HOME
The Info List - Yoga


--- Advertisement ---



Yoga
Yoga
(/ˈjoʊɡə/;[1] Sanskrit, योगः, pronunciation) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. There is a broad variety of yoga schools, practices, and goals[2] in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.[3][4][5] Among the most well-known types of yoga are Hatha yoga and Rāja yoga.[6] The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions; it is mentioned in the Rigveda,[note 1] but most likely developed around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE,[8] in ancient India's ascetic and śramaṇa movements.[9][note 2] The chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Hindu
Hindu
Upanishads.[10] The Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
date from the first half of the 1st millennium CE,[11][12] but only gained prominence in the West in the 20th century.[13] Hatha yoga texts emerged around the 11th century with origins in tantra.[14][15] Yoga
Yoga
gurus from India
India
later introduced yoga to the West,[16] following the success of Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
in the late 19th and early 20th century.[16] In the 1980s, yoga became popular as a system of physical exercise across the Western world.[15] Yoga
Yoga
in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise; it has a meditative and spiritual core.[17] One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is also called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, and is closely related to Hindu
Hindu
Samkhya
Samkhya
philosophy.[18] Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia, asthma, and heart disease.[19][20] The results of these studies have been mixed and inconclusive.[19][20] On December 1, 2016, yoga was listed by UNESCO
UNESCO
as an Intangible cultural heritage.[21]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Definition in classic Indian texts 3 Goals 4 Schools

4.1 Hinduism

4.1.1 Classical yoga 4.1.2 Ashtanga yoga 4.1.3 Hatha yoga 4.1.4 Shaivism

4.2 Buddhism 4.3 Jainism 4.4 Tantra

5 History

5.1 Pre-Vedic India 5.2 Vedic period
Vedic period
(1700–500 BCE)

5.2.1 Textual references 5.2.2 Vedic ascetic practices

5.3 Preclassical era (500–200 BCE)

5.3.1 Upanishads 5.3.2 Sutras of Hindu
Hindu
philosophies 5.3.3 Macedonian historical texts 5.3.4 Early Buddhist texts 5.3.5 Uncertainty with chronology 5.3.6 Bhagavad Gita 5.3.7 Mahabharata

5.4 Classical era (200 BCE – 500 CE)

5.4.1 Classical yoga

5.4.1.1 Samkhya 5.4.1.2 Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali 5.4.1.3 Yoga
Yoga
and Vedanta

5.4.2 Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya 5.4.3 Jainism 5.4.4 Yogacara
Yogacara
school

5.5 Middle Ages (500–1500 CE)

5.5.1 Bhakti
Bhakti
movement 5.5.2 Tantra

5.5.2.1 Vajrayana
Vajrayana
or Tibetan Buddhism

5.5.3 Zen
Zen
Buddhism 5.5.4 Hatha Yoga 5.5.5 Sikhism

6 Modern history

6.1 Reception in the West

7 Health effects

7.1 Adults 7.2 Physical injuries

7.2.1 Children

8 Reception in other religions

8.1 Christianity 8.2 Islam

9 International Day of Yoga 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Sources

13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology

Statue of Shiva
Shiva
in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, performing yogic meditation in the Padmasana posture.

In Sanskrit, the word yoga comes from the root yuj which means "to add", "to join", "to unite", or "to attach" in its most common senses; as such. By figurative extension from the yoking or harnessing of oxen or horses (cf. English yoke and Latin iugum/jugum), the word took on broader meanings such as "employment, use, application, performance" (compare the figurative uses of "to harness" as in "to put something to some use"). All further developments of the sense of this word are post-Vedic. More prosaic moods such as "exertion", "endeavour", "zeal", and "diligence" are also found in Indian epic poetry.[22] There are very many compound words containing yoga in Sanskrit. Yoga can take on meanings such as "connection", "contact", "union", "method", "application", "addition" and "performance". In simpler words, Yoga
Yoga
also means "combined". For example, guṇáyoga means "contact with a cord"; chakráyoga has a medical sense of "applying a splint or similar instrument by means of pulleys (in case of dislocation of the thigh)"; chandráyoga has the astronomical sense of "conjunction of the moon with a constellation"; puṃyoga is a grammatical term expressing "connection or relation with a man", etc. Thus, bhaktiyoga means "devoted attachment" in the monotheistic Bhakti movement. The term kriyāyoga has a grammatical sense, meaning "connection with a verb". But the same compound is also given a technical meaning in the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras (2.1), designating the "practical" aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the "union with the supreme" due to performance of duties in everyday life[23] According to Pāṇini, a 6th-century BCE Sanskrit
Sanskrit
grammarian, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga (to yoke) or yuj samādhau (to concentrate).[24] In the context of the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali, the root yuj samādhau (to concentrate) is considered by traditional commentators as the correct etymology.[25] In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa
Vyasa
who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras,[26] states that yoga means samādhi (concentration).[27] According to Dasgupta, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga (to yoke) or yuj samādhau (to concentrate).[24] Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi (may be applied to a man or a woman) or yogini (traditionally denoting a woman).[28] Definition in classic Indian texts The term yoga has been defined in various ways in the many different Indian philosophical and religious traditions.

Source Text Definition of Yoga[29]

Katha Upanishad "When the five senses, along with the mind, remain still and the intellect is not active, that is known as the highest state. They consider yoga to be firm restraint of the senses. Then one becomes un-distracted for yoga is the arising and the passing away" (6.10-11)

Bhagavad Gita " Yoga
Yoga
is said to be equanimity" (2.48); " Yoga
Yoga
is skill in action" (2.50); "Know that which is called yoga to be separation from contact with suffering" (6.23).

Yogacarabhumi - Sravakabhumi " Yoga
Yoga
is fourfold: faith, aspiration, perseverance and means" (2.152)

Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali " Yoga
Yoga
is the suppression of the activities of the mind" (1.2)

Vaisesika sutra "Pleasure and suffering arise as a result of the drawing together of the sense organs, the mind and objects. When that does not happen because the mind is in the self, there is no pleasure or suffering for one who is embodied. That is yoga" (5.2.15-16)

Kaundinya's Pancarthabhasya on the Pasupatasutra "In this system, yoga is the union of the self and the Lord" (I.I.43)

Linga Purana "By the word 'yoga' is meant nirvana, the condition of Siva." (I.8.5a)

Brahmasutra-bhasya of Adi Shankara "It is said in the treatises on yoga: ' Yoga
Yoga
is the means of perceiving reality." (2.1.3)

Yogabija "The union of apana and prana, one's own rajas and semen, the sun and moon, the individual soul and the supreme soul, and in the same way the union of all dualities, is called yoga. " (89)

Goals The ultimate goal of Yoga
Yoga
is moksha (liberation), although the exact definition of what form this takes depends on the philosophical or theological system with which it is conjugated. According to Jacobsen, " Yoga
Yoga
has five principal meanings:[30]

Yoga, as a disciplined method for attaining a goal; Yoga, as techniques of controlling the body and the mind; Yoga, as a name of one of the schools or systems of philosophy (darśana); Yoga, in connection with other words, such as "hatha-, mantra-, and laya-," referring to traditions specialising in particular techniques of yoga; Yoga, as the goal of Yoga
Yoga
practice."[30]

According to David Gordon White, from the 5th century CE onward, the core principles of "yoga" were more or less in place, and variations of these principles developed in various forms over time:[31]

Yoga, is a meditative means of discovering dysfunctional perception and cognition, as well as overcoming it for release from suffering, inner peace and salvation; illustration of this principle is found in Hindu
Hindu
texts such as the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and Yogasutras, in a number of Buddhist Mahāyāna works, as well as Jain texts;[32] Yoga, as the raising and expansion of consciousness from oneself to being coextensive with everyone and everything; these are discussed in sources such as in Hinduism
Hinduism
Vedic literature and its Epic Mahābhārata, Jainism
Jainism
Praśamaratiprakarana, and Buddhist Nikaya texts;[33] Yoga, as a path to omniscience and enlightened consciousness enabling one to comprehend the impermanent (illusive, delusive) and permanent (true, transcendent) reality; examples are found in Hinduism
Hinduism
Nyaya
Nyaya
and Vaisesika school texts as well as Buddhism
Buddhism
Mādhyamaka texts, but in different ways;[34] Yoga, as a technique for entering into other bodies, generating multiple bodies, and the attainment of other supernatural accomplishments; these are, states White, described in Tantric literature of Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism, as well as the Buddhist Sāmaññaphalasutta;[35] James Mallinson, however, disagrees and suggests that such fringe practices are far removed from the mainstream Yoga's goal as meditation-driven means to liberation in Indian religions.[36]

White clarifies that the last principle relates to legendary goals of "yogi practice", different from practical goals of "yoga practice," as they are viewed in South Asian thought and practice since the beginning of the Common Era, in the various Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain philosophical schools.[37] Schools The term "yoga" has been applied to a variety of practices and methods, including Jain and Buddhist practices. In Hinduism
Hinduism
these include Jnana Yoga, Bhakti
Bhakti
Yoga, Karma
Karma
Yoga, Laya Yoga
Yoga
and Hatha Yoga. The so-called Raja Yoga
Raja Yoga
refers to Ashtanga Yoga, the eight limbs to be practiced to attain samadhi, as described in the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Pantajali.[38] The term raja yoga originally referred to the ultimate goal of yoga, which is usually samadhi,[39] but was popularised by Vivekananda as the common name for Ashtanga Yoga.[40] Hinduism Classical yoga Yoga
Yoga
is considered as a philosophical school in Hinduism.[41] Yoga, in this context, is one of the six āstika schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
(those which accept the Vedas
Vedas
as source of knowledge).[42][43] Due to the influence of Vivekananda, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
are nowadays considered as the foundational scripture of classical yoga, a status which it only acquired in the 20th century.[40] Before the twentieth century, other works were considered as the most central works, such as the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and the Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha,[40] while Tantric Yoga
Yoga
and Hatha Yoga
Yoga
prevailed over Ashtanga Yoga.[40] Ashtanga yoga Main articles: Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
and Rāja yoga

Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
equated raja yoga with the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali.[44]

Yoga
Yoga
as described in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
refers to Ashtanga yoga.[40] The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
is considered as a central text of the Yoga
Yoga
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy,[45] It is often called "Rāja yoga", "yoga of the kings," a term which originally referred to the ultimate, royal goal of yoga, which is usually samadhi,[39] but was popularised by Vivekananda as the common name for Ashtanga Yoga.[40] Ashtanga yoga incorporates epistemology, metaphysics, ethical practices, systematic exercises and self-development techniques for body, mind and spirit.[46] Its epistemology (pramanas) is same as the Samkhya
Samkhya
school. Both accept three reliable means to knowledge – perception (pratyākṣa, direct sensory observations), inference (anumāna) and testimony of trustworthy experts (sabda, agama). Both these orthodox schools are also strongly dualistic. Unlike the Sāṃkhya school of Hinduism, which pursues a non-theistic/atheistic rationalist approach,[47][48] the Yoga
Yoga
school of Hinduism
Hinduism
accepts the concept of a "personal, yet essentially inactive, deity" or "personal god".[49][50] Along with its epistemology and metaphysical foundations, the Yoga
Yoga
school of Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
incorporates ethical precepts (yamas and niyamas) and an introspective way of life focused on perfecting one's self physically, mentally and spiritually, with the ultimate goal being kaivalya (liberated, unified, content state of existence).[46][51][52] Hatha yoga Main article: Hatha yoga

A sculpture of Gorakshanath, a celebrated 11th century yogi of Nath tradition and a major proponent of Hatha yoga.[53]

Hatha yoga, also called hatha vidyā, is a kind of yoga focusing on physical and mental strength building exercises and postures described primarily in three texts of Hinduism:[54][55][56]

Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika, Svātmārāma
Svātmārāma
(15th century) Shiva
Shiva
Samhita, author unknown (1500[57] or late 17th century) Gheranda Samhita
Gheranda Samhita
by Gheranda (late 17th century)

Many scholars also include the preceding Goraksha Samhita
Samhita
authored by Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
of the 11th century in the above list.[54] Gorakshanath is widely considered to have been responsible for popularizing hatha yoga as we know it today.[58][59][60] Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism, founded by the Indian Mahasiddhas,[61] has a series of asanas and pranayamas, such as tummo (Sanskrit caṇḍālī)[62] and trul khor which parallel hatha yoga. Shaivism Main articles: Shaivism, Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta, and Nath In Shaivism, yoga is used to unite kundalini with Shiva.[63] See also 'tantra' below. Buddhism Main articles: Buddhist meditation, Dhyāna in Buddhism, Yogacara, and Vajrayana

16th century Buddhist artwork in Yoga
Yoga
posture.

Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation
encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that aim to develop mindfulness, concentration, supramundane powers, tranquility, and insight. Core techniques have been preserved in ancient Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
and have proliferated and diversified through teacher-student transmissions. Buddhists pursue meditation as part of the path toward Enlightenment and Nirvana.[note 3] The closest words for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism
Buddhism
are bhāvanā[note 4] and jhāna/dhyāna.[note 5] Jainism Main article: Jain meditation Jain meditation
Jain meditation
has been the central practice of spirituality in Jainism
Jainism
along with the Three Jewels.[64] Meditation
Meditation
in Jainism
Jainism
aims at realizing the self, attain salvation, take the soul to complete freedom.[65] It aims to reach and to remain in the pure state of soul which is believed to be pure conscious, beyond any attachment or aversion. The practitioner strives to be just a knower-seer (Gyata-Drashta). Jain meditation
Jain meditation
can be broadly categorized to the auspicious Dharmya Dhyana and Shukla Dhyana and inauspicious Artta and Raudra Dhyana.[citation needed] Tantra Main articles: Tantra, Yogi, and Siddhi Samuel states that Tantrism
Tantrism
is a contested concept.[66] Tantra
Tantra
yoga may be described, according to Samuel, as practices in 9th to 10th century Buddhist and Hindu
Hindu
(Saiva, Shakti) texts, which included yogic practices with elaborate deity visualizations using geometrical arrays and drawings (mandala), fierce male and particularly female deities, transgressive life stage related rituals, extensive use of chakras and mantras, and sexual techniques, all aimed to help one's health, long life and liberation.[66][67] History The origins of yoga are a matter of debate.[68] There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization (3300–1900 BCE)[69] and pre-Vedic Eastern states of India,[70] the Vedic period
Vedic period
(1500–500 BCE), and the śramaṇa movement.[71] According to Gavin Flood, continuities may exist between those various traditions:

[T]his dichotomization is too simplistic, for continuities can undoubtedly be found between renunciation and vedic Brahmanism, while elements from non-Brahmanical, Sramana
Sramana
traditions also played an important part in the formation of the renunciate ideal.[72][note 6]

