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Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(/ˈjɔːrkʃər, -ʃɪər/; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.[3] Due to its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undertaken over time by its subdivisions, which have also been subject to periodic reform. Throughout these changes, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has continued to be recognised as a geographical territory and cultural region.[4][5] The name is familiar and well understood across the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and is in common use in the media and the military,[6] and also features in the titles of current areas of civil administration such as North Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
and East Riding of Yorkshire. Within the borders of the historic county of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
are areas which are widely considered to be among the greenest in England, due to the vast stretches of unspoilt countryside in the Yorkshire Dales
Yorkshire Dales
and North York Moors
North York Moors
and to the open aspect of some of the major cities.[7][8] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has sometimes been nicknamed "God's Own County" or "God's Own Country".[5][9][10] The emblem of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is the White Rose of the English royal House of York, and the most commonly used flag representative of Yorkshire is the White Rose on a blue background,[11] which after nearly fifty years of use, was recognised by the Flag Institute
Flag Institute
on 29 July 2008.[12] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Day, held annually on 1 August, is a celebration of the general culture of Yorkshire, ranging from its history to its own dialect.[13] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is now divided between different official regions. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber. The extreme northern part of the county, such as Great Ayton, Runswick Bay, Middlesbrough and Dalton-on-Tees, falls within North East England. Following boundary changes in 1974, small areas in the west of the historic county now form part of North West England.

Contents

1 Toponymy 2 History

2.1 Celtic tribes 2.2 Roman Yorkshire 2.3 Second Celtic period and Angles 2.4 Kingdom of Jórvík 2.5 Norman conquest 2.6 Wars of the Roses 2.7 Civil War and textile industry 2.8 Yorkshire
Yorkshire
today

3 Geography

3.1 Physical and geological 3.2 Natural areas

3.2.1 Geography and the historic divisions

3.3 Cities and towns

4 Local government 5 Economy 6 Education 7 Transport

7.1 Public transport statistics

8 Culture

8.1 Architecture 8.2 Literature and art 8.3 Sport 8.4 Cuisine 8.5 Beer and brewing 8.6 Music 8.7 Film and television productions

9 Politics and identity

9.1 Representation 9.2 Distinctive identity and devolution campaigns 9.3 Monarchy and peerage

10 Notable people 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Toponymy[edit] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
or the County of York
York
was so named as it is the shire (administrative area or county) of the city of York
York
locally /ˈjɔːk/ ( listen) or York's Shire. "York" comes from the Viking
Viking
name for the city, Jórvík. "Shire" is from Old English, scir meaning care or official charge.[14] The "shire" suffix is locally pronounced /-ʃə/ "shuh", or occasionally /-ʃiə/, a homophone of "sheer".[15] History[edit] Main article: History of Yorkshire Celtic tribes[edit] Early inhabitants of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
were Celts, who formed two separate tribes, the Brigantes
Brigantes
and the Parisi. The Brigantes
Brigantes
controlled territory which later became all of the North Riding of Yorkshire
North Riding of Yorkshire
and the West Riding of Yorkshire. The tribe controlled most of Northern England and more territory than any other Celtic tribe in England. That they had the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
area as their heartland is evident in that Isurium Brigantum
Isurium Brigantum
(now known as Aldborough) was the capital town of their civitas under Roman rule. Six of the nine Brigantian poleis described by Claudius Ptolemaeus in the Geographia fall within the historic county.[16][17] The Parisi, who controlled the area that would become the East Riding of Yorkshire, might have been related to the Parisii of Lutetia
Lutetia
Parisiorum, Gaul
Gaul
(known today as Paris, France).[18] Their capital was at Petuaria, close to the Humber Estuary. Although the Roman conquest of Britain
Roman conquest of Britain
began in 43 AD, the Brigantes
Brigantes
remained in control of their kingdom as a client state of Rome for an extended period, reigned over by the Brigantian monarchs Cartimandua
Cartimandua
and her husband Venutius. Initially, this situation suited both the Romans and the Brigantes, who were known as the most militant tribe in Britain.[19] Roman Yorkshire[edit]

Statue of Constantine I
Constantine I
outside York
York
Minster.

Queen Cartimandua
Cartimandua
left her husband Venutius
Venutius
for his armour bearer, Vellocatus, setting off a chain of events which changed control of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
area. Cartimandua, due to her good relationship with the Romans, was able to keep control of the kingdom; however her former husband staged rebellions against her and her Roman allies.[20] At the second attempt, Venutius
Venutius
seized the kingdom, but the Romans, under general Petillius Cerialis, conquered the Brigantes
Brigantes
in 71 AD.[21] The fortified city of Eboracum
Eboracum
(now known as York) was named as capital of Britannia Inferior and joint-capital of all Roman Britain.[22] The emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
ruled the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
from Eboracum
Eboracum
for the two years before his death.[23] Another emperor, Constantius Chlorus, died in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
during a visit in 306 AD. This saw his son Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
proclaimed emperor in the city, who would become renowned due to his contributions to Christianity.[24] In the early 5th century, the Roman rule ceased with the withdrawal of the last active Roman troops. By this stage, the Western Empire was in intermittent decline.[23] Second Celtic period and Angles[edit] After the Romans left, small Celtic kingdoms arose in Yorkshire, including the Kingdom of Ebrauc
Ebrauc
around York
York
and the Kingdom of Elmet in West Yorkshire.[25][26] Elmet
Elmet
remained independent from the Germanic Northumbrian Angles
Angles
until some time in the early 7th century, when King Edwin of Northumbria
Edwin of Northumbria
expelled its last king, Certic, and annexed the region. At its greatest extent, Northumbria
Northumbria
stretched from the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the North Sea
North Sea
and from Edinburgh
Edinburgh
down to Hallamshire in South Yorkshire.[27] Kingdom of Jórvík[edit] Main article: Kingdom of Jórvík

Coin from Eric Bloodaxe's reign

An army of Danish Vikings, the Great Heathen Army[28] as its enemies often referred to it, invaded Northumbrian territory in 866 AD. The Danes conquered and assumed what is now York
York
and renamed it Jórvík, making it the capital city of a new Danish kingdom under the same name. The area which this kingdom covered included most of Southern Northumbria, roughly equivalent to the borders of Yorkshire extending further West.[29] The Danes went on to conquer an even larger area of England that afterwards became known as the Danelaw; but whereas most of the Danelaw
Danelaw
was still English land, albeit in submission to Viking overlords, it was in the Kingdom of Jórvík
Jórvík
that the only truly Viking
Viking
territory on mainland Britain was ever established. The Kingdom prospered, taking advantage of the vast trading network of the Viking nations, and established commercial ties with the British Isles, North-West Europe, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Middle East.[30] Founded by the Dane Halfdan Ragnarsson
Halfdan Ragnarsson
in 875,[31] ruled for the great part by Danish kings, and populated by the families and subsequent descendants of Danish Vikings, the leadership of the kingdom nonetheless passed into Norwegian hands during its twilight years.[31] Eric Bloodaxe, an ex-king of Norway
Norway
who was the last independent Viking
Viking
king of Jórvík, is a particularly noted figure in history,[32] and his bloodthirsty approach towards leadership may have been at least partly responsible for convincing the Danish inhabitants of the region to accept English sovereignty so readily in the years that followed. After around 100 years of its volatile existence, the Kingdom of Jorvik finally came to an end. The Kingdom of Wessex
Kingdom of Wessex
was now in its ascendant and established its dominance over the North in general, placing Yorkshire
Yorkshire
again within Northumbria, which retained a certain amount of autonomy as an almost-independent earldom rather than a separate kingdom. The Wessex Kings of England
Kings of England
were reputed to have respected the Norse customs in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and left law-making in the hands of the local aristocracy.[33] Norman conquest[edit]

