SUPREME CREATOR (GOD)
* v * t * e
A YEMOJA devotee in
The YORUBA RELIGION, comprising the traditional religious concepts
and practices of the
Yoruba people , is found primarily in
* 1 Beliefs
* 2 Reincarnation
* 3.1 Relationship and influence on Voodoo
Yoruba divination board OPON IFá
According to Kola Abimbola, the Yoruba have evolved a robust
cosmology. In brief, it holds that all human beings possess what is
known as "Ayanmo" (destiny, fate) and are expected to eventually
become one in spirit with
Olorun , the divine creator and
source of all energy).
Olorun is thought to remote from people's
everyday lives, but the Yoruba see parallels between Olorun, the King
of the Heavens, and their traditional ruler, the king of the world.
Furthermore, the thoughts and actions of each person in Ayé (the
physical realm/Life) interact with all other living things, including
Each person attempts to achieve transcendence and find their destiny in Orun-Rere (the spiritual realm of those who do good and beneficial things). One's ori-inu (spiritual consciousness in the physical realm) must grow in order to consummate union with one's "Iponri" (Ori Orun, spiritual self).
Those who stop growing spiritually, in any of their given lives, are destined for "Orun-Apadi" (the invisible realm of potsherds ). Life and death are said to be cycles of existence in a series of physical bodies while one's spirit evolves toward transcendence. This evolution is said to be most evident amongst the Orishas , the divine viziers of Olorun .
Iwapẹlẹ (or well-balanced) meditative recitation and sincere veneration is sufficient to strengthen the ori-inu of most people. Well-balanced people, it is believed, are able to make positive use of the simplest form of connection between their Oris and the omnipotent Olu-Orun: an adura (petition or prayer) for divine support.
In the Yoruba belief system, Olodumare has ase over all that is, and hence Is considered supreme.
Unlike many Western religions, which conceive of good and evil as
pertaining to and deriving from separate entities (i.e.-
Main article: Olodumare
Olodumare is the most important "state of existence". Regarded as being all-encompassing, no gender can be assigned. Hence, it is common to hear references to "it" or "they" (although this is meant to address a somewhat singularity). "They" are the owner of all heads, for during human creation, Olodumare gave "emi" (the breath of life) to humankind. In this, Olodumare is Supreme.
Perhaps one of the most important human endeavors extolled within the Yoruba literary corpus is the quest to better one's "Iwa" (character, behaviour). In this way the teachings transcends religious doctrine, advising as it does that a person must also better his civic, social and intellectual spheres of being; every stanza of the sacred Ifá oracular poetry ( Odu Ifa ) has a portion covering the importance of "Iwa". Central to this is the theme of righteousness, both individual and collective.
The Yoruba regard Olodumare as the principal agent of creation.
According to a Yoruba account of creation , during a certain stage in this process, the "truth" was sent to confirm the habitability of the newly formed planets. The earth being one of these was visited but deemed too wet for conventional life.
After a successful period of time, a number of divinities led by Obatala were sent to accomplish the task of helping earth develop its crust. On one of their visits to the realm, the arch-divinity Obatala took to the stage equipped with a mollusk that concealed some form of soil ; winged beasts and some cloth like material. The contents were emptied onto what soon became a large mound on the surface of the water and soon after, the winged-beasts began to scatter this around until the point where it gradually made into a large patch of dry land; the various indentations they created eventually becoming hills and valleys.
Obatala leaped onto a high-ground and named the place Ife . The land became fertile and plant life began to flourish. From handfuls of earth he began to mold figurines. Meanwhile, as this was happening on earth, Olodumare gathered the gasses from the far reaches of space and sparked an explosion that shaped into a fireball. He subsequently sent it to Ife, where it dried much of the land and simultaneously began to bake the motionless figurines. It was at this point that Olodumare released the "breath of life" to blow across the land, and the figurines slowly came into "being" as the first people of Ife.
Main article: Orisha
An Orisha (spelled Òrìṣa) is an entity that possesses the capability of reflecting some of the manifestations of Olodumare. Yoruba Orishas (commonly translated "unique/special/selected heads") are often described as intermediaries between humankind and the supernatural. The term is also translated as "Deities" or "Divinities" or "Gods".
Orisha(s) are revered for having control over specific elements by nature, thus being better referred to as the divinities or Imole. Even so, there are those of their number that are more akin to ancient heroes and/or sages . These are best addressed as Dema Deities . Even though the term Orisha is often used to describe both classes of divine entities , it is properly reserved for the former one.
ORUNMILA / Ọ̀rúnmìlà The Yoruba Grand Priest and custodian of the Ifa Oracle, source of knowledge who is believed to oversee the knowledge of the Human Form , Purity , the Cures of illnesses and deformities. Babalawos are Orumila's suburdinate as priests and followers.
