Jürgen (March 2008), "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Young Turkish population and extermination policies—introduction", Journal of Genocide Research, 10 (1): 7–14, doi:10.1080/14623520801950820 .

Further reading[edit]

Necati Alkan, "The Eternal Enemy of Islam: Abdullah Cevdet
Abdullah Cevdet
and the Baha'i Religion", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Volume 68/1, pp. 1–20; online at Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies ——— (2008), Dissent and Heterodoxy in the Late Ottoman Empire: Reformers, Babis and Baha'is, Istanbul: ISIS Press . David Fromkin, A Peace to End All Peace M. Şükrü Hanioğlu, Preparation for a Revolution: The Young Turks, 1902–1908, Oxford University Press 2001, ISBN 0-19-513463-X ——— (September 29, 2005), "The Anniversary of a Century-Old Ideology", Zaman  Hasan Kayali. Arabs and Young Turks: Ottomanism, Arabism, and Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, 1908–1918. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997 Stephen Kinzer, Crescent and Star: Turkey Between Two Worlds, Farrar, Straus and Giroux 2001, ISBN 0-374-52866-7 Yves Ternon, Empire ottoman : Le déclin, la chute, l'effacement, Paris, édition du Félin, 2002, ISBN 2-86645-601-7 (in French)

External links[edit]

Look up young Turk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Young Turks
Young Turks
movement.

Committee of Union and Progress
Committee of Union and Progress
Turkey in the First World War (website) Young Turks
Young Turks
and the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
(website) Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
History "Young Turks" party (website) Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
Centennial Young Turks
Young Turks
at Encyclopædia Britannica

v t e

Turkish nationalism

Ideology

Turanism Anatolianism Pan-Turkism Turkification Sun Language Theory Kemalism Atatürk personality cult Racism

Organizations

Grey Wolves Youth Union of Turkey Ergenekon (allegation) Turkish Revenge Brigade Turkish Resistance Organisation Deep state

Political parties

Young Turks
Young Turks
(Ottoman Empire) Committee of Union and Progress
Committee of Union and Progress
(Ottoman Empire) Republican People's Party (1923–1944) Nation Party (1948) Republican Villagers Nation Party Nation Party (1962) Nationalist Movement Party Nation Party (1992) Workers' Party (left-wing) Great Union Party Bright Turkey Party Independent Turkey Party Homeland Party People's Ascent Party Nationalist and Conservative Party Rights and Equality Party National Party Nationalist Turkey Party Patriotic Party (left-wing) İYİ Party Ötüken Union Party

People

Namık Kemal Talaat Pasha Enver Pasha Ziya Gökalp Ömer Seyfettin Mehmet Emin Yurdakul Yusuf Akçura Ahmet Ağaoğlu Zeki Velidi Togan Rıza Nur Nihal Atsız Nejdet Sançar Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Alparslan Türkeş Muhsin Yazıcıoğlu Gün Sazak Doğu Perinçek Gökçe Fırat Çulhaoğlu Kemal Kerinçsiz Osman Pamukoğlu Meral Akşener

Historical events

Adana massacre Greek genocide Armenian Genocide Assyrian genocide 1934 Thrace pogroms Zilan massacre

Incidents

Elza Niego affair Istanbul pogrom

2005 exhibition assault

Maraş massacre Assassination of Kemal Türkler Assassination of Hrant Dink Alfortville Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
Memorial Bombings Murder of Sevag Balıkçı

Policies

Geographical name changes Animal name changes 1934 Resettlement Law Varlık Vergisi The Twenty Classes Citizen, speak Turkish! Confiscation of Armenian property Surname Law Article 301 Ne mutlu Türküm diyene Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to the Nation Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
denial

v t e

Armenian Genocide

Background

Armenians
Armenians
in the Ottoman Empire Armenian Question Bayazıt Massacre (1877) (ru; hy; uk) Hamidian massacres
Hamidian massacres
(1894–96) Ottoman Bank (1896) Yıldız (1905) Adana (1909) Young Turk Revolution
Young Turk Revolution
(1908)

The Genocide

Congress at Erzurum Red Sunday Tehcir Law Forced labour Mass rape Genocide casualties Deportation camps

Deir ez-Zor Ra's al-'Ayn

Foreign aid and relief

Near East Foundation National Armenian Relief Committee

Demography

Pre-genocide population Post-genocide population

Secret Armenians Islamized Armenians

Resistance

Armenian militia Zeitun Van Musa Dagh Urfa Shabin-Karahisar

Responsible parties

Young Turks: Committee of Union and Progress

Talaat Enver Djemal Behaeddin Shakir

Special
Special
Organization

Reshid Djevdet Topal Osman

Kurdish Irregulars

Trials

Courts-Martial Malta Tribunals Soghomon Tehlirian

See also

Operation Nemesis Recognition

"I Apologize" campaign

Denial Reparations Timeline Witnesses and testimonies Contemporaneous press coverage Armenian quote Cultural portrayal 100th anniversary Memorials

Prominent visitors to Tsitsernakaberd

Alfortville Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
Memorial bombings Assassina

.