York
York
Minster, western elevation

In the weeks immediately leading up to the Battle of Hastings
Battle of Hastings
in 1066 AD, Harold II of England was distracted by events in Yorkshire. His brother Tostig and Harold Hardrada, King of Norway, attempted a takeover in the north, having won the Battle of Fulford. The King of England
King of England
marched North where the two armies met at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Tostig and Hardrada were both killed and their army was defeated decisively. However, Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
was forced immediately to march his army back down to the South where William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
was landing. The King was defeated at Hastings, which led to the Norman conquest of England. The people of the North rebelled against the Normans
Normans
in September 1069 AD, enlisting Sweyn II of Denmark. They tried to take back York, but the Normans
Normans
burnt it before they could.[34] What followed was the Harrying of the North
Harrying of the North
ordered by William. From York
York
to Durham, crops, domestic animals, and farming tools were scorched. Many villages between the towns were burnt and local northerners were indiscriminately murdered.[35] During the winter that followed, families starved to death and thousands of peasants died of cold and hunger. Orderic Vitalis
Orderic Vitalis
put the estimation at "more than 100,000" people from the North dying from hunger.[36] In the centuries following, many abbeys and priories were built in Yorkshire. Norman landowners were keen to increase their revenues and established new towns such as Barnsley, Doncaster, Hull, Leeds, Scarborough, Sheffield, among others. Of towns founded before the conquest, only Bridlington, Pocklington, and York
York
continued at a prominent level.[37] The population of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
boomed until hit by the Great Famine in the years between 1315 and 1322.[37] In the early 12th century, people of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
had to contend with the Battle of the Standard
Battle of the Standard
at Northallerton
Northallerton
with the Scots. Representing the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
led by Archbishop Thurstan
Thurstan
of York, soldiers from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
defeated the more numerous Scots.[38] The Black Death
Black Death
reached Yorkshire
Yorkshire
by 1349, killing around a third of the population.[37] Wars of the Roses[edit] Further information: House of York
House of York
and Wars of the Roses

Yorkist king Richard III grew up at Middleham.[39]

When King Richard II was overthrown in 1399, antagonism between the House of York
House of York
and the House of Lancaster, both branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, began to emerge. Eventually the two houses fought for the throne of England in a series of civil wars, commonly known as the Wars of the Roses. Some of the battles took place in Yorkshire, such as those at Wakefield
Wakefield
and Towton, the latter of which is known as the bloodiest battle ever fought on English soil.[40] Richard III was the last Yorkist king. Henry Tudor, sympathiser to the House of Lancaster, defeated and killed Richard at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He then became King Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Yorkist Edward IV, ending the wars.[41] The two roses of white and red, emblems of the Houses of York
York
and Lancaster respectively, were combined to form the Tudor Rose
Tudor Rose
of England.[a][42] This rivalry between the royal houses of York
York
and Lancaster has passed into popular culture as a rivalry between the counties of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Lancashire, particularly in sport (for example the Roses Match
Roses Match
played in County Cricket), although the House of Lancaster
House of Lancaster
was based in York
York
and the House of York
York
in London. In football, matches between Manchester United and Leeds
Leeds
United are usually described as "War of the Roses" games, the teams' home kits being the colour of the respective rose. Civil War and textile industry[edit] The wool textile industry which had previously been a cottage industry centred on the old market towns moved to the West Riding where entrepreneurs were building mills that took advantage of water power gained by harnessing the rivers and streams flowing from the Pennines. The developing textile industry helped Wakefield
Wakefield
and Halifax grow.[43] The English Reformation
English Reformation
began under Henry VIII and the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1536 led to a popular uprising known as Pilgrimage of Grace, started in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
as a protest. Some Catholics in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
continued to practise their religion and those caught were executed during the reign of Elizabeth I. One such person was a York woman named Margaret Clitherow
Margaret Clitherow
who was later canonised.[44]

Battle of Marston Moor
Battle of Marston Moor
in 1644

During the English Civil War, which started in 1642, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
had divided loyalties; Hull famously shut the gates of the city on the king when he came to enter a few months before fighting began, while the North Riding of Yorkshire
North Riding of Yorkshire
in particular was strongly royalist.[45][46] York
York
was the base for Royalists, and from there they captured Leeds
Leeds
and Wakefield
Wakefield
only to have them recaptured a few months later. The royalists won the Battle of Adwalton Moor
Battle of Adwalton Moor
meaning they controlled Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(with the exception of Hull). From their base in Hull the Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") fought back, re-taking Yorkshire
Yorkshire
town by town, until they won the Battle of Marston Moor
Battle of Marston Moor
and with it control of all of the North of England.[47] In the 16th and 17th centuries Leeds
Leeds
and other wool industry centred towns continued to grow, along with Huddersfield, Hull and Sheffield, while coal mining first came into prominence in the West Riding of Yorkshire.[48] Canals and turnpike roads were introduced in the late 18th century. In the following century the spa towns of Harrogate
Harrogate
and Scarborough flourished, due to people believing mineral water had curative properties.[49]

Titus Salt's mill in Saltaire, Bradford
Bradford
is an UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Play media

These grandiose Victorian engineering tunnels were built in the 1800s to channel the River Aire
River Aire
underneath the modern-day structure of Leeds railway station.

The 19th century saw Yorkshire's continued growth, with the population growing and the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
continuing with prominent industries in coal, textile and steel (especially in Sheffield
Sheffield
and Rotherham). However, despite the booming industry, living conditions declined in the industrial towns due to overcrowding, this saw bouts of cholera in both 1832 and 1848.[50] Fortunately for the county, advances were made by the end of the century with the introduction of modern sewers and water supplies. Several Yorkshire
Yorkshire
railway networks were introduced as railways spread across the country to reach remote areas.[51] County councils were created for the three ridings in 1889, but their area of control did not include the large towns, which became county boroughs, and included an increasingly large part of the population.[52] During the Second World War, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
became an important base for RAF Bomber Command
RAF Bomber Command
and brought the county into the cutting edge of the war.[53] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
today[edit] Main article: History of local government in Yorkshire In the 1970s there were major reforms of local government throughout the United Kingdom. Some of the changes were unpopular,[54] and controversially Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and its ridings lost status in 1974[55] as part of the Local Government Act 1972.[56] The East Riding was resurrected with reduced boundaries in 1996 with the abolition of Humberside. With slightly different borders, the government office entity which currently contains most of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber region of England.[55] This region includes a northern slice of Lincolnshire, but does not include the northern part of the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
( Middlesbrough
Middlesbrough
and Redcar
Redcar
and Cleveland), which is in the North East England
North East England
region. Other parts of the historic county of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
are also in other official regions. Saddleworth
Saddleworth
(now in Greater Manchester); the Forest of Bowland (Lancashire); Sedbergh
Sedbergh
and Dent (Cumbria) are in the North West England region, and Upper Teesdale
Teesdale
(County Durham) is in North East England.[54] Geography[edit] Physical and geological[edit] Main articles: Geology of Yorkshire
Geology of Yorkshire
and List of places in Yorkshire

