YITZHAK RABIN (
Hebrew : יצחק רבין; IPA: ( listen ); 1
March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman
and general. He was the fifth
Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel , serving two
terms in office, 1974–77 and 1992 until his assassination in 1995.
Rabin was born in
Jerusalem to Ukrainian-Jewish immigrants and was
raised in a Labor Zionist household. He learned agriculture in school
and excelled as a student. He led a 27-year career as a soldier. As a
teenager he joined the
Palmach , the commando force of the
Yishuv . He
eventually rose through its ranks to become its chief of operations
during Israel\'s War of Independence . He joined the newly formed
Israel Defense Forces in late 1948 and continued to rise as a
promising officer. He helped shape the training doctrine of the IDF in
the early 1950s, and led the IDF's
Operations Directorate from 1959 to
1963. He was appointed Chief of the General Staff in 1964 and oversaw
Israel's victory in the 1967
Six-Day War .
Rabin served as Israel's ambassador to the
United States from 1968 to
1973, during a period of deepening U.S.–
Israel ties . He was
Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel in 1974, after the resignation of
Golda Meir . In his first term, Rabin signed the Sinai Interim
Agreement and ordered the Entebbe raid . He resigned in 1977 in the
wake of a financial scandal. Rabin was Israel's minister of defense
for much of the 1980s, including during the outbreak of the First
In 1992, Rabin was re-elected as prime minister on a platform
Israeli–Palestinian peace process . He signed several
historic agreements with the Palestinian leadership as part of the
Oslo Accords . In 1994, Rabin won the
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize together with
long-time political rival
Shimon Peres and Palestinian leader Yasser
Arafat . Rabin also signed a peace treaty with
Jordan in 1994. In
November 1995, he was assassinated by an extremist named
Yigal Amir ,
who opposed the terms of the Oslo Accords. Rabin was the first
native-born prime minister of Israel, the only prime minister to be
assassinated and the second to die in office after
Levi Eshkol . Rabin
has become a symbol of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.
* 1 Personal life
* 1.1 Family background
* 1.2 Early life and education
* 2 Marriage and family
* 3 Military career
* 3.2 IDF service
* 4 Ambassador and Minister of Labour
* 5 First term as Prime Minister
* 6 Opposition
Knesset member and Minister of Defense
* 7 Second term as Prime Minister
* 7.1 Economic and social reforms
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
* 8 Assassination and aftermath
* 9 Commemoration
* 10 See also
* 11 Bibliography
* 12 References
* 13 External links
Rabin was born at
Shaare Zedek Medical Center in
Jerusalem on 1 March
Mandatory Palestine , to Nehemiah (1886 – 1 December 1971) and
Rosa (née Cohen; 1890 – 12 November 1937), to immigrants of the
Third Aliyah , the third wave of Jewish immigration to Palestine from
Europe. Nehemiah Rubitzov was born in the shtetl Sydorovychi near
Ivankiv in the southern
Pale of Settlement (present-day
His father Menachem died when he was a boy, and Nehemiah worked to
support his family from an early age. At the age of 18, he emigrated
to the United States, where he joined the
Poale Zion party and changed
his surname to Rabin. In 1917, Nehemiah went to Mandatory Palestine
with a group of volunteers from the
Jewish Legion .
Yitzhak's mother, Rosa Cohen, was born in 1890 in
Mogilev in Belarus.
Her father, a rabbi , opposed the Zionist movement and sent Rosa to a
Christian high school for girls in
Gomel , which gave her a broad
general education. Early on, Rosa took an interest in political and
social causes. In 1919, she traveled to the region on the steamship
Ruslan. After working on a kibbutz on the shores of the Sea of Galilee
, she moved to Jerusalem.
Rabin's parents met in
Jerusalem during the
1920 Nebi Musa riots .
They moved to
Tel Aviv 's Chlenov Street near
Jaffa in 1923. Nehemiah
became a worker for the Palestine Electric Corporation and Rosa was an
accountant and local activist. She became a member of the Tel Aviv
City Council. The family moved again in 1931 to a two-room apartment
on Hamagid Street in Tel Aviv.
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Booknotes interview with Rabin\'s granddaughter Noa Ben
Artzi-Pelossof on her book about Rabin, In the Name of Sorrow and
Hope, May 26, 1996,
Rabin grew up in
Tel Aviv , where the family relocated when he was
one year old. He enrolled in the
Tel Aviv Beit Hinuch Leyaldei Ovdim
(בית חינוך לילדי עובדים, "School House for Workers'
Children") in 1928 and completed his studies there in 1935. The school
taught the children agriculture as well as Zionism. Rabin mostly
received good marks in school, but he was so shy that few people knew
he was intelligent.
In 1935, Rabin enrolled at
Givat HaShlosha , an agricultural school
his mother founded. It was here in 1936 at the age of 14 that Rabin
Haganah and received his first military training, learning
how to use a pistol and stand guard. He joined a socialist-Zionist
youth movement, HaNoar HaOved .
In 1937, he enrolled at the two-year Kadoorie Agricultural High
School . He excelled in a number of agriculture-related subjects but
English language —the language of the British
"enemy." He originally aspired to be an irrigation engineer, but his
interest in military affairs intensified in 1938, when the ongoing
Arab revolt worsened. A young
Haganah sergeant named
Yigal Allon ,
later a general in the IDF and prominent politician, trained Rabin and
others at Kadoorie. Rabin finished at Kadoorie in August 1940. For
part of 1939, the British closed Kadoorie, and Rabin joined Allon as a
military policeman at
Ginosar until the school re-opened.
When he finished school, Rabin considered studying irrigation
engineering on scholarship at the
University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley ,
although he ultimately decided to stay and fight in Palestine.
