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Yom Kippur (/jɔːm, joʊm, jɒm ˈkɪpər, kɪˈpʊər/;[1] Hebrew: יוֹם כִּיפּוּר‬, IPA: [ˈjom kiˈpuʁ], or יום הכיפורים‬), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.[2] Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jewish people traditionally observe this holy day with an approximate 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
and Yom Kippur

2.1 Heavenly books opened

3 Prayer
Prayer
service 4 Observance

4.1 Preceding day 4.2 General observances 4.3 Eve 4.4 Prayer
Prayer
services 4.5 Repentance (Teshuva) and confessional (Vidui) 4.6 Avodah: remembering the Temple service 4.7 Date of Yom Kippur

5 In the Torah

5.1 Midrashic interpretation

6 Mishnaic and Talmudic literature

6.1 Temple service

7 Observance in Israel 8 Observance by athletes 9 Related observances in other religions 10 Recognition by the United Nations 11 Modern scholarship 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit] Yom means "day" in Hebrew
Hebrew
and Kippur comes from a root that means "to atone", which is related to the biblical name of the covering of the Ark (called the kapporet).[3] Yom Kippur is usually expressed in English as "Day of Atonement". Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
and Yom Kippur[edit] Yom Kippur is "the tenth day of [the] seventh month"[4] (Tishrei) and is regarded as the "Sabbath of Sabbaths". Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
(referred to in the Torah
Torah
as Yom Teruah) is the first day of that month according to the Hebrew
Hebrew
calendar. On this day forgiveness of sins is also asked of God. Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism
Judaism
as the High Holy Days or Yamim Nora'im ("Days of Awe") that commences with Rosh Hashanah. Heavenly books opened[edit] According to Jewish tradition, God inscribes each person's fate for the coming year into a book, the Book of Life, on Rosh Hashanah, and waits until Yom Kippur to "seal" the verdict. During the Days of Awe, a Jew tries to amend his or her behavior and seek forgiveness for wrongs done against God (bein adam leMakom) and against other human beings (bein adam lechavero). The evening and day of Yom Kippur are set aside for public and private petitions and confessions of guilt (Vidui). At the end of Yom Kippur, one hopes that they have been forgiven by God. Prayer
Prayer
service[edit] The Yom Kippur prayer service includes several unique aspects. One is the actual number of prayer services. Unlike a regular day, which has three prayer services (Ma'ariv, the evening prayer; Shacharit, the morning prayer; and Mincha, the afternoon prayer), or a Shabbat
Shabbat
or Yom Tov, which have four prayer services (Ma'ariv; Shacharit; Mussaf, the additional prayer; and Mincha), Yom Kippur has five prayer services (Ma'ariv; Shacharit; Musaf; Mincha; and Ne'ilah, the closing prayer). The prayer services also include private and public confessions of sins (Vidui) and a unique prayer dedicated to the special Yom Kippur avodah (service) of the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol (high priest) in the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. Observance[edit] As one of the most culturally significant Jewish holidays, Yom Kippur is observed by many secular Jews
Jews
who may not observe other holidays. Many secular Jews
Jews
attend synagogue on Yom Kippur—for many secular Jews
Jews
the High Holy Days
High Holy Days
are the only times of the year during which they attend synagogue[5]—causing synagogue attendance to soar. Preceding day[edit] Erev Yom Kippur (lit. "eve [of] day [of] atonement") is the day preceding Yom Kippur, corresponding to the ninth day of the Hebrew month of Tishrei. This day is commemorated with additional morning prayers, asking others for forgiveness, giving charity, performing the kapparot ritual, an extended afternoon prayer service, and two festive meals.[6] General observances[edit] Leviticus 16:29 mandates establishment of this holy day on the 10th day of the 7th month as the day of atonement for sins. It calls it the Sabbath of Sabbaths and a day upon which one must afflict one's soul. Leviticus 23:27 decrees that Yom Kippur is a strict day of rest. Five additional prohibitions are traditionally observed, as detailed in the Jewish oral tradition ( Mishnah
Mishnah
tractate Yoma 8:1). The number five is a set number, relating to:

In the Yom Kippur section of the Torah, the word soul appears five times. The soul is known by five separate names: soul, wind, spirit, living one and unique one. Unlike regular days, which have three prayer services, Yom Kippur has five- Maariv, Shacharis, Mussaf, Minchah
Minchah
and Neilah The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol rinsed himself in the mikveh (ritual bath) five times on Yom Kippur.[7]

The traditions are as follows:

No eating and drinking No wearing of leather shoes No bathing or washing No anointing oneself with perfumes or lotions No marital relations