Geology of Yorkshire

Historically, the northern boundary of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was the River Tees, the eastern boundary was the North Sea
North Sea
coast and the southern boundary was the Humber Estuary
Humber Estuary
and Rivers Don and Sheaf. The western boundary meandered along the western slopes of the Pennine Hills to again meet the River Tees.[57] It is bordered by several other historic counties in the form of County Durham, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Cheshire, Lancashire
Lancashire
and Westmorland.[58] In Yorkshire there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the geological period in which they were formed.[57] The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous
Carboniferous
origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors
North York Moors
in the north-east of the county are Jurassic
Jurassic
in age while the Yorkshire Wolds
Yorkshire Wolds
to the south east are Cretaceous
Cretaceous
chalk uplands.[57]

The main rivers of Yorkshire

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire
Yorkshire
the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse which reaches the North Sea
North Sea
via the Humber Estuary.[59] The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale
Swaledale
before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure, which the Swale joins east of Boroughbridge. Near Great Ouseburn
Great Ouseburn
the Ure is joined by the small Ouse Gill Beck, and below the confluence the river is known as the Ouse. The River Nidd
River Nidd
rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales
Yorkshire Dales
National Park and flows along Nidderdale
Nidderdale
before reaching the Vale of York
York
and the Ouse.[59] The River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.[59] The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse and the most southerly Yorkshire
Yorkshire
tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole. Further north and east the River Derwent rises on the North York
York
Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering
Vale of Pickering
then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh.[59] In the far north of the county the River Tees
River Tees
flows eastwards through Teesdale
Teesdale
and empties its waters into the North Sea
North Sea
downstream of Middlesbrough. The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors
North York Moors
to reach the sea at Whitby.[59] To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds
Yorkshire Wolds
the River Hull
River Hull
flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary
Humber Estuary
at Kingston upon Hull. The western Pennines
Pennines
are drained by the River Ribble
River Ribble
which flows westwards, eventually reaching the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
close to Lytham St Annes.[59] Natural areas[edit] Main article: Topographical
Topographical
areas of Yorkshire

Geographic features of Yorkshire

Nidderdale, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales

Cliffs at Whitby

Ilkley Moor

Kilnsea, Humber Estuary

The countryside of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has acquired the common nickname of "God's Own County".[5][9] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
includes the North York Moors
North York Moors
and Yorkshire Dales
Yorkshire Dales
National Parks, and part of the Peak District
Peak District
National Park. Nidderdale
Nidderdale
and the Howardian Hills
Howardian Hills
are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty.[60] Spurn
Spurn
Point, Flamborough Head
Flamborough Head
and the coastal North York Moors
North York Moors
are designated Heritage Coast areas,[61] and are noted for their scenic views with rugged cliffs[62] such as the jet cliffs at Whitby,[62] the limestone cliffs at Filey
Filey
and the chalk cliffs at Flamborough Head.[63][64] Moor House – Upper Teesdale, most of which is part of the former North Riding of Yorkshire, is one of England's largest national nature reserves.[65] The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
runs nature reserves such as the one at Bempton Cliffs
Bempton Cliffs
with coastal wildlife such as the northern gannet, Atlantic puffin
Atlantic puffin
and razorbill.[66] Spurn
Spurn
Point is a narrow, 3 miles (4.8 km) long sand spit. It is a national nature reserve owned by the Yorkshire Wildlife Trust
Yorkshire Wildlife Trust
and is noted for its cyclical nature whereby the spit is destroyed and re-created approximately once every 250 years.[67] There are seaside resorts in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
with sandy beaches; Scarborough is Britain's oldest seaside resort dating back to the spa town-era in the 17th century,[68] while Whitby
Whitby
has been voted as the United Kingdom's best beach, with a "postcard-perfect harbour".[69] Geography and the historic divisions[edit] Historically, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was divided into three ridings and the Ainsty of York. The term 'riding' is of Viking
Viking
origin and derives from Threthingr meaning a third part. The three ridings in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
were named the East Riding, West Riding and North Riding.[70] The East and North Ridings of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
were separated by the River Derwent and the West and North Ridings were separated by the Ouse and the Ure/Nidd watershed. In 1974 the three ridings of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
were abolished and York, which had been independent of the three ridings, was incorporated into the new county called North Yorkshire. It later became part of York
York
Unitary Authority.[71]

Cities and towns[edit]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Yorkshire Estimates[72]

Rank

County Pop. Rank

County Pop.

Leeds

Sheffield 1 Leeds West 750,700 11 Barnsley South 81,251

Bradford

Kingston upon Hull

2 Sheffield South 551,800 12 Wakefield West 76,886

3 Bradford West 293,717 13 Harrogate North 71,594

4 Kingston upon Hull East 256,100 14 Keighley West 70,000

5 York North 197,800 15 Dewsbury West 54,341

6 Huddersfield West 146,234 16 Scarborough North 50,135

7 Middlesbrough North 138,400 17 Batley West 49,448

8 Doncaster South 127,851 18 Castleford West 39,192

9 Rotherham South 117,262 19 Redcar North 36,610

10 Halifax West 82,056 20 Bridlington East 35,369

Local government[edit] For statistical purposes, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is divided, as of 2018, between three regions of England. Most of the county falls within Yorkshire and the Humber. The extreme northern part of the county, including Great Ayton, Runswick Bay, Middlesbrough
Middlesbrough
and Dalton-on-Tees, falls within North East England. Following administrative boundary changes in 1974,[73] and again in 2013, small areas in the west of the historic county now form part of North West England. During these processes the geographical boundaries, otherwise known as 'historical', remained unchanged. Within the regions are both ceremonial counties, and the actual units of local government, such as unitary authorities, as detailed at Local government divisions of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber, Local government divisions of North East England
North East England
and Local government divisions of North West England. Economy[edit]

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Bridgewater Place, a symbol of Leeds' growing financial importance.

