YOM KIPPUR (/jɔːm, joʊm, jɒm ˈkɪpər, kɪˈpʊər/ ;
יוֹם כִּיפּוּר, IPA: , or יום
הכיפורים), also known as the DAY OF ATONEMENT, is the
holiest day of the year in
Judaism . Its central themes are atonement
and repentance . Jewish people traditionally observe this holy day
with an approximate 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer ,
often spending most of the day in synagogue services.
* 1 Etymology
Rosh Hashanah and
* 2.1 Heavenly books opened
* 4 Observance
* 4.1 Preceding day
* 4.2 General observances
* 4.3 Eve
* 4.5 Repentance (Teshuva) and confessional (Vidui)
* 4.6 Avodah: remembering the Temple service
* 4.7 Date of
* 5 In the
* 5.1 Midrashic interpretation
* 6 Mishnaic and Talmudic literature
* 6.1 Temple service
* 7 Observance in
* 8 Observance by athletes
* 9 Observance by Christians
* 10 Recognition by the
* 11 Modern scholarship
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 External links
Yom means "day" in
Hebrew and Kippur comes from a root that means "to
atone", which is related to the biblical name of the covering of the
Ark (called the kapporet ).
Yom Kippur is usually expressed in
English as "Day of Atonement".
ROSH HASHANAH AND YOM KIPPUR
Yom Kippur is "the tenth day of seventh month" (
Tishrei ) and is
regarded as the "Sabbath of Sabbaths".
Rosh Hashanah (referred to in
Yom Teruah) is the first day of that month according to
Hebrew calendar . On this day forgiveness of sins is also asked of
Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in
Judaism as the High
Holy Days or Yamim Nora'im ("Days of Awe") that commences with Rosh
HEAVENLY BOOKS OPENED
According to Jewish tradition, God inscribes each person's fate for
the coming year into a book, the
Book of Life , on
Rosh Hashanah , and
Yom Kippur to "seal" the verdict. During the Days of Awe,
a Jew tries to amend his or her behavior and seek forgiveness for
wrongs done against God (bein adam leMakom) and against other human
beings (bein adam lechavero). The evening and day of
Yom Kippur are
set aside for public and private petitions and confessions of guilt
Vidui ). At the end of
Yom Kippur, one hopes that they have been
forgiven by God.
Yom Kippur prayer service includes several unique aspects. One is
the actual number of prayer services. Unlike a regular day, which has
three prayer services (Ma'ariv, the evening prayer; Shacharit, the
morning prayer; and Mincha, the afternoon prayer), or a
Shabbat or Yom
Tov , which have four prayer services (Ma'ariv; Shacharit; Mussaf, the
additional prayer; and Mincha),
Yom Kippur has five prayer services
(Ma'ariv; Shacharit; Musaf; Mincha; and Ne\'ilah , the closing
prayer). The prayer services also include private and public
confessions of sins (
Vidui ) and a unique prayer dedicated to the
Yom Kippur avodah (service) of the
Kohen Gadol (high priest)
in the Holy Temple in
As one of the most culturally significant Jewish holidays,
is observed by many secular
Jews who may not observe other holidays.
Jews attend synagogue on
Yom Kippur—for many secular
High Holy Days are the only times of the year during which
they attend synagogue —causing synagogue attendance to soar.
Yom Kippur (lit. "eve day atonement") is the day preceding Yom
Kippur, corresponding to the ninth day of the
Hebrew month of Tishrei
. This day is commemorated with additional morning prayers , asking
others for forgiveness, giving charity , performing the kapparot
ritual, an extended afternoon prayer service , and two festive meals.
Leviticus 16:29 mandates establishment of this holy day on the 10th
day of the 7th month as the day of atonement for sins. It calls it the
Sabbath of Sabbaths and a day upon which one must afflict one's soul.
Leviticus 23:27 decrees that
Yom Kippur is a strict day of rest.
Five additional prohibitions are traditionally observed, as detailed
in the Jewish oral tradition (
The number five is a set number, relating to:
* In the
Yom Kippur section of the Torah, the word soul appears five
* The soul is known by five separate names: soul, wind, spirit,
living one and unique one.
* Unlike regular days, which have three prayer services,
Kohen Gadol rinsed himself in the mikveh (ritual bath) five
The traditions are as follows:
* No eating and drinking
* No wearing of leather shoes
* No bathing or washing
* No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions
* No marital relations
A parallel has been drawn between these activities and the human
condition according to the Biblical account of the expulsion from the
garden of Eden. Refraining from these symbolically represents a
return to a pristine state, which is the theme of the day. By
refraining from these activities, the body is uncomfortable but can
still survive. The soul is considered to be the life force in a body.