Pre-philosophical speculations of yoga begin to emerge in the texts of c. 500–200 BCE. Between 200 BCE–500 CE philosophical schools of Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
were taking form and a coherent philosophical system of yoga began to emerge.[74] The Middle Ages saw the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Yoga
Yoga
came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid 19th century along with other topics of Indian philosophy. Pre-Vedic India Main article: Indus Valley Civilization Yoga
Yoga
may have pre-Vedic elements.[69][70] Some state yoga originated in the Indus Valley Civilization.[75] Marshall,[76] Eliade[10] and other scholars suggest that the Pashupati seal
Pashupati seal
discovered in Indus Valley Civilization sites depict figures in positions resembling a common yoga or meditation pose. This interpretation is considered speculative and uncertain by more recent analysis of Srinivasan[10] and may be a case of projecting "later practices into archeological findings".[77] Vedic period
Vedic period
(1700–500 BCE) Main article: Vedic period According to Crangle, some researchers have favoured a linear theory, which attempts "to interpret the origin and early development of Indian contemplative practices as a sequential growth from an Aryan genesis",[78][note 7] just like traditional Hinduism
Hinduism
regards the Vedas to be the ultimate source of all spiritual knowledge.[79][note 8] Thomas McEvilley favors a composite model where pre-Aryan yoga prototype existed in the pre- Vedic period
Vedic period
and its refinement began in the Vedic period.[82] Ascetic practices, concentration and bodily postures described in the Vedas
Vedas
may have been precursors to yoga.[83][84] According to Geoffrey Samuel, "Our best evidence to date suggests that [yogic] practices developed in the same ascetic circles as the early sramana movements (Buddhists, Jainas and Ajivikas), probably in around the sixth and fifth centuries BCE."[9] According to Zimmer, Yoga
Yoga
philosophy is reckoned to be part of the non-Vedic system, which also includes the Samkhya
Samkhya
school of Hindu philosophy, Jainism
Jainism
and Buddhism:[70] "[Jainism] does not derive from Brahman-Aryan sources, but reflects the cosmology and anthropology of a much older pre-Aryan upper class of northeastern India
India
[Bihar] – being rooted in the same subsoil of archaic metaphysical speculation as Yoga, Sankhya, and Buddhism, the other non-Vedic Indian systems."[85][note 9] Textual references The first use of the root of word "yoga" is in hymn 5.81.1 of the Rig Veda, a dedication to rising Sun-god in the morning (Savitri), where it has been interpreted as "yoke" or "yogically control".[88][89][note 10] The earliest evidence of Yogis and Yoga
Yoga
tradition is found in the Keśin hymn 10.136 of the Rigveda, states Karel Werner.[7]

The Yogis of Vedic times left little evidence of their existence, practices and achievements. And such evidence as has survived in the Vedas
Vedas
is scanty and indirect. Nevertheless, the existence of accomplished Yogis in Vedic times cannot be doubted. — Karel Werner, Yoga
Yoga
and the Ṛg Veda[7]

Rigveda, however, does not describe yoga and there is little evidence as to what the practices were.[7] Early references to practices that later became part of yoga, are made in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, the earliest Hindu
Hindu
Upanishad.[note 11] For example, the practice of pranayama (consciously regulating breath) is mentioned in hymn 1.5.23 of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
(c. 900 BCE), and the practice of pratyahara (concentrating all of one's senses on self) is mentioned in hymn 8.15 of Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
(c. 800–700 BCE).[92][note 12] Vedic ascetic practices Ascetic practices (tapas), concentration and bodily postures used by Vedic priests to conduct yajna (sacrifice), might have been precursors to yoga.[note 13] Vratya, a group of ascetics mentioned in the Atharvaveda, emphasized on bodily postures which may have evolved into yogic asanas.[83] Early Samhitas also contain references to other group ascetics such as munis, the keśin, and vratyas.[95] Techniques for controlling breath and vital energies are mentioned in the Brahmanas (texts of the Vedic corpus, c. 1000–800 BCE) and the Atharvaveda.[83][96] Nasadiya Sukta
Nasadiya Sukta
of the Rig Veda
Rig Veda
suggests the presence of an early contemplative tradition.[note 14] Preclassical era (500–200 BCE) Yoga
Yoga
concepts begin to emerge in the texts of c. 500–200 BCE such as the Pali Canon, the middle Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and Shanti Parva of the Mahabharata.[99][note 15] Upanishads The first known appearance of the word "yoga", with the same meaning as the modern term, is in the Katha Upanishad,[10][102] probably composed between the fifth and third century BCE,[103][104] where it is defined as the steady control of the senses, which along with cessation of mental activity, leading to a supreme state.[95][note 16] Katha Upanishad
Katha Upanishad
integrates the monism of early Upanishads
Upanishads
with concepts of samkhya and yoga. It defines various levels of existence according to their proximity to the innermost being Ātman. Yoga
Yoga
is therefore seen as a process of interiorization or ascent of consciousness.[106][107] It is the earliest literary work that highlights the fundamentals of yoga. White states:

The earliest extant systematic account of yoga and a bridge from the earlier Vedic uses of the term is found in the Hindu
Hindu
Katha Upanisad (Ku), a scripture dating from about the third century BCE[…] [I]t describes the hierarchy of mind-body constituents—the senses, mind, intellect, etc.—that comprise the foundational categories of Sāmkhya philosophy, whose metaphysical system grounds the yoga of the Yogasutras, Bhagavad Gita, and other texts and schools (Ku3.10–11; 6.7–8).[108]

The hymns in Book
Book
2 of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, another late first millennium BCE text, states a procedure in which the body is held in upright posture, the breath is restrained and mind is meditatively focussed, preferably inside a cave or a place that is simple, plain, of silence or gently flowing water, with no noises nor harsh winds.[109][107] The Maitrayaniya Upanishad, likely composed in a later century than Katha and Shvetashvatara Upanishads
Upanishads
but before Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
Sutra, mentions sixfold yoga method – breath control (pranayama), introspective withdrawal of senses (pratyahara), meditation (dhyana), mind concentration (dharana), philosophical inquiry/creative reasoning (tarka), and absorption/intense spiritual union (samadhi).[10][107][110] In addition to the Yoga
Yoga
discussion in above Principal Upanishads, twenty Yoga
Yoga
Upanishads
Upanishads
as well as related texts such as Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha, composed in 1st and 2nd millennium CE, discuss Yoga
Yoga
methods.[111][112] Sutras of Hindu
Hindu
philosophies Yoga
Yoga
is discussed in the ancient foundational Sutras of Hindu philosophy. The Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
of the Vaisheshika school of Hinduism, dated to have been composed sometime between 6th and 2nd century BCE discusses Yoga.[113][114][note 17] According to Johannes Bronkhorst, an Indologist known for his studies on early Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism
Hinduism
and a professor at the University of Lausanne, Vaiśeṣika Sūtra describes Yoga
Yoga
as "a state where the mind resides only in the soul and therefore not in the senses".[116] This is equivalent to pratyahara or withdrawal of the senses, and the ancient Sutra
Sutra
asserts that this leads to an absence of sukha (happiness) and dukkha (suffering), then describes additional yogic meditation steps in the journey towards the state of spiritual liberation.[116] Similarly, Brahma sutras
Brahma sutras
– the foundational text of the Vedanta school of Hinduism, discusses yoga in its sutra 2.1.3, 2.1.223 and others.[117] Brahma sutras
Brahma sutras
are estimated to have been complete in the surviving form sometime between 450 BCE to 200 CE,[118][119] and its sutras assert that yoga is a means to gain "subtlety of body" and other powers.[117] The Nyaya
Nyaya
sutras – the foundational text of the Nyaya
Nyaya
school, variously estimated to have been composed between the 6th-century BCE and 2nd-century CE,[120][121] discusses yoga in sutras 4.2.38–50. This ancient text of the Nyaya
Nyaya
school includes a discussion of yogic ethics, dhyana (meditation), samadhi, and among other things remarks that debate and philosophy is a form of yoga.[122][123][124] Macedonian historical texts Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
reached India
India
in the 4th century BCE. Along with his army, he took Greek academics with him who later wrote memoirs about geography, people and customs they saw. One of Alexander's companion was Onesicritus, quoted in Book
Book
15, Sections 63–65 by Strabo, who describes yogins of India.[125] Onesicritus
Onesicritus
claims those Indian yogins (Mandanis ) practiced aloofness and "different postures – standing or sitting or lying naked – and motionless".[126] Onesicritus
Onesicritus
also mentions his colleague Calanus trying to meet them, who is initially denied audience, but later invited because he was sent by a "king curious of wisdom and philosophy".[126] Onesicritus and Calanus learn that the yogins consider the best doctrine of life as "rid the spirit of not only pain, but also pleasure", that "man trains the body for toil in order that his opinions may be strengthened", that "there is no shame in life on frugal fare", and that "the best place to inhabit is one with scantiest equipment or outfit".[125][126] These principles are significant to the history of spiritual side of yoga.[125] These may reflect the ancient roots of "undisturbed calmness" and "mindfulness through balance" in later works of Hindu
Hindu
Patanjali
Patanjali
and Buddhist Buddhaghosa
Buddhaghosa
respectively, states Charles Rockwell Lanman;[125] as well as the principle of Aparigraha (non-possessiveness, non-craving, simple living) and asceticism discussed in later Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism.[citation needed] Early Buddhist texts Werner states, "The Buddha
Buddha
was the founder of his [Yoga] system, even though, admittedly, he made use of some of the experiences he had previously gained under various Yoga
Yoga
teachers of his time."[127] He notes:[128]

But it is only with Buddhism
Buddhism
itself as expounded in the Pali Canon that we can speak about a systematic and comprehensive or even integral school of Yoga
Yoga
practice, which is thus the first and oldest to have been preserved for us in its entirety.[128]

The chronology of completion of these yoga-related Pali Canons, however, is unclear, just like ancient Hindu
Hindu
texts.[129][130] Early known Buddhist sources like the Majjhima Nikāya mention meditation, while the Anguttara Nikāya describes Jhāyins (meditators) that resemble early Hindu
Hindu
descriptions of Muni, Kesins and meditating ascetics,[131] but these meditation-practices are not called yoga in these texts.[132] The earliest known specific discussion of yoga in the Buddhist literature, as understood in modern context, is from the third- to fourth-century CE scriptures of the Buddhist Yogācāra school and fourth- to fifth-century Visuddhimagga
Visuddhimagga
of Buddhaghosa.[132] A yoga system that predated the Buddhist school is Jain yoga. But since Jain sources postdate Buddhist ones, it is difficult to distinguish between the nature of the early Jain school and elements derived from other schools.[128] Most of the other contemporary yoga systems alluded in the Upanishads
Upanishads
and some Pali canons are lost to time.[133][134][note 18] The early Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
describe meditative practices and states, some of which the Buddha
Buddha
borrowed from the śramaṇa tradition.[136][137] The Pali canon contains three passages in which the Buddha
Buddha
describes pressing the tongue against the palate for the purposes of controlling hunger or the mind, depending on the passage.[138] However, there is no mention of the tongue being inserted into the nasopharynx as in true khecarī mudrā. The Buddha used a posture where pressure is put on the perineum with the heel, similar to even modern postures used to stimulate Kundalini.[139] Uncertainty with chronology Alexander Wynne, author of The Origin of Buddhist Meditation, observes that formless meditation and elemental meditation might have originated in the Upanishadic tradition.[140] The earliest reference to meditation is in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the oldest Upanishads.[95] Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
describes the five kinds of vital energies (prana). Concepts used later in many yoga traditions such as internal sound and veins (nadis) are also described in the Upanishad.[83] Taittiriya Upanishad
Taittiriya Upanishad
defines yoga as the mastery of body and senses.[141] Bhagavad Gita

Krishna
Krishna
narrating the Gita to Arjuna

Main article: Bhagavad Gita The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
('Song of the Lord'), uses the term "yoga" extensively in a variety of ways. In addition to an entire chapter (ch. 6) dedicated to traditional yoga practice, including meditation,[142] it introduces three prominent types of yoga:[143]

Karma
Karma
yoga: The yoga of action.[144] Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga: The yoga of devotion.[144] Jnana yoga: The yoga of knowledge.[145][146]

The Gita consists of 18 chapters and 700 shlokas (verses),[147] with each chapter named as a different yoga, thus delineating eighteen different yogas.[147][148] Some scholars divide the Gita into three sections, with the first six chapters with 280 shlokas dealing with Karma
Karma
yoga, the middle six containing 209 shlokas with Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga, and the last six chapters with 211 shlokas as Jnana yoga; however, this is rough because elements of karma, bhakti and jnana are found in all chapters.[147] Mahabharata Description of an early form of yoga called nirodhayoga (yoga of cessation) is contained in the Mokshadharma section of the 12th chapter (Shanti Parva) of the Mahabharata. The verses of the section are dated to c. 300–200 BCE[citation needed]. Nirodhayoga emphasizes progressive withdrawal from the contents of empirical consciousness such as thoughts, sensations etc. until purusha (Self) is realized. Terms like vichara (subtle reflection), viveka (discrimination) and others which are similar to Patanjali's terminology are mentioned, but not described.[149] There is no uniform goal of yoga mentioned in the Mahabharata. Separation of self from matter, perceiving Brahman everywhere, entering into Brahman
Brahman
etc. are all described as goals of yoga. Samkhya
Samkhya
and yoga are conflated together and some verses describe them as being identical.[150] Mokshadharma also describes an early practice of elemental meditation.[151] Mahabharata
Mahabharata
defines the purpose of yoga as the experience of uniting the individual ātman with the universal Brahman
Brahman
that pervades all things.[150] Classical era (200 BCE – 500 CE) This period witnessed many texts of Buddhism, Hinduism
Hinduism
and Jainism discussing and systematically compiling yoga methods and practices. Of these, Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
Sutras are considered as a key work. Classical yoga During the period between the Mauryan and the Gupta eras (c. 200 BCE–500 CE) philosophical schools of Hinduism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism were taking form and a coherent philosophical system of yoga began to emerge.[74] Yoga
Yoga
as a philosophy is mentioned in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts dated to be completed between 200 BCE–200 CE. Kauṭilya's Arthashastra
Arthashastra
in verse 1.2.10, for example, states that there are three categories of anviksikis (philosophies) – Samkhya
Samkhya
(nontheistic), Yoga
Yoga
(theistic) and Cārvāka (atheistic materialism).[152][153] Samkhya Further information: Samkhya Many traditions in India
India
began to adopt systematic methodology by about first century CE. Of these, Samkhya
Samkhya
was probably one of the oldest philosophies to begin taking a systematic form.[154] Patanjali systematized Yoga, building them on the foundational metaphysics of Samkhya. In the early works, the Yoga
Yoga
principles appear together with the Samkhya
Samkhya
ideas. Vyasa's commentary on the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras, also called the Samkhyapravacanabhasya (Commentary on the Exposition of the Sankhya Philosophy), describes the relation between the two systems.[155] The two schools have some differences as well. Yoga accepted the conception of "personal god", while Samkhya
Samkhya
developed as a rationalist, non-theistic/atheistic system of Hindu philosophy.[47][156][157] Sometimes Patanjali's system is referred to as Seshvara Samkhya
Samkhya
in contradistinction to Kapila's Nirivara Samkhya.[158] The parallels between Yoga
Yoga
and Samkhya
Samkhya
were so close that Max Müller says that "the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya
Samkhya
with and Samkhya
Samkhya
without a Lord."[159] Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali Main articles: Raja Yoga
Raja Yoga
and Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Traditional Hindu
Hindu
depiction of Patanjali
Patanjali
as an avatar of the divine serpent Shesha.

Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali[160]

Pada (Chapter) English meaning Sutras

Samadhi
Samadhi
Pada On being absorbed in spirit

51

Sadhana Pada On being immersed in spirit

55

Vibhuti
Vibhuti
Pada On supernatural abilities and gifts

56

Kaivalya Pada On absolute freedom

34

In Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, yoga is the name of one of the six orthodox (which accept the testimony of Vedas) philosophical schools.[161][162] Karel Werner, author of Yoga
Yoga
And Indian Philosophy, believes that the process of systematization of yoga which began in the middle and Yoga Upanishads
Upanishads
culminated with the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali.[note 19] There are numerous parallels in the concepts in ancient Samkhya, Yoga and Abhidharma Buddhist schools of thought, particularly from 2nd century BCE to 1st century AD, notes Larson.[164] Patanjali's Yoga Sutras is a synthesis of these three traditions. From Samkhya, Yoga Sutras adopt the "reflective discernment" (adhyavasaya) of prakrti and purusa (dualism), its metaphysical rationalism, as well its three epistemic methods to gaining reliable knowledge.[164] From Abhidharma Buddhism's idea of nirodhasamadhi, suggests Larson, Yoga
Yoga
Sutras adopt the pursuit of altered state of awareness, but unlike Buddhist's concept of no self nor soul, Yoga
Yoga
is physicalist and realist like Samkhya
Samkhya
in believing that each individual has a self and soul.[164] The third concept Yoga
Yoga
Sutras synthesize into its philosophy is the ancient ascetic traditions of meditation and introspection, as well as the yoga ideas from middle Upanishads
Upanishads
such as Katha, Shvetashvatara and Maitri.[164] Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
Sutras are widely regarded as the first compilation of the formal yoga philosophy.[165] The verses of Yoga
Yoga
Sutras are terse. Many later Indian scholars studied them and published their commentaries, such as the Vyasa
Vyasa
Bhashya (c. 350–450 CE).[166] Patanjali's yoga is also referred to as Raja yoga.[167] Patanjali defines the word "yoga" in his second sutra:

योगश्‍चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः (yogaś citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ) - Yoga
Yoga
Sutras 1.2

This terse definition hinges on the meaning of three Sanskrit
Sanskrit
terms. I. K. Taimni translates it as " Yoga
Yoga
is the inhibition (nirodhaḥ) of the modifications (vṛtti) of the mind (citta)".[168] Swami Vivekananda translates the sutra as " Yoga
Yoga
is restraining the mind-stuff (Citta) from taking various forms (Vrittis)."[169] Edwin Bryant explains that, to Patanjali, " Yoga
Yoga
essentially consists of meditative practices culminating in attaining a state of consciousness free from all modes of active or discursive thought, and of eventually attaining a state where consciousness is unaware of any object external to itself, that is, is only aware of its own nature as consciousness unmixed with any other object."[46][170][171] If the meaning of yoga is understood as the practice of nirodha (mental control), then its goal is "the unqualified state of niruddha (the perfection of that process)",[172] according to Baba Hari Dass. In that context, "yoga (union) implies duality (as in joining of two things or principles); the result of yoga is the nondual state", and "as the union of the lower self and higher Self. The nondual state is characterized by the absence of individuality; it can be described as eternal peace, pure love, Self-realization, or liberation."[173] Patanjali's writing also became the basis for a system referred to as "Ashtanga Yoga" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga"). This eight-limbed concept is derived from the 29th Sutra
Sutra
of the Book
Book
2 of Yoga
Yoga
Sutras. They are:

Yama (The five "abstentions"): Ahimsa
Ahimsa
(Non-violence, non-harming other living beings),[174] Satya
Satya
(truthfulness, non-falsehood),[175] Asteya (non-stealing),[176] Brahmacharya
Brahmacharya
(celibacy, fidelity to one's partner),[176] and Aparigraha
Aparigraha
(non-avarice, non-possessiveness).[175] Niyama
Niyama
(The five "observances"): Śauca (purity, clearness of mind, speech and body),[177] Santosha
Santosha
(contentment, acceptance of others and of one's circumstances),[178] Tapas (persistent meditation, perseverance, austerity),[179] Svādhyāya
Svādhyāya
(study of self, self-reflection, study of Vedas),[180] and Ishvara-Pranidhana (contemplation of God/Supreme Being/True Self).[178] Asana: Literally means "seat", and in Patanjali's Sutras refers to the seated position used for meditation. Pranayama
Pranayama
("Breath exercises"): Prāna, breath, "āyāma", to "stretch, extend, restrain, stop". Pratyahara
Pratyahara
("Abstraction"): Withdrawal of the sense organs from external objects. Dharana ("Concentration"): Fixing the attention on a single object. Dhyana ("Meditation"): Intense contemplation of the nature of the object of meditation. Samadhi
Samadhi
("Liberation"): merging consciousness with the object of meditation.

Yoga
Yoga
and Vedanta Yoga
Yoga
and Vedanta
Vedanta
are the two largest surviving schools of Hindu traditions. They share many thematic principles, concepts and belief in self/soul, but diverge in degree, style and some of their methods. Epistemologically, Yoga
Yoga
school accepts three means to reliable knowledge, while Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
accepts six ways.[181] Yoga
Yoga
disputes the monism of Advaita Vedanta.[182] Yoga
Yoga
school believes that in the state of moksha, each individual discovers the blissful, liberating sense of himself or herself as an independent identity; Advaita Vedanta, in contrast, believes that in the state of moksha, each individual discovers the blissful, liberating sense of himself or herself as part of Oneness with everything, everyone and the Universal Self. They both hold that the free conscience is aloof yet transcendent, liberated and self-aware. Further, Advaita Vedanta school enjoins the use of Patanjali's yoga practices and the reading of Upanishads
Upanishads
for those seeking the supreme good, ultimate freedom and jivanmukti.[182] Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya Main article: Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya

संयोगो योग इत्युक्तो जीवात्मपरमात्मनोः॥ saṁyogo yoga ityukto jīvātma-paramātmanoḥ॥ Yoga
Yoga
is union of the individual self (jivātma) with the supreme self (paramātma).

Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya[183]

The Yoga Yajnavalkya
Yoga Yajnavalkya
is a classical treatise on yoga attributed to the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya. It takes the form of a dialogue between Yajnavalkya
Yajnavalkya
and Gargi, a renowned philosopher.[184] The text contains 12 chapters and its origin has been traced to the period between the second century BCE and fourth century CE.[185] Many yoga texts like the Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika, the Yoga
Yoga
Kundalini
Kundalini
and the Yoga
Yoga
Tattva Upanishads
Upanishads
have borrowed verses from or make frequent references to the Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya.[186] The Yoga Yajnavalkya
Yoga Yajnavalkya
discusses eight yoga Asanas
Asanas
– Swastika, Gomukha, Padma, Vira, Simha, Bhadra, Mukta and Mayura,[187] numerous breathing exercises for body cleansing,[188] and meditation.[189] Jainism Main article: Jainism

Tirthankara Parsva
Parsva
in Yogic meditation in the Kayotsarga
Kayotsarga
posture.

According to Tattvarthasutra, 2nd century CE Jain text, yoga is the sum of all the activities of mind, speech and body.[5] Umasvati
Umasvati
calls yoga the cause of "asrava" or karmic influx[190] as well as one of the essentials—samyak caritra—in the path to liberation.[190] In his Niyamasara, Acarya Kundakunda, describes yoga bhakti—devotion to the path to liberation—as the highest form of devotion.[191] Acarya Haribhadra
Haribhadra
and Acarya Hemacandra
Hemacandra
mention the five major vows of ascetics and 12 minor vows of laity under yoga. This has led certain Indologists like Prof. Robert J. Zydenbos to call Jainism, essentially, a system of yogic thinking that grew into a full-fledged religion.[192] The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
bear a resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating a history of strong cross-fertilization between these traditions.[193][note 20] Mainstream Hinduism's influence on Jain yoga can be see in Haribhadra's Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya
Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya
which outlines an eightfold yoga influenced by Patanjali's eightfold yoga.[195] Yogacara
Yogacara
school Main article: Yogacara In the late phase of Indian antiquity, on the eve of the development of Classical Hinduism, the Yogacara
Yogacara
movement arises during the Gupta period (4th to 5th centuries). Yogacara
Yogacara
received the name as it provided a "yoga," a framework for engaging in the practices that lead to the path of the bodhisattva.[196] The yogacara sect teaches "yoga" as a way to reach enlightenment.[197] Middle Ages (500–1500 CE) Middle Ages saw the development of many satellite traditions of yoga. Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
emerged in this period.[198] Bhakti
Bhakti
movement Main article: Bhakti
Bhakti
Yoga The Bhakti movement
Bhakti movement
was a development in medieval Hinduism
Hinduism
which advocated the concept of a personal God (or "Supreme Personality of Godhead"). The movement was initiated by the Alvars
Alvars
of South India
India
in the 6th to 9th centuries, and it started gaining influence throughout India
India
by the 12th to 15th centuries.[199] Shaiva
Shaiva
and Vaishnava
Vaishnava
bhakti traditions integrated aspects of Yoga
Yoga
Sutras, such as the practical meditative exercises, with devotion.[200] Bhagavata Purana
Bhagavata Purana
elucidates the practice of a form of yoga called viraha (separation) bhakti. Viraha bhakti emphasizes one pointed concentration on Krishna.[201] Tantra Tantra
Tantra
is a genre of yoga that arose in India
India
no later than the 5th century CE.[202][note 21] George Samuel states, "Tantra" is a contested term, but may be considered as a school whose practices appeared in mostly complete form in Buddhist and Hindu
Hindu
texts by about 10th century CE.[66] Over its history, some ideas of Tantra
Tantra
school influenced the Hindu, Bon, Buddhist, and Jain traditions. Elements of Tantric yoga rituals were adopted by and influenced state functions in medieval Buddhist and Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms in East and Southeast Asia.[204][205] By the turn of the first millennium, hatha yoga emerged from tantra.[14][15] Vajrayana
Vajrayana
or Tibetan Buddhism Main article: Vajrayana Vajrayana
Vajrayana
is also known as Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
and Tantrayāna. Its texts were compiled starting with 7th century and Tibetan translations were completed in 8th century CE. These tantra yoga texts were the main source of Buddhist knowledge that was imported into Tibet.[206] They were later translated into Chinese and other Asian languages, helping spread ideas of Tantric Buddhism. The Buddhist text Hevajra Tantra
Tantra
and Caryāgiti introduced hierarchies of chakras.[207] Yoga
Yoga
is a significant practice in Tantric Buddhism.[62][208][209] The tantra yoga practices include asanas and breathing exercises. The Nyingma
Nyingma
tradition practices Yantra yoga (Tib. "Trul khor"), a discipline that includes breath work (or pranayama), meditative contemplation and other exercises.[210] In the Nyingma
Nyingma
tradition, the path of meditation practice is divided into further stages,[211] such as Kriya yoga, Upa yoga, Yoga
Yoga
yana, Mahā yoga, Anu yoga and Ati yoga.[212] The Sarma traditions also include Kriya, Upa (called "Charya"), and Yoga, with the Anuttara yoga
Anuttara yoga
class substituting for Mahayoga and Atiyoga.[213] Zen
Zen
Buddhism Zen, the name of which derives from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"dhyāna" via the Chinese "ch'an"[note 22] is a form of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism. Yoga practices integrally exist within the Zen
Zen
Buddhist school.[note 23] Certain essential elements of yoga are important both for Buddhism
Buddhism
in general and for Zen
Zen
in particular.[215] Hatha Yoga Main articles: Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
and Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika The earliest references to hatha yoga are in Buddhist works dating from the eighth century.[216] The earliest definition of hatha yoga is found in the 11th century Buddhist text Vimalaprabha, which defines it in relation to the center channel, bindu etc.[217] Hatha yoga synthesizes elements of Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
Sutras with posture and breathing exercises.[218] It marks the development of asanas (plural) into the full body 'postures' now in popular usage[219] and, along with its many modern variations, is the style that many people associate with the word yoga today.[220] Sikhism Various yogic groups had become prominent in Punjab in the 15th and 16th century, when Sikhism
Sikhism
was in its nascent stage. Compositions of Guru
Guru
Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, describe many dialogues he had with Jogis, a Hindu
Hindu
community which practiced yoga.[221] Guru
Guru
Nanak rejected the austerities, rites and rituals connected with Hatha Yoga.[222] He propounded the path of Sahaja yoga or Nama yoga (meditation on the name) instead.[223] The Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
states:

Listen "O Yogi, Nanak tells nothing but the truth. You must discipline your mind. The devotee must meditate on the Word Divine. It is His grace which brings about the union. He understands, he also sees. Good deeds help one merge into Divination."[224]

Modern history Reception in the West

The Ustrasana, also known as the camel pose, is one of several yoga asana (pose).