ESHU / Èṣù Often ill-translated as "The Devil" or "The Evil Being", Eshu is in truth neither of these. Best referred to as "The Trickster", he deals a hand of misfortune to those that do not offer tribute or are deemed to be spiritual novices. Also regarded as the "divine messenger", a prime negotiator between negative and positive forces in the body and an enforcer of the "law of being". He is said to assist in enhancing the power derived from herbal medicines and other forms of esoteric technology.
Eshu is the Orisha of chance, accident and unpredictability. Because he is Olorun's linguist and the master of languages, Eshu is responsible for carrying messages and sacrifices from humans to the Sky God. Also known for his phallic powers and exploits. Eshu is said to lurk at gateways, on the highways and at the crossroads, where he introduces chance and accident into the lives of humans. Known by a variety of names, including Elegbara.
OGOUN / Ògún Orisha of iron and metallurgy .
YEMOJA / Yemọja Mother of Waters, Nurturer of Water Resources. According to Olorishas, she is the amniotic fluid in the womb of the pregnant woman, as well as the breasts which nurture. She is considered the protective energy of the feminine force.
OSHUN / Ọ̀ṣun
A second wife of the former Oba of Oyo called
SHANGO / Ṣàngó
Associated with Virility, Masculinity, Fire, Lightning, Stones, Oyo
Warriors and Magnetism. He is said to have the abilities to transform
base substances into those that are pure and valuable. He was the Oba
of Oyo at some point in its history. He derived his nickname Oba Koso
from the tales of his immortality.
OYA / Ọya
The third wife of the former Oba of Oyo called
Irunmole are entities sent by Olorun to complete given tasks, often acting as liaisons between Orun (the invisible realm) and Aiye (the physical realm). Irunmole(s) can best be described as ranking divinities; whereby such divinities are regarded as the principal Orishas. Irunmole, from "Erinrun" - 400, "Imole" - Divinites or Divine Spirits
The Yoruba believe in Atunwa, reincarnation within the family. The names Babatunde (father returns), Yetunde (Mother returns), Babatunji (Father wakes once again) and Sotunde (The wise man returns) all offer vivid evidence of the Ifa concept of familial or lineal rebirth. There is no simple guarantee that your grandfather or great uncle will "come back" in the birth of your child, however.
Whenever the time arrives for a spirit to return to
YORUBA RELIGION AROUND THE WORLD
Main article: Yoruba history
According to Professor S. A. Akintoye, the Yoruba were exquisite
statesmen who spread across the globe in an unprecedented fashion;
the reach of their culture is largely due to migration—the most
recent migration occurred with the
Atlantic slave trade . During this
period, many Yoruba were captured and sold into the slave trade and
RELATIONSHIP AND INFLUENCE ON VOODOO
The Vodun faith, which originated amongst a different ethnic group
(the Gbe speaking peoples of present-day
"Chrislam" is a neologism used to refer to syncretism between
Islam among the Yoruba of
Yoruba "Chrislam" includes two distinct religious movements, one
called Ifeoluwa founded by Tela Tella in the 1970s and 80s and
another called Oke-Tude founded by Samson Saka in 1999. They are also
known as The Will of
Ifeoluwa ("Love of God") recognises both the
Oke Tude (Oketude) in Ogudu (a northern suburb of Lagos ), founded by Samson Saka in 1999, is slightly less recognisable to mainstream Christianity, resembling more interfaith worship with three different sessions or services that take place on Sunday. The first is a Muslim session, then a Christian session, and finally there is a joint session that Saka leads. During this he stresses the similarities between Christianity and Islamic beliefs.
* ^ A B C Abimbola, Kola (2005). Yoruba Culture: A Philosophical
Account (Paperback ed.). Iroko Academics Publishers. ISBN
* ^ A B C D Ọlabimtan, Afọlabi (1991). Yoruba
Medicine in Ibadan. Translated by George E. Simpson.
Press. ISBN 978-121-068-0 .
OCLC 33249752 .
* ^ A B C D J. Olumide Lucas, The
Religion of the Yorubas, Athelia
Henrietta PR, 1996. ISBN 0-9638787-8-6
* ^ A B C Ọlabimtan, Afọlabi (1973). Àyànmọ. Lagos,
OCLC 33249752 .
* ^ Wiafe, Daniel (1988). Africa today : its peoples and
contemporary cultures. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall-Hunt. ISBN 0840346409 .
* ^ Lawal, Babatunde (2008). "Èjìwàpò: The Dialectics of
Twoness in Yoruba Art and Culture". African Arts. 41 (1): 30.
* ^ A B C D E
Bolaji Idowu (1982). Olódùmarè:
* Fayemi fatunde Fakayode, "Iwure, Efficacious
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* Yoruban cosmology and mythology *