Therefore, by making one’s body uncomfortable, one’s soul is
uncomfortable. By feeling pain one can feel how others feel when they
are in pain. This is the purpose of the prohibitions.
Total abstention from food and drink as well as keeping the other
traditions begins at sundown , and ends after nightfall the following
day. One should add a few minutes to the beginning and end of the day,
Yom Kippur, lit. "addition to
Yom Kippur". Although the
fast is required of all healthy men over 13 or women over 12, it is
waived in the case of certain medical conditions.
Jewish holidays involve meals, but since
involves fasting, Jewish law requires one to eat a large and festive
meal on the afternoon before
Yom Kippur, after the
Wearing white clothing (or a kittel for Ashkenazi
Jews ), is
traditional to symbolize one's purity on this day. Many Orthodox men
immerse themselves in a mikveh on the day before
In order to apologize to God, one must:
* Give to charity
Before sunset on
Yom Kippur eve, worshipers gather in the synagogue .
The Ark is opened and two people take from it two Sifrei
scrolls). Then they take their places, one on each side of the Hazzan
, and the three recite (in Hebrew):
In the tribunal of Heaven and the tribunal of earth, we hold it
lawful to pray with transgressors.
The cantor then chants the
Kol Nidre prayer (Aramaic: כל נדרי).
This prayer is recited in
Aramaic . Its name "Kol Nidre" is taken from
the opening words, and translates "All vows":
All personal vows we are likely to make, all personal oaths and
pledges we are likely to take between this
Yom Kippur and the next Yom
Kippur, we publicly renounce. Let them all be relinquished and
abandoned, null and void, neither firm nor established. Let our
personal vows, pledges and oaths be considered neither vows nor
pledges nor oaths."
The leader and the congregation then say together three times "May
all the people of
Israel be forgiven, including all the strangers who
live in their midst, for all the people are in fault." The Torah
scrolls are then placed back into the Ark, and the
Yom Kippur evening
Some married Ashkenazi Orthodox men wear a kittel , a white robe-like
garment for evening prayers on
Yom Kippur, otherwise used by males on
their wedding day. They also wear a tallit (prayer shawl), which is
typically worn only during morning services.
Prayer services begin with the
Kol Nidrei prayer, which is recited
Kol Nidre is a prayer that dates back to 9th century
Palestine. It is recited in a dramatic manner, before the open ark,
using a melody that dates back to the 16th century. Then the service
continues with the evening prayers (Ma'ariv or Arvit) and an extended
The morning prayer service is preceded by litanies and petitions of
forgiveness called selichot; on
Yom Kippur, many selichot are woven
into the liturgy of the mahzor (prayer book). The morning prayers are
followed by an added prayer (Mussaf) as on all other holidays. This is
Mincha (the afternoon prayer) which includes a reading
Haftarah ) of the entire
Book of Jonah , which has as its theme the
story of God's willingness to forgive those who repent.
The service concludes with the Ne\'ila ("closing") prayer, which
begins shortly before sunset, when the "gates of prayer" will be
Yom Kippur comes to an end with a recitation of Shema Yisrael
and the blowing of the shofar , which marks the conclusion of the
REPENTANCE IN JUDAISM TESHUVA "RETURN"
Repentance, atonement and
higher ascent in
IN THE HEBREW BIBLE
Prophecy within the Temple
Confession · Atonement
Love of God · Awe of God
Meditation · Services
IN THE JEWISH CALENDAR
Ten Days of Repentance
Sukkot · Simchat
Ta\'anit · Tisha B\'Av
Passover · The Omer
IN CONTEMPORARY JUDAISM
Baal Teshuva movement
Jewish Renewal ·
REPENTANCE (TESHUVA) AND CONFESSIONAL (VIDUI)
Talmud states, "
Yom Kippur atones for those who repent and does
not atone for those who do not repent". Repentance in
Judaism is done
through a process called
Teshuva , which in its most basic form
consists of regretting having committed the sin, resolving not to
commit that sin in the future and to confess that sin before God.
Judaism is called
Hebrew וידוי). There is
also a commandment to repent on
Yom Kippur. Accordingly,
is unique for the confessional, or Vidui, that is part of the prayer
services. In keeping with the requirement to repent on
Jews recite the full
Vidui a total of 9 times: once during
Yom Kippur eve, and on
Yom Kippur itself during Ma'ariv (2 times),
Shacharit (2 times),
Musaf (2 times), and
Mincha (2 times); at
Ne’eilah, only the short confessional is said. The first time in
each service takes place during the personal recitation of the Amidah
(standing, silent prayer), and the second time during the cantor's
repetition of the
Amidah (except during the preceding Mincha), in a
Yom Kippur confessional consists of two parts: a short confession
beginning with the word Ashamnu (אשמנו, "we have sinned"), which
is a series of words describing sin arranged according to the
aleph-bet, and a long confession , beginning with the words Al Cheyt
(על חטא, "for the sin"), which is a set of 22 double acrostics ,
also arranged according to the aleph-bet, enumerating a range of sins.