A parallel has been drawn between these activities and the human condition according to the Biblical account of the expulsion from the garden of Eden.[8] Refraining from these symbolically represents a return to a pristine state, which is the theme of the day. By refraining from these activities, the body is uncomfortable but can still survive. The soul is considered to be the life force in a body. Therefore, by making one’s body uncomfortable, one’s soul is uncomfortable.[8] By feeling pain one can feel how others feel when they are in pain.[9] This is the purpose of the prohibitions. Total abstention from food and drink as well as keeping the other traditions begins at sundown, and ends after nightfall the following day. One should add a few minutes to the beginning and end of the day, called tosefet Yom Kippur, lit. "addition to Yom Kippur". Although the fast is required of all healthy men over 13 or women over 12, it is waived in the case of certain medical conditions. Virtually all Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
involve meals, but since Yom Kippur involves fasting, Jewish law requires one to eat a large and festive meal on the afternoon before Yom Kippur, after the Mincha
Mincha
(afternoon) prayer. Wearing white clothing (or a kittel for Ashkenazi Jews), is traditional to symbolize one's purity on this day. Many Orthodox men immerse themselves in a mikveh on the day before Yom Kippur.[10] In order to apologize to God, one must:[7]

Pray Repent Give to charity

Eve[edit] Main article: Kol Nidre Before sunset on Yom Kippur eve, worshipers gather in the synagogue. The Ark is opened and two people take from it two Sifrei Torah
Torah
(Torah scrolls). Then they take their places, one on each side of the Hazzan, and the three recite (in Hebrew):

In the tribunal of Heaven and the tribunal of earth, we hold it lawful to pray with transgressors.

The cantor then chants the Kol Nidre
Kol Nidre
prayer (Aramaic: כל נדרי). This prayer is recited in Aramaic. Its name "Kol Nidre" is taken from the opening words, and translates "All vows":

All personal vows we are likely to make, all personal oaths and pledges we are likely to take between this Yom Kippur and the next Yom Kippur, we publicly renounce. Let them all be relinquished and abandoned, null and void, neither firm nor established. Let our personal vows, pledges and oaths be considered neither vows nor pledges nor oaths.[11]

The leader and the congregation then say together three times "May all the people of Israel
Israel
be forgiven, including all the strangers who live in their midst, for all the people are in fault." The Torah
Torah
scrolls are then placed back into the Ark, and the Yom Kippur evening service begins. Prayer
Prayer
services[edit] Some married Ashkenazi Orthodox men wear a kittel, a white robe-like garment for evening prayers on Yom Kippur, otherwise used by males on their wedding day.[12][13] They also wear a tallit (prayer shawl), which is typically worn only during morning services.[14] Prayer
Prayer
services begin with the Kol Nidrei
Kol Nidrei
prayer, which is recited before sunset. Kol Nidre
Kol Nidre
is a prayer that dates back to 9th century Palestine. It is recited in a dramatic manner, before the open ark, using a melody that dates back to the 16th century.[15] Then the service continues with the evening prayers (Ma'ariv or Arvit) and an extended Selichot
Selichot
service. The morning prayer service is preceded by litanies and petitions of forgiveness called selichot; on Yom Kippur, many selichot are woven into the liturgy of the mahzor (prayer book). The morning prayers are followed by an added prayer (Mussaf) as on all other holidays. This is followed by Mincha
Mincha
(the afternoon prayer) which includes a reading (Haftarah) of the entire Book of Jonah, which has as its theme the story of God's willingness to forgive those who repent. The service concludes with the Ne'ila ("closing") prayer, which begins shortly before sunset, when the "gates of prayer" will be closed. Yom Kippur comes to an end with a recitation of Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael
and the blowing of the shofar,[16] which marks the conclusion of the fast.[14]

Repentance in Judaism
Judaism
Teshuva "Return"

Repentance, atonement and higher ascent in Judaism

 

In the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

Altars · Korban Temple in Jerusalem Prophecy within the Temple

Aspects

Confession · Atonement Love of God · Awe of God Mystical approach Ethical approach Meditation · Services Torah
Torah
study Tzedakah · Mitzvot

In the Jewish calendar

Month of Elul · Selichot Rosh Hashanah Shofar · Tashlikh Ten Days of Repentance Kapparot · Mikveh Yom Kippur Sukkot · Simchat Torah Ta'anit · Tisha B'Av Passover · The Omer Shavuot

