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YORK (/ˈjɔːrk/ ( listen )) is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
, England. The municipality is the traditional county town of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to which it gives its name. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events in England throughout much of its two millennia of existence. The city offers a wealth of historic attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent, and a variety of cultural and sporting activities making it a popular tourist destination for millions.

The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior , and later of the kingdoms of Northumbria
Northumbria
and Jórvík . In the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England , a role it has retained.

In the 19th century, York
York
became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre. In recent decades, the economy of York
York
has moved from being dominated by its confectionery and railway-related industries to one that provides services. The University of York and health services have become major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy.

From 1996, the term City of York
York
describes a unitary authority area which includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries. In 2011 the urban area had a population of 153,717 , while in 2010 the entire unitary authority had an estimated population of 202,400.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Origin of the name * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Post conquest * 1.4 16th to 18th centuries * 1.5 Modern history * 1.6 Early photography

* 2 Governance

* 2.1 Parliamentary constituencies * 2.2 Local government

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Location * 3.2 Architecture * 3.3 Climate

* 4 Demography

* 4.1 Population change * 4.2 Religion

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Public services

* 6 Transport

* 6.1 Local Transport Plan 2006

* 7 Education

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Theatre * 8.2 Music * 8.3 Gastronomy * 8.4 Beer and pubs * 8.5 UNESCO
UNESCO
status bids

* 9 Media * 10 Sport * 11 Geodesy * 12 Twin cities * 13 See also * 14 Notes * 15 References * 16 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of York

ORIGIN OF THE NAME

The word _York_ (Old Norse: _ Jórvík _) derives from the Latinised name for the city, variously rendered as _ Eboracum _, _Eburacum_ or _Eburaci_. The first mention of York
York
by this name is dated to _circa_ 95–104 AD as an address on a wooden stylus tablet from the Roman fortress of Vindolanda in Northumberland
Northumberland
.

The toponymy of _Eboracum_ is uncertain because the language of the pre-Roman indigenous population was never recorded. They are thought to have spoken a Celtic language related to modern Welsh. It is thought that _Eboracum_ is derived from the Brythonic word _Eborakon_, a combination of _eburos_ "yew-tree" (cf. Old Irish _ibar_ "yew-tree", Welsh _efwr_ "alder buckthorn", Breton _evor_ "alder buckthorn") and suffix _*-āko(n)_ "place" (cf. Welsh _-og_) meaning either "place of the yew trees" (cf. _efrog_ in Welsh , _eabhrac_ in Irish Gaelic and _eabhraig_ in Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
, by which names the city is known in those languages); or less probably, _Eburos_, 'property', which is a personal Celtic name mentioned in different documents as _Eβουρος_, _Eburus_ and _Eburius_, and which, combined with the same suffix _*-āko(n)_, could denote a property. In his _Historia Regum Britanniae _ the 12th century chronicler, Geoffrey of Monmouth , suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus .

The name _Eboracum_ became the Anglian _Eoforwic_ in the 7th century: a compound of _Eofor-_, from the old name, and _-wic_ a village probably by conflation of the element _Ebor-_ with a Germanic root _*eburaz_ (boar); by the 7th century the Old English
Old English
for 'boar' had become _eofor_. Alternatively, the word _eofor_ already existed as an Old English
Old English
word for _wild swine_, which is a cognate of the current Low Saxon word _eaver_ and Dutch _ever_. The Anglo-Saxon newcomers probably interpreted the _ebor_ part as _eofor_, and _-rac_ as _ric_ (meaning _rich_), while _-um_ was (and is) a common abbreviation of the Saxon _-heem_, meaning _home_. To them, it sounded as a 'home rich in boar'. As is common in Saxon place names, the -um part gradually faded; _eoforic_. When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became _Jórvík_.

The Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as "Everwic" (modern Norman "Évèroui") in works such as Wace's Roman de Rou
Roman de Rou
. _Jórvík_, meanwhile, gradually reduced to _York_ in the centuries after the Conquest, moving from the Middle English _Yerk_ in the 14th century through _Yourke_ in the 16th century to _Yarke_ in the 17th century. The form _York_ was first recorded in the 13th century. Many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Roman name. The Archbishop of York
York
uses _Ebor_ as his surname in his signature.

EARLY HISTORY

Roman wall and the west corner tower of Eboracum . The top half is medieval.

Archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York
York
between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain , the area was occupied by a tribe known to the Romans as the Brigantes . The Brigantian tribal area initially became a Roman client state, but, later its leaders became more hostile and the Roman Ninth Legion was sent north of the Humber
Humber
into Brigantian territory.

The city was founded in 71 AD, when the Ninth Legion conquered the Brigantes and constructed a wooden military fortress on flat ground above the River Ouse close to its confluence with the River Foss . The fortress, whose walls were rebuilt in stone by the VI legion based there subsequent to the IX legion, covered an area of 50 acres (20 ha) and was inhabited by 6,000 legionary soldiers. The site of the _principia_ (HQ) of the fortress lies under the foundations of York Minster , and excavations in the undercroft have revealed part of the Roman structure and columns. Roman Emperor Constantine the Great proclaimed Emperor at York
York
in 306 AD.

The Emperors Hadrian
Hadrian
, Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
and Constantius I all held court in York
York
during their various campaigns. During his stay 207–211 AD, the Emperor Severus proclaimed York
York
capital of the province of Britannia Inferior, and it is likely that it was he who granted York
York
the privileges of a colonia or city. Constantius I died in 306 AD during his stay in York, and his son Constantine the Great was proclaimed Emperor by the troops based in the fortress. In 311 AD a bishop from York
York
attended the Council at Arles to represent Christians from the province .