It is notable that during the public recitation of Ashamnu together
with the cantor, the entire congregation sings these words to a tune,
representing the joy of being cleansed from one's sins.
AVODAH: REMEMBERING THE TEMPLE SERVICE
A recitation of the sacrificial service of the Temple in Jerusalem
traditionally features prominently in both the liturgy and the
religious thought of the holiday. Specifically, the Avodah ("service")
Musaf prayer recounts in great detail the sacrificial
ceremonies of the
Yom Kippur Korbanot (sacrificial offerings) that are
recited in the prayers but have not been performed for 2,000 years,
since the destruction of the
Second Temple in
Jerusalem by the Romans.
This traditional prominence is rooted in the Babylonian
description of how to attain atonement following the destruction of
the Temple. According to
Yoma , in the absence of a
Jews are obligated to study the High Priest’s ritual on Yom
Kippur, and this study helps achieve atonement for those who are
unable to benefit from its actual performance. In Orthodox
accordingly, studying the Temple ritual on
Yom Kippur represents a
positive rabbinically ordained obligation which
Jews seeking atonement
are required to fulfill.
In Orthodox synagogues and many Conservative ones a detailed
description of the Temple ritual is recited on the day. In most
Orthodox and some Conservative synagogues, the entire congregation
prostrates themselves at each point in the recitation where the Kohen
Gadol (High Priest) would pronounce the
holiest name, according to Judaism).
The main section of the Avodah is a threefold recitation of the High
Priest’s actions regarding expiation in the
Holy of Holies .
Performing the sacrificial acts and reciting Leviticus 16:30, ("Your
upright children"). (These three times, plus in some congregations the
Aleinu prayer during the
Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah
, are the only times in
Jewish services when
Jews engage in
prostration, with the exception of some Yemenite
Jews and talmedhei
haRambam (disciples of Maimonides) who may prostrate themselves on
other occasions during the year). A variety of liturgical poems are
added, including a poem recounting the radiance of the countenance of
Kohen Gadol after exiting the Holy of Holies, traditionally
believed to emit palpable light in a manner echoing the Torah's
account of the countenance of
Moses after descending from Mount Sinai
, as well as prayers for the speedy rebuilding of the Temple and the
restoration of sacrificial worship . There are a variety of other
customs, such as hand gestures to mime the sprinkling of blood (one
sprinkling upwards and seven downwards per set of eight).
Orthodox liturgies include prayers lamenting the inability to perform
the Temple service and petitioning for its restoration, which
Conservative synagogues generally omit. In some Conservative
synagogues, only the
Hazzan (cantor) engages in full prostration. Some
Conservative synagogues abridge the recitation of the Avodah service
to varying degrees, and some omit it entirely. Many Reform and
Reconstructionist services omit the entire service as inconsistent
with modern sensibilities.
DATE OF YOM KIPPUR
Jewish and Israeli holidays 2000–2050
Yom Kippur falls each year on the 10th day of the Jewish month of
Tishrei, which is 9 days after the first day of
Rosh Hashanah . In
terms of the
Gregorian calendar , the earliest date on which Yom
Kippur can fall is September 14, as happened in 1899 and 2013. The
Yom Kippur can occur relative to the Gregorian dates is on
October 14, as happened in 1967 and will happen again in 2043. After
2089, the differences between the
Hebrew calendar and the Gregorian
calendar will result in
Yom Kippur falling no earlier than September
Gregorian calendar dates for upcoming
Yom Kippur holidays are:
* 2016 – Wednesday, October 12
* 2017 – Saturday, September 30
* 2018 – Wednesday, September 19
* 2019 – Wednesday, October 9
* 2020 – Monday, September 28
Yom Kippur begins at sundown on the preceding day and ends at
nightfall on the listed day.
IN THE TORAH
Torah calls the day
Yom HaKippurim (יוֹם
הַכִּיפּוּרִים) and in it Leviticus 23:27 decrees a
strict prohibition of work and affliction of the appetite (נפש
means soul or appetite) upon the tenth day of the seventh month, later
Tishrei . The laws of
Yom Kippur are mentioned in three
passages in the Torah:
* Leviticus 16:1–34: God told
Moses to tell
Aaron that he can only
enter the sanctuary in front of the cover that is on the ark when God
is present on the cover in a cloud. If
Aaron is to enter otherwise, he
will die. On the tenth day of the seventh month, God said that the
people must not work in order to cleanse and atone for their sins. The
Kohen will lead in the atonement of all the people.