In contemporary Judaism

Baal Teshuva
Teshuva
movement Jewish Renewal · Musar movement

v t e

Repentance (Teshuva) and confessional (Vidui)[edit] The Talmud
Talmud
states, " Yom Kippur atones for those who repent and does not atone for those who do not repent".[17] Repentance in Judaism
Judaism
is done through a process called Teshuva, which in its most basic form consists of regretting having committed the sin, resolving not to commit that sin in the future and to confess that sin before God. Confession in Judaism
Judaism
is called Vidui ( Hebrew
Hebrew
וידוי). There is also a commandment to repent on Yom Kippur.[18] Accordingly, Yom Kippur is unique for the confessional, or Vidui, that is part of the prayer services. In keeping with the requirement to repent on Yom Kippur, Jews
Jews
recite the full Vidui a total of 9 times: once during Mincha
Mincha
on Yom Kippur eve, and on Yom Kippur itself during Ma'ariv (2 times), Shacharit (2 times), Musaf (2 times), and Mincha
Mincha
(2 times); at Ne’eilah, only the short confessional is said. The first time in each service takes place during the personal recitation of the Amidah (standing, silent prayer), and the second time during the cantor's repetition of the Amidah
Amidah
(except during the preceding Mincha), in a public recitation. The Yom Kippur confessional consists of two parts: a short confession beginning with the word Ashamnu (אשמנו, "we have sinned"), which is a series of words describing sin arranged according to the aleph-bet, and a long confession, beginning with the words Al Cheyt (על חטא, "for the sin"), which is a set of 22 double acrostics, also arranged according to the aleph-bet, enumerating a range of sins. It is notable that during the public recitation of Ashamnu together with the cantor, the entire congregation sings these words to a tune, representing the joy of being cleansed from one's sins. Avodah: remembering the Temple service[edit] A recitation of the sacrificial service of the Temple in Jerusalem traditionally features prominently in both the liturgy and the religious thought of the holiday. Specifically, the Avodah ("service") in the Musaf prayer recounts in great detail the sacrificial ceremonies of the Yom Kippur Korbanot (sacrificial offerings) that are recited in the prayers but have not been performed for 2,000 years, since the destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by the Romans. This traditional prominence is rooted in the Babylonian Talmud’s description of how to attain atonement following the destruction of the Temple. According to Talmud
Talmud
tractate Yoma, in the absence of a Temple, Jews
Jews
are obligated to study the High Priest’s ritual on Yom Kippur, and this study helps achieve atonement for those who are unable to benefit from its actual performance. In Orthodox Judaism, accordingly, studying the Temple ritual on Yom Kippur represents a positive rabbinically ordained obligation which Jews
Jews
seeking atonement are required to fulfill. In Orthodox synagogues and many Conservative ones a detailed description of the Temple ritual is recited on the day. In most Orthodox and some Conservative synagogues, the entire congregation prostrates themselves at each point in the recitation where the Kohen Gadol (High Priest) would pronounce the Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
(God’s holiest name, according to Judaism). The main section of the Avodah is a threefold recitation of the High Priest’s actions regarding expiation in the Holy of Holies. Performing the sacrificial acts and reciting Leviticus 16:30, ("Your upright children"). (These three times, plus in some congregations the Aleinu prayer during the Musaf Amidah
Amidah
on Yom Kippur and Rosh Hashanah, are the only times in Jewish services
Jewish services
when Jews
Jews
engage in prostration, with the exception of some Yemenite Jews
Jews
and talmedhei haRambam (disciples of Maimonides) who may prostrate themselves on other occasions during the year). A variety of liturgical poems are added, including a poem recounting the radiance of the countenance of the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol after exiting the Holy of Holies, traditionally believed to emit palpable light in a manner echoing the Torah's account of the countenance of Moses
Moses
after descending from Mount Sinai, as well as prayers for the speedy rebuilding of the Temple and the restoration of sacrificial worship. There are a variety of other customs, such as hand gestures to mime the sprinkling of blood (one sprinkling upwards and seven downwards per set of eight).[19] Orthodox liturgies include prayers lamenting the inability to perform the Temple service and petitioning for its restoration, which Conservative synagogues generally omit. In some Conservative synagogues, only the Hazzan
Hazzan
(cantor) engages in full prostration. Some Conservative synagogues abridge the recitation of the Avodah service to varying degrees, and some omit it entirely. Many Reform and Reconstructionist services omit the entire service as inconsistent with modern sensibilities. Date of Yom Kippur[edit] See also: Jewish and Israeli holidays 2000–2050 Yom Kippur falls each year on the 10th day of the Jewish month of Tishrei, which is 9 days after the first day of Rosh Hashanah. In terms of the Gregorian calendar, the earliest date on which Yom Kippur can fall is September 14, as happened in 1899 and 2013. The latest Yom Kippur can occur relative to the Gregorian dates is on October 14, as happened in 1967 and will happen again in 2043. After 2089, the differences between the Hebrew
Hebrew
calendar and the Gregorian calendar will result in Yom Kippur falling no earlier than September 15.[20] Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
dates for this year's and upcoming Yom Kippur holidays are:

2018 – Wednesday, September 19 2019 – Wednesday, October 9 2020 – Monday, September 28 2021 – Thursday, September 16 2022 – Wednesday, October 5

Note: Yom Kippur begins at sundown on the preceding day and ends at nightfall on the listed day. In the Torah[edit] The Torah
Torah
calls the day Yom HaKippurim (יוֹם הַכִּיפּוּרִים) and in it Leviticus 23:27 decrees a strict prohibition of work and affliction of the soul upon the tenth day of the seventh month, later known as Tishrei. The laws of Yom Kippur are mentioned in three passages in the Torah:

Leviticus 16:1–34: God told Moses
Moses
to tell Aaron
Aaron
that he can only enter the sanctuary in front of the cover that is on the ark when God is present on the cover in a cloud. If Aaron
Aaron
is to enter otherwise, he will die. On the tenth day of the seventh month, God said that the people must not work in order to cleanse and atone for their sins. The Kohen
Kohen
will lead in the atonement of all the people. Leviticus 23:26–32: God said to Moses
Moses
that the tenth day of the month is the day of atonement and will be holy. The people must give a fire-offering to God and must not work. God told Moses
Moses
that whoever does work, God will rid of the soul from its people. This is a day of complete rest from the evening of the ninth day of the month to the following evening. Numbers 29:7–11: The tenth day of the seventh month is a holy day and one must not work. For an elevation offering, one must sacrifice a young bull, a ram and seven lambs who are a year old. As well, for a sin offering, one must sacrifice a male goat.[7]

Midrashic interpretation[edit] Traditionally, Yom Kippur is considered the date on which Moses received the second set of Ten Commandments. It occurred following the completion of the second 40 days of instructions from God. At this same time, the Israelites
Israelites
were granted atonement for the sin of the Golden Calf; hence, its designation as the Day of Atonement.[21] Mishnaic and Talmudic literature[edit] Temple service[edit] The following summary of the Temple service is based on the traditional Jewish religious account described in Mishnah
Mishnah
tractate Yoma, appearing in contemporary traditional Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
books for Yom Kippur, and studied as part of a traditional Jewish Yom Kippur worship service.[19] While the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was standing (from Biblical times through 70 C.E.), the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol (High Priest) was mandated by the Torah
Torah
to perform a complex set of special services and sacrifices for Yom Kippur to attain Divine atonement, the word "kippur" meaning "atone" in Hebrew. These services were considered to be the most important parts of Yom Kippur because through them the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol made atonement for all Jews
Jews
and the world. During the service, the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol entered the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
in the center of the Temple, the only time of the year that anyone went inside. Doing so required special purification and preparation, including five immersions in a mikvah (ritual bath), and four changes of clothing. Seven days prior to Yom Kippur, the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol was sequestered in the Palhedrin chamber in the Temple, where he reviewed (studied) the service with the sages familiar with the Temple, and was sprinkled with spring water containing ashes of the Red Heifer
Red Heifer
as purification. The Talmud
Talmud
(Tractate Yoma) also reports that he practiced the incense offering ritual in the Avitnas chamber. On the day of Yom Kippur, the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol had to follow a precise order of services, sacrifices, and purifications:

Morning (Tamid) Offering The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol first performed the regular daily (Tamid) offering — usually performed by ordinary priests — in special golden garments, after immersing in a mikvah and washing his hands and feet. Garment Change 1 The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol immersed in a special mikvah in the Temple courtyard and changed into special linen garments, and washed his hands and feet twice, once after removing the golden garments and once before putting on the linen garments. Bull as Personal Sin-Offering The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol leaned (performed Semikha) and made a confession over the bull on behalf of himself and his household, pronouncing the Tetragrammaton. The people prostrated themselves when they heard. He then slaughtered the bull as a chatat (sin-offering) and received its blood in a bowl. Lottery of the goats At the Eastern (Nikanor) gate, the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol drew lots from a lottery box over two goats. One was selected "for the Lord", and one "for Azazel". The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol tied a red band around the horns of the goat "for Azazel". Incense
Incense
Preparation The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol ascended the mizbeach (altar) and took a shovel full of embers with a special shovel. He was brought incense. He filled his hands and placed it in a vessel. (The Talmud considered this the most physically difficult part of the service, as the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol had to keep the shovelful of glowing coals balanced and prevent its contents from dropping, using his armpit or teeth, while filling his hands with the incense). Incense
Incense
Offering Holding the shovel and the vessel, he entered the Kadosh Hakadashim, the Temple’s Holy of Holies. In the days of the First Temple, he placed the shovel between the poles of the Ark of the Covenant. In the days of the Second Temple, he put the shovel where the Ark would have been. He waited until the chamber filled with smoke and left. Sprinkling of Bull's Blood in the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol took the bowl with the bull’s blood and entered the Most Holy Place again. He sprinkled the bull’s blood with his finger eight times, before the Ark in the days of the First Temple, where it would have been in the days of the Second. The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol then left the Holy of Holies, putting the bowl on a stand in front of the Parochet
Parochet
(curtain separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies). Goat
Goat
for the Lord as Sin-Offering for Kohanim The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol went to the eastern end of the Israelite courtyard near the Nikanor Gate, laid his hands (semikha) on the goat "for the Lord", and pronounced confession on behalf of the Kohanim (priests). The people prostrated themselves when he pronounced the Tetragrammaton. He then slaughtered the goat, and received its blood in another bowl. Sprinkling of Goat’s Blood in the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol took the bowl with the goat’s blood and entered the Kadosh Hakadashim, the Temple’s Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
again. He sprinkled the goat’s blood with his finger eight times the same way he had sprinkled the bull’s blood. The blood was sprinkled before the Ark in the days of the First Temple, where it would have been in the days of the Second Temple. The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol then left the Kadosh Hakadashim, putting the bowl on a stand in front of the Parochet
Parochet
(curtain separating the Holy from the Holy of Holies). Sprinkling of blood in the Holy Standing in the Hekhal
Hekhal
(Holy), on the other side of the Parochet
Parochet
from the Holy of Holies, the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol took the bull's blood from the stand and sprinkled it with his finger eight times in the direction of the Parochet. He then took the bowl with the goat's blood and sprinkled it eight times in the same manner, putting it back on the stand. Smearing of blood on the Golden (Incense) Altar The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol removed the goat’s blood from the stand and mixed it with the bull's blood. Starting at the northeast corner, he then smeared the mixture of blood on each of the four corners of the Golden (Incense) altar in the Haichal. He then sprinkled the blood eight times on the altar.