While the Roman _colonia_ and fortress were located on high ground, by 400 AD the town was victim to occasional flooding from the Rivers Ouse and Foss and the population reduced. York
York
declined in the post-Roman era, and was taken and settled by the Angles
Angles
in the 5th century.

Reclamation of parts of the town was initiated in the 7th century under King Edwin of Northumbria
Northumbria
, and York
York
became his chief city. The first wooden minster church was built in York
York
for the baptism of Edwin in 627, according to the Venerable Bede. Edwin ordered the small wooden church be rebuilt in stone but was killed in 633 and the task of completing the stone minster fell to his successor Oswald . In the following century Alcuin of York came to the cathedral school of York. He had a long career as a teacher and scholar, first at the school at York
York
now known as St Peter\'s School , founded in 627 AD, and later as Charlemagne
Charlemagne
's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs.

In 866, Northumbria
Northumbria
was in the midst of internecine struggles when the Vikings raided and captured York. Under Viking
Viking
rule the city became a major river port, part of the extensive Viking
Viking
trading routes throughout northern Europe. The last ruler of an independent Jórvík, Eric Bloodaxe , was driven from the city in 954 AD by King Eadred
Eadred
in his successful attempt to complete the unification of England.

POST CONQUEST

Micklegate – York
York
is famous for its medieval city walls.

In 1068, two years after the Norman conquest of England , the people of York
York
rebelled. Initially the rebellion was successful but upon the arrival of William the Conqueror the rebellion was put down. William at once built a wooden fortress on a motte. In 1069, after another rebellion, William built another timbered castle across the River Ouse. These were destroyed in 1069 and rebuilt by William about the time of his ravaging Northumbria
Northumbria
in what is called the "Harrying of the North " where he destroyed everything from York
York
to Durham. The remains of the rebuilt castles, now in stone, are visible on either side of the River Ouse. See Peter Rex's The English Resistance, The Underground War Against the Normans, 2006.

The first stone minster church was badly damaged by fire in the uprising, and the Normans built a minster on a new site. Around the year 1080 Archbishop Thomas started building the cathedral that in time became the current Minster. In the 12th century York
York
started to prosper. In 1190, York Castle was the site of an infamous massacre of its Jewish inhabitants, in which at least 150 Jews died (although some authorities put the figure as high as 500). _ The Shambles _, a medieval street in York
York

The city, through its location on the River Ouse and its proximity to the Great North Road became a major trading centre. King John granted the city's first charter in 1212, confirming trading rights in England and Europe. During the later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
York
York
merchants imported wine from France, cloth, wax, canvas, and oats from the Low Countries , timber and furs from the Baltic and exported grain to Gascony and grain and wool to the Low Countries. York
York
became a major cloth manufacturing and trading centre. Edward I
Edward I
further stimulated the city's economy by using the city as a base for his war in Scotland. The city was the location of significant unrest during the so-called Peasants\' Revolt in 1381. The city acquired an increasing degree of autonomy from central government including the privileges granted by a charter of Richard II in 1396.

16TH TO 18TH CENTURIES

A panorama of 15th-century York
York
by E Ridsdale Tate , York
York
Castle is on the right hand side of the river, opposite the abandoned motte of Baile Hill

The city underwent a period of economic decline during Tudor times. Under Henry VIII , the Dissolution of the Monasteries saw the end of York's many monastic houses , including several orders of friars , the hospitals of St Nicholas and of St Leonard, the largest such institution in the north of England. This led to the Pilgrimage of Grace , an uprising of northern Catholics in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
opposed to religious reform. Henry VIII restored his authority by establishing the Council of the North in York
York
in the dissolved St Mary's Abbey. The city became a trading and service centre during this period.

Guy Fawkes
Guy Fawkes
, who was born and educated in York, was a member of a group of Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
restorationists that planned the Gunpowder Plot . Its aim was to displace Protestant
Protestant
rule by blowing up the Houses of Parliament
Houses of Parliament
while King James I , the entire Protestant, and even most of the Catholic aristocracy and nobility were inside.

In 1644, during the Civil War , the Parliamentarians besieged York
York
, and many medieval houses outside the city walls were lost. The barbican at Walmgate Bar was undermined and explosives laid, but, the plot was discovered. On the arrival of Prince Rupert , with an army of 15,000 men, the siege was lifted. The Parliamentarians retreated some 6 miles (10 km) from York
York
with Rupert in pursuit, before turning on his army and soundly defeating it at the Battle of Marston Moor . Of Rupert's 15,000 troops, no fewer than 4,000 were killed and 1,500 captured. The siege was renewed and the city could not hold out for much longer, surrendering to Sir Thomas Fairfax on 15 July.

Following the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, and the removal of the garrison from York
York
in 1688, the city was dominated by the gentry and merchants, although the clergy were still important. Competition from Leeds
Leeds
and Hull , together with silting of the River Ouse, resulted in York
York
losing its pre-eminent position as a trading centre but the city's role as the social and cultural centre for wealthy northerners was on the rise. York's many elegant townhouses , such as the Lord Mayor\'s Mansion House and Fairfax House date from this period, as do the Assembly Rooms , the Theatre Royal , and the racecourse .

During this general time period, the American city of New York
York
and the colony that contained it were renamed after the Duke of York (later King James II) .

MODERN HISTORY

The Minster as seen from the Station Road walls

mak all t'railways cum to York
York
—  George Hudson

The railway promoter George Hudson was responsible for bringing the railway to York
York
in 1839. Although Hudson's career as a railway entrepreneur ended in disgrace and bankruptcy, his promotion of his own railway company, the York and North Midland Railway
York and North Midland Railway
and of York over Leeds, helped establish York
York
as a major railway centre by the late 19th century.