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a mixed economy, and accounts for about 8% of UK GDP. The City of Leeds
Leeds
is Yorkshire's largest city and the leading centre of trade and commerce. Leeds
Leeds
is also one of the UK's larger financial centres. Leeds' traditional industries were mixed; service-based industries, textile manufacturing and coal mining being examples. Tourism is also significant. In 2015, the value of tourism was in excess of £7 billion.[74] Sheffield
Sheffield
once had heavy industries, such as coal mining and the steel industry. Since the decline of such industries Sheffield
Sheffield
has attracted tertiary and administrative businesses including more retail trade; Meadowhall being an example. However, while Sheffield's heavy industry has declined, the region has reinvented itself as a centre for specialist engineering. A cluster of hi-tech facilities including The Welding Institute and the Boeing partnered Advanced Materials Research Centre[75] have all helped to raise the region's profile and to bring significant investment into Yorkshire.[citation needed] Bradford, Halifax, Keighley
Keighley
and Huddersfield
Huddersfield
once were centres of wool milling. Areas such as Bradford, Dewsbury
Dewsbury
and Keighley
Keighley
have suffered a decline in their economy since. North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
has an established tourist industry, supported by the presence of two national parks ( Yorkshire Dales
Yorkshire Dales
National Park, North York
York
Moors National Park), Harrogate, York
York
and Scarborough and this industry is also growing in Leeds. Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
is Yorkshire's largest port and has a large manufacturing base, its fishing industry has however declined somewhat in recent years. Harrogate
Harrogate
and Knaresborough
Knaresborough
both have small legal and financial sectors. Harrogate is a European conference and exhibition destination with both the Great Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Showground and Harrogate
Harrogate
International Centre in the town. Coal mining
Coal mining
was extremely active in the south of the county during the 19th century and for most of the 20th century, particularly around Barnsley
Barnsley
and Wakefield. As late as the 1970s, the number of miners working in the area was still in six figures.[76] The industry was placed under threat on 6 March 1984 when the National Coal
Coal
Board announced the closure of 20 pits nationwide (some of them in South Yorkshire). By March 2004, a mere three coalpits remained open in the area.[77] Three years later, the only remaining coal pit in the region was Maltby Colliery near Rotherham.[78] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has been the focus of various industrial promotion and development initiatives, such as Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Forward, and today various local enterprise partnerships. There are also a number of innovation centres belonging to leading companies, and a range of spin-off companies linked to major universities. Many large British companies are based in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
or were founded there. These include; Morrisons
Morrisons
(Bradford), Asda
Asda
(Leeds), Jet2.com (Leeds), Ronseal
Ronseal
(Sheffield), Optare
Optare
(Leeds), Aunt Bessie's
Aunt Bessie's
(Hull), Birds Eye
Birds Eye
(Hull), Wharfedale
Wharfedale
(Leeds), Plaxton
Plaxton
(Scarborough), Seven Seas (Hull), Little Chef
Little Chef
(Sheffield), Plusnet
Plusnet
(Sheffield), Quidco (Sheffield), Fenner plc (Hull), Halifax Bank (Halifax), Rank Organisation (Hull), Yorkshire Bank
Yorkshire Bank
(Leeds), William Jackson Food Group (Hull), Yorkshire Building Society
Yorkshire Building Society
(Bradford), Victoria Plumb (Hull), Ebuyer
Ebuyer
(Howden), GHD (Leeds), Marks and Spencer
Marks and Spencer
(Leeds), Burtons (Leeds), Jaeger Ilkley, Magnet Kitchens
Magnet Kitchens
(Keighley), Reckitt and Sons (Hull), McCains
McCains
(Scarborough), First Direct
First Direct
(Leeds), KCOM Group (Hull), Tetley's Brewery
Tetley's Brewery
(Leeds), Timothy Taylor Brewery (Keighley), Bradford
Bradford
and Bingley (Bingley), Skipton
Skipton
Building Society (Skipton), Bettys and Taylors of Harrogate, SGS Europe (Hull) and Provident Financial
Provident Financial
(Bradford.) Education[edit] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a large base of primary and secondary schools operated by both local authorities and private bodies, and a dozen universities, along with a wide range of colleges and further education facilities. Four universities are based in Leeds, two in Sheffield, two in York, and one each in Bradford, Hull, Middlesbrough and Huddersfield
Huddersfield
(the last with branches in Barnsley
Barnsley
and Oldham). The largest universities by enrolment are Sheffield
Sheffield
Hallam University and the University of Leeds, each with over 31,000 students, followed by Leeds
Leeds
Beckett University, and the most recent to attain university status is Leeds
Leeds
Arts University. There are also branches of institutions headquartered in other parts of England, such as the Open University and Britain's first for-profit university (since 2012), the University of Law. The tertiary sector is in active cooperation with industry, and a number of spin-off companies have been launched. Transport[edit]

The A1(M) and M62 junction at Ferrybridge, West Yorkshire

The most prominent road in Yorkshire, historically called the Great North Road, is known as the A1.[79] This trunk road passes through the centre of the county and is the prime route from London
London
to Edinburgh.[80] Another important road is the more easterly A19 road which starts in Doncaster
Doncaster
and ends just north of Newcastle-upon-Tyne at Seaton Burn. The M62 motorway
M62 motorway
crosses the county from east to west from Hull towards Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
and Merseyside.[81] The M1 carries traffic from London
London
and the south of England to Yorkshire. In 1999 about 8 miles (13 km) was added to make it swing east of Leeds
Leeds
and connect to the A1.[82] The East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
rail link between Scotland and London
London
runs roughly parallel with the A1 through Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Trans Pennine rail link runs east to west from Hull to Liverpool via Leeds.[83] Before the advent of rail transport, the seaports of Hull and Whitby played an important role in transporting goods. Historically canals were used, including the Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool Canal, which is the longest canal in England. Mainland Europe (the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium) can be reached from Hull via regular ferry services from P&O Ferries.[84] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
also has air transport services from Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
International Airport. This airport has experienced significant and rapid growth in both terminal size and passenger facilities since 1996, when improvements began, until the present day.[85] South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire
is served by the Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, based in Finningley.[86] Sheffield
Sheffield
City Airport opened in 1997 after years of Sheffield
Sheffield
having no airport, due to a council decision in the 1960s not to develop one because of the city's good rail links with London
London
and the development of airports in other nearby areas. The newly opened airport never managed to compete with larger airports such as Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
International Airport and East Midlands Airport and attracted only a few scheduled flights, while the runway was too short to support low cost carriers. The opening of Doncaster
Doncaster
Sheffield
Sheffield
Airport effectively made the airport redundant and it officially closed in April 2008. Public transport statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend on public transport in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
on a weekday is 77 minutes. 26.6% of public transport users travel for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transport is 16 minutes, while 24.9% of passengers wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transport is 7 km, while 10% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[87] Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Yorkshire See also: Yorkshire dialect
Yorkshire dialect
and accent The culture of the people of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is an accumulated product of a number of different civilisations who have influenced its history, including; the Celts
Celts
( Brigantes
Brigantes
and Parisii), Romans, Angles, Norse Vikings, Normans
Normans
and amongst others.[88] The western part of the historic North Riding had an additional infusion of Breton culture due to the Honour of Richmond
Honour of Richmond
being occupied by Alain Le Roux, grandson of Geoffrey I, Duke of Brittany.[89] The people of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
are immensely proud of their county and local culture and it is sometimes suggested they identify more strongly with their county than they do with their country.[90] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
people have their own Yorkshire dialects and accents and are, or rather were, known as Broad Yorkshire or Tykes, with its roots in Old English
Old English
and Old Norse.[91][92] Though distinct accents remain, dialects are no longer in everyday use. Some have argued the dialect was a fully fledged language in its own right.[93] The county has also produced a set of Yorkshire colloquialisms,[94] which are in use in the county. Among Yorkshire's traditions is the Long Sword dance. The most famous traditional song of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at
On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at
("On Ilkley Moor
Ilkley Moor
without a hat"), it is considered the unofficial anthem of the county.[95] Architecture[edit]