Yoga
Yoga
came to the attention of an educated western public in the mid-19th century along with other topics of Indian philosophy. In the context of this budding interest, N. C. Paul published his Treatise on Yoga
Yoga
Philosophy in 1851. The first Hindu
Hindu
teacher to actively advocate and disseminate aspects of yoga to a western audience, Swami
Swami
Vivekananda, toured Europe and the United States in the 1890s.[225] The reception which Swami Vivekananda received built on the active interest of intellectuals, in particular the New England Transcendentalists, among them Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882), who drew on German Romanticism
German Romanticism
and the interest of philosophers and scholars like G. W. F. Hegel (1770–1831), the brothers August Wilhelm Schlegel
August Wilhelm Schlegel
(1767–1845) and Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829), Max Mueller (1823–1900), Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860), and others who had (to varying degrees) interests in things Indian.[226][227] Theosophists
Theosophists
also had a large influence on the American public's view of Yoga.[228] Esoteric views current at the end of the 19th century provided a further basis for the reception of Vedanta
Vedanta
and of Yoga
Yoga
with its theory and practice of correspondence between the spiritual and the physical.[229] The reception of Yoga
Yoga
and of Vedanta
Vedanta
thus entwined with each other and with the (mostly Neoplatonism-based) currents of religious and philosophical reform and transformation throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. M. Eliade, himself rooted in the Romanian currents of these traditions,[citation needed] brought a new element into the reception of Yoga
Yoga
with the strong emphasis on Tantric Yoga
Yoga
in his seminal book: Yoga: Immortality and Freedom.[note 24] With the introduction of the Tantra
Tantra
traditions and philosophy of Yoga, the conception of the "transcendent" to be attained by Yogic practice shifted from experiencing the "transcendent" ("Atman-Brahman" in Advaitic theory) in the mind to the body itself.[230] The American born yogi by the name of Pierre Arnold Bernard, after his travels through the lands of Kashmir and Bengal, founded the Tantrik Order of America in 1905. His teachings gave many westerners their first glimpse into the practices of yoga and tantra.[231] The modern scientific study of yoga began with the works of N. C. Paul and Major D. Basu in the late 19th century, and then continued in the 20th century with Sri Yogendra (1897–1989) and Swami Kuvalayananda.[232] Western medical researchers came to Swami Kuvalayananda's Kaivalyadhama Health and Yoga
Yoga
Research Center, starting in 1928, to study Yoga
Yoga
as a science.[233] Outside of Buddhist, Hindu
Hindu
and Jain traditions in Asia, the term "yoga" has been usually synonymous with its asanas (postures) or as a form of exercise.[234] This aspect of Yoga
Yoga
was adopted as a cultural trend in Europe and North America starting in the first half of the 20th century. There were periods of criticism and paranoia against yoga as well.[228] By the 1960s, western interest in Hindu spirituality reached its peak, giving rise to a great number of Neo- Hindu
Hindu
schools specifically advocated to a western public. During this period, most of the influential Indian teachers of yoga came from two lineages, those of Sivananda Saraswati
Sivananda Saraswati
(1887–1963) and of Tirumalai Krishnamacharya
Tirumalai Krishnamacharya
(1888–1989).[235] Teachers of Hatha yoga who were active in the west in this period included B.K.S. Iyengar (1918–2014), K. Pattabhi Jois
K. Pattabhi Jois
(1915–2009), Swami
Swami
Vishnu-devananda (1927–1993), and Swami Satchidananda
Swami Satchidananda
(1914–2002).[236][237][238] Yogi
Yogi
Bhajan
Bhajan
brought Kundalini
Kundalini
Yoga
Yoga
to the United States in 1969.[239] Comprehensive, classical teachings of Ashtanga Yoga, Samkhya, the subtle body theory, Fitness Asanas, and tantric elements were included in the yoga teachers training by Baba Hari Dass
Baba Hari Dass
(1923–), in the United States and Canada.[240] A second "yoga boom" followed in the 1980s, as Dean Ornish, a follower of Swami
Swami
Satchidananda, connected yoga to heart health, legitimizing yoga as a purely physical system of health exercises outside of counter-culture or esotericism circles, and unconnected to any religious denomination.[225] Numerous asanas seemed modern in origin, and strongly overlapped with 19th and early-20th century Western exercise traditions.[241]

A group of people practicing yoga in 2012.

Since 2001, the popularity of yoga in the USA has expanded. The number of people who practiced some form of yoga has grown from 4 million (in 2001) to 20 million (in 2011). It has drawn support from world leaders such as Barack Obama
Barack Obama
who stated, " Yoga
Yoga
has become a universal language of spiritual exercise in the United States, crossing many lines of religion and cultures,... Every day, millions of people practice yoga to improve their health and overall well-being. That's why we're encouraging everyone to take part in PALA (Presidential Active Lifestyle Award), so show your support for yoga and answer the challenge".[242] The American College of Sports Medicine
American College of Sports Medicine
supports the integration of yoga into the exercise regimens of healthy individuals as long as properly-trained professionals deliver instruction. The College cites yoga's promotion of "profound mental, physical and spiritual awareness" and its benefits as a form of stretching, and as an enhancer of breath control and of core strength.[243] Health effects Main article: Yoga
Yoga
as exercise Yoga
Yoga
has been studied and may be recommended to promote relaxation, reduce stress and improve some medical conditions such as premenstrual syndrome.[244] Yoga
Yoga
is considered to be a low-impact activity that can provide the same benefits as "any well-designed exercise program, increasing general health and stamina, reducing stress, and improving those conditions brought about by sedentary lifestyles". It is particularly promoted as a physical therapy routine, and as a regimen to strengthen and balance all parts of the body.[244] Yoga
Yoga
may improve psychological health during cancer treatment, although more evidence is needed to confirm this possible benefit.[19] Other research indicated that yoga could be a useful in addition to other treatments in schizophrenia,[20] and may have positive effects on mental health, although the quality of research to define these effects is low.[245] In 2015 the Australian Government's Department of Health published the results of a review of alternative therapies that sought to determine if any were suitable for being covered by health insurance. Yoga
Yoga
was one of 17 practices evaluated for which no clear evidence of effectiveness was found.[246] Accordingly In 2017 the Australian government named yoga as a practice that would not qualify for insurance subsidy, saying this step would "ensure taxpayer funds are expended appropriately and not directed to therapies lacking evidence".[247] Adults While some of the medical community regards the results of yoga research as significant, others point to many flaws which undermine results. Much of the research on yoga has taken the form of preliminary studies or clinical trials of low methodological quality, including small sample sizes, inadequate blinding, lack of randomization, and high risk of bias.[248][249][250] A 2013 review described the effectiveness of yoga for low back pain in the short-term, and moderate evidence that it was effective in the long-term.[251] Another study found an incidence of back injuries from yoga.[252] Some clinicians have reported studies investigating yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer patients to decrease depression, insomnia, pain, and fatigue and to increase anxiety control.[253] Others have questioned the quality of research and uncertainty in proving this effect.[254] A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found no evidence that yoga was effective for metabolic syndrome.[255] Physical injuries See also: Sports injury Some yoga practitioners suffer physical injuries analogous to sports injuries.[256] A survey of yoga practitioners in Australia showed that about 20% had suffered some physical injury while practicing yoga.[256] In the previous 12 months 4.6% of the respondents had suffered an injury producing prolonged pain or requiring medical treatment. Headstands, shoulder stands, lotus and half lotus (seated cross-legged position), forward bends, backward bends, and handstands produced the greatest number of injuries.[256] Yoga
Yoga
may result in injuries[257][258][259] Among the main reasons that experts cite for causing negative effects from yoga are beginners' competitiveness and instructors' lack of qualification.[257] As the demand for yoga classes grows, many people get certified to become yoga instructors, often with relatively little training. Not every newly certified instructor can evaluate the condition of every new trainee in their class and recommend refraining from doing certain poses or using appropriate props to avoid injuries.[257] In turn, a beginning yoga student can overestimate the abilities of their body and strive to do advanced poses before their body is flexible or strong enough to perform them.[257][260] Vertebral artery dissection, a tear in the arteries in the neck which provide blood to the brain can result from rotation of the neck while the neck is extended. This can occur in a variety of contexts, but is an event which could occur in some yoga practices. This is a very serious condition which can result in a stroke.[261][262] Acetabular labral tears, damage to the structure joining the femur and the hip, have been reported to have resulted from yoga practice.[263] Children It is claimed that yoga can be an excellent training for children and adolescents, both as a form of physical exercise and for breathing, focus, mindfulness, and stress relief: many school districts have considered incorporating yoga into their Physical Education programs. The Encinitas, California school district gained a San Diego Superior Court Judge's approval to use yoga in Physical Education, holding against the parents who claimed the practice was intrinsically religious and hence should not be part of a state funded program.[264] Reception in other religions Christianity Main articles: Christian meditation, A Christian reflection on the New Age, and Aspects of Christian meditation Some Christians integrate yoga and other aspects of Eastern spirituality with prayer and meditation. This has been attributed to a desire to experience God in a more complete way.[265] In 2013, Monsignor Raffaello Martinelli, servicing Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, having worked for over 23 years with Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI),[266] said that for his Meditation, a Christian can learn from other religious traditions (zen, yoga, controlled respiration, Mantra), quoting Aspects of Christian meditation: "Just as "the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
rejects nothing of what is true and holy in these religions," neither should these ways be rejected out of hand simply because they are not Christian. On the contrary, one can take from them what is useful so long as the Christian conception of prayer, its logic and requirements are never obscured. It is within the context of all of this that these bits and pieces should be taken up and expressed anew."[267] Previously, the Roman Catholic Church, and some other Christian organizations have expressed concerns and disapproval with respect to some eastern and New Age
New Age
practices that include yoga and meditation.[268][269][270] In 1989 and 2003, the Vatican issued two documents: Aspects of Christian meditation
Christian meditation
and "A Christian reflection on the New Age," that were mostly critical of eastern and New Age
New Age
practices. The 2003 document was published as a 90-page handbook detailing the Vatican's position.[271] The Vatican warned that concentration on the physical aspects of meditation "can degenerate into a cult of the body" and that equating bodily states with mysticism "could also lead to psychic disturbance and, at times, to moral deviations." Such has been compared to the early days of Christianity, when the church opposed the gnostics' belief that salvation came not through faith but through a mystical inner knowledge.[265] The letter also says, "one can see if and how [prayer] might be enriched by meditation methods developed in other religions and cultures"[272] but maintains the idea that "there must be some fit between the nature of [other approaches to] prayer and Christian beliefs about ultimate reality."[265] Some[which?] fundamentalist Christian organizations consider yoga to be incompatible with their religious background, considering it a part of the New Age
New Age
movement inconsistent with Christianity.[273] Another view holds that Christian meditation
Christian meditation
can lead to religious pluralism. This is held by an interdenominational association of Christians that practice it. "The ritual simultaneously operates as an anchor that maintains, enhances, and promotes denominational activity and a sail that allows institutional boundaries to be crossed." [274] Islam In early 11th century, the Persian scholar Al Biruni visited India, lived with Hindus for 16 years, and with their help translated several significant Sanskrit
Sanskrit
works into Arabic and Persian languages. One of these was Patanjali's Yogasutras.[275][276] Al Biruni's translation preserved many of the core themes of Patañjali 's Yoga
Yoga
philosophy, but certain sutras and analytical commentaries were restated making it more consistent with Islamic monotheistic theology.[275][277] Al Biruni's version of Yoga
Yoga
Sutras reached Persia and Arabian peninsula by about 1050 AD. Later, in the 16th century, the hath yoga text Amritakunda was translated into Arabic and then Persian.[278] Yoga was, however, not accepted by mainstream Sunni and Shia Islam. Minority Islamic sects such as the mystic Sufi
Sufi
movement, particularly in South Asia, adopted Indian yoga practises, including postures and breath control.[279][280] Muhammad Ghawth, a Shattari Sufi
Sufi
and one of the translators of yoga text in 16th century, drew controversy for his interest in yoga and was persecuted for his Sufi
Sufi
beliefs.[281] Malaysia's top Islamic body in 2008 passed a fatwa, prohibiting Muslims from practicing yoga, saying it had elements of Hinduism
Hinduism
and that its practice was blasphemy, therefore haraam.[282] Some Muslims in Malaysia who had been practicing yoga for years, criticized the decision as "insulting."[283] Sisters in Islam, a women's rights group in Malaysia, also expressed disappointment and said yoga was just a form of exercise.[284] This fatwa is legally enforceable.[285] However, Malaysia's prime minister clarified that yoga as physical exercise is permissible, but the chanting of religious mantras is prohibited.[286] In 2009, the Council of Ulemas, an Islamic body in Indonesia, passed a fatwa banning yoga on the grounds that it contains Hindu elements.[287] These fatwas have, in turn, been criticized by Darul Uloom Deoband, a Deobandi
Deobandi
Islamic seminary in India.[288] Similar fatwas banning yoga, for its link to Hinduism, were issued by the Grand Mufti Ali Gomaa
Ali Gomaa
in Egypt
Egypt
in 2004, and by Islamic clerics in Singapore earlier.[289] In Iran, as of May 2014, according to its Yoga
Yoga
Association, there were approximately 200 yoga centres in the country, a quarter of them in the capital Tehran, where groups can often be seen practising in parks. This has been met by opposition among conservatives.[290] In May 2009, Turkey's head of the Directorate of Religious Affairs, Ali Bardakoğlu, discounted personal development techniques such as reiki and yoga as commercial ventures that could lead to extremism. His comments were made in the context of reiki and yoga possibly being a form of proselytization at the expense of Islam.[291] International Day of Yoga On 11 December 2014, the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
approved a resolution establishing 21 June as "International Day of Yoga",[292] following the call for its adoption by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his address to UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
on 27 September 2014.[293][294][295][296][297] In suggesting one of the two solstices, Modi noted that it is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and that it has special significance in many parts of the world.[298] The first International Day of Yoga
International Day of Yoga
was observed worldwide on 21 June 2015. About 35,000 people, including Modi and many dignitaries, performed 21 yoga asanas for 35 minutes at Rajpath in New Delhi. The day devoted to yoga was observed by millions across the world.[299] The event at Rajpath established two Guinness records – largest Yoga Class with 35,985 people and the record for the most nationalities participating in it—84.[300] See also

Yoga
Yoga
portal Hinduism
Hinduism
portal India
India
portal

List of asanas List of yoga schools Yoga
Yoga
series Yogis

Notes

^ Karel Werner states that the existence of accomplished Yogis in Vedic times cannot be doubted, citing the Kesin hymn of the Rigveda
Rigveda
as evidence of a yoga tradition in the Vedic era.[7] ^ Buddhists, Jainas and Ajivikas[9] ^ For instance, Kamalashila (2003), p. 4, states that Buddhist meditation "includes any method of meditation that has Enlightenment as its ultimate aim." Likewise, Bodhi
Bodhi
(1999) writes: "To arrive at the experiential realization of the truths it is necessary to take up the practice of meditation.... At the climax of such contemplation the mental eye … shifts its focus to the unconditioned state, Nibbana...." A similar although in some ways slightly broader definition is provided by Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1991), p. 142: " Meditation
Meditation
– general term for a multitude of religious practices, often quite different in method, but all having the same goal: to bring the consciousness of the practitioner to a state in which he can come to an experience of 'awakening,' 'liberation,' 'enlightenment.'" Kamalashila (2003) further allows that some Buddhist meditations are "of a more preparatory nature" (p. 4). ^ The Pāli
Pāli
and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word bhāvanā literally means "development" as in "mental development." For the association of this term with "meditation," see Epstein (1995), p. 105; and, Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1991), p. 20. As an example from a well-known discourse of the Pali Canon, in "The Greater Exhortation to Rahula" (Maha-Rahulovada Sutta, MN 62), Ven. Sariputta
Sariputta
tells Ven. Rahula
Rahula
(in Pali, based on VRI, n.d.): ānāpānassatiṃ, rāhula, bhāvanaṃ bhāvehi. Thanissaro (2006) translates this as: "Rahula, develop the meditation [bhāvana] of mindfulness of in-&-out breathing." (Square-bracketed Pali word included based on Thanissaro, 2006, end note.) ^ See, for example, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921–25), entry for "jhāna1"; Thanissaro (1997); as well as, Kapleau (1989), p. 385, for the derivation of the word "zen" from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"dhyāna." PTS Secretary Dr. Rupert Gethin, in describing the activities of wandering ascetics contemporaneous with the Buddha, wrote:

"...[T]here is the cultivation of meditative and contemplative techniques aimed at producing what might, for the lack of a suitable technical term in English, be referred to as 'altered states of consciousness'. In the technical vocabulary of Indian religious texts such states come to be termed 'meditations' ([Skt.:] dhyāna / [Pali:] jhāna) or 'concentrations' (samādhi); the attainment of such states of consciousness was generally regarded as bringing the practitioner to deeper knowledge and experience of the nature of the world." (Gethin, 1998, p. 10.)