The introduction of the railways established engineering in the city. At the turn of the 20th century, the railway accommodated the headquarters and works of the North Eastern Railway , which employed more than 5,500 people. The railway was instrumental in the expansion of Rowntree\'s Cocoa Works . It was founded in 1862 by Henry Isaac Rowntree, who was joined in 1869 by his brother the philanthropist Joseph . Another chocolate manufacturer, Terry\'s of York
York
was a major employer. By 1900 the railways and confectionery had become the city's two major industries.

With the emergence of tourism, the historic core of York
York
became one of the city's major assets, and in 1968 it was designated a conservation area . The existing tourist attractions were supplemented by the establishment of the National Railway Museum
National Railway Museum
in York
York
in 1975 and the Jorvik Viking
Viking
Centre in 1984. The opening of the University of York in 1963 added to the prosperity of the city.

In 2010, the former headquarters on the North Eastern Railway were refurbished and opened as York's first, and still only, 5-star hotel – currently known as The Grand Hotel "> The Guildhall where members of the City of York Council meet.

York
York
is the traditional county town of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, and therefore did not form part of any of its three historic ridings , or divisions. Its Mayor has had the status of Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
since 1370. York
York
is an ancient borough , and was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 to form a municipal borough . It gained the status of a county borough in 1889, under the Local Government Act 1888 , and existed so until 1974, when, under the Local Government Act 1972
Local Government Act 1972
, it became a non-metropolitan district in the county of North Yorkshire, whilst retaining its Lord Mayor, its Sheriff
Sheriff
and Aldermen.

As a result of 1990s UK local government reform , York
York
regained unitary status and saw a substantial alteration in its borders, taking in parts of Selby and Harrogate
Harrogate
districts, and about half the population of the Ryedale
Ryedale
district. The new boundary was imposed after central government rejected the former city council's own proposal. The Mansion House is home to the Lord Mayor of York

The City of York Council has 47 councillors. As a result of the 2015 local elections the Labour Party was reduced to 15 seats. The Liberal Democrats had twelve councillors. The Conservative Party had 14 councillors and the Greens had four with two Independents.

City of York Council operates on a leader and Cabinet style of governance. Councillors are appointed to the cabinet by the full council of 47 members. Cabinet members make decisions on their portfolio areas individually.

York's Right Honourable Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
for 2016–17 is Councillor Dave Taylor, the first Green Lord Mayor. The Sheriff
Sheriff
is Jonathan Tyler, who stood for the Green Party for York
York
in the last general election. Both appointments are made each May for a period of one year. Although York's Sheriff
Sheriff
office is the oldest in England it is now a purely ceremonial post. The Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
carries out civic and ceremonial duties in addition to chairing full meetings of the council.

York
York
Youth Council consists of several young people who negotiate with the councillors to get better facilities for York's young people.

PARTY SEATS CITY OF YORK COUNCIL (2015 ELECTION)

Labour 15

Conservative 14

Liberal Democrat 12

Green 4

Independent 2

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Areas of the City of York

LOCATION

The city is 21 miles (34 km) from Leeds
Leeds
.

York
York
lies in the Vale of York , a flat area of fertile arable land bordered by the Pennines , the North York Moors and the Yorkshire Wolds The city was built at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss on a terminal moraine left by the last Ice Age . The city's Lendal Bridge crosses the Ouse

During Roman times, the land surrounding the rivers Ouse and Foss was marshy, making the site easy to defend. The city is prone to flooding from the River Ouse, and has an extensive (and until 2015 mostly effective) network of flood defences with walls along the river, and a liftable barrier across the River Foss where it joins the Ouse at the 'Blue Bridge'. In October and November 2000 York
York
experienced the worst flooding in 375 years with more than 300 homes flooded. In December 2015 the flooding was more extensive and caused major disruption. The extreme impact led to a personal visit by Prime Minister David Cameron . Much land in and around the city is on flood plains too flood-prone for development other than agriculture. The _ings_ are flood meadows along the Ouse, while the _strays _ are open common grassland in various locations around the city.

ARCHITECTURE

See also: York sites of interest and Medieval
Medieval
parish churches of York

York Minster , a large Gothic cathedral, dominates the city. Clifford\'s Tower , part of York Castle

York Castle , a complex of buildings ranging from the medieval Clifford's Tower to the 20th century entrance to the York
York
Castle Museum (formerly a prison) has had a chequered history.

York's centre is enclosed by the city\'s medieval walls , which are a popular walk. These defences are the most complete in England. They have the only walls set on high ramparts and they retain all their principal gateways. They incorporate part of the walls of the Roman fortress and some Norman and medieval work, as well as 19th- and 20th-century renovations. The entire circuit is approximately 2.5 miles (4 km), and encloses an area of 263 acres (106 ha). The north-east section includes a part where walls never existed, because the Norman moat of York
York
Castle, formed by damming the River Foss , also created a lake which acted as a city defence. This lake was later called the King's Fishpond, as the rights to fish belonged to the Crown. Grand Hotel and Spa

A feature of central York
York
is the Snickelways , narrow pedestrian routes, many of which led towards the former market-places in Pavement and St Sampson 's Square. The Shambles is a narrow medieval street, lined with shops, boutiques and tea rooms . Most of these premises were once butchers' shops, and the hooks from which carcasses were hung and the shelves on which meat was laid out can still be seen outside some of them. The street also contains the Shrine of Margaret Clitherow , although it is not located in the house where she lived. Goodramgate has many medieval houses including the early 14th century Lady Row built to finance a Chantry , at the edge of the churchyard of Holy Trinity church .