Castle
Castle
Howard

Throughout Yorkshire
Yorkshire
many castles were built during the Norman-Breton period, particularly after the Harrying of the North. These included Bowes Castle, Pickering Castle, Richmond Castle, Skipton
Skipton
Castle, York Castle
Castle
and others.[96] Later medieval castles at Helmsley, Middleham and Scarborough were built as a means of defence against the invading Scots.[97] Middleham
Middleham
is notable because Richard III of England
Richard III of England
spent his childhood there.[97] The remains of these castles, some being English Heritage
English Heritage
sites, are popular tourist destinations.[97] There are several stately homes in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
which carry the name "castle" in their title, even though they are more akin to a palace.[98] The most notable examples are Allerton Castle
Castle
and Castle
Castle
Howard,[99] both linked to the Howard family.[100] Castle Howard
Castle Howard
and the Earl
Earl
of Harewood's residence, Harewood House, are included amongst the Treasure Houses of England, a group of nine English stately homes.[101] There are numerous other Grade I listed
Grade I listed
buildings within the historic county including public buildings such as Leeds
Leeds
Town Hall, Sheffield Town Hall, Ormesby Hall, the Yorkshire Museum
Yorkshire Museum
and Guildhall at York, and the Piece Hall
Piece Hall
in Halifax.[102] Large estates with significant buildings were constructed at Brodsworth Hall, Temple Newsam
Temple Newsam
and Wentworth Castle. In addition to this there are properties which are conserved and managed by the National Trust, such as Nunnington Hall, the Rievaulx Terrace & Temples and Studley Royal Park.[103] Religious architecture includes extant cathedrals as well as the ruins of monasteries and abbeys. Many of these prominent buildings suffered from the Dissolution of the Monasteries
Dissolution of the Monasteries
under Henry VIII; these include Bolton Abbey, Fountains Abbey, Gisborough Priory, Rievaulx Abbey, St Mary's Abbey
Abbey
and Whitby
Whitby
Abbey
Abbey
among others.[104] Notable religious buildings of historic origin still in use include York Minster, the largest Gothic cathedral in northern Europe,[104] Beverley Minster, Bradford
Bradford
Cathedral
Cathedral
and Ripon Cathedral.[104] Literature and art[edit]

The Brontë
Brontë
sisters

Although the first Professor of English Literature at Leeds University, F.W. Moorman, claimed the first extant work of English literature, Beowulf, was written in Yorkshire,[105] this view does not have common acceptance today. However, when Yorkshire
Yorkshire
formed the southern part of the kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
there were several notable poets, scholars and ecclesiastics, including Alcuin, Cædmon
Cædmon
and Wilfrid.[106] The most esteemed literary family from the county are the three Brontë
Brontë
sisters, with part of the county around Haworth being nicknamed Brontë
Brontë
Country in their honour.[107] Their novels, written in the mid-19th century, caused a sensation when they were first published, yet were subsequently accepted into the canon of great English literature.[108] Among the most celebrated novels written by the sisters are Anne Brontë's The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre
Jane Eyre
and Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights.[107] Wuthering Heights
Wuthering Heights
was almost a source used to depict life in Yorkshire, illustrating the type of people that reside there in its characters, and emphasising the use of the stormy Yorkshire moors. Nowadays, the parsonage which was their former home is now a museum in their honour.[109] Bram Stoker
Bram Stoker
authored Dracula
Dracula
while living in Whitby[110] and it includes several elements of local folklore including the beaching of the Russian ship Dmitri, which became the basis of Demeter in the book.[111] The novelist tradition in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
continued into the 20th century, with authors such as J. B. Priestley, Alan Bennett, Stan Barstow, Dame Margaret Drabble, A S Byatt, and Barbara Taylor Bradford
Bradford
being prominent examples.[112][113] Taylor Bradford
Bradford
is noted for A Woman of Substance which was one of the top-ten best selling novels in history.[114] Another well-known author was children's writer Arthur Ransome, who penned the Swallows and Amazons
Swallows and Amazons
series.[113] James Herriot, the best selling author of over 60 million copies of books about his experiences of some 50 years as a veterinarian in Thirsk, North Yorkshire, the town which he refers to as Darrowby in his books[115] (although born in Sunderland), has been admired for his easy reading style and interesting characters.[116] Poets include Ted Hughes, W. H. Auden, William Empson, Simon Armitage
Simon Armitage
and Andrew Marvell.[113][117][118][119] Three well known sculptors emerged in the 20th century; contemporaries Henry Moore
Henry Moore
and Barbara Hepworth, and Leeds-raised eco artist Andy Goldsworthy. Some of their works are available for public viewing at the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Sculpture Park.[120] There are several art galleries in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
featuring extensive collections, such as Ferens Art Gallery, Leeds
Leeds
Art Gallery, Millennium Galleries and York
York
Art Gallery.[121][122][123] Some of the better known local painters are William Etty
William Etty
and David Hockney;[124] many works by the latter are housed at Salts Mill
Salts Mill
1853 Gallery in Saltaire.[125] Sport[edit] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a long tradition in the field of sports, with participation in cricket, football, rugby league and horse racing being the most established sporting ventures.[126][127][128][129] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
County Cricket
County Cricket
Club represents the historic county in the domestic first class cricket County Championship; with a total of 32 championship titles, 14 more than any other county, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is the most decorated county cricket club.[128] Some of the most highly regarded figures in the game were born in the county,[130] amongst them Geoffrey Boycott, Brian Close, George Hirst, Len Hutton, Stanley Jackson, Ray Illingworth, Wilfred Rhodes, Joe Root, Herbert Sutcliffe, Fred Trueman
Fred Trueman
and Hedley Verity.[130] England's oldest horse race, which began in 1519, is run each year at Kiplingcotes near Market Weighton.[129] Continuing this tradition in the field of horse racing, there are currently nine established racecourses in the county.[131] Britain's oldest organised fox hunt is the Bilsdale, founded in 1668.[132][133] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is officially recognised by FIFA
FIFA
as the birthplace of club football,[134][135] as Sheffield
Sheffield
FC founded in 1857 are certified as the oldest association football club in the world.[136] The world's first inter-club match and local derby was competed in the county, at the world's oldest ground Sandygate Road.[137] The Laws of the Game which are now used worldwide were drafted by Ebenezer Cobb Morley
Ebenezer Cobb Morley
from Hull.[138] Football clubs founded in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
include Barnsley, Bradford
Bradford
City, Doncaster
Doncaster
Rovers, Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Town, Hull City, Leeds United, Middlesbrough, Rotherham
Rotherham
United, Sheffield
Sheffield
United, Sheffield Wednesday and York
York
City, four of which have been the league champions. Huddersfield
Huddersfield
were the first club to win three consecutive league titles.[139] Middlesbrough
Middlesbrough
F.C. recently came to prominence by reaching the 2006 UEFA Cup Final[140] and winning the 2004 League Cup.[141] Leeds
Leeds
United are arguably the biggest team in Yorkshire, reaching the semi finals of the UEFA Champions League in 2001 and having a period of dominance in the 1970s; this position is often paralleled with Sheffield
Sheffield
Wednesday who have had similar spells of dominance, most recently in the early 1990s, and also house a comparably large fan-base and prestigious history.[citation needed] Noted players from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
who have influenced the game include World Cup-winning goalkeeper Gordon Banks[142] and two time European Footballer of the Year award winner Kevin Keegan,[143] as well as prominent managers Herbert Chapman, Brian Clough, Bill Nicholson, George Raynor
George Raynor
and Don Revie.[144] The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
International Football Association was founded in 2017.[145] It organises the Yorkshire football team and is a member of the Confederation of Independent Football Associations (CONIFA).[146] The Rugby Football League
Rugby Football League
and with it the sport of rugby league was founded in 1895 at the George Hotel, Huddersfield, after a North-South schism within the Rugby Football Union.[147] The top league is the Super League
Super League
and the most decorated Yorkshire
Yorkshire
clubs are Huddersfield Giants, Hull FC, Bradford
Bradford
Bulls, Hull Kingston Rovers, Wakefield Trinity Wildcats, Castleford
Castleford
Tigers and Leeds
Leeds
Rhinos.[148] In total six Yorkshiremen have been inducted into the Rugby Football League Hall of Fame amongst them is Roger Millward, Jonty Parkin
Jonty Parkin
and Harold Wagstaff.[149] In the area of boxing "Prince" Naseem Hamed
Naseem Hamed
from Sheffield
Sheffield
achieved title success and widespread fame,[150] in what the BBC
BBC
describes as "one of British boxing's most illustrious careers".[150] Along with Leeds-born Nicola Adams
Nicola Adams
who in 2012 became the first female athlete to win a boxing gold medal at the olympics.[151] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
also has an array of racecourses, in North Yorkshire, there are Catterick, Redcar, Ripon, Thirsk
Thirsk
and York
York
in the East Riding of Yorkshire
East Riding of Yorkshire
there is Beverley, in West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
there are Pontefract
Pontefract
and Wetherby, while in South Yorkshire
South Yorkshire
there is Doncaster. The sport of Knurr and Spell
Knurr and Spell
was unique to the region, being one of the most popular sports in the area during the 18th and 19th centuries, before a decline in the 20th century to virtual obscurity.[152][153][154] A number of athletes from or associated with Yorkshire
Yorkshire
took part in the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
as members of Team GB; the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Post stated that Yorkshire's athletes alone secured more gold medals than those of Spain.[155] Notable Yorkshire
Yorkshire
athletes include Jessica Ennis-Hill and the Brownlee brothers Jonathan and Alastair. Jessica Ennis-Hill is from Sheffield
Sheffield
and won gold at the 2012 Olympics
2012 Olympics
in London
London
and silver at the 2016 Olympics
2016 Olympics
in Rio. Triathletes Alastair and Jonny Brownlee have won two golds and a silver and bronze respectively. In 2014 the County hosted the Grande Depart of the Tour de France. Spectator crowds over the two days were estimated to be of the order of 2.5 million people.[156] The inaugural Tour de Yorkshire
Tour de Yorkshire
was held from 1–3 May 2015,[157] with start and finishes in Bridlington, Leeds, Scarborough, Selby, Wakefield
Wakefield
and York,[158] watched by 1.2 million.[159] Cuisine[edit]