Cliffs of Mount Azazel

Goat
Goat
for Azazel
Azazel
The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol left the Haichal and walked to the east side of the Azarah (Israelite courtyard). Near the Nikanor Gate, he leaned his hands (Semikha) on the goat "for Azazel" and confessed the sins of the entire people of Israel. The people prostrated themselves when he pronounced the Tetragrammaton. While he made a general confession, individuals in the crowd at the Temple would confess privately. The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol then sent the goat off "to the wilderness". In practice, to prevent its return to human habitation, the goat was led to a cliff outside Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and pushed off its edge. Preparation of sacrificial animals While the goat "for Azazel" was being led to the cliff, the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol removed the insides of the bull, and intertwined the bodies of the bull and goat. Other people took the bodies to the Beit HaDeshen (place of the ashes). They were burned there after it was confirmed that the goat "for Azazel" had reached the wilderness. Reading the Torah
Torah
After it was confirmed that the goat "for Azazel" had been pushed off the cliff, the Kohen
Kohen
Gadol passed through the Nikanor Gate into the Ezrat Nashim (Women’s Courtyard) and read sections of the Torah
Torah
describing Yom Kippur and its sacrifices. Garment change 2 The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol removed his linen garments, immersed in the mikvah in the Temple courtyard, and changed into a second set of special golden garments. He washed his hands and feet both before removing the linen garments and after putting on the golden ones. Offering of Rams The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol offered two rams as an olah offering, slaughtering them on the north side of the mizbeach (outer altar), receiving their blood in a bowl, carrying the bowl to the outer altar, and dashing the blood on the northeast and southwest corners of the Outer Altar. He dismembered the rams and burned the parts entirely on the outer altar. He then offered the accompanying mincha (grain) offerings and nesachim (wine-libations). Musaf Offering The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol then offered the Musaf offering. Burning of Innards The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol placed the insides of the bull and goat on the outer altar and burned them entirely. Garment change 3 The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol removed his golden garments, immersed in the mikvah, and changed to a new set of linen garments, again washing his hands and feet twice. Removal of Incense
Incense
from the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol returned to the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
and removed the bowl of incense and the shovel. Garment Change 4 The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol removed his linen garments, immersed in the mikvah, and changed into a third set of golden garments, again washing his hands and feet twice. Evening (Tamid) Offering The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol completed the afternoon portion of the regular (tamid) daily offering in the special golden garments. He washed his hands and feet a tenth time.

The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol wore five sets of garments (three golden and two white linen), immersed in the mikvah five times, and washed his hands and feet ten times. Sacrifices included two (daily) lambs, one bull, two goats, and two rams, with accompanying mincha (meal) offerings, wine libations, and three incense offerings (the regular two daily and an additional one for Yom Kippur). The Kohen
Kohen
Gadol entered the Holy of Holies three times. The Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
was pronounced three times, once for each confession.[19] Observance in Israel[edit]