As well as the Castle Museum, the city contains numerous other museums and historic buildings such as the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Museum and its Museum Gardens
Museum Gardens
, Jorvik Viking
Viking
Centre , York Art Gallery , the Richard III Museum , Merchant Adventurers\' Hall , the reconstructed medieval house Barley Hall (owned by the York Archaeological Trust ), the 18th century Fairfax House , the Mansion House (the historic home of the Lord Mayor) and the so-called Treasurer\'s House (owned by the National Trust ). The National Railway Museum
National Railway Museum
is situated just beyond the station, and is home to a vast range of transport material and the largest collection of railway locomotives in the world. Included in this collection are the world's fastest steam locomotive LNER Class A4 4468 _Mallard_ and the world-famous LNER Class A3 4472 _Flying Scotsman_ , which has been overhauled in the Museum. Although noted for its Medieval
Medieval
history, visitors can also gain an understanding of the Cold War through visiting York
York
Cold War Bunker, former headquarters of No 20 Group of the Royal Observer Corps.

York
York
is noted for its numerous churches and pubs. Most of the remaining churches in York
York
are from the medieval period. St William\'s College behind the Minster, and Bedern Hall , off Goodramgate, are former dwelling places of the canons of the York
York
Minster.

CLIMATE

York
York
has a temperate climate with four distinct seasons. As with the rest of the Vale of York the city's climate is drier and warmer than the rest of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Humberside region. Because of its lowland location York
York
is prone to frosts, fog, and cold winds during winter, spring and very early summer. Snow can fall in winter from December onwards to as late as April but quickly melts. From May to July, York
York
experiences the most sunshine, an average of six hours per day. Extremes recorded at the University of York campus between 1998 and 2010 include a highest temperature of 34.5 °C (94.1 °F) (Monday 17 July 2006) and a lowest temperature of −16.3 °C (2.7 °F) (Monday 6 December 2010). The most rainfall in one day was 88.4 millimetres (3.5 in).

CLIMATE DATA FOR LINTON ON OUSE, ENGLAND

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 16 (61) 17 (63) 22 (72) 25 (77) 30 (86) 32 (90) 34 (93) 33 (91) 29 (84) 27 (81) 20 (68) 17 (63) 34 (93)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 7.5 (45.5) 10.0 (50) 12.6 (54.7) 16.0 (60.8) 18.8 (65.8) 21.2 (70.2) 20.8 (69.4) 18.0 (64.4) 13.9 (57) 9.7 (49.5) 6.9 (44.4) 13.6 (56.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 0.8 (33.4) 0.9 (33.6) 2.4 (36.3) 3.9 (39) 6.7 (44.1) 9.7 (49.5) 11.8 (53.2) 11.6 (52.9) 9.5 (49.1) 6.6 (43.9) 3.3 (37.9) 0.9 (33.6) 5.7 (42.3)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −16 (3) −10 (14) −13 (9) −3 (27) 1 (34) 2 (36) 5 (41) 5 (41) −1 (30) −4 (25) −8 (18) −11 (12) −16 (3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 52.7 (2.075) 39.9 (1.571) 44.9 (1.768) 50.1 (1.972) 43.8 (1.724) 58.0 (2.283) 53.2 (2.094) 62.4 (2.457) 46.9 (1.846) 57.7 (2.272) 57.8 (2.276) 55.8 (2.197) 626.0 (24.646)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 11.1 9.1 9.5 9.3 9.1 9.3 8.9 10.0 8.6 10.4 11.3 10.7 117.2

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 40 59 98 141 190 218 229 203 156 103 65 47 1,548

Source #1: Met Office

Source #2: BBC Weather

DEMOGRAPHY

YORK COMPARED IN 2010

2010 UK POPULATION ESTIMATES YORK YORKSHIRE AND THE HUMBER ENGLAND

Total population 202,400 5,301,300 52,234,000

White 92.8% 89.6% 87.5%

Mixed 1.3% 1.5% 1.9%

Asian 3.4% 6.2% 6.0%

Black 1.2% 1.5% 2.9%

Chinese or other 1.4% 1.3% 1.6%

The York
York
urban area had a population of 137,505 comprising 66,142 males and 71,363 females in 2001. The urban area's population increased to 153,717 by the time of the 2011 UK census . Also at the time of the 2001 UK census , the City of York
York
had a total population of 181,094 of whom 93,957 were female and 87,137 were male. Of the 76,920 households in York, 36.0% were married couples living together, 31.3% were one-person households, 8.7% were co-habiting couples and 8.0% were lone parents. The figures for lone parent households were below the national average of 9.5%, and the percentage of married couples was also close to the national average of 36.5%; the proportion of one person households was slightly higher than the national average of 30.1%.

In 2001, the population density was 4,368/km2 (11,310/sq mi). Of those aged 16–74 in York, 24.6% had no academic qualifications, a little lower than 28.9% in all of England. Of York's residents, 5.1% were born outside the United Kingdom, significantly lower than the national average of 9.2%. White British form 95% of the population; the largest single minority group was recorded as Asian, at 1.9% of the population.

The number of theft-from-a-vehicle offences and theft of a vehicle per 1,000 of the population was 8.8 and 2.7, compared to the English national average of 6.9 and 2.7 respectively. The number of sexual offences was 0.9, in line with the national average. The national average of violence against another person was 16.2 compared to the York
York
average of 17.5. The figures for crime statistics were all recorded during the 2006–07 financial year.

At the time of the 2011 UK census the population of York
York
was 198,051 and its ethnic composition was 94.3% white, compared with the English average of 85.5%. York's population has a slightly higher elderly population than the national average.

POPULATION CHANGE

The table below details the population change since 1801.