^ Gavin Flood: "These renouncer traditions offered a new vision of the human condition which became incorporated, to some degree, into the worldview of the Brahman
Brahman
householder. The ideology of asceticism and renunciation seems, at first, discontinuous with the brahmanical ideology of the affirmation of social obligations and the performance of public and domestic rituals. Indeed, there has been some debate as to whether asceticism and its ideas of retributive action, reincarnation and spiritual liberation, might not have originated outside the orthodox vedic sphere, or even outside Aryan culture: that a divergent historical origin might account for the apparent contradiction within 'Hinduism' between the world affirmation of the householder and the world negation of the renouncer. However, this dichotomization is too simplistic, for continuities can undoubtedly be found between renunciation and vedic Brahmanism, while elements from non-Brahmanical, Sramana
Sramana
traditions also played an important part in the formation of the renunciate ideal. Indeed there are continuities between vedic Brahmanism and Buddhism, and it has been argued that the Buddha
Buddha
sought to return to the ideals of a vedic society which he saw as being eroded in his own day."[73] ^ See also Gavin Flood (1996), Hinduism, p.87–90, on "The orthogenetic theory" and "Non-Vedic origins of renunciation".[68] ^ Post-classical traditions consider Hiranyagarbha as the originator of yoga.[80][81] ^ Zimmer's point of view is supported by other scholars, such as Niniam Smart, in Doctrine and argument in Indian Philosophy, 1964, p.27–32 & p.76,[86] and S.K. Belvakar & Inchegeri Sampradaya in History of Indian philosophy, 1974 (1927), p.81 & p.303–409.[86] See Crangle 1994 page 5–7.[87] ^ Original Sanskrit: युञ्जते मन उत युञ्जते धियो विप्रा विप्रस्य बृहतो विपश्चितः। वि होत्रा दधे वयुनाविदेक इन्मही देवस्य सवितुः परिष्टुतिः॥१॥[90] Translation 1: Seers of the vast illumined seer yogically [युञ्जते, yunjante] control their minds and their intelligence... (…)[88] Translation 2: The illumined yoke their mind and they yoke their thoughts to the illuminating godhead, to the vast, to the luminous in consciousness; the one knower of all manifestation of knowledge, he alone orders the things of the sacrifice. Great is the praise of Savitri, the creating godhead.[89] ^ Flood: "...which states that, having become calm and concentrated, one perceives the self (atman), within oneself."[91] ^ Original Sanskrit: स्वाध्यायमधीयानो धर्मिकान्विदधदात्मनि सर्वैन्द्रियाणि संप्रतिष्ठाप्याहिँसन्सर्व भूतान्यन्यत्र तीर्थेभ्यः स खल्वेवं वर्तयन्यावदायुषं ब्रह्मलोकमभिसंपद्यते न च पुनरावर्तते न च पुनरावर्तते॥ १॥ – Chandogya Upanishad, VIII.15[93] Translation 1 by Max Muller, The Upanishads, The Sacred Books of the East – Part 1, Oxford University Press: (He who engages in) self study, concentrates all his senses on the Self, never giving pain to any creature, except at the tîrthas, he who behaves thus all his life, reaches the world of Brahman, and does not return, yea, he does not return. [94] ^

Jacobsen writes that "Bodily postures are closely related to the tradition of tapas, ascetic practices in the Vedic tradition. The use by Vedic priests of ascetic practices in their preparations for the performance of the sacrifice might be precursor to Yoga."[83] Whicher believes that "the proto- Yoga
Yoga
of the Vedic rishis is an early form of sacrificial mysticism and contains many elements characteristic of later Yoga
Yoga
that include: concentration, meditative observation, ascetic forms of practice (tapas), breath control..."[84]

^ * Wynne states that "The Nasadiyasukta, one of the earliest and most important cosmogonic tracts in the early Brahminic literature, contains evidence suggesting it was closely related to a tradition of early Brahminic contemplation. A close reading of this text suggests that it was closely related to a tradition of early Brahminic contemplation. The poem may have been composed by contemplatives, but even if not, an argument can be made that it marks the beginning of the contemplative/meditative trend in Indian thought."[97]

Miller suggests that the composition of Nasadiya Sukta
Nasadiya Sukta
and Purusha Sukta arises from "the subtlest meditative stage, called absorption in mind and heart" which "involves enheightened experiences" through which seer "explores the mysterious psychic and cosmic forces...".[98] Jacobsen writes that dhyana (meditation) is derived from Vedic term dhih which refers to "visionary insight", "thought provoking vision".[98]

^ Ancient Indian literature was transmitted and preserved through an oral tradition.[100] For example, the earliest written Pali Canon
Pali Canon
text is dated to the later part of 1st century BCE, many centuries after the Buddha's death.[101] ^ For the date of this Upanishad see also Helmuth von Glasenapp, from the 1950 Proceedings of the "Akademie der Wissenschaften und Literatur"[105] ^ The currently existing version of Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
manuscript was likely finalized sometime between 2nd century BCE and the start of the common era.[115] Wezler has proposed that the Yoga
Yoga
related text may have been inserted into this Sutra
Sutra
later, among other things; however, Bronkhorst finds much to disagree on with Wezler.[116] ^ On the dates of the Pali canon, Gregory Schopen writes, "We know, and have known for some time, that the Pali canon as we have it — and it is generally conceded to be our oldest source — cannot be taken back further than the last quarter of the first century BCE, the date of the Alu-vihara redaction, the earliest redaction we can have some knowledge of, and that — for a critical history — it can serve, at the very most, only as a source for the Buddhism
Buddhism
of this period. But we also know that even this is problematic... In fact, it is not until the time of the commentaries of Buddhaghosa, Dhammapala, and others — that is to say, the fifth to sixth centuries CE — that we can know anything definite about the actual contents of [the Pali] canon."[135] ^ Werner writes, "The word Yoga
Yoga
appears here for the first time in its fully technical meaning, namely as a systematic training, and it already received a more or less clear formulation in some other middle Upanishads....Further process of the systematization of Yoga
Yoga
as a path to the ultimate mystic goal is obvious in subsequent Yoga
Yoga
Upanishads and the culmination of this endeavour is represented by Patanjali's codification of this path into a system of the eightfold Yoga."[163] ^ Worthington writes, " Yoga
Yoga
fully acknowledges its debt to Jainism, and Jainism
Jainism
reciprocates by making the practice of yoga part and parcel of life."[194] ^ The earliest documented use of the word "Tantra" is in the Rigveda (X.71.9).[203] The context of use suggests the word tantra in Rigveda means "technique". ^ "The Meditation
Meditation
school, called 'Ch'an' in Chinese from the Sanskrit 'dhyāna,' is best known in the West by the Japanese pronunciation 'Zen'"[214] ^ Exact quote: "This phenomenon merits special attention since yogic roots are to be found in the Zen
Zen
Buddhist school of meditation."[215] ^ Eliade, Mircea, Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, Princeton, 1958: Princeton Univ. Pr. (original title: Le Yoga. Immortalité et Liberté, Paris, 1954: Libr. Payot)

References

^ "yoga, n". OED Online. Oxford University Press. September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ White 2011. ^ Denise Lardner Carmody, John Carmody (1996), Serene Compassion. Oxford University Press US. p. 68. ^ Stuart Ray Sarbacker, Samādhi: The Numinous and Cessative in Indo-Tibetan Yoga. SUNY Press, 2005, pp. 1–2. ^ a b Tattvarthasutra
Tattvarthasutra
[6.1], see Manu Doshi (2007) Translation of Tattvarthasutra, Ahmedabad: Shrut Ratnakar p. 102 ^ Kimberly Lau (2000), New Age
New Age
Capitalism, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 978-0812217292, page 100 ^ a b c d Karel Werner (1977), Yoga
Yoga
and the Ṛg Veda: An Interpretation of the Keśin Hymn (RV 10, 136), Religious Studies, Vol. 13, No. 3, page 289–302 ^ Yoga
Yoga
isn't an all- Hindu
Hindu
tradition – it has Buddhist, even Sufi, influences ^ a b c Samuel 2008, p. 8. ^ a b c d e Mark Singleton (2010), Yoga
Yoga
Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-539534-1, pages 25–34 ^ Whicher, pp. 1–4, chronology on pp. 41–42 ^ W. Y. Evans-Wentz (2000), Tibetan Yoga
Yoga
and Secret Doctrines, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-513314-1, Chapters 7 and 8 ^ White 2014, p. xvi–xvii. ^ a b James Mallinson, "Sāktism and Hathayoga," 28 June 2012. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2014.  [accessed 19 September 2013] pg. 20, Quote: "The techniques of hatha yoga are not taught in Sanskrit texts until the 11th century or thereabouts." ^ a b c Burley, Mikel (2000). Hatha Yoga: Its Context, Theory and Practice. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 16. "It is for this reason that hatha-yoga is sometimes referred to as a variety of 'Tantrism'." ^ a b White 2011, p. 2. ^ * Marek Jantos (2012), in Oxford Textbook of Spirituality in Healthcare (Editors: Mark Cobb et al.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-957139-0, pages 362–363 ^ * Mikel Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga: An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-64887-5, See Introduction section ^ a b c * Smith, Kelly B.; Pukall, Caroline F. (May 2009). "An evidence-based review of yoga as a complementary intervention for patients with cancer". Psycho-Oncology. 18 (5): 465–475. doi:10.1002/pon.1411. PMID 18821529. 

Sharma, Manoj; Haider, Taj (October 2012). " Yoga
Yoga
as an Alternative and Complementary Treatment for Asthma: A Systematic Review". Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 17 (3): 212–217. doi:10.1177/2156587212453727.  Innes, Kim E.; Bourguignon, Cheryl (November–December 2005). "Risk Indices Associated with the Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Cardiovascular Disease, and Possible Protection with Yoga: A Systematic Review". Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 18 (6): 491–519. doi:10.3122/jabfm.18.6.491. 