* Leviticus 23:26–32: God said to
Moses that the tenth day of the
month is the day of atonement and will be holy. The people must give a
fire-offering to God and must not work. God told
Moses that whoever
does work, God will rid of the soul from its people. This is a day of
complete rest from the evening of the ninth day of the month to the
* Numbers 29:7–11: The tenth day of the seventh month is a holy
day and one must not work. For an elevation offering, one must
sacrifice a young bull, a ram and seven lambs who are a year old. As
well, for a sin offering, one must sacrifice a male goat.
Yom Kippur is considered the date on which Moses
received the second set of
Ten Commandments . It occurred following
the completion of the second 40 days of instructions from God. At this
same time, the
Israelites were granted atonement for the sin of the
Golden Calf ; hence, its designation as the Day of Atonement.
MISHNAIC AND TALMUDIC LITERATURE
The following summary of the Temple service is based on the
traditional Jewish religious account described in
Yoma , appearing in contemporary traditional
Jewish prayer books for
Yom Kippur, and studied as part of a traditional Jewish
While the Temple in
Jerusalem was standing (from Biblical times
through 70 C.E.), the
Kohen Gadol (High Priest) was mandated by the
Torah to perform a complex set of special services and sacrifices for
Yom Kippur to attain Divine atonement, the word "kippur" meaning
"atone" in Hebrew. These services were considered to be the most
important parts of
Yom Kippur because through them the
made atonement for all
Jews and the world. During the service, the
Kohen Gadol entered the
Holy of Holies in the center of the Temple,
the only time of the year that anyone went inside. Doing so required
special purification and preparation, including five immersions in a
mikvah (ritual bath), and four changes of clothing.
Seven days prior to
Yom Kippur, the
Kohen Gadol was sequestered in
the Palhedrin chamber in the Temple, where he reviewed (studied) the
service with the sages familiar with the Temple, and was sprinkled
with spring water containing ashes of the
Red Heifer as purification.
Yoma ) also reports that he practiced the incense
offering ritual in the Avitnas chamber .
On the day of
Yom Kippur, the
Kohen Gadol had to follow a precise
order of services, sacrifices, and purifications:
* MORNING (TAMID) OFFERING The
Kohen Gadol first performed the
regular daily (Tamid) offering — usually performed by ordinary
priests — in special golden garments, after immersing in a mikvah
and washing his hands and feet.
* GARMENT CHANGE 1 The
Kohen Gadol immersed in a special mikvah in
the Temple courtyard and changed into special linen garments, and
washed his hands and feet twice, once after removing the golden
garments and once before putting on the linen garments.
* BULL AS PERSONAL SIN-OFFERING The
Kohen Gadol leaned (performed
Semikha ) and made a confession over the bull on behalf of himself and
his household, pronouncing the
Tetragrammaton . The people prostrated
themselves when they heard. He then slaughtered the bull as a chatat
(sin-offering) and received its blood in a bowl.
* LOTTERY OF THE GOATS At the Eastern (Nikanor) gate, the Kohen
Gadol drew lots from a lottery box over two goats . One was selected
"for the Lord", and one "for
Azazel ". The
Kohen Gadol tied a red band
around the horns of the goat "for
* INCENSE PREPARATION The
Kohen Gadol ascended the mizbeach (altar)
and took a shovel full of embers with a special shovel. He was brought
incense . He filled his hands and placed it in a vessel. (The Talmud
considered this the most physically difficult part of the service, as
Kohen Gadol had to keep the shovelful of glowing coals balanced
and prevent its contents from dropping, using his armpit or teeth,
while filling his hands with the incense).
* INCENSE OFFERING Holding the shovel and the vessel, he entered the
Kadosh Hakadashim , the Temple’s
Holy of Holies . In the days of the
First Temple , he placed the shovel between the poles of the Ark of
the Covenant . In the days of the
Second Temple , he put the shovel
where the Ark would have been. He waited until the chamber filled with
smoke and left.
* SPRINKLING OF BULL\'S BLOOD IN THE HOLY OF HOLIES The
took the bowl with the bull’s blood and entered the Most Holy Place
again. He sprinkled the bull’s blood with his finger eight times,
before the Ark in the days of the First Temple, where it would have
been in the days of the Second. The
Kohen Gadol then left the Holy of
Holies, putting the bowl on a stand in front of the
separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies).