POPULATION GROWTH IN YORK SINCE 1801

YEAR 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

POPULATION 24,080 27,486 30,913 36,340 40,337 49,899 58,632 67,364 76,097 81,802 90,665 100,487 106,278 112,402 123,227 135,093 144,585 154,749 158,170 172,847 181,131 202,400

Source: _Vision of Britain_

RELIGION

RELIGION IN YORK 2011

UK CENSUS 2011 YORK Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
ENGLAND

Christian 59.5% 59.5% 59.4%

No religion 30.1% 25.9% 24.7%

Muslim 1.0% 6.2% 5.0%

Buddhist 0.5% 0.3% 0.5%

Hindu 0.5% 0.5% 1.5%

Jewish 0.1% 0.2% 0.5%

Sikh 0.1% 0.4% 0.8%

Other religions 0.4% 0.3% 0.4%

Religion not stated 7.8% 6.8% 7.2%

Nave of York Minster . Main article: Religion in York

Christianity is the religion with the largest following in York, with 59.5% residents reporting themselves as Christian
Christian
in the 2011 census. The percentages following each non- Christian
Christian
religion were all below the national average for England, but those responding as "No Religion" was higher than the national average.

There are 33 active Anglican
Anglican
churches in York, which is home to the Archbishop of York and the Mother Church
Mother Church
, York Minster , and administrative centre of the northern province of the Church of England and the Diocese of York . York
York
is in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Middlesbrough
Middlesbrough
, has eight Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
churches and a number of different Catholic religious orders.

Leaders of different Christian
Christian
denominations work together across the city forming a network of churches known as One Voice York.

Other Christian
Christian
denominations that are active in York
York
include the Religious Society of Friends who have three meeting houses , Methodists within the York
York
Circuit of The Methodist
Methodist
Church York
York
and Hull District, and Unitarians . St Columba's United Reformed Church in Priory Street, originally built for the Presbyterians
Presbyterians
, dates from 1879. There is one mosque in York
York
and the city also has a UK Islamic Mission Islamic centre. Various Buddhist traditions are represented in the city and around York.

ECONOMY

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Museum is based in the city – tourism is an important contributor to York's economy

York's economy is based on the service industry , which in 2000 was responsible for 88.7% of employment in the city. The service industries include public sector employment, health, education, finance, information technology (IT) and tourism that accounts for 10.7% of employment. Tourism has become an important element of the economy, with the city offering a wealth of historic attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent, and a variety of cultural activities. In 2009, York
York
was the 7th most visited city by UK residents and the 13th most visited by overseas visitors.

Unemployment in York
York
was low at 4.2% in 2008 compared to the United Kingdom national average of 5.3%. The biggest employer in York
York
is the City of York
York
Council, with over 7,500 employees. Employers with more than 2,000 staff include Aviva (formerly Norwich
Norwich
Union Life), Network Rail , Northern , York
York
Hospitals NHS Trust and the University of York . Other major employers include British Telecom , CPP Group , Nestlé , NFU Mutual and a number of railway companies. Commerce accounts for a large part of the city's economy.

Today's economic position is very different from the 1950s, when its prosperity was based on chocolate manufacturing and the railways. This position continued until the early 1980s when 30% of the workforce were employed by just five employers and 75% of manufacturing jobs were in four companies. Most industry around the railway has gone, including the carriage works (known as Asea Brown Boveri or ABB at the time of closure), which at its height in the 1880s employed 5,500 people but closed in the mid-1990s. York
York
is the headquarters of the confectionery manufacturer Nestlé York
York
(formerly Nestlé Rowntrees) and home to the _ KitKat _ and eponymous _Yorkie_ bar chocolate brands. Terry\'s chocolate factory, makers of the _Chocolate Orange _, was located in the city; but it closed on 30 September 2005, when production was moved by its owners, Kraft Foods , to Poland. The historic factory building is situated next to the Knavesmire racecourse.

Nestlé announced on 20 September 2006 that it would cut 645 jobs at the Rowntree's chocolate factory in York. This came after a number of other job losses in the city at Aviva , British Sugar and Terry's chocolate factory. Despite this, the employment situation in York remained fairly buoyant until the effects of the late 2000s recession began to be felt. The Aviva Building – York
York
is home to the office of one major company.

Since the closure of the carriage-works, the site has been developed into offices. York's economy has been developing in the areas of science, technology and the creative industries . The city has become a founding National Science City with the creation of a science park near the University of York . Between 1998 and 2008 York
York
gained 80 new technology companies and 2,800 new jobs in the sector.

Regional gross value added figures for York, at 2005 basic prices in pounds sterling , are:

YEAR AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES TOTAL

1995 30 579 1,443 2,052

2000 13 782 2,168 2,963

2003 16 779 2,505 3,299

PUBLIC SERVICES

York's Central Library is located in the city centre

Under the requirements of the Municipal Corporations Act 1835 , York City Council appointed a watch committee which established a police force and appointed a chief constable. On 1 June 1968 the York
York
City, East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and North Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
police forces were amalgamated to form the York
York
and North East Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Police . Since 1974, Home Office
Home Office
policing in York
York
has been provided by the North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
Police . The force's central headquarters for policing York
York
and nearby Selby in Fulford. Statutory emergency fire and rescue service is provided by the North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
Fire and Rescue Service , whose headquarters is at Northallerton . York Hospital is the city's primary medical facility.

The city's first hospital, York
York
County Hospital, opened in 1740 in Monkgate funded by public subscription. It closed in 1976 when it was replaced by York Hospital , which opened the same year and gained Foundation status in April 2007. It has 524 adult inpatient beds and 127 special purpose beds providing general healthcare and some specialist inpatient, daycase and outpatient services. It is also known as York
York
District Hospital and YDH.