Ayalon Highway
Ayalon Highway
in Tel Aviv, empty of cars on Yom Kippur 2004

Yom Kippur is a legal holiday in the modern state of Israel. There are no radio or television broadcasts, airports are shut down, there is no public transportation, and all shops and businesses are closed.[22] In 2013, 73% of the Jewish people of Israel
Israel
said that they were intending to fast on Yom Kippur.[23] It is very common in Israel
Israel
to wish "Tsom Kal" ([an] easy fast) or "Tsom Mo'il" ([a] benefiting fast) to everyone before Yom Kippur, even if one does not know whether they will fast or not. It is considered impolite to eat in public on Yom Kippur or to sound music or to drive a motor vehicle. There is no legal prohibition on any of these, but in practice such actions are universally[citation needed] avoided in Israel
Israel
during Yom Kippur, except for emergency services. Over the last few decades, bicycle-riding and inline skating on the empty streets have become common among secular Israeli youngsters, especially on the eve of Yom Kippur in Tel Aviv[24] and Israel
Israel
in general. In 1973, an air raid siren was sounded on the afternoon of Yom Kippur and radio broadcasts were resumed to alert the public to the surprise attack on Israel
Israel
by Egypt and Syria that launched the Yom Kippur War. Observance by athletes[edit]

Sandy Koufax

Gabe Carimi

Some notable athletes have observed Yom Kippur, even when it conflicted with their playing their sport. In baseball, Sandy Koufax, the Hall of Fame pitcher, decided not to pitch Game 1 of the 1965 World Series
1965 World Series
because it fell on Yom Kippur. Koufax garnered national attention for his decision, as an example of the conflict between social pressures and personal beliefs.[25] Hall of Fame first baseman Hank Greenberg
Hank Greenberg
attracted national attention in 1934, nearly three decades earlier, when he refused to play baseball on Yom Kippur, even though the Tigers were in the middle of a pennant race, and he was leading the league in RBIs.[26] The Detroit Free Press columnist and poet Edgar A. Guest
Edgar A. Guest
wrote a poem titled "Speaking of Greenberg", which ended with the lines "We shall miss him on the infield and shall miss him at the bat / But he's true to his religion—and I honor him for that."[27] When Greenberg arrived in synagogue on Yom Kippur, the service stopped suddenly, and the congregation gave an embarrassed Greenberg a standing ovation.[28] Former Los Angeles Dodgers
Los Angeles Dodgers
outfielder Shawn Green, similarly, made headlines in 2001 for sitting out a game for the first time in 415 games (then the longest streak among active players), to honor Yom Kippur, even though his team was in the middle of a playoff race.[26] Other baseball players who have similarly sat out games on Yom Kippur include former Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox
and New York Yankees
New York Yankees
third baseman Kevin Youkilis, former Houston Astros
Houston Astros
catcher and current Detroit Tigers manager Brad Ausmus, and outfielder Art Shamsky.[29][30][31] Gabe Carimi, the Consensus All-American left tackle in American football who won the 2010 Outland Trophy
Outland Trophy
as the nation's top collegiate interior lineman faced a conflict in his freshman year of college in 2007. That year Yom Kippur fell on a Saturday, and he fasted until an hour before his football game against Iowa started that night.[32][33][34] Carimi said, "Religion is a part of me, and I don't want to just say I'm Jewish. I actually do make sacrifices that I know are hard choices."[32][35][36] In 2004, Matt Bernstein, standout fullback at University of Wisconsin–Madison, fasted on Yom Kippur, then broke his fast on the sidelines before rushing for 123 yards in a game against Penn State.[37] In 2011, golfer Laetitia Beck
Laetitia Beck
declined a request to join the UNC Tar-Heels Invitational competition, because it conflicted with Yom Kippur.[38][39] Instead, she spent the day fasting and praying.[38] She said: "My Judaism
Judaism
is very important to me, and ... on Yom Kippur, no matter what, I have to fast."[38] Boris Gelfand, Israel's top chess player, played his game in the prestigious London Grand Prix Chess Tournament on 25 September 2012 (eve of Yom Kippur) earlier, to avoid playing on the holiday.[40] In 2013, the International Tennis Federation
International Tennis Federation
fined the Israel
Israel
Tennis Association "more than $13,000 ... for the inconvenience" of having to reschedule a tennis match between the Israeli and Belgian teams that was originally scheduled on Yom Kippur.[41][42] Dudi Sela, Israel's # 1 player, quit his quarterfinal match in the third set of the 2017 Shenzhen Open so he could begin observing Yom Kippur by the time the sun set, forfeiting a possible $34,000 in prize money and 90 rankings points.[43][44] Related observances in other religions[edit] Messianic Jews
Jews
and some other sabbatarian churches also observe Yom Kippur as a holy day, from evening to evening. In the Christian observance, it is a time of prayer and fasting from all food and drink and a time of instruction through study and church attendance. It focuses on Christ's sacrifice and atonement for sins. It is seen as a time to give thanks and praise, to humble oneself and to seek repentance. It is also a time where Messianic Jews
Jews
pray for Israel
Israel
and Jews
Jews
who have not yet proclaimed Yeshua/Jesus is the Messiah that was promised in prophesies from the Old Testament.[relevant? – discuss][citation needed] Recognition by the United Nations[edit] Starting 2016 the United Nations
United Nations
officially recognizes Yom Kippur, stating that from then on no official meetings would take place on the day.[45] As well, the United Nations
United Nations
stated that, beginning in 2016, they would have nine official holidays and seven floating holidays which each employee would be able to choose one of.[45] It stated that the floating holidays will be Yom Kippur, Day of Vesak, Diwali, Gurpurab, Orthodox Christmas, Orthodox Good Friday, and Presidents' Day.[45] This was the first time the United Nations
United Nations
officially recognized any Jewish holiday.[45] Modern scholarship[edit] According to textual scholars, the biblical regulations covering Yom Kippur are spliced together from multiple source texts,[46][47] as indicated by evidence such as with the duplication of the confession over the bullock,[48] and the incongruity in one verse stating that the high priest should not enter the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
(with the inference that there are exceptions for certain explicitly identified festivals),[49] and the next verse indicating that they can enter whenever they wish (as long as a specific ritual is carried out first).[46] Although Rashi
Rashi
tried to find a harmonistic explanation for this incongruity, the Leviticus Rabbah
Leviticus Rabbah
maintains that it was indeed the case that the high priest could enter at any time if these rituals were carried out.[50] Textual scholars argue that the ritual is composed from three sources, and a couple of redactional additions:[46][47]