* GOAT FOR THE LORD AS SIN-OFFERING FOR KOHANIM The
Kohen Gadol went
to the eastern end of the Israelite courtyard near the Nikanor Gate,
laid his hands (semikha ) on the goat "for the Lord", and pronounced
confession on behalf of the Kohanim (priests). The people prostrated
themselves when he pronounced the Tetragrammaton. He then slaughtered
the goat, and received its blood in another bowl.
* SPRINKLING OF GOAT’S BLOOD IN THE HOLY OF HOLIES The
took the bowl with the goat’s blood and entered the Kadosh
Hakadashim , the Temple’s
Holy of Holies again. He sprinkled the
goat’s blood with his finger eight times the same way he had
sprinkled the bull’s blood. The blood was sprinkled before the Ark
in the days of the First Temple, where it would have been in the days
of the Second Temple. The
Kohen Gadol then left the Kadosh Hakadashim
, putting the bowl on a stand in front of the
separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies).
* SPRINKLING OF BLOOD IN THE HOLY Standing in the
Hekhal (Holy), on
the other side of the
Parochet from the Holy of Holies, the Kohen
Gadol took the bull's blood from the stand and sprinkled it with his
finger eight times in the direction of the Parochet. He then took the
bowl with the goat's blood and sprinkled it eight times in the same
manner, putting it back on the stand.
* SMEARING OF BLOOD ON THE GOLDEN (INCENSE) ALTAR The
removed the goat’s blood from the stand and mixed it with the bull's
blood. Starting at the northeast corner, he then smeared the mixture
of blood on each of the four corners of the Golden (Incense) altar in
the Haichal. He then sprinkled the blood eight times on the altar.
Cliffs of Mount
* GOAT FOR AZAZEL The
Kohen Gadol left the Haichal and walked to the
east side of the
Azarah (Israelite courtyard). Near the Nikanor Gate,
he leaned his hands (Semikha) on the goat "for Azazel" and confessed
the sins of the entire people of Israel. The people prostrated
themselves when he pronounced the Tetragrammaton. While he made a
general confession, individuals in the crowd at the Temple would
confess privately. The
Kohen Gadol then sent the goat off "to the
wilderness". In practice, to prevent its return to human habitation,
the goat was led to a cliff outside
Jerusalem and pushed off its edge.
* PREPARATION OF SACRIFICIAL ANIMALS While the goat "for Azazel" was
being led to the cliff, the
Kohen Gadol removed the insides of the
bull, and intertwined the bodies of the bull and goat. Other people
took the bodies to the Beit HaDeshen (place of the ashes). They were
burned there after it was confirmed that the goat "for Azazel" had
reached the wilderness.
* READING THE TORAH After it was confirmed that the goat "for
Azazel" had been pushed off the cliff, the
Kohen Gadol passed through
the Nikanor Gate into the Ezrat Nashim (Women’s Courtyard) and read
sections of the
Yom Kippur and its sacrifices .
* GARMENT CHANGE 2 The
Kohen Gadol removed his linen garments,
immersed in the mikvah in the Temple courtyard, and changed into a
second set of special golden garments. He washed his hands and feet
both before removing the linen garments and after putting on the
* OFFERING OF RAMS The
Kohen Gadol offered two rams as an olah
offering, slaughtering them on the north side of the mizbeach (outer
altar), receiving their blood in a bowl, carrying the bowl to the
outer altar, and dashing the blood on the northeast and southwest
corners of the Outer Altar. He dismembered the rams and burned the
parts entirely on the outer altar. He then offered the accompanying
mincha (grain) offerings and nesachim (wine-libations).
* MUSAF OFFERING The
Kohen Gadol then offered the
* BURNING OF INNARDS The
Kohen Gadol placed the insides of the bull
and goat on the outer altar and burned them entirely.
* GARMENT CHANGE 3 The
Kohen Gadol removed his golden garments,
immersed in the mikvah, and changed to a new set of linen garments,
again washing his hands and feet twice.
* REMOVAL OF INCENSE FROM THE HOLY OF HOLIES The
returned to the
Holy of Holies and removed the bowl of incense and the
* GARMENT CHANGE 4 The
Kohen Gadol removed his linen garments,
immersed in the mikvah, and changed into a third set of golden
garments, again washing his hands and feet twice.
* EVENING (TAMID) OFFERING The
Kohen Gadol completed the afternoon
portion of the regular (tamid) daily offering in the special golden
garments. He washed his hands and feet a tenth time.
Kohen Gadol wore five sets of garments (three golden and two
white linen), immersed in the mikvah five times, and washed his hands
and feet ten times. Sacrifices included two (daily) lambs, one bull,
two goats, and two rams, with accompanying mincha (meal) offerings,
wine libations, and three incense offerings (the regular two daily and
an additional one for
Yom Kippur). The
Kohen Gadol entered the Holy of
Holies three times. The
Tetragrammaton was pronounced three times,
once for each confession.