The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Ambulance Service NHS Trust was formed on 1 July 2006 bringing together South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Ambulance Service, West Yorkshire Metropolitan Ambulance Service and the North and East Yorkshire
Yorkshire
parts of Tees, East and North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
Ambulance Service to provide patient transport. Other forms of health care are provided for locally by clinics and surgeries.

The city's first subscription library opened in 1794. In 1893 the first free public library , the York Library , was built to mark Queen Victoria 's jubilee. The library was on Clifford Street but a new building was erected on Museum Street in 1927 and is still the library today. The library was extended in 1934 and 1938.

Since 1998 waste management has been co-ordinated via the York
York
and North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
Waste Partnership. York's Distribution Network Operator for electricity is CE Electric UK ; there are no power stations in the city. Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Water , which has a local water extraction plant on the River Derwent at Elvington, manages York's drinking and waste water . York
York
Crown Court
Crown Court

The city has a Magistrates\' Court , and a Crown Court
Crown Court
and County Court too. The Crown Court
Crown Court
House was designed by the architect John Carr , next to the then prison (including execution area).

Between 1773 and 1777, the Grand Jury House was replaced by John Carr's elegant Court House for the Assizes of the whole county. The Female Prison was built opposite and mirrors the court building positioned around a circular lawn which became known as the "Eye of the Ridings", or the "Eye of York".

1776 saw the last recorded instance of a wife hanged and burnt for poisoning her husband. Horse theft was a capital offence . The culprits of lesser crimes were brought to court by the city constables and would face a fine. The corporation employed a "common informer" whose task was to bring criminals to justice.

The former prison is now the Castle Museum but still contains the cells.

TRANSPORT

York's location on the River Ouse and in the centre of the Vale of York
York
means that it has always had a significant position in the nation's transport system. The city grew up as a river port at the confluence of the River Ouse and the River Foss . The Ouse was originally a tidal river , accessible to seagoing ships of the time. Today both of these rivers remain navigable, although the Foss is only navigable for a short distance above the confluence. A lock at Naburn on the Ouse to the south of York
York
means that the river in York
York
is no longer tidal.

Until the end of the 20th century, the Ouse was used by barges to carry freight between York
York
and the port of Hull . The last significant traffic was the supply of newsprint to the local newspaper's Foss-side print works, which continued until 1997. Today navigation is almost exclusively leisure-oriented. Panorama of the River Ouse looking south from Lendal Bridge

Like most cities founded by the Romans, York
York
is well served by long distance trunk roads. The city lies at the intersection of the A19 road from Doncaster
Doncaster
to Tyneside , the A59 road from Liverpool
Liverpool
to York, the A64 road from Leeds
Leeds
to Scarborough , and the A1079 road from York to Hull . The A64 road provides the principal link to the motorway network, linking York
York
to both the A1(M) and the M1 motorways at a distance of about 10 miles (15 km) from the city. The transpennine M62 motorway is less than 20 miles (30 km) away providing links to Manchester
Manchester
and Liverpool. Stonegate is pedestrianised during the day

The city is surrounded on all sides by an outer ring road, at a distance of some 3 miles (5 km) from the centre of the city, which allows through traffic to by-pass the city. The street plan of the historic core of the city dates from medieval times and is not suitable for modern traffic. As a consequence many of the routes inside the city walls are designated as car free during business hours or restrict traffic entirely. To alleviate this situation, five bus based park and ride sites operate in York. The sites are located towards the edge of the urban area, with easy access from the ring road, and allow out of town visitors to complete their journey into the city centre by bus. York railway station
York railway station

York
York
has been a major railway centre since the first line arrived in 1839 at the beginning of the railway age. For many years the city hosted the headquarters and works of the North Eastern Railway . York railway station is a principal stop on the East Coast Main Line from London
London
to Newcastle and Edinburgh
Edinburgh
. It takes less than two hours to get to York
York
from London
London
by rail, with at least 25 direct trains each weekday. The station is also served by long distance trains on CrossCountry
CrossCountry
services linking Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and Newcastle with destinations in south and west England via Birmingham
Birmingham
. TransPennine Express provide a frequent service of semi-fast trains linking York
York
to Newcastle, Scarborough , Leeds
Leeds
, Manchester, Manchester
Manchester
Airport , and Liverpool
Liverpool
. Local stopping services by Northern connect York
York
to Selby, Harrogate
Harrogate
, Hull , Leeds, Sheffield
Sheffield
and many intermediate points, as well as many other stations across Greater Manchester
Manchester
and Lancashire.

York
York
has an airfield at the former RAF Elvington , some 7 miles (11 km) south-east of the city centre, which is the home of the Yorkshire Air Museum . Elvington is used for private aviation . Plans have been drafted to expand the site for business aviation or a full commercial service. A York
York
FTR bus

York
York
is linked to Manchester
Manchester
Airport by an hourly direct TransPennine Express train, giving access to the principal airport serving the north of England, with connections to many destinations in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia. Leeds Bradford Airport is closer to York
York
but the hourly _ York
York
Air Coach_ service operated by First York was withdrawn as of April 2009. Leeds Bradford Airport provides connections to most major European and North African airports as well as Pakistan
Pakistan
and New York City
New York City
.

Public transport within the city is largely bus based. First York operates the majority of the city's local bus services, as well as the York park and ride services. York
York
was the location of the first implementation of FirstGroup's experimental, and controversial, ftr bus concept , which sought to confer the advantages of a modern tramway system at a lower cost. The service was withdrawn following an election manifesto pledge by the Labour Group at the 2011 local government election. Transdev York and also operate a large number of local bus services. Open top tourist and sightseeing buses are operated by Transdev York on behalf of City Sightseeing .

Rural services, linking local towns and villages with York, are provided by a number of companies with Transdev York, EYMS, Reliance "> Bootham School
Bootham School
was established by Quakers in 1823.