^ a b c Vancampfort, D.; Vansteeland, K.; Scheewe, T.; Probst, M.; Knapen, J.; De Herdt, A.; De Hert, M. (July 2012). " Yoga
Yoga
in schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 126 (1): 12–20. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2012.01865.x. , art.nr. 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2012.01865.x ^ " Yoga
Yoga
joins Unesco world heritage list". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-12-01.  ^ Monier Monier-Williams. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: ...with Special
Special
Reference to Greek, Latin, Gothic, German, Anglo-Saxon. Clarendon. p. 804.  ^ Whicher, pp. 6–7. ^ a b Dasgupta, Surendranath (1975). A History of Indian Philosophy. 1. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 226. ISBN 81-208-0412-0.  ^ Bryant 2009, p. 5. ^ Bryant 2009, p. xxxix. ^ Aranya, Swami
Swami
Hariharananda (2000). Yoga
Yoga
Philosophy of Patanjali with Bhasvati. Calcutta, India: University of Calcutta. p. 1. ISBN 81-87594-00-4.  ^ American Heritage Dictionary: "Yogi, One who practices yoga." Websters: "Yogi, A follower of the yoga philosophy; an ascetic." ^ Mallinson, James; Singleton, Mark. Roots of Yoga, Penguin Classics, 2017, pp. 17-23. ^ a b Jacobsen, p. 4. ^ White 2011, p. 6. ^ White 2011, pp. 6–8. ^ White 2011, pp. 8–9. ^ White 2011, pp. 9–10. ^ White 2011, pp. 10–12. ^ Mallinson, James (2013). "The Yogīs' Latest Trick". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Cambridge University Press (CUP). 24 (1): 165–180. doi:10.1017/s1356186313000734.  ^ White 2011, p. 11. ^ Hari Dass 1978. ^ a b Mallinson 2011, p. 770. ^ a b c d e f White 2014, p. xvi. ^ Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, pp. 19–20. ^ Flood 1996, pp. 82, 224–49 ^ Changing World Religions, Cults & Occult.  ^ Swami
Swami
Vivekananda, Raja Yoga, ISBN 978-1500746940 ^ Whicher, pp. 41–43 ^ a b c Edwin Bryant (2011, Rutgers University), The Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
IEP ^ a b Lloyd Pflueger, Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga
Yoga
(Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329, pages 38–39 ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
– An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-64887-5, pages 43–46 ^ Kovoor T. Behanan (2002), Yoga: Its Scientific Basis, Dover, ISBN 978-0-486-41792-9, pages 56–58 ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
– An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-64887-5, page 39, 41 ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
– An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-64887-5, pages 38–46 ^ Wade Dazey (2008) on pages 421–423, and Lloyd Pflueger on pages 46–52, in Theory and Practice of Yoga : 'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson, Editor: Knut A. Jacobsen, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329 ^ Akshaya Kumar Banerjea (1983). Philosophy of Gorakhnath with Goraksha-Vacana-Sangraha. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xxi. ISBN 978-81-208-0534-7.  ^ a b See Kriyananada, page 112. ^ See Burley, page 73. ^ See Introduction by Rosen, pp 1–2. ^ See translation by Mallinson. ^ On page 140, David Gordon White says of Gorakshanath: "... hatha yoga, in which field he was India's major systematizer and innovator." ^ Bajpai writes on page 524: "Nobody can dispute about the top ranking position of Sage Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
in the philosophy of Yoga." ^ Eliade writes of Gorakshanath
Gorakshanath
on page 303: "...he accomplished a new synthesis among certain Shaivist traditions (Pashupata), tantrism, and the doctrines (unfortunately, so imperfectly known) of the siddhas – that is, of the perfect yogis." ^ Davidson, Ronald. Indian Esoteric Buddhism. Columbia University Press. 2002, pg.169–235. ^ a b Lama Yeshe (1998). The Bliss of Inner Fire. Wisdom Publications. pp. 135–141. ^ Larson, p. 142. ^ Mahapragya, Acharya
Acharya
(2004). "Foreword". Jain Yog. Aadarsh Saahitya Sangh.  ^ Tulsi, Acharya
Acharya
(2004). "blessings". Sambodhi. Aadarsh Saahitya Sangh. OCLC 39811791. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.  ^ a b c Samuel 2008, p. 9. ^ Mukunda Stiles, Tantra
Tantra
Yoga
Yoga
Secrets, Weiser, ISBN 978-1-57863-503-0, pages 3–7 ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 87–90. ^ a b Crangle 1994, p. 4–7. ^ a b c Zimmer 1951, p. 217, 314. ^ Samuel 2008. ^ Flood 1996, p. 77. ^ Flood 1996, p. 76–77. ^ a b Larson, p. 36. ^ Samuel 2008, p. 2–3. ^ Possehl (2003), pp. 144–145 ^ Samuel 2008, p. 2–10. ^ Crangle 1994, p. 4. ^ Crangle 1994, p. 5. ^ Feuerstein, Georg (2001). The Yoga
Yoga
Tradition: Its History, Literature, Philosophy and Practice. Arizona, USA: Hohm Press. p. Kindle Locations 7299–7300. ISBN 978-1-890772-18-5.  ^ Aranya, Swami
Swami
Hariharananda (2000). "Introduction". Yoga
Yoga
Philosophy of Patanjali
Patanjali
with Bhasvati. Calcutta, India: University of Calcutta. p. xxiv. ISBN 81-87594-00-4.  ^ McEvilley, Thomas (1981). "An Archaeology of Yoga". Anthropology and aesthetics. 1 (spring): 51. doi:10.1086/RESv1n1ms20166655. ISSN 0277-1322.  ^ a b c d e Jacobsen, p. 6. ^ a b Whicher, p. 12. ^ Zimmer 1951, p. 217. ^ a b Crangle 1994, p. 7. ^ Crangle 1994, p. 5–7. ^ a b Burley, Mikel (2000). Hatha Yoga: Its Context, Theory and Practice. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 25. ISBN 978-8120817067.  ^ a b Sri Aurobindo (1916, Reprinted 1995), A Hymn to Savitri V.81, in The Secret of Veda, ISBN 978-0-914955-19-1, page 529 ^ Sanskrit: Source: Rigveda
Rigveda
Book
Book
5, Chapter 81 Wikisource ^ Flood 1996, p. 94–95. ^ Mircea Eliade
Mircea Eliade
(2009), Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-14203-6, pages 117–118 ^ wikisource, Chandogya Upanishad, अष्टमोऽध्यायः॥ पञ्चदशः खण्डः॥ ^ Translation 2 by GN Jha: Chandogya Upanishad
Chandogya Upanishad
VIII.15, page 488 ^ a b c Flood, p. 94–95. ^ Whicher, p. 13. ^ Wynne, p. 50. ^ a b Whicher, p. 11. ^ Larson, p. 34–35, 53. ^ Wynne, Alexander (2004). "The Oral Transmission of the Early Buddhist Literature". Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies. 27 (1): 97–128.  ^ Donald Lopez (2004). Buddhist Scriptures. Penguin Books. pp. xi–xv. ISBN 978-0-14-190937-0 ^ Flood 1996, p. 95. ^ Stephen Phillips (2009). Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy. Columbia University Press. pp. 28–30. ISBN 978-0-231-14485-8.  ^ Patrick Olivelle (1998). The Early Upanishads: Annotated Text and Translation. Oxford University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-19-512435-4.  ^ " Vedanta
Vedanta
and Buddhism, A Comparative Study". Archived from the original on 4 February 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2012.  ^ Whicher, p. 18–19. ^ a b c Jacobsen, p. 8. ^ White 2011, p. 4. ^ See: Original Sanskrit: Shvetashvatara Upanishad
Shvetashvatara Upanishad
Book
Book
2, Hymns 8–14; English Translation: Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
(German: 1897; English Translated by Bedekar & Palsule, Reprint: 2010), Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 309–310 Secondary Source Review: Mark Singleton (2010), Yoga
Yoga
Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-539534-1, page 26 ^ Feuerstein, Georg (January–February 1988). "Introducing Yoga's Great Literary Heritage". Yoga Journal (78): 70–5.  ^ TRS Ayyangar (1938), The Yoga
Yoga
Upanishads
Upanishads
The Adyar Library, Madras ^ David Gordon White (2011), Yoga
Yoga
in Practice, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691140865, pages 97–112 ^ Bimal Krishna
Krishna
Matilal 1977, pp. 56-59. ^ Jeaneane D. Fowler 2002, pp. 98-99. ^ Bimal Krishna
Krishna
Matilal 1977, p. 54. ^ a b c Johannes Bronkhorst (1993). The Two Traditions of Meditation in Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 64. ISBN 978-81-208-1114-0.  ^ a b Stephen Phillips (2009). Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy. Columbia University Press. pp. 281 footnote 36. ISBN 978-0-231-14485-8.  ^ Andrew J. Nicholson (2013). Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History. Columbia University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-231-14987-7. , Quote: "From a historical perspective, the Brahmasutras are best understood as a group of sutras composed by multiple authors over the course of hundreds of years, most likely composed in its current form between 400 and 450 BCE." ^ NV Isaeva (1992), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1281-7, page 36, Quote: ""on the whole, scholars are rather unanimous, considering the most probable date for Brahmasutra
Brahmasutra
sometime between the 2nd-century BCE and the 2nd-century CE" ^ Jeaneane Fowler (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723943, page 129 ^ B. K. Matilal (1986), "Perception. An Essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge", Oxford University Press, p. xiv. ^ Stephen Phillips (2009). Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy. Columbia University Press. pp. 281 footnote 40, 297. ISBN 978-0-231-14485-8.  ^ SC Vidyabhushana (1913, Translator), The Nyâya Sutras, The Sacred Book
Book
of the Hindus, Volume VIII, Bhuvaneshvar Asrama Press, pages 137–139 ^ Karl Potter (2004), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Indian metaphysics and epistemology, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803091, page 237 ^ a b c d Charles R Lanman, The Hindu
Hindu
Yoga
Yoga
System, Harvard Theological Review, Volume XI, Number 4, Harvard University Press, pages 355–359 ^ a b c Strabo, Geography Book
Book
XV, Chapter 1, see Sections 63–65, Loeb Classical Library edition, Harvard University Press, Translator: HL Jones, Archived by: University of Chicago ^ Karel Werner (1998), Yoga
Yoga
and the Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120816091, page 131 ^ a b c Werner (1977) p. 119–20 ^ Samuel 2008, pp. 31–32. ^ Mark Singleton (2010), Yoga
Yoga
Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-539534-1, Chapter 1 ^ Bronkhorst, Johannes (1993), The Two Traditions of Meditation
Meditation
in Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120816435, pages 1–24 ^ a b White 2011, pp. 5–6. ^ Douglass, Laura (2011). "Thinking Through The Body: The Conceptualization Of Yoga
Yoga
As Therapy For Individuals With Eating Disorders". Academic Search Premier: 83. Retrieved 19 February 2013.  ^ Datta, Amaresh (1988). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature: devraj to jyoti. Sahitya Akademi. p. 1809. ISBN 978-81-260-1194-0.  ^ Wynne, pp. 3–4. ^ Richard Gombrich, " Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism: A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo." Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1988, p. 44. ^ Barbara Stoler Miller, "Yoga: Discipline of Freedom: the Yoga
Yoga
Sutra Attributed to Patanjali; a Translation of the Text, with Commentary, Introduction, and Glossary of Keywords." University of California Press, 1996, p. 8. ^ Mallinson, James. 2007. The Khecarīvidyā of Adinathā. London: Routledge. pg.17–19. ^ James Mallinson, "Sāktism and Hathayoga," 6 March 2012. PDF file Archived 16 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. [accessed 10 June 2012] pgs. 20–21 "The Buddha
Buddha
himself is said to have tried both pressing his tongue to the back of his mouth, in a manner similar to that of the hathayogic khecarīmudrā, and ukkutikappadhāna, a squatting posture which may be related to hathayogic techniques such as mahāmudrā, mahābandha, mahāvedha, mūlabandha, and vajrāsana in which pressure is put on the perineum with the heel, in order to force upwards the breath or Kundalinī." ^ Wynne, pp. 44–45,58. ^ Whicher, p. 17. ^ Jacobsen, p. 10. ^ Flood, p. 96. ^ a b Jacobsen, p. 10–11. ^ E. Easwaran, Essence of the Bhagavad Gita, Nilgiri Press, ISBN 978-1-58638-068-7, pages 117–118 ^ Jack Hawley (2011), The Bhagavad Gita, ISBN 978-1-60868-014-6, pages 50, 130; Arvind Sharma (2000), Classical Hindu
Hindu
Thought: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-564441-8, pages 114–122 ^ a b c Bibek Debroy (2005), The Bhagavad Gita, Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-400068-5, Introduction, pages x–xi ^ Jacobsen, p. 46.; Georg Feuerstein (2011), The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
– A New Translation, Shambhala, ISBN 978-1-59030-893-6 ^ Whicher, p. 25–26. ^ a b Jacobsen, p. 9. ^ Wynne, p. 33. ^ Original Sanskrit: साङ्ख्यं योगो लोकायतं च इत्यान्वीक्षिकी English Translation: Arthasastra Book
Book
1, Chapter 2 Kautiliya, R Shamasastry (Translator), page 9 ^ Olivelle, Patrick (2013), King, Governance, and Law in Ancient India: Kautilya's Arthasastra, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-989182-5, see Introduction ^ Larson, p. 38. ^ Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 342. ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
– An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-64887-5, pages 31–46 ^ For yoga acceptance of samkhya concepts, but with addition of a category for God, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 453. ^ Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 344. ^ Müller (1899), Chapter 7, " Yoga
Yoga
Philosophy," p. 104. ^ Stiles 2001, p. x. ^ For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents," and pp. 453–487. ^ For a brief overview of the yoga school of philosophy see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43. ^ Werner, p. 24. ^ a b c d Larson, pp. 43–45 ^ For Patanjali
Patanjali
as the founder of the philosophical system called yoga see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 42. ^ Larson, p. 21–22. ^ For "raja yoga" as a system for control of the mind and connection to Patanjali's Yoga
Yoga
Sutras as a key work, see: Flood (1996), pp. 96–98. ^ For text and word-by-word translation as " Yoga
Yoga
is the inhibition of the modifications of the mind." See: Taimni, p. 6. ^ Vivekanada, p. 115. ^ Bryant 2009, p. 10. ^ Bryant 2009, p. 457. ^ Dass, Baba Hari (1999). The Yoga
Yoga
Sytras of Patanjali, A Study Guide for Book
Book
I, Samadhi
Samadhi
Pada; Translation and Commentary. Santa Cruz, Californnia: Sri Rama
Rama
Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 0-918100-20-8.  ^ Baba Hari Dass
Baba Hari Dass
(1999) ^ James Lochtefeld, "Yama (2)", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N–Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8, page 777 ^ a b Arti Dhand (2002), The dharma of ethics, the ethics of dharma: Quizzing the ideals of Hinduism, Journal of Religious Ethics, 30(3), pages 347–372 ^ a b MN Gulati (2008), Comparative Religions And Philosophies : Anthropomorphism And Divinity, ISBN 978-8126909025, page 168 ^ Sharma and Sharma, Indian Political Thought, Atlantic Publishers, ISBN 978-8171566785, page 19 ^ a b N Tummers (2009), Teaching Yoga
Yoga
for Life, ISBN 978-0-7360-7016-4, pages 16–17 ^ Kaelber, W. O. (1976). "Tapas", Birth, and Spiritual Rebirth in the Veda, History of Religions, 15(4): 343–386 ^ SA Bhagwat (2008), Yoga
Yoga
and Sustainability. Journal of Yoga, Fall/Winter 2008, 7(1): 1–14 ^ John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5, page 238 ^ a b Phillips, Stephen H. (1995). Classical Indian Metaphysics: Refutations of Realism and the Emergence of "New Logic". Open Court Publishing. pp. 12–13.  ^ Larson (2008), p. 478. ^ Yoga
Yoga
Journal, Active Interest Media, Inc., 2006, p. 121, ISSN 0191-0965  ^ Divanji, Prahlad, ed. (1954). Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya: A Treatise on Yoga as Taught by Yogi
Yogi
Yajnavalkya. B.B.R.A. Society's Monograph No. 3. Bombay, India: Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. p. 105.  ^ Mohan, A.G. (2010). Krishnamacharya: His Life and Teachings. Shambhala Publications. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-59030-800-4.  ^ Larson (2008), p. 479. ^ Larson (2008), pp. 481–484 ^ Larson (2008), pp. 485–486 ^ a b Tattvarthasutra
Tattvarthasutra
[6.2] ^ Niyamasara [134–40] ^ Zydenbos, Robert. " Jainism
Jainism
Today and Its Future." München: Manya Verlag, 2006. p.66 ^ Zydenbos (2006) p.66 ^ Worthington, p. 35. ^ P. 313 The Integrity of the Yoga
Yoga
Darsana: A Reconsideration of the Classical Yoga
Yoga
By Ian Whicher ^ Dan Lusthaus. Buddhist Phenomenology: A Philosophical Investigation of Yogacara
Yogacara
Buddhism
Buddhism
and the Ch'eng Wei-shih Lun. Published 2002 (Routledge). ISBN 0-7007-1186-4. pg 533 ^ Simple Tibetan Buddhism: A Guide to Tantric Living By C. Alexander Simpkins, Annellen M. Simpkins. Published 2001. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3199-8 ^ Larson, pp. 136–139. ^ Cutler, Norman (1987). Songs of Experience. Indiana University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-253-35334-4.  ^ Larson, p. 137. ^ Jacobsen, p. 22. ^ Einoo, Shingo (ed.) (2009). Genesis and Development of Tantrism. University of Tokyo. p. 45. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Banerjee, S.C., 1988. ^ White 2000, p. 7. ^ Samuel 2008, pp. 324–333. ^ John Powers (2004), in Encyclopedia of Buddhism
Buddhism
(Editors: Damien Keown et al.), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-31414-5, pages 775–785 ^ White, David Gordon. Yoga
Yoga
in Practice. Princeton University Press 2012, page 14. ^ Chogyam Trungpa (2001) The Lion's Roar: An Introduction to Tantra. Shambhala. ISBN 1-57062-895-5 ^ Edmonton Patric 2007, Pali and Its Significance, p. 332 ^ "Yantra Yoga: The Tibetan Yoga
Yoga
of Movement" by Chogyal Namkhai Norbu. Snow Lion, 2008. ISBN 1-55939-308-4 ^ The Lion's Roar: An Introduction to Tantra, by Chogyam Trungpa. Shambhala, 2001 ISBN 1-57062-895-5 ^ "Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
of Tibet" by Ray, Reginald A. Shambhala: 2002. pp. 37–38 ISBN 1-57062-917-X ^ "Secret of the Vajra World: The Tantric Buddhism
Buddhism
of Tibet" by Ray, Reginald A. Shambhala: 2002. p. 57 ISBN 1-57062-917-X ^ The Buddhist Tradition in India, China, and Japan. Edited by William Theodore de Bary. pp. 207–208. ISBN 0-394-71696-5 ^ a b Dumoulin, Heinrich & Knitter, p. 13. ^ James Mallinson, "Sāktism and Hathayoga," 28 June 2012. <URL> Archived 16 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. [accessed 19 September 2013] pgs. 2 "The earliest references to hathayoga are scattered mentions in Buddhist canonical works and their exegesis dating from the eighth century onwards, in which it is the soteriological method of last resort." ^ James Mallinson, "Sāktism and Hathayoga," 28 June 2012. <URL> Archived 16 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. [accessed 19 September 2013] pgs. 2 "In its earliest definition, in Pundarīka's eleventh-century Vimalaprabhā commentary on the Kālacakratantra, hathayoga is said to bring about the "unchanging moment" (aksaraksana) "through the practice of nāda by forcefully making the breath enter the central channel and through restraining the bindu of the bodhicitta in the vajra of the lotus of wisdom". While the means employed are not specified, the ends, in particular restraining bindu, semen, and making the breath enter the central channel, are similar to those mentioned in the earliest descriptions of the practices of hathayoga, to which I now turn." ^ Larson, p. 140. ^ Burley, Mikel (2000). Hatha Yoga: Its Context, Theory and Practice. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 16. ISBN 978-8120817067.  ^ Feuerstein, Georg. (1996). "The Shambhala Guide to Yoga." Boston & London: Shambhala Publications, Inc. ^ Dhillon, p. 249. ^ Dhillon, p. 255. ^ Mansukhani, Gobind Singh (2009). Introduction To Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-81-7010-181-9.  ^ Dhillon, Harish (2010). Guru
Guru
Nanak. Indus Source Books. p. 178. ISBN 978-81-88569-02-1.  ^ a b Shaw, Eric. "35 Moments", Yoga
Yoga
Journal, 2010-09. ^ Goldberg, Philip, American Veda. From Emerson and the Beatles to Yoga
Yoga
and Meditation: How Indian Spirituality Changed the West. New York, 2010: Harmony Books, pp. 21ff. ^ Von Glasenapp, Hellmuth. Die Philosophie der Inder. Stuttgart, 1974: A. Kroener Verlag, pp. 166f. ^ a b "Fear of Yoga". Utne.com. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ De Michelis, Elizabeth, A History Of Modern Yoga. Patanjali
Patanjali
and Modern Esotericism. London, 2004: Continuum Books, pp. 19ff. ^ Flood, Gavin D., Body and Cosmology in Kashmir Saivism, San Francisco, 1993: Mellen Research University Press, pp.229ff. ^ Love, Robert. The Great Oom. ISBN 978-0-14-311917-3.  ^ Singleton, Mark (12 January 2010). Yoga
Yoga
Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice. Oxford University Press. p.32, 50. ISBN 978-0-19-974598-2. Retrieved 14 March 2014. ^ Joseph S. Alter (30 August 2004). Yoga
Yoga
in Modern India: The Body between Science and Philosophy. Princeton University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-691-11874-1. Retrieved 14 March 2014. ^ Title: A History of Modern Yoga. Author: Elizabeth De Michelis. Published: Continuum, 2005 ^ Bryant 2009, p. xviii. ^ Cushman, Ann (January–February 2000). "The New Yoga". Yoga Journal.com. p. 68. Retrieved 5 February 2011.  ^ Silva, Mira, and Mehta, Shyam. (1995). Yoga
Yoga
the Iyengar Way, p. 9. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. ISBN 0-89381-731-7 ^ Desikachar, T. K. V. (2005). Health, healing and beyond: Yoga
Yoga
and the living tradition of Krishnamacharya, (cover jacket text). Aperture, USA. ISBN 978-0-89381-731-2 ^ Congressional Honorary Resolution 521 US Library of Congress ^ Jones and Ryan, Constance and James (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. Baba Hari Dass. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9.  ^ Singleton, Mark. (2010). Yoga
Yoga
Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice, p. 161. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-539534-4 ^ Weekly Highlights, July 1, 2011, The White House, United States, JULY 1, 2011 (MIYA SAIKA CHEN) ^ "Diversify Your Client's Workout With Yoga". American College of Sports Medicine. Retrieved 19 September 2013.  ^ a b Dupler, Douglas; Frey, Rebecca (2006) Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed, ISBN 978-0787618681; Retrieved 30 August 2012. ^ Balasubramaniam M, Telles S, Doraiswamy PM (2013). " Yoga
Yoga
on our minds: a systematic review of yoga for neuropsychiatric disorders". Front Psychiatry. 3: 117. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00117. PMC 3555015 . PMID 23355825. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Baggoley C (2015). "Review of the Australian Government Rebate on Natural Therapies for Private Health Insurance" (PDF). Australian Government – Department of Health. Lay summary – Gavura, S. Australian review finds no benefit to 17 natural therapies. Science-Based Medicine. (19 November 2015).  ^ Paola S (17 October 2017). "Homeopathy, naturopathy struck off private insurance list". Australian Journal of Pharmacy.  ^ Krisanaprakornkit, T.; Ngamjarus, C.; Witoonchart, C.; Piyavhatkul, N. (2010). " Meditation
Meditation
therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
(6): CD006507. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006507.pub2. PMID 20556767.  ^ Ospina, M. B.; Bond, K.; Karkhaneh, M.; et al. (2008). "Clinical trials of meditation practices in health care: characteristics and quality". Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 14 (10): 199–213.  ^ Uebelacker, L. A.; Epstein-Lubow, G.; Gaudiano, B. A.; Tremont, G.; Battle, C. L.; Miller, I. W. (2010). " Hatha yoga
Hatha yoga
for depression: critical review of the evidence for efficacy, plausible mechanisms of action, and directions for future research". Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 16 (1): 22–33. doi:10.1097/01.pra.0000367775.88388.96. PMID 20098228.  ^ Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Haller, Heidemarie; Dobos, Gustav (May 2013). "A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Yoga
Yoga
for Low Back Pain". The Clinical Journal of Pain. 29 (5): 450–460. doi:10.1097/AJP.0b013e31825e1492.  ^ Swain, T. A.; McGwin, G. (2016). "Yoga-Related Injuries in the United States From 2001 to 2014". Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine. 4 (11): 2325967116671703. doi:10.1177/2325967116671703. PMC 5117171 . PMID 27896293.  ^ Distasio, S. A (2008). "Integrating yoga into cancer care". Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. 12 (1): 125–30. doi:10.1188/08.CJON.125-130. PMID 18258582.  ^ Sadja, J; Mills, P. J (2013). "Effects of Yoga
Yoga
Interventions on Fatigue in Cancer
Cancer
Patients and Survivors: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials". EXPLORE: the Journal of Science and Healing. 9 (4): 232–243. doi:10.1016/j.explore.2013.04.005. PMC 3781173 . PMID 23906102.  ^ Cramer, H; Langhorst, J; Dobos, G; Lauche, R (22 August 2016). "Yoga for metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis". European journal of preventive cardiology. 23 (18): 1982–1993. doi:10.1177/2047487316665729. PMID 27550905.  ^ a b c Penman, Stephen; Cohen, Marc; Stevens, Philip; Jackson, Sue (2012). " Yoga
Yoga
in Australia: Results of a national survey". IJOY, International Journal of Yoga. 5 (2): 92–101. doi:10.4103/0973-6131.98217. PMC 3410203 . PMID 22869991.  ^ a b c d Broad, William J. (5 January 2012). "How Yoga
Yoga
Can Wreck Your Body". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 29 August 2012.  ^ Broad, William J. (7 February 2012). The Science of Yoga
Yoga
The Risks and the Rewards (hardcover) (1st ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. 336. ISBN 978-1-4516-4142-4.  ^ Walters, Joanna (14 January 2012). "' Yoga
Yoga
can damage your body' article throws exponents off-balance: A $5bn industry is outraged over a New York Times article saying that the keep fit regime is bad for your body". The Guardian, The Observer. Retrieved 29 August 2012.  ^ Cite error: The named reference DM82912 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Biffl, Walter L.; Moore, Ernest E.; Elliott, J. Paul; Ray, Charles; Offner, Patrick J.; Franciose, Reginald J.; Brega, Kerry E.; Burch, Jon M. (May 2000). "The Devastating Potential of Blunt Vertebral Arterial Injuries". Annals of Surgery. 231 (5): 672–681. doi:10.1097/00000658-200005000-00007. PMC 1421054 . PMID 10767788.  ^ Critchley, E. M. (June 1984). "Non-atheromatous causes of cerebral infarction" (PDF). Postgraduate Medical Journal. 60 (704): 386–390. doi:10.1136/pgmj.60.704.386. PMC 2417905 . PMID 6379628. Retrieved 21 November 2012.  ^ Kang, Chan; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Cha, Soo-Min (December 2009). "Acetabular Labral Tears in Patients with Sports Injury". Clinics in Sports Injury. 1 (4): 230–235. doi:10.4055/cios.2009.1.4.230. PMC 2784964 . PMID 19956481.  ^ Daniel June (2 July 2013). "California Judge Says Yoga
Yoga
is Secular, Approves its Use in Schools". JD Journal.  ^ a b c Steinfels, Peter (7 January 1990). "Trying to Reconcile the Ways of the Vatican and the East". New York Times. Retrieved 5 December 2008.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 9 June 2014.  Bishop Raffaello Martinelli
Raffaello Martinelli
presentation ^ http://www.webdiocesi.chiesacattolica.it/cci_new/documenti_diocesi/80/2013-01/23-236/AdA-201301-Opera-Completa.pdf Argomenti di Attualità mons. Raffaello Martinelli
Raffaello Martinelli
ed. gennaio 2013 Page 135 ^ "Vatican sounds New Age
New Age
alert". BBC. 4 February 2003. Retrieved 27 August 2013.  ^ Teasdale, Wayne (2004). Catholicism in dialogue: conversations across traditions. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 74. ISBN 0-7425-3178-3.  ^ Mohler, R. Albert Jr. "The Subtle Body – Should Christians Practice Yoga?". Retrieved 14 January 2011.  ^ Handbook of vocational psychology by W. Bruce Walsh, Mark Savickas 2005 ISBN 0-8058-4517-8 page 358 ^ "1989 Letter from Vatican to Bishops on Some Aspects of Christian Meditation". Ewtn.com. Retrieved 28 November 2012.  ^ Dr Ankerberg, John & Dr Weldon, John, Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs, Harvest House Publishers, 1996 ^ Mermis–Cava, Jonathan (2009). "An Anchor and a Sail: Christian Meditation
Meditation
as the Mechanism for a Pluralist Religious Identity". Sociology of Religion.  ^ a b S Pines and T Gelblum (Translators from Arabic to English, 1966), Al-Bīrūni (Translator from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to Arabic, ~ 1035 AD), and Patañjali, Al-Bīrūnī's Arabic Version of Patañjali's "Yogasūtra", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2 (1966), pages 302–325 ^ David White (2014), The " Yoga
Yoga
Sutra
Sutra
of Patanjali" – A Biography, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-1-4008-5005-1 ^ Philipp Maas (2013), A Concise Historiography of Classical Yoga Philosophy, in Periodization and Historiography of Indian Philosophy (Editor: Eli Franco), Sammlung de Nobili, Institut für Südasien-, Tibet- und Buddhismuskunde der Universität Wien, ISBN 978-3-900271-43-5, pages 53–90, OCLC 858797956 ^ Satish Chandra (2007), Historiography, Religion, and State in Medieval India, ISBN 978-8124100356, pages 135–136 ^ Ernst, C. W. (2005). "Situating Sufism and Yoga". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 15: 15–43. doi:10.1017/S1356186304004675.  ^ "Situating Sufism and Yoga" (PDF). Retrieved 5 September 2010.  ^ Carl W. Ernst, Persecution and Circumspection in Shattari Sufism, in Islamic Mysticism Contested: Thirteen Centuries of Debate and Conflict (Editors: Fred De Jong and Berndt Radtke), Brill, 1999 ^ "Sidang Media – Fatwa
Fatwa
Yoga". Islam.gov.my. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2010. Quote: The Fatwas of Religious Council in Islamic affairs on Yoga. After carefully studied various reports and factual data, the Council unanimously agreed that this ancient India
India
religious teachings, which involves physical and mental exercises, are Hinduism
Hinduism
in nature known as wahdat al-wujud philosophy (oneness of existence; the realization of identity between the Self in man, Atman; and the Divine, BRAHMAN: ‘ Brahman
Brahman
is all, and Atman is Brahman'). It is prohibited (haram) for Muslims to practice it.  ^ Top Islamic body: Yoga
Yoga
is not for Muslims – MSNBC ^ "Mixed reactions to yoga ban". Thestar.com.my. 23 November 2008. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2010.  ^ Paul Babie and Neville Rochow (2012), Freedom of Religion Under Bills of Rights, University of Adelaide Press, ISBN 978-0-9871718-0-1, page 98 ^ "Malaysia leader: Yoga
Yoga
for Muslims OK without chant Archived 31 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine.," Saudi Gazette ^ "Indonesian clerics issue yoga ban". BBC News. 25 January 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2010.  ^ "rediff.com: Why give yoga religious connotation: Deoband". Specials.rediff.com. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2010.  ^ Andrea R. Jain (2014), Selling Yoga: From Counterculture to Pop Culture, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-939024-3, page 195; Archive: Find alternative to yoga, urges Jakim Archived 8 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. New Strait Times, Malaysia ^ "The perils of yoga: Conservative clerics are wary of a popular pastime". Economist.com.  ^ "It's OK to stretch, just don't believe". Hurriyet.com.tr. Retrieved 5 September 2010.  ^ UN Declared 21 June as International Day of Yoga
International Day of Yoga
Archived 9 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ UN should adopt an International Yoga
Yoga
Day: Modi ^ India
India
leader proposes International Yoga Day
International Yoga Day
Archived 7 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ PM Modi asks world leaders to adopt International Yoga
Yoga
Day ^ Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
asks world leaders to adopt International Yoga
Yoga
Day ^ UN-declares-June-21-as-International-Day-of-Yoga/articleshow/45480636.cms UN Adopts 21 June as International Yoga
Yoga
Day] ^ UN declares 21 June as 'International Day of Yoga' ^ Massive turnout ^ "PM Modi Leads Yoga
Yoga
Session, India
India
Sets Guinness Records: 10 Developments". NDTV. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 