OBSERVANCE IN ISRAEL
Ayalon Highway in
Tel Aviv , empty of cars on
Yom Kippur 2004
Yom Kippur is a legal holiday in the modern state of Israel. There
are no radio or television broadcasts, airports are shut down, there
is no public transportation, and all shops and businesses are closed.
In 2013, 73% of the Jewish people of
Israel said that they were
intending to fast on
Yom Kippur. It is very common in
Israel to wish
"Tsom Kal" ( easy fast) or "Tsom Mo'il" ( benefiting fast) to everyone
Yom Kippur, even if one does not know whether they will fast or
It is considered impolite to eat in public on
Yom Kippur or to sound
music or to drive a motor vehicle. There is no legal prohibition on
any of these, but in practice such actions are universally avoided in
Yom Kippur, except for emergency services.
Over the last few decades, bicycle-riding and inline skating on the
empty streets have become common among secular Israeli youngsters,
especially on the eve of
Yom Kippur in
Tel Aviv and
In 1973, an air raid siren was sounded on the afternoon of
and radio broadcasts were resumed to alert the public to the surprise
Israel by Egypt and Syria that launched the
Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War .
OBSERVANCE BY ATHLETES
Some notable athletes have observed
Yom Kippur, even when it
conflicted with their playing their sport.
Sandy Koufax , the Hall of Fame pitcher , decided not to
pitch Game 1 of the
1965 World Series because it fell on
Koufax garnered national attention for his decision, as an example of
the conflict between social pressures and personal beliefs.
Hall of Fame first baseman
Hank Greenberg attracted national
attention in 1934 , nearly three decades earlier, when he refused to
play baseball on
Yom Kippur, even though the Tigers were in the middle
of a pennant race , and he was leading the league in RBIs. The
Detroit Free Press
Detroit Free Press columnist and poet
Edgar A. Guest wrote a poem
titled "Speaking of Greenberg", which ended with the lines "We shall
miss him on the infield and shall miss him at the bat / But he's true
to his religion—and I honor him for that." When Greenberg arrived
in synagogue on
Yom Kippur, the service stopped suddenly, and the
congregation gave an embarrassed Greenberg a standing ovation.
Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers outfielder
Shawn Green , similarly, made
headlines in 2001 for sitting out a game for the first time in 415
games (then the longest streak among active players), to honor Yom
Kippur, even though his team was in the middle of a playoff race.
Other baseball players who have similarly sat out games on
Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox and
New York Yankees
New York Yankees third baseman Kevin
Youkilis , former
Houston Astros catcher and current Detroit Tigers
Brad Ausmus , and outfielder
Art Shamsky .
Gabe Carimi , the Consensus All-American left tackle in American
football who won the 2010
Outland Trophy as the nation's top
collegiate interior lineman faced a conflict in his freshman year of
college in 2007. That year
Yom Kippur fell on a Saturday, and he
fasted until an hour before his football game against Iowa started
that night. Carimi, now with the
Atlanta Falcons , said, "Religion
is a part of me, and I don't want to just say I'm Jewish. I actually
do make sacrifices that I know are hard choices." In 2004, Matt
Bernstein , standout fullback at University of Wisconsin–Madison ,
Yom Kippur, then broke his fast on the sidelines before
rushing for 123 yards in a game against
Penn State .
In 2011, golfer
Laetitia Beck declined a request to join the UNC
Tar-Heels Invitational competition, because it conflicted with Yom
Kippur. Instead, she spent the day fasting and praying. She said:
Judaism is very important to me, and ... on
Yom Kippur, no matter
what, I have to fast."
Boris Gelfand , Israel's top chess player,
played his game in the prestigious London Grand Prix Chess Tournament
on 25 September 2012 (eve of
Yom Kippur) earlier, to avoid playing on
In 2013, the
International Tennis Federation
International Tennis Federation fined the
Association "more than $13,000 ... for the inconvenience" of having to
reschedule a tennis match between the Israeli and Belgian teams that
was originally scheduled on
OBSERVANCE BY CHRISTIANS
Main article: Christian observances of
Jews and some other sabbatarian churches also observe this
as a holy day, from evening to evening. In the Christian observance,
it is a time of prayer and fasting from all food and drink and a time
of instruction through study and church attendance . It focuses on
Christ's sacrifice and atonement for sins. It is seen as a time to
give thanks and praise, to humble oneself and to seek repentance.
RECOGNITION BY THE UNITED NATIONS
In 2015 the
United Nations officially recognized
Yom Kippur, stating
that from then on no official meetings would take place on the day.