The University of York 's main campus is on the southern edge of the city at Heslington and is currently undergoing significant expansion with new buildings and departments including Management, Law, Theatre, Film, and Television at Heslington East . The Department of Archaeology and the graduate Centres for Eighteenth Century Studies and Medieval
Medieval
Studies are located in the historic King's Manor in the city centre. It was York's only institution with university status until 2006, when the more centrally located York St John University , formerly an autonomous college of the University of Leeds
Leeds
, attained full university status. The city formerly hosted a branch of The University of Law before it moved to Leeds. The University of York also has a highly rated medical school, Hull York Medical School
Hull York Medical School
.

The city has two major further education institutions. York
York
College is an amalgamation of York
York
Technical College and York
York
Sixth Form College. Students there study a very wide range of academic and vocational courses, and range from school leavers and sixth formers to people training to make career moves. Askham Bryan College offers further education courses, foundation and honours degrees, specialising in more vocational subjects such as horticulture, agriculture, animal management and even golf course management. University of York , view across the lake to Central Hall

There are 70 local council schools with over 24,000 pupils in the City of York Council area. The City of York Council manages most primary and secondary schools within the city. Primary schools cover education from ages 5–11, with some offering early years education from age 3. From 11–16 education is provided by 10 secondary schools, four of which offer additional education up to the age of 18. In 2007 Oaklands Sports College and Lowfield Comprehensive School merged to become one school known as York
York
High School .

York
York
also has several private schools. St Peter\'s School was founded in 627. The scholar Alcuin , who went on to serve Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, taught there. It was also the school attended by Guy Fawkes
Guy Fawkes
. Two schools have Quaker origins: Bootham School
Bootham School
is co-educational and The Mount School is all-girls. On the outskirts of the city is Queen Margaret\'s School . Pupils from The Minster School, York sing in York Minster choir.

CULTURE

THEATRE

Theatre Royal

The Theatre Royal , which was established in 1744, produces an annual pantomime which attracts loyal audiences from around the country to see its veteran star, Berwick Kaler . The Grand Opera House and Joseph Rowntree Theatre also offer a variety of productions. The city is home to the Riding Lights Theatre Company , which as well as operating a busy national touring department, also operates a busy youth theatre and educational departments. York
York
is also home to a number of amateur dramatic groups. The Department of Theatre, Film and Television and Student Societies of the University of York put on public drama performances. Interior of York's Grand Opera House

The York Mystery Plays are performed in public at intervals, using texts based on the original medieval plays of this type that were performed by the guilds – often with specific connections to the subject matter of each play. (For instance the Shipwrights' Play is the _Building of Noah's Ark_ and the fish-sellers and mariners the _Landing of Noah's Ark_). The York
York
Cycle of Mystery Plays or Pageants is the most complete in England. Originally performed from wagons at various locations around the city from the 14th century until 1570, they were revived in 1951 during the Festival of Britain
Festival of Britain
, when York was one of the cities with a regional festival. They became part of the York
York
City Festival every three years and later four years. They were mostly produced in a temporary open-air theatre within the ruins of St. Mary's Abbey, using some professional but mostly amateur actors. Lead actors have included Christopher Timothy and Robson Green (in the role of Christ) and Dame Judi Dench as a school girl, in 1951, 1954 and 1957. (She remains a Patron of the plays). The cycle was presented in the Theatre Royal in 1992 and 1996, within York
York
Minster in 2000 and in 2002, 2006 and 2010 by Guild groups from wagons in the squares, in the Dean's Park, or at the Eye of York. They go around the streets, recreating the original productions. In 2012, the York Mystery Plays were performed between 2 and 27 August at St. Mary\'s Abbey in the York
York
Museum Gardens
Museum Gardens
.

MUSIC

The Academy of St Olave\'s , a chamber orchestra which gives concerts in St Olave\'s Church, Marygate , is one of the music groups that perform regularly in York. A former church, St Margaret\'s, Walmgate , is the National Centre for Early Music , which hosts concerts, broadcasts, competitions and events including the York
York
Early Music Festival . Students, staff and visiting artists of York
York
St John University music department regularly perform lunchtime concerts in the University chapel. The staff and students of the University of York
York
also perform in the city.

GASTRONOMY

Bettys Café Tea Rooms

Each September since 1997, York
York
holds an annual Festival of Food and Drink. The aim of the festival is to spotlight food culture in York and North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
by promoting local food production. The Festival attracts up to 150,000 visitors over 10 days, from all over the country. One of the notable local products is York ham , a mild-flavoured ham with delicate pink colouring. It is traditionally served with Madeira Sauce . As a lightly smoked, dry-cured ham, York ham is saltier but milder in flavour than other European dry-cured hams. Folklore has it that the oak construction for York
York
Minster provided the sawdust for smoking the ham. Robert Burrow Atkinson's butchery shop, in Blossom Street, is the birthplace of the original " York
York
Ham" and the reason why the premises became famous.

In the centre of York, in St Helen's Square, there is the York
York
branch of Bettys Café Tea Rooms. Bettys founder, Frederick Belmont, travelled on the maiden voyage of the _Queen Mary _ in 1936. He was so impressed by the splendour of the ship that he employed the Queen Mary's designers and craftsmen to turn a dilapidated furniture store in York
York
into an elegant café in St Helen's Square. A few years after Bettys opened in York
York
war broke out, and the basement 'Bettys Bar' became a favourite haunt of the thousands of airmen stationed around York. 'Bettys Mirror', on which many of them engraved their signatures with a diamond pen, remains on display today as a tribute to them.