Sources

Bryant, Edwin (2009). The Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patañjali: A New Edition, Translation, and Commentary. New York, USA: North Point Press. ISBN 978-0-86547-736-0.  Crangle, Edward Fitzpatrick (1994), The Origin and Development of Early Indian Contemplative Practices, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag  Dhillon, Dalbir Singh (1988). Sikhism, Origin and Development. Atlantic Publishers. GGKEY:BYKZE4QTGJH.  De Michelis, Elizabeth (2004). A History of Modern Yoga. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-8772-6.  Dumoulin, Heinrich; Heisig, James W.; Knitter, Paul F. (2005). Zen Buddhism: a History: India
India
and China. World Wisdom, Inc. ISBN 978-0-941532-89-1.  Eliade, Mircea (1958). Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14203-6.  Feuerstein, Georg (1996). The Shambhala Guide to Yoga. 1st ed. Boston & London: Shambhala Publications.  Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Fowler, Jeaneane D. (2012). The Bhagavad Gita: A Text and Commentary for Students. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-84519-346-1.  Goldberg, Philip (2010). American Veda. From Emerson and the Beatles to Yoga
Yoga
and Meditation. How Indian Spirituality Changed the West. New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 978-0-385-52134-5.  Gambhirananda, Swami
Swami
(1998). Madhusudana Sarasvati Bhagavad_Gita: With the annotation Gūḍhārtha Dīpikā. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama Publication Department. ISBN 81-7505-194-9.  Hari Dass, Baba (1978), Ashtanga Yoga
Yoga
Primer, Santa Cruz: Sri Ram Publishing, pp. bk. cover, ISBN 978-0-918100-04-7  Jacobsen, Knut A.; Larson, Gerald James (2005). Theory And Practice of Yoga: Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-14757-7.  Larson, Gerald James (2008). The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Yoga: India's philosophy of meditation. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-3349-4.  Lidell, Lucy (1983). The Sivananda Companion to Yoga
Yoga
(PDF). London: Gaia Books Limited. ISBN 0-684-87000-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2014.  Mallinson, James (2011), "Haṭha Yoga", in Jacobsen, Knut A.; Basu, Helene, Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Volume Three, BRILL  McEvilley, Thomas (2002). The shape of ancient thought. Allworth Communications. ISBN 978-1-58115-203-6.  Müller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd. ISBN 0-7661-4296-5.  Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of "The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy." Possehl, Gregory (2003). The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0172-2.  Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.  Samuel, Geoffrey (2008), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-69534-3  Satyananda, Swami
Swami
(2008). Asana
Asana
Pranayama
Pranayama
Mudra
Mudra
Bandha (PDF). Munger: Yoga
Yoga
Publications Trust. ISBN 978-81-86336-14-4.  Taimni, I. K. (1961). The Science of Yoga. Adyar, India: The Theosophical Publishing House. ISBN 81-7059-212-7.  Werner, Karel (1998). Yoga
Yoga
And Indian Philosophy (1977, Reprinted in 1998). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 81-208-1609-9.  Whicher, Ian (1998). The Integrity of the Yoga
Yoga
Darśana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3815-2.  White, David Gordon (2011), Yoga, Brief History of an Idea (Chapter 1 of " Yoga
Yoga
in practice") (PDF), Princeton University Press  White, David Gordon (2014), The " Yoga
Yoga
Sutra
Sutra
of Patanjali": A Biography, Princeton University Press  Worthington, Vivian (1982). A History of Yoga. Routledge. ISBN 0-7100-9258-X. Wynne, Alexander "The Origin of Buddhist Meditation." Routledge, 2007, ISBN 1-134-09741-7. Zimmer, Heinrich (1951), Philosophies of India, New York, New York: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01758-1  Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell. Zydenbos, Robert. Jainism
Jainism
Today and Its Future. München: Manya Verlag, 2006. p. 66

Further reading

De Michelis, Elizabeth (2005). A History of Modern Yoga. Continuum.  Kenny, Molly (2001). Integrated Movement Therapy. Continuum. 