prerequisite rituals before the high priest can enter the Holy of Holies (on any occasion), namely a sin offering and a whole offering, followed by the filling of the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
with a cloud of incense while wearing linen garments[51] regulations which establish an annual day of fasting and rest, during which the sanctuary and people are purified, without stating the ritual for doing so;[52] this regulation is very similar to the one in the Holiness Code[53] later elaborations of the ceremony,[54] which include the sprinkling of the blood on the mercy seat, and the use of a scapegoat sent to Azazel; the same source also being responsible for small alterations to related regulations[55] the redactional additions[56]

On the basis of their assumptions, these scholars believe that the original ceremony was simply the ritual purification of the sanctuary from any accidental ritual impurity, at the start of each new year, as seen in the Book of Ezekiel. Textual scholars date this original ceremony to before the priestly source, but after JE.[57][58] According to the Book of Ezekiel, the sanctuary was to be cleansed by the sprinkling of bullock's blood, on the first day of the first and of the seventh months[59] — near the start of the civil year and of the ecclesiastical year, respectively; although the masoretic text of the Book of Ezekiel
Book of Ezekiel
has the second of these cleansings on the seventh of the first month, biblical scholars regard the Septuagint, which has the second cleaning as being the first of the seventh month, as being more accurate here.[57] It appears that during the period that the Holiness Code and the Book of Ezekiel
Book of Ezekiel
were written, the new year began on the tenth day of the seventh month,[60][61] and thus liberal biblical scholars believe that by the time the Priestly Code was compiled, the date of the new year and of the day of atonement had swapped around.[46] See also[edit]

Break fast

References[edit]