BEER AND PUBS

The Assize of Ale is an annual event in the city where people in medieval costume take part in a pub crawl to raise money for local charities. It has its origins in the 13th century, when an Assize of Bread and Ale was used to regulate the quality of goods. The current version was resurrected in the 1990s by the Sheriff
Sheriff
of York
York
and is led by the Guild of Scriveners. In June 2015 York
York
CAMRA listed 101 pubs on its map of the city centre, some of which are hundreds of years old. These include the Golden Fleece , Ye Olde Starre Inne, noted for its sign which has spanned the street since 1733, and The Kings Arms, often photographed during floods. On 18 June 2016, York
York
CAMRA undertook a "Beer Census" and found 328 unique real ales being served in over 200 pubs in York, reinforcing the city's reputation as a top UK beer destination.

The Knavesmire, home of York
York
Racecourse, plays host to Yorkshire's largest beer festival every September run by York
York
CAMRA – York
York
Beer Enghien-les-Bains , France
France
; and Sapporo
Sapporo
, Japan
Japan
.

MEDIA

The York
York
area is served by a local newspaper, _The Press _ (known as the _Evening Press_ until April 2006), _The York
York
Advertiser_ newspaper (based at _The Press_ on Walmgate), and three local radio stations Minster FM , Vale Radio and BBC Radio York . Local arts, culture news and events are covered by One What's On; Food Things To Do and Business sections with articles written by residents and local journalists. In August 2016 YorkMix was nominated in two categories in the O2 Media Awards for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and The Humber.

On 27 November 2013, Ofcom awarded the 12-year local TV licence for the York
York
area to a consortium entitled The York
York
Channel, with the channel due to be on air in spring 2015.

York St John University has a Film and Television Production department with links to many major industrial partners. The department hosts an annual festival of student work and a showcase of other regional films.

The University of York has its own television station York
York
Student Television (YSTV) and two campus newspapers _ Nouse _ and _ York
York
Vision _. Its radio station URY is the longest running legal independent radio station in the UK, and was voted BBC Radio 1 Student Radio Station of the Year 2005.

SPORT

A view of the Stands at York Racecourse
York Racecourse

The city's football team is York
York
City who are competing in National League North as of the 2017–18 season . York
York
have played as high as the old Second Division but are best known for their "giant killing" status in cup competitions, having reached the FA Cup
FA Cup
semi-final in 1955 and beaten Manchester
Manchester
United 3–0 during the 1995–96 League Cup . Their matches are played at Bootham Crescent .

York
York
also has a strong rugby league history. York
York
F.C., later known as York Wasps , formed in 1901, were one of the oldest rugby league clubs in the country but the effects of a move to the out of town Huntington Stadium , poor results and falling attendances led to their bankruptcy in 2002. The supporters formed a new club, York
York
City Knights , who now play at the same stadium in Championship 1 . There are three amateur rugby league teams in York, New Earswick All Blacks, York
York
Acorn and Heworth . York International 9s is a rugby league nines tournament which takes place in York
York
each year. Amateur side York Lokomotive compete in the Rugby League Conference .

An open rowing club York City Rowing Club is located underneath Lendal Bridge. The rowing clubs of The University of York, York
York
St John University Rowing Club and Leeds
Leeds
University Boat Club as well as York
York
City RC use the Ouse for training. There are two sailing clubs close to York, both of which sail dinghies on the River Ouse. The York RI (Railway Institute) Sailing Club has a club bouse and boat park on the outskirts of Bishopthorpe , a village 3 miles (4.8 km) to the south of York. The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Ouse Sailing Club has a club house in the village of Naburn , 5 miles (8.0 km) south of York. Bootham Crescent is the home ground of York
York
City

York Racecourse
York Racecourse
was established in 1731 and from 1990 has been awarded Northern Racecourse of the Year for 17 years running. This major horseracing venue is located on the Knavesmire and sees thousands flocking to the city every year for the 15 race meetings. The Knavesmire Racecourse also hosted Royal Ascot in 2005. In August racing takes place over the four-day Ebor Festival that includes the Ebor Handicap dating from 1843.

Motorbike speedway once took place at York. The track in the Burnholme Estate was completed in 1930 and a demonstration event staged. In 1931 the track staged team and open events and the York team took part in the National Trophy.

York
York
hosts the UK Snooker Championship , which is the second biggest ranking tournament in the sport, at the York
York
Barbican
Barbican
Centre.

On 6 July 2014, York
York
hosted the start of Stage 2 of the 2014 Tour de France
France
. Starting the Départ Fictif from York Racecourse
York Racecourse
, the riders travelled through the city centre to the Départ Actuel on the A59 just beyond the junction with the Outer Ring Road heading towards Knaresborough . In 2015, the inaugural Tour de Yorkshire
Yorkshire
was held as a legacy event to build on the popularity of the previous year, with the Day 2 stage finishing in York.

The most notable sportsmen to come from York
York
in recent years are footballer Marco Gabbiadini and former England manager Steve McClaren , who both attended Nunthorpe Grammar School (now called Millthorpe School ).

GEODESY

York Minster was the origin (meridian) of the 6 inch and 1:2500 Ordnance Survey maps for Yorkshire.

TWIN CITIES

York
York
is twinned with Dijon
Dijon
, France
France
(1953), Münster , Germany (1957) and on 22 October 2014, it announced the first 'temporal twinning' with Jórvík, the Viking
Viking
city from 866 to 1066.

SEE ALSO

* Yorkshire
Yorkshire
portal

* List of people from York

NOTES

A There was no census in 1941: figures are from National Register. United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Isle of Man. Statistics of Population on 29 September 1939 by Sex, Age and Marital Condition. B There is a discrepancy of 37 between Office for National Statistics figures (quoted before) and those on the _Vision of Britain_ website (quoted here).

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