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
puddings, served as part of a traditional Sunday roast.

The traditional cuisine of Yorkshire, in common with the North of England in general, is known for using rich tasting ingredients, especially with regard to sweet dishes, which were affordable for the majority of people.[160] There are several dishes which originated in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
or are heavily associated with it.[160] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
pudding, a savoury batter dish, is by far the best known of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
foods, and is eaten throughout England. It is commonly served with roast beef and vegetables to form part of the Sunday roast[160] but is traditionally served as a starter dish filled with onion gravy within Yorkshire.[161] Yorkshire pudding
Yorkshire pudding
is the base for toad in the hole, a dish containing sausage.[162] Other foods associated with the county include: Yorkshire
Yorkshire
curd tart, a curd tart recipe with rosewater;[163] Parkin, a sweet ginger cake which is different from standard ginger cakes in that it includes oatmeal and treacle;[164] and Wensleydale
Wensleydale
cheese, a cheese made with milk from Wensleydale
Wensleydale
and often eaten as an accompaniment to sweet foods.[165] The beverage ginger beer, flavoured with ginger, came from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and has existed since the mid 18th century. Liquorice sweet was first created by George Dunhill from Pontefract, who in the 1760s thought to mix the liquorice plant with sugar.[166] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and in particular the city of York
York
played a prominent role in the confectionery industry, with chocolate factories owned by companies such as Rowntree's, Terry's
Terry's
and Thorntons
Thorntons
inventing many of Britain's most popular sweets.[167][168] Another traditional Yorkshire
Yorkshire
food is pikelets which are similar to crumpets but much thinner.[169] The Rhubarb Triangle
Rhubarb Triangle
is a location within Yorkshire
Yorkshire
which supplies most of the rhubarb to locals. In recent years curries have become popular in the county largely due to the immigration and successful integration of Asian families. There are many famous curry empires with their origins in Yorkshire including the 850-seater Aakash restaurant in Cleckheaton
Cleckheaton
which has been described as "the world's largest curry house".[170] Beer and brewing[edit] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a number of breweries including Black Sheep, Copper Dragon, Cropton Brewery, John Smith's, Sam Smith's, Kelham Island Brewery, Theakstons, Timothy Taylor, Wharfedale
Wharfedale
Brewery and Leeds Brewery.[171][172] The beer style most associated with the county is bitter.[173] As elsewhere in the North of England, when served through a handpump, a sparkler is used giving a tighter, more solid head.[174] Brewing has taken place on a large scale since at least the 12th century, for example at the now derelict Fountains Abbey
Abbey
which at its height produced 60 barrels of strong ale every ten days.[175] Most current Yorkshire
Yorkshire
breweries date from the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
of the late 18th and early 19th century.[171] Music[edit]

Kate Rusby
Kate Rusby
on stage 2005

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a heritage of folk music and folk dance including the Long Sword dance.[176] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
folk song was distinguished by the use of dialect, particularly in the West Riding and exemplified by the song 'On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at', probably written in the late 19th century, using a Kent
Kent
folk tune (almost certainly borrowed via a Methodist
Methodist
hymnal),[citation needed] seen as an unofficial Yorkshire anthem.[177] Famous folk performers from the county include the Watersons
Watersons
from Hull, who began recording Yorkshire
Yorkshire
versions of folk songs from 1965;[178] Heather Wood (born 1945) of the Young Tradition; the short-lived electric folk group Mr Fox
Mr Fox
(1970–72), The Deighton Family; Julie Matthews; Kathryn Roberts; and Kate Rusby.[178] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a flourishing folk music culture, with over forty folk clubs and thirty annual folk music festivals.[179] The 1982 Eurovision Song Contest was held in the Harrogate
Harrogate
International Centre. In 2007 the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Garland Group was formed to make Yorkshire
Yorkshire
folk songs accessible online and in schools.[180] In the field of classical music, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has produced some major and minor composers, including Frederick Delius, George Dyson, Edward Bairstow, William Baines, Kenneth Leighton, Eric Fenby, Haydn Wood, Arthur Wood, Arnold Cooke, Gavin Bryars, and in the area of TV, film and radio music, John Barry and Wally Stott. The county is home to successful brass bands such as Black Dyke, Brighouse & Rastrick, Carlton Main Frickley, Hammonds Saltaire, and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Imperial.