As well, the
United Nations stated that, beginning in 2016, they would
have nine official holidays and seven floating holidays which each
employee would be able to choose one of. It stated that the floating
holidays will be
Yom Kippur, Day of
Orthodox Christmas , Orthodox
Good Friday , and Presidents\' Day .
This was the first time the
United Nations officially recognized any
According to textual scholars , the biblical regulations covering Yom
Kippur are spliced together from multiple source texts, as indicated
by evidence such as with the duplication of the confession over the
bullock, and the incongruity in one verse stating that the high
priest should not enter the
Holy of Holies (with the inference that
there are exceptions for certain explicitly identified festivals),
and the next verse indicating that they can enter whenever they wish
(as long as a specific ritual is carried out first). Although Rashi
tried to find a harmonistic explanation for this incongruity, the
Leviticus Rabbah maintains that it was indeed the case that the high
priest could enter at any time if these rituals were carried out.
Textual scholars argue that the ritual is composed from three sources,
and a couple of redactional additions:
* prerequisite rituals before the high priest can enter the Holy of
Holies (on any occasion), namely a sin offering and a whole offering,
followed by the filling of the
Holy of Holies with a cloud of incense
while wearing linen garments
* regulations which establish an annual day of fasting and rest,
during which the sanctuary and people are purified, without stating
the ritual for doing so; this regulation is very similar to the one
in the Holiness Code
* later elaborations of the ceremony, which include the sprinkling
of the blood on the mercy seat, and the use of a scapegoat sent to
Azazel; the same source also being responsible for small alterations
to related regulations
* the redactional additions
On the basis of their assumptions, these scholars believe that the
original ceremony was simply the ritual purification of the sanctuary
from any accidental ritual impurity, at the start of each new year, as
seen in the
Book of Ezekiel
Book of Ezekiel . Textual scholars date this original
ceremony to before the priestly source , but after JE . According to
the Book of Ezekiel, the sanctuary was to be cleansed by the
sprinkling of bullock's blood, on the first day of the first and of
the seventh months — near the start of the civil year and of the
ecclesiastical year, respectively; although the masoretic text of the
Book of Ezekiel
Book of Ezekiel has the second of these cleansings on the seventh of
the first month, biblical scholars regard the
Septuagint , which has
the second cleaning as being the first of the seventh month, as being
more accurate here. It appears that during the period that the
Holiness Code and the
Book of Ezekiel
Book of Ezekiel were written, the new year began
on the tenth day of the seventh month, and thus liberal biblical
scholars believe that by the time the Priestly Code was compiled, the
date of the new year and of the day of atonement had swapped around.
Day of Ashura (similar observance by Muslims)
* ^ A B "Holidays and New Moons". Karaite Korner. Retrieved 9
* ^ "
Yom Kippur". Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary .
* ^ It can be argued that the weekly Sabbath (Shabbat) is holier.
Shabbat (Status as a holy day) .
* ^ Propitiation, Easton\'s Bible Dictionary
* ^ Numbers 29:7
* ^ Cohen, S.M., Eisen, A.M.: The Jew within: self, family, and
community in America, page 169. Indiana University Press, 2000. "For
Jews ... the question of synagogue attendance
rarely arises. They are unlikely ever to consider the matter, except
at Rosh Hashanha and
Yom Kippur or to attend a bar or bat mitzvah."
See also Samuel C. Heilman,
Synagogue Life, 1976.
* ^ "Erev
Yom Kippur – The purpose of the day as seen through
Talmudic anecdotes (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved March 25, 2011.
* ^ A B C Scherman, Nosson. "
Yom Kippur- Its Significance, Laws and
Prayers" New York: Mesorah Publications, 1989. Print
* ^ A B "Why Rabbis wear sneakers on their holiest day". "Article
by Avi Rabinowitz, NYU homepages"
* ^ Abrams, Judith.
Yom Kippur: A Family Service Minneapolis:
KAR-BEN, 1990. Print
* ^ "OU Customs for Erev
Yom Kippur". Retrieved September 21, 2008.
* ^ Translation of Philip Birnbaum, from High Holiday
Hebrew Publishing Company, NY, 1951
* ^ "Jewish Virtual Library —
Yom Kippur". Retrieved September
* ^ "Halacha L’Maaseh:
Yom Kippur". Retrieved September 20, 2015.
* ^ A B
Rabbi Daniel Kohn. "My Jewish Learning — Prayer
Services". Retrieved May 22, 2017.
* ^ Green,
David B. (September 26, 2011). "Lawrence A. Hoffman and
the message of Kol Nidre". Haaretz. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
* ^ The significance of shofar to
Yom Kippur is discussed at
"Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 2, 2009.