^ " Yom Kippur". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ It can be argued that the weekly Sabbath (Shabbat) is holier. See Shabbat
Shabbat
(Status as a holy day). ^ Propitiation, Easton's Bible Dictionary ^ Numbers 29:7 ^ Cohen, S.M., Eisen, A.M.: The Jew within: self, family, and community in America, page 169. Indiana University Press, 2000. "For completely uninvolved Jews
Jews
... the question of synagogue attendance rarely arises. They are unlikely ever to consider the matter, except at Rosh Hashanha and Yom Kippur or to attend a bar or bat mitzvah." See also Samuel C. Heilman, Synagogue
Synagogue
Life, 1976. ^ "Erev Yom Kippur – The purpose of the day as seen through Talmudic anecdotes (PDF)" (PDF). Retrieved March 25, 2011.  ^ a b c Scherman, Nosson. " Yom Kippur- Its Significance, Laws and Prayers" New York: Mesorah Publications, 1989. Print ^ a b "Why Rabbis wear sneakers on their holiest day". "Article by Avi Rabinowitz, NYU homepages" ^ Abrams, Judith. Yom Kippur: A Family Service Minneapolis: KAR-BEN, 1990. Print ^ "OU Customs for Erev Yom Kippur". Retrieved September 21, 2008.  ^ Translation of Philip Birnbaum, from High Holiday Prayer
Prayer
Book', Hebrew
Hebrew
Publishing Company, NY, 1951 ^ "Jewish Virtual Library — Yom Kippur". Retrieved September 21, 2008.  ^ "Halacha L'Maaseh: Yom Kippur". Retrieved September 20, 2015.  ^ a b Rabbi
Rabbi
Daniel Kohn. "My Jewish Learning — Prayer
Prayer
Services". Retrieved May 22, 2017.  ^ Green, David
David
B. (September 26, 2011). "Lawrence A. Hoffman and the message of Kol Nidre". Haaretz. Retrieved September 14, 2013.  ^ The significance of shofar to Yom Kippur is discussed at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 2, 2009. Retrieved July 4, 2009.  ^ Yoma 85b. ^ Maimonodes, Mishneh Torah, Laws of Teshuva
Teshuva
2:7 ^ a b c Arnold Lustiger, Michael Taubes, Menachem Genack, and Hershel Schachter, Kasirer Edition Yom Kippur Machzor With Commentary Adapted from the Teachings of Rabbi
Rabbi
Joseph B. Soloveitchik. New York: K'hal Publishing, 2006. pp. 588–589 (summary); 590–618. ^ "Rosh HaShanah and the Gregorian calendar". Oztorah.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.  ^ Spiro, Rabbi
Rabbi
Ken. Crash Course in Jewish History Part 12 — The Golden Calf. Aish HaTorah. accessed April 29, 2007 ^ "Sounds of The City". Israel
Israel
Insider. October 14, 2005. Archived from the original on February 17, 2007.  ^ "Poll: 73% of Israelis fast on Yom Kippur". Ynet. September 13, 2013.  ^ "Public Radio International, "The World", ' Yom Kippur: Kids and Bikes in Tel Aviv'". Theworld.org. Retrieved 7 March 2015.  ^ Solomvits, Sandor. " Yom Kippur and Sandy Koufax". JewishSports.com. Archived from the original on October 18, 2006. Retrieved August 2, 2010.  ^ a b Peter Dreier. "How Will Jewish Ballplayers Handle the Yom Kippur Quandry?[sic]". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved September 14, 2013.  ^ "Came Yom Kippur: A Hank Greenberg
Hank Greenberg
Poem". baseball-almanac.com. Retrieved July 20, 2016.  ^ "Green, Koufax and Greenberg – same dilemma, different decisions". ESPN. September 26, 2001. Retrieved March 25, 2011.  ^ Brown, M. Stephen. "One on One with Kevin Youkilis". JewishSports.com. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved June 4, 2009.  ^ Gammons, Peter (September 29, 2001). "Apolitical blues". ESPN. Retrieved March 18, 2010.  ^ "Where Are They Now – Art Shamsky". Baseball Savvy. September 14, 2004. Retrieved September 10, 2010.  ^ a b Hirsch, Deborah (December 27, 2010). "Gabe Carimi: Star in shul and on the football field". JTA. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ Andrea Waxman (October 5, 2007). " Yom Kippur, then football; Carimi fasts and then tackles". The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ Madeline Miller (December 17, 2010). "The Biggest Thing in Jewish Sports? UW Gridiron Great Gabe Carimi". Hillel.org. Retrieved March 18, 2011.  ^ Chris McCoskey (February 25, 2011). "Combine Leftovers". Detroit News. Archived from the original on July 9, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2011.  ^ Craig Ellenport (February 24, 2011). "Why is this prospect different from other prospects?". NFL.com. Retrieved March 2, 2011.  ^ Ivan Maisel (September 27, 2004). "Bernstein feasted on Penn State after fasting". ESPN.com. Retrieved October 7, 2011.  ^ a b c Saval, Malina (October 14, 2011). "Golf / Israelis abroad / Beck follows in Koufax's footsteps". Haaretz. Retrieved September 17, 2013.  ^ Soclof, Adam (October 7, 2011). "The original Sandy Koufax
Sandy Koufax
of women's golf". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved September 17, 2013.  ^ "Gelfand and Grischuk winners in 4th round London Grand Prix". ChessVibes. Archived from the original on September 26, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013.  ^ "Israeli tennis players fined for sitting out Yom Kippur". The Times of Israel. 12 August 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2015. ^ http://www.hebrew4christians.com/Holidays/Fall_Holidays/Yom_Kippur/yom_kippur.html ^ [1] ^ [2] ^ a b c d Tal Trachtman Alroy, CNN (19 December 2015). "U.N. recognizes Yom Kippur as official holiday - CNN.com". CNN.  ^ a b c d  Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "article name needed". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.  ^ a b Cheyne and Black, Encyclopedia Biblica ^ Leviticus 16:6 and Leviticus 16:6 ^ Leviticus 16:2 ^ Leviticus Rabbah
Leviticus Rabbah
21 ^ Leviticus 16:1, 16:3–4, 16:12–13, 16:34 (b) ^ Leviticus 16:29–34 (a) ^ Leviticus 23:27–31 ^ Leviticus 16:5, 16:7–10, 16:14–28 ^ Exodus 30:10, Leviticus 25:9 ^ Leviticus 16:2, 16:6, 16:11 ^ a b  Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Atonement, Day of". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company.  else--> ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, Who wrote the Bible ^ Ezekiel 45:18–20 ^ Leviticus 25:9 ^ Ezekiel 40:1

External links[edit]

Look up Yom Kippur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yom Kippur.

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
and Yom Kippur Prayers for Sephardic Jews From Our Collections: Marking the New Year – Online exhibition from Yad Vashem on the celebration of Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
and Yom Kippur before, during, and after the Holocaust Dates for Yom Kippur

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