Arctic Monkeys
Arctic Monkeys
performing on Orange stage at Roskilde Festival in 2007

During the 1970s David Bowie, himself of a father from Tadcaster
Tadcaster
in North Yorkshire,[181] hired three musicians from Hull, Mick Ronson, Trevor Bolder
Trevor Bolder
and Mick Woodmansey; together they recorded Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars, an album considered by a magazine article as one of a 100 greatest and most influential of all time.[182] In the following decade, Def Leppard, from Sheffield, achieved worldwide fame, particularly in America. Their 1983 album Pyromania and 1987 album Hysteria are among the most successful albums of all time.[citation needed] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
had a very strong post-punk scene which went on to achieve widespread acclaim and success, including; The Sisters of Mercy, The Cult, Vardis, Gang of Four, ABC, The Human League, New Model Army, Soft Cell, Chumbawamba, The Wedding Present and The Mission.[183] Pulp from Sheffield
Sheffield
had a massive hit in "Common People" during 1995; the song focuses on working-class northern life.[184] In the 21st century, indie rock and post-punk revival bands from the area gained popularity, including the Kaiser Chiefs, The Cribs
The Cribs
and the Arctic Monkeys, the last-named holding the record for the fastest-selling debut album in British music history with Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not.[185] Film and television productions[edit] Among prominent British television shows filmed in (and based on) Yorkshire
Yorkshire
are the sitcom Last of the Summer Wine, the drama series Heartbeat, and the soap operas Emmerdale
Emmerdale
and Downton Abbey. Last of the Summer Wine in particular is noted for holding the record of longest-running comedy series in the world, from 1973 until 2010.[186] Other notable television series set in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
include All Creatures Great and Small, The Beiderbecke Trilogy, Rising Damp, Fat Friends
Fat Friends
and The Royal. Several noted films are set in Yorkshire, including Kes, This Sporting Life, Room at the Top, Brassed Off, Mischief Night, Rita, Sue and Bob Too
Rita, Sue and Bob Too
and Calendar Girls. The Full Monty, a comedy film set in Sheffield, won an Academy Award
Academy Award
and was voted the second best British film of all time by ANI.[187] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has remained a popular location for filming in more recent times.[188][189] For example, much of ITV's highly acclaimed Victoria was filmed in the region, at locations such as Harewood House
Harewood House
in Leeds and Beverly Minster; the latter was used to depict Westminster Abbey and St James’ Palace.[190][191] West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
has particularly benefited from a great deal of production activity.[192][193] For example, portions of the BBC television series Happy Valley and Last Tango in Halifax were filmed in the area, in Huddersfield
Huddersfield
and other cities; in addition to exteriors, some of the studio filming for Happy Valley was done at North Light Film Studios at Brookes Mill, Huddersfield. As well, the BBC's Jamaica Inn, for the BBC's Remember Me and for ITV series Black Work, were also filmed at the studios and in nearby West Yorkshire locations.[194][195][196][197] More recently, many of the exteriors of the BBC
BBC
series Jericho were filmed at the nearby Rockingstone Quarry and some interior work was done at North Light Film Studios.[198] Politics and identity[edit] Representation[edit] Main articles: Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(UK Parliament constituency), High Sheriff of Yorkshire, Lord Lieutenant of Yorkshire, and History of local government in Yorkshire

William Wilberforce, leading abolitionist, was the MP for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
in 1784–1812.

From 1290, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was represented by two Members of Parliament of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England. After the union with Scotland two members represented the county in the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. In 1832 the county benefited from the disfranchisement of Grampound by taking an additional two members.[199] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was represented at this time as one single, large, county constituency.[199] Like other counties, there were also some county boroughs within Yorkshire, the oldest of which was the City of York, which had existed since the ancient Montfort's Parliament of 1265. After the Reform Act 1832, Yorkshire's political representation in parliament was drawn from its subdivisions, with Members of Parliament representing each of the three historic Ridings of Yorkshire; East Riding, North Riding, and West Riding constituencies.[199] For the 1865 general elections and onwards, the West Riding was further divided into Northern, Eastern and Southern parliamentary constituencies, though these only lasted until the major Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.[200] This act saw more localisation of government in the United Kingdom, with the introduction of 26 new parliamentary constituencies within Yorkshire, while the Local Government Act 1888 introduced some reforms for the county boroughs, of which there were eight in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
by the end of the 19th century.[201] With the Representation of the People Act 1918
Representation of the People Act 1918
there was some reshuffling on a local level for the 1918 general election, revised again during the 1950s.[202] The most controversial reorganisation of local government in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was the Local Government Act 1972,[203] put into practice in 1974. Under the act, the Ridings lost their lieutenancies, shrievalties, and administrative counties. County boroughs and their councils were abolished, to be replaced by metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties with vastly changed borders.[56] Although some government officials[204] and Prince Charles[205] have asserted such reform is not meant to alter the ancient boundaries or cultural loyalties, there are pressure groups such as the Yorkshire Ridings Society
Yorkshire Ridings Society
who want greater recognition for the historic boundaries.[206] In 1996 the East Riding of Yorkshire
East Riding of Yorkshire
was reformed as a unitary authority area and a ceremonial county. The Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
region of government office covers most, but not all of the historic county. Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
is a constituency for European elections, returning six MEPs to the European Parliament. Distinctive identity and devolution campaigns[edit] A number of claims have been made for the distinctiveness of Yorkshire, as a geographical, cultural and political entity, and these have been used to demand increased political autonomy. In the early twentieth century, F. W. Moorman, the first professor of English Language
Language
at Leeds
Leeds
University, claimed Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was not settled by Angles
Angles
or Saxons
Saxons
following the end of rule Roman in Britain, but by a different Germanic tribe, the Geats. As a consequence, he claimed, it is possible the first work of English literature, Beowulf, believed to have been composed by Geats, was written in Yorkshire, and this distinctive ethnic and cultural origin is the root of the unique status of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
today.[105] One of Moorman's students at Leeds University, Herbert Read, was greatly influenced by Moorman's ideas on Yorkshire
Yorkshire
identity, and claimed that until recent times Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was effectively an island, cut off from the rest of England by rivers, fens, moors and mountains. This distancing of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
from England led Read to question whether Yorkshire
Yorkshire
people were really English at all.[207] Combined with the suggested ethnic difference to the rest of England, Read quoted Frederic Pearson, who wrote:

There is something characteristic about the very physiognomy of the Yorkshireman. He is much more of a Dane or a Viking
Viking
than a Saxon. He is usually a big upstanding man, who looks as if he could take care of himself and those who depend upon him in an emergency. This is indeed the character that his neighbours give him; the southerner may think him a little hard: but if ever our country is let down by its inhabitants, we may be sure that it will not be the fault of Yorkshire.[207]

During the premiership of William Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger
the hypothetical idea of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
becoming independent was raised in the British parliament in relation to the question whether Ireland
Ireland
should become part of the United Kingdom. This resulted in an anonymous pamphlet being published in London
London
in 1799 arguing at length that Yorkshire could never be an independent state as it would always be reliant on the rest of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to provide it with essential resources.[208] Although in the devolution debates in the House of Commons of the late 1960s, which paved the way for the 1979 referenda on the creation of a Scottish parliament and Welsh assembly, parallel devolution for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was suggested, this was opposed by the Scottish Nationalist Party Member of Parliament for Hamilton, Winifred Ewing. Ewing argued that it was offensive to Scots to argue that an English region had the same status as an 'ancient nation' such as Scotland.[209] The relationship between Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Scottish devolution was again made in 1975 by Richard Wainwright, MP for Colne Valley, who claimed in a speech in the House of Commons:

The nationalist movement in Scotland is associated with flags, strange costumes, weird music and extravagant ceremonial. When... people go to Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and find that we have no time for dressing up, waving flags and playing strange instruments—in other words, we are not a lot of Presbyterians in Yorkshire—they should not assume that we do not have the same feelings underneath the skin. Independence in Yorkshire expresses itself in a markedly increasing determination to establish self-reliance.[210]

In more recent years, in 1998 the Campaign for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was established to push for the creation of a Yorkshire
Yorkshire
regional assembly,[211] sometimes dubbed the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Parliament.[212] In its defining statement, the Campaign for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
made reference to the historical notions that Yorkshire
Yorkshire
had a distinctive identity:

Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
has distinctive characteristics which make it an ideal test bed for further reform. It has a strong popular identity. The region follows closely the historic boundaries of the three Ridings, and there is no serious debate about boundaries. It possesses strong existing regional partnerships including universities, voluntary and church associations. All this makes it realistic to regard Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
as the standard bearer for representative regional government.[213]

The Campaign for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was led by Jane Thomas as Director[214] and Paul Jagger as chairman. Jagger claimed in 1999 that Yorkshire
Yorkshire
had as much right to a regional parliament or assembly as Scotland and Wales because Yorkshire
Yorkshire
'has as clear a sense of identity as Scotland or Wales.'[215] One of those brought into the Campaign for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
by Jane Thomas was Herbert Read
Herbert Read
scholar Michael Paraskos, who organised a series of events in 2000 to highlight the distinctiveness of Yorkshire culture. This included a major exhibition of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
artists.[216] Paraskos also founded a Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Studies degree course at Hull University.[217] Interviewed by The Guardian
The Guardian
newspaper, Paraskos linked the start of this course to the contemporary devolution debates in Yorkshire, Scotland and Wales, claiming:

If Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is arguing for a parliament, there needs to be a cultural argument as well, otherwise why not have a parliament of the north? There is a rediscovery of political and social culture going on in a very similar way to the early assertions of a Scottish identity.[218]

In 2014, two other former members of the Campaign for Yorkshire, Stewart Arnold and Richard Carter, founded Yorkshire
Yorkshire
First, a political party campaigning for the creation of a Yorkshire
Yorkshire
parliament by 2050 based on the Scottish Parliament. It was later renamed the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Party.[219] Monarchy and peerage[edit] Main articles: Kings of Jórvík, Earl
Earl
of York, Duke of York, and House of York

The White Rose of York
White Rose of York
remains as the prime symbol of Yorkshire identity

When the territory of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
began to take shape as a result of the invasion of the Danish vikings, they instituted a monarchy based at the settlement of Jórvík, York.[220] The reign of the Viking
Viking
kings came to an end with the last king Eric Bloodaxe
Eric Bloodaxe
dying in battle in 954 after the invasion and conquest by the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
from the south. Jórvík
Jórvík
was the last of the independent kingdoms to be taken to form part of the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
and thus the local monarchal title became defunct.[221] Though the monarchal title became defunct, it was succeeded by the creation of the Earl
Earl
of York
York
title of nobility[222] by king of England Edgar the Peaceful
Edgar the Peaceful
in 960. (The earldom covered the general area of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and is sometimes referred to as the Earl
Earl
of Yorkshire.)[222] The title passed through the hands of various nobles, decided upon by the king of England. The last man to hold the title was William le Gros, however the earldom was abolished by Henry II as a result of a troubled period known as The Anarchy.[223] The peerage was recreated by Edward III in 1385, this time in the form of the prestigious title of Duke of York
York
which he gave to his son Edmund of Langley. Edmund founded the House of York; later the title was merged with that of the King of England. Much of the modern-day symbolism of Yorkshire, such as the White Rose of York, is derived from the Yorkists,[224] giving the house a special affinity within the culture of Yorkshire. Especially celebrated is the Yorkist king Richard III who spent much of his life at Middleham Castle
Middleham Castle
in Yorkshire.[39][225] Since that time the title has passed through the hands of many, being merged with the crown and then recreated several times. The title of Duke of York
York
is given to the second son of the British monarch.[226] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Yorkshire See also[edit]

Outline of England List of collieries in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
1984-present with dates of closure List of Commissioners' churches in Yorkshire List of Jewish communities in Yorkshire Lord Lieutenant of Yorkshire Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Ambulance Service Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Forward Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Pudding Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Regiment Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Society Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Terrier Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Wolds

Geography portal Europe portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal England portal Yorkshire
Yorkshire
portal

Notes[edit]

a Though the Wars of the Roses
Wars of the Roses
were fought between royal houses bearing the names of York
York
and Lancaster, the wars took place over a wide area of England. They were a dynastic clash between cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet. The most prominent family in Yorkshire, below the monarchy, the Nevilles of Sheriff Hutton
Sheriff Hutton
and Middleham, fought for the Yorkists, as did the Scropes of Bolton, the Latimers of Danby and Snape, as well as the Mowbrays of Thirsk
Thirsk
and Burton in Lonsdale. Yet some fought for the Lancastrians, such as the Percies, the Cliffords of Skipton, Ros of Helmsley, Greystock of Henderskelfe, Stafford of Holderness, and Talbot of Sheffield.

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Counties of England
(1889–1974) → 1974–1996

Bedfordshire Berkshire Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
(including Isle of Ely) Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
and Isle of Ely Cheshire Cornwall Cumberland Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham Essex Gloucestershire Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Huntingdonshire Huntingdon and Peterborough Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
(including Parts of Holland, Parts of Kesteven and Parts of Lindsey) London
London
(including City of London) Middlesex Norfolk Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire
(including Soke of Peterborough) Northumberland Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset Staffordshire Suffolk
Suffolk
(including East Suffolk
Suffolk
and West Suffolk) Surrey Sussex
Sussex
(including East Sussex
Sussex
and West Sussex) Warwickshire Westmorland Wiltshire Worcestershire Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(including East Riding, North Riding and West Riding)

Coordinates: 54°N 2°W / 54°N 2°W / 54; -2

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 135974050 LCCN: n81050

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