Retrieved July 4, 2009.
* ^ Maimonodes, Mishneh Torah, Laws of
* ^ "Rosh HaShanah and the Gregorian calendar". Oztorah.com.
Retrieved September 12, 2012.
* ^ Spiro,
Rabbi Ken. Crash Course in Jewish History Part 12 —
The Golden Calf. Aish Ha
Torah . accessed April 29, 2007
* ^ A B Arnold Lustiger, Michael Taubes,
Menachem Genack , and
Hershel Schachter , Kasirer Edition
Yom Kippur Machzor With Commentary
Adapted from the Teachings of
Joseph B. Soloveitchik
Joseph B. Soloveitchik . New York:
K'hal Publishing, 2006. pp. 588–589 (summary); 590–618.
* ^ "Sounds of The City".
Israel Insider . October 14, 2005.
Archived from the original on February 17, 2007.
* ^ "Poll: 73% of Israelis fast on
Yom Kippur". Ynet. September 13,
* ^ "Public Radio International, "The World", \'
Yom Kippur: Kids
and Bikes in Tel Aviv\'". Theworld.org. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
* ^ Solomvits, Sandor. "
Yom Kippur and Sandy Koufax".
JewishSports.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2006.
Retrieved August 2, 2010.
* ^ A B Peter Dreier. "How Will Jewish Ballplayers Handle the Yom
Kippur Quandry?". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
* ^ "Came
Yom Kippur: A
Hank Greenberg Poem". baseball-almanac.com.
Retrieved July 20, 2016.
* ^ "Green, Koufax and Greenberg – same dilemma, different
decisions". ESPN. September 26, 2001. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
* ^ Brown, M. Stephen. "One on One with Kevin Youkilis".
JewishSports.com. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved
June 4, 2009.
* ^ Gammons, Peter (September 29, 2001). "Apolitical blues". ESPN.
Retrieved March 18, 2010.
* ^ "Where Are They Now – Art Shamsky". Baseball Savvy. September
14, 2004. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
* ^ A B Hirsch, Deborah (December 27, 2010). "Gabe Carimi: Star in
shul and on the football field". JTA . Retrieved February 9, 2011.
* ^ Andrea Waxman (October 5, 2007). "
Yom Kippur, then football;
Carimi fasts and then tackles". The
Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle .
Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved February
* ^ Madeline Miller (December 17, 2010). "The Biggest Thing in
Jewish Sports? UW Gridiron Great Gabe Carimi". Hillel.org. Retrieved
March 18, 2011.
* ^ Chris McCoskey (February 25, 2011). "Combine Leftovers".
Detroit News. Archived from the original on July 9, 2011. Retrieved
March 2, 2011.
* ^ Craig Ellenport (February 24, 2011). "Why is this prospect
different from other prospects?". NFL.com. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
* ^ Ivan Maisel (September 27, 2004). "Bernstein feasted on Penn
State after fasting". ESPN.com. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
* ^ A B C Saval, Malina (October 14, 2011). "Golf / Israelis abroad
/ Beck follows in Koufax\'s footsteps". Haaretz. Retrieved September
* ^ Soclof, Adam (October 7, 2011). "The original
Sandy Koufax of
women\'s golf". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved September 17,
* ^ "Gelfand and Grischuk winners in 4th round London Grand Prix".
ChessVibes. Archived from the original on September 26, 2013.
Retrieved September 14, 2013.
* ^ "Israeli tennis players fined for sitting out
Yom Kippur". The
Times of Israel. 12 August 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
* ^ A B C D Tal Trachtman Alroy, CNN (19 December 2015). "U.N.
Yom Kippur as official holiday - CNN.com". CNN.
* ^ A B C D Singer, Isidore ; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "article
Jewish Encyclopedia . New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.
* ^ A B Cheyne and Black,
* ^ Leviticus 16:6 and Leviticus 16:6
* ^ Leviticus 16:2
Leviticus Rabbah 21
* ^ Leviticus 16:1, 16:3–4, 16:12–13, 16:34 (b)
* ^ Leviticus 16:29–34 (a)
* ^ Leviticus 23:27–31
* ^ Leviticus 16:5, 16:7–10, 16:14–28
* ^ Exodus 30:10, Leviticus 25:9
* ^ Leviticus 16:2, 16:6, 16:11
* ^ A B Singer, Isidore ; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Atonement,
Jewish Encyclopedia . New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.
Richard Elliott Friedman , Who wrote the Bible
* ^ Ezekiel 45:18–20
* ^ Leviticus 25:9
* ^ Ezekiel 40:1
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