External links

Find more aboutYogaat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Yoga
Yoga
Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
entry

Articles related to Yoga

v t e

Indian philosophy

Topics

Atheism Atomism Idealism Logic Monotheism Vedic philosophy

Āstika

Hindu: Samkhya Nyaya Vaisheshika Yoga Mīmāṃsā Vedanta

Acintya bheda abheda Advaita Bhedabheda Dvaita Dvaitadvaita Shuddhadvaita Vishishtadvaita

Shaiva

Pratyabhijña Pashupata Shaivism Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta

Nāstika

Ājīvika Ajñana Cārvāka Jain

Anekantavada Syādvāda

Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and Early Buddhist schools

Śūnyatā Madhyamaka Yogacara Sautrāntika Svatantrika

Texts

Abhinavabharati Arthashastra Bhagavad Gita Bhagavata Purana Brahma Sutra Buddhist texts Dharmashastra Hindu
Hindu
texts Jain Agamas Kamasutra Mimamsa Sutras

All 108 texts Principal

Nyāya Sūtras Nyayakusumanjali Panchadasi Samkhyapravachana Sutra Shiva
Shiva
Sutras Tarka-Sangraha Tattvacintāmaṇi Upanishads

Minor

Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Vedangas Vedas Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha More...

Philosophers

Avatsara Uddalaka Aruni Gautam Buddha Yajnavalkya Gargi Vachaknavi Buddhaghosa Patanjali Kanada Kapila Brihadratha Ikshvaku Jaimini Vyasa Chanakya Dharmakirti Akshapada Gotama Nagarjuna Padmasambhava Vasubandhu Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vivekananda Dayananda Saraswati Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Raikva Sadananda Sakayanya Satyakama Jabala Madhvacharya Mahavira Guru
Guru
Nanak Vidyaranya More...

Concepts

Abhava Abhasavada Abheda Adarsana Adrishta Advaita Aham Aishvarya Akrodha Aksara Anatta Ananta Anavastha Anupalabdhi Apauruṣheyā Artha Asiddhatva Asatkalpa Ātman Avyakta Brahman Brahmi sthiti Bhuman Bhumika Chaitanya Chidabhasa Cittabhumi Dāna Devatas Dharma Dhi Dravya Dhrti Ekagrata Guṇa Hitā Idam Ikshana Ishvaratva Jivatva Kama Karma Kasaya Kshetrajna Lakshana Mithyatva Mokṣa Nididhyasana Nirvāṇa Niyama Padārtha Paramatman Paramananda Parameshashakti Parinama-vada Pradhana Prajna Prakṛti Pratibimbavada Pratītyasamutpāda Puruṣa Rājamaṇḍala Ṛta Sakshi Samadhi Saṃsāra Sankalpa Satya Satkaryavada Shabda Brahman Sphoṭa Sthiti Śūnyatā Sutram Svātantrya Iccha-mrityu Syādvāda Taijasa Tajjalan Tanmatra Tyāga Uparati Upekkhā Utsaha Vivartavada Viraj Yamas Yoga More...

v t e

Worship in Hinduism

Main topics

Aarti Bhajan Darśana Deities Festivals Homa (Yajna) Kirtan Mantra Murti Tilaka Utsava Vrata Yatra

Rituals

Puja

Abhisheka Bhog Naivedhya Panchamakara Panchamrita Parikrama Pranāma Prasad Pushpanjali

Homa

Yajna Agnicayana Agnihotra Agnikaryam Aupasana Dhuni Kaamya karma Pravargya Purushamedha Putrakameshti Viraja Homa

Other

Achamana Archana Ashirvad Ashvamedha Darśana Karmkand Kumbhabhishekham Nitya karma Ngejot Panchayatana puja Prana pratishta Sandhyavandanam Shuddhi Shrauta Upakarma

Prayer Meditation

Ajapa japa Bhajan Brahmamuhurtha Jagran Jai Sri Ram Japa Kirtan Om Sandhyavandanam Shaktipat Stotra Third eye Yoga

Mantras

Om Hare Krishna Om Namah Shivaya Gayatri Mantra

Objects

Puja thali Altar Banalinga Banana leaf Biruda Coconut Dhunachi Dhuni Dhupa Diya Cāmara Garland Ghanta Joss stick Kalasha Kamandalu Khirapat Kindi Paduka Palki Panchamrita Pandal Pinda Prayer
Prayer
beads Rangoli Shankha Tilaka Upanayana Uthsavar Yagnopaveetham

Materials

Agarwood Alta Camphor Charu Ghee Incense Kumkuma Marigold Milk Panchagavya Rudraksha Sandalwood Sindoor Soma Tulsi Turmeric Vibhuti

Instruments

Dholak Harmonium Karatalas Khol Manjira Mridangam Tabla

Iconography

Lingam Murti Om Pindi Shaligram Swastika Yoni more...

Places

Ashram Dwajasthambam Ghat Kalyani Matha Temple Pilgrimage sites

Roles

Guru Pandit Pujari Rishi Sadhu Sannyasa Swami Yogi more...

Sacred animals

Nāga Nag Panchami Nagaradhane

Sacred plants

Trees

Akshayavat Ashoka Banyan Kadamba Kalpavriksha Parijaat Peepal Sacred groves

Fruits and other plants

Bael Kusha grass Lotus Tulsi ( Tulasi
Tulasi
chaura Tulsi
Tulsi
Vivah)

See also

Firewalking Sanskara Temple dance

v t e

Vishnu-bhakti, Vaishnava
Vaishnava
theology and Vaishnava
Vaishnava
philosophy

Topics

Bhakti Supreme Personality of Godhead Japa Yoga Meditation Hare Krishna Mantras Puja Arati Bhajan Kirtan Sattvic diet Ahimsa Rishis Tilaka Guru Diksha

Acharyas

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Swami
Prabhupada Bhaktivinoda Thakur Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati

Avatars

Matsya Kurma Varaha Krishna Balarama Rama Narasimha Vamana Buddha Parashurama Kalki Dhanvantari Kapila

Holy texts

Vedanta
Vedanta
( Dvaitadvaita * Dvaita
Dvaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
* Achintya Bheda Abheda) Bhagavad Gita Vedas Ramayana Mahabharata Puranas Shrimad Bhagavatam Upanishads Chaitanya Charitamrita Chaitanya Bhagavata

Organizations

Gaudiya Math ISKCON

Sampradayas

Sri Sampradaya
Sri Sampradaya
( Laxmi
Laxmi
- Ramanuja) Brahma Sampradaya ( Brahmā
Brahmā
- Madhvacharya) Rudra Sampradaya ( Rudra
Rudra
- Vishnuswami) Nimbarka Sampradaya
Nimbarka Sampradaya
(Four Kumāras - Nimbarka) Chaitanya Vaisnava sampradaya

Spiritual abodes

Vaikuntha Goloka Vrindavana Ayodhya

Holy attributes

Lotus Sudarshana Chakra Narayanastra Kaumodaki Nandaka Sharangam Shankha

Famous bhaktas

Hanuman Arjuna Prahlada Narada Haridasa Six Goswamis of Vrindavana Alvars

Holy days

Ekadashi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Gaura-purnima

Writers

Vyasa Valmiki Vrindavana
Vrindavana
Dasa Thakura

Pancha-tattva

Chaitanya Nityananda Advaita Acharya Gadadhara Pandita Srivasa Thakura

Worship

Karatalas Mridangam Harmonium Incense of India Om Hindu
Hindu
temple Japamala

Other

Jagannatha Narayana Brahman Paramatma Bhagavan Tulasi Devis list Tridevi Radharani Sita Deva Demigods list Trimurti Indian philosophy Dharma Artha Arthashastra Kama Indian idealism Varna Ashrama Swami Goswami Krishnology Vaishnava
Vaishnava
theology Hinduism
Hinduism
by country Hindu
Hindu
cosmology Hindu
Hindu
units of time Hindu
Hindu
views on evolution Hindu
Hindu
calendar Hindu
Hindu
astrology List of numbers in Hindu
Hindu
scriptures Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Meditation

Main topics

Brain activity and meditation History of meditation Meditation
Meditation
in popular culture Mind–body interventions Research on meditation

Traditions

Anapanasati
Anapanasati
(Buddhist breathing meditation) Buddhist meditation Christian meditation Daoist meditation Dancemeditation Dhyāna (Buddhist meditation) Dhyāna ( Hindu
Hindu
meditation) Islamic meditation Jain meditation Jewish meditation Muraqaba ( Sufi
Sufi
meditation) New Age
New Age
meditation Naam Japo (Sikism meditation) Neigong Pranayama
Pranayama
(yoga breathing practice) Qigong Shikantaza ( Zen
Zen
Buddhist seated meditation) Silva Method Tantra Transcendental meditation (TM) Vipassanā
Vipassanā
(Silent meditation) Yoga Zazen
Zazen
( Zen
Zen
Buddhist seated meditation) Zhan zhuang
Zhan zhuang
( Qigong
Qigong
standing meditation) 5Rhythms

Techniques

Biofeedback Brainwave entrainment Breathing Chanting Concentration Emptiness Guided meditation Higher consciousness Mantra Mindfulness Mudra Music Oneness Poetry Postures Prayer Relaxation Samyama Sexuality Silence Sound Trance Visualization

Category Wikibooks Wikiversity

v t e

Asanas

Kriya•Mudra•Pranayama•Surya Namaskara•Asana

Arm balance

Ashtavakrasana

Uttihista Sthiti
Sthiti
(Standing)

Ardha Chandrasana Malasana

Purva Pratana Sthiti
Sthiti
(Backbend)

Chakrasana Uttanapadasana

Sitting

Navasana

other

Adho Mukha Shvanasana Eka pada prasaranasana Anantasana Anjaneyasana Ardha Matsyendrasana Akarna Dhanurasana Adho Mukha Vrkshasana Baddha Konasana Bakasana Balasana Bharadvajasana Bhekasana Bhujangasana Bhujapidasana Dandasana Chaturanga Dandasana Dhanurasana Dvi Pada Viparita Dandasana Eka Pada Kaundinyasana I Eka Pada Kaundinyasana II Eka Pada Viparita Dandasana Garbhasana Garudasana Gomukhasana Halasana Hanumanasana Hasta Uttanasana Janushirshasana Karnapidasana Kakasana Kapotasana Kukkutasana Kurmasana Lolasana Makarasana Matsyasana Mayurasana Natarajasana Padahastasana Padmasana Parivrtta trikonasana Paschimottanasana Pashasana Pavanamuktasana Rajakapotasana Shalabhasana Samakonasana Sarvangasana Shavasana Siddhasana Simhasana Shirshasana Sukhasana Supta Virasana Svastikasana Tadasana Trikonasana Tulasana Urdhva Hastasana Urdhva mukha shvanasana Ushtrasana Utkatasana Uttana Shishosana Uttanasana Utthita Parsvakonasana Utthita Trikonasana Vajrasana Virasana Virabhadrasana I Virabhadrasana II Virabhadrasana III Viparita Karani Vrksasana

v t e

Physical exercise

Types

Aerobic exercise

Aerobics Cycling Distance running Endurance training Hiking Jogging Swimming Walking

Anaerobic exercise

Sprinting Strength training

Bodyweight exercise Weight training

Other

Circuit training Cross-training Interval training Physical therapy Stretching Yoga

Related

Exercise equipment Exercise physiology Outline of exercise Physical fitness Neurobiological effects of physical exercise

Category

v t e

Yoga

Yoga
Yoga
physiology

Three bodies Five sheaths Chakra Nadi

Hinduism

Four Yogas

Karma
Karma
yoga Bhakti
Bhakti
yoga Jnana yoga Raja yoga

Classical yoga

Yoga
Yoga
(philosophy) Bhagavad Gita Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha

History of yoga

Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali Eight Limbs

Yama Niyama Āsana Prāṇāyāma Pratyahara Dhāraṇā Dhyāna Samādhi

Mantra
Mantra
Yoga

Pranava yoga Nāda yoga

Tantra

Yogi Yogini Siddhi Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta Kundalini Chakra Subtle body

Hatha yoga

Hatha Yoga
Yoga
Pradipika Gherand Samhita Shiva
Shiva
Samhita Yoga as exercise
Yoga as exercise
or alternative medicine

Chair Yoga Anti-gravity yoga

Mudras List of asanas List of styles

Contemporary yoga styles and schools

Ananda Marga Yoga Ananda Yoga Anusara Yoga Ashtanga vinyasa yoga Bihar School of Yoga Bikram Yoga Forrest Yoga Hot yoga Integral yoga Integral yoga (Satchidananda) Isha Yoga Iyengar Yoga Jivamukti Yoga Kripalu Yoga Kriya Yoga Kundalini
Kundalini
Yoga Sahaj Marg Satyananda Yoga Sivananda Yoga Svādhyāya Viniyoga Vinyāsa

Buddhism

Theravada

Samatha Samadhi
Samadhi
(Buddhism) Vipassana Anapanasati Visuddhimagga

Mahayana

Yogacara Zazen

Vajrayana

Indian Buddhist Tantra

Anuttarayoga Tantra

Tibetan Buddhism

Trul khor Six Yogas of Naropa Tummo Dream yoga Ösel

China

Tangmi

Japan

Shingon Buddhism Tendai

Related

Yoga
Yoga
texts International Yoga
Yoga
Day Shinshin-tōitsu-dō

Book Commons Wikiquote Wikisource texts Category Portal

Authority control

LCCN: sh85149174 GND: 4067199-9 BNF: cb11933824d (d

.