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY
Rabin at home with his wife, grandson, daughter, then
son-in-law, and two of his granddaughters in 1992.
Rabin married Leah Schloßberg during the
1948 Arab–Israeli War .
Leah Rabin was working at the time as a reporter for a Palmach
newspaper. They had two children, Dalia (born 19 March 1950) and Yuval
(born 18 June 1955). Rabin was non-religious; according to American
Dennis Ross , Rabin was the most secular Jew he had met in
In 1941, during his practical training at kibbutz
Ramat Yohanan ,
Rabin joined the newly formed
Palmach section of the
Haganah , under
the influence of
Yigal Allon . Rabin could not yet operate a machine
gun, drive a car, or ride a motorcycle, but
Moshe Dayan accepted the
new recruit. The first operation he participated in was assisting the
allied invasion of Lebanon , then held by
Vichy French forces (the
same operation in which Dayan lost his eye) in June–July 1941.
Allon continued to train the young
As a Palmachnik, Rabin and his men had to lie low to avoid arousing
inquiry from the British administration. They spent most of their time
farming, training secretly part-time. They wore no uniforms and
received no public recognition during this time. In 1943, Rabin took
command of a platoon at
Kfar Giladi . He trained his men in modern
tactics and how to conduct lightning attacks.
After the end of the war the relationship between the
Palmach and the
British authorities became strained, especially with respect to the
treatment of Jewish immigration. In October 1945 Rabin was in charge
of planning and later executing an operation for the release of
interned immigrants from the
Atlit detainee camp for Jewish illegal
immigrants . In the Black
Shabbat , a massive British operation
against the leaders of the Jewish Establishment in the British Mandate
of Palestine, Rabin was arrested and detained for five months. After
his release he became the commander of the second
and rose to the position of Chief Operations Officer of the
Yitzhak Rabin, commander of the
Harel Brigade , c. 1948
Yigal Allon (1949) The Israeli delegation to the 1949
Armistice Agreements talks. Left to right: Commanders Yehoshafat
Harkabi , Aryeh Simon,
Yigael Yadin , and
Yitzhak Rabin (1949)
1948 Arab–Israeli War Rabin directed Israeli operations
Jerusalem and fought the Egyptian army in the
Negev . During the
beginning of the war he was the commander of the
Harel Brigade , which
fought on the road to
Jerusalem from the coastal plain , including the
Israeli "Burma Road ," as well as many battles in Jerusalem, such as
securing the southern side of the city by recapturing kibbutz Ramat
During the first truce he led the Ben Gurion ordered attack by the
IDF against the
Irgun on the beach of
Tel Aviv as part of the Altalena
In the following period he was the deputy commander of Operation
Danny , the largest scale operation to that point, which involved four
IDF brigades. The cities of
Ramle and Lydda were captured, as well as
the major airport in Lydda, as part of the operation. Following the
capture of the two towns there was an exodus of their Arab population
. Rabin signed the expulsion order, which included the following,
"... 1. The inhabitants of Lydda must be expelled quickly without
attention to age. ... 2. Implement immediately." Later, Rabin was
chief of operations for the Southern Front and participated in the
major battles ending the fighting there, including
Operation Yoav and
Operation Horev .
In the beginning of 1949 he was a member of the Israeli delegation to
the armistice talks with
Egypt that were held on the island of Rhodes
. The result of the negotiations were the
1949 Armistice Agreements
1949 Armistice Agreements ,
which ended the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
Following the demobilization at the end of the war he was the most
senior (former) member of the
Palmach that remained in the IDF.
Palmach leaders, Rabin was politically aligned with the
left wing pro-Soviet
Ahdut HaAvoda party and later
Mapam . These
officers were distrusted by Prime Minister
David Ben Gurion and
several resigned from the army in 1953 after a series of
confrontations. Those members of
Mapam who remained, such as Rabin,
Haim Bar-Lev and
David Elazar , had to endure several years in staff
or training posts before resuming their careers.
In 1964 he was appointed chief of staff of the
Israel Defense Forces
Levi Eshkol , who had replaced
David Ben-Gurion as
Minister of Defence . Since Eshkol did not have
much military experience, Rabin had a relatively free hand.
Under his command, the IDF achieved victory over
Egypt , Syria and
Jordan in the
Six-Day War in 1967. After the Old City of
captured by the IDF, Rabin was among the first to visit the Old City,
and delivered a famous speech on
Mount Scopus , at the Hebrew
University . In the days leading up to the war, it was reported that
Rabin suffered a nervous breakdown and was unable to function. After
this short hiatus, he resumed full command over the IDF.
AMBASSADOR AND MINISTER OF LABOUR
Following his retirement from the IDF he became ambassador to the
United States beginning in 1968, serving for five years. In this
period the US became the major weapon supplier of
Israel and in
particular he managed to get the embargo on the
F-4 Phantom fighter
jets lifted. During the 1973
Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War he served in no official
capacity and in the elections held at the end of 1973 he was elected
Knesset as a member of the Alignment . He was appointed Israeli
Minister of Labour in March 1974 in
Golda Meir 's short-lived
government. While serving as ambassador, Rabin met and formed a
Menachem M. Schneerson .
FIRST TERM AS PRIME MINISTER
Following Golda Meir's resignation in April 1974, Rabin was elected
party leader, after he defeated
Shimon Peres . The rivalry between
these two Labour leaders remained fierce and they competed several
times in the next two decades for the leadership role, and even for
who deserved credit for government achievements. Rabin succeeded
Golda Meir as
Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel on 3 June 1974. This was a
coalition government, including Ratz , the Independent Liberals ,
Progress and Development and the Arab List for Bedouins and Villagers.
This arrangement, with a bare parliamentary majority , held for a few
months and was one of the few periods in Israel's history where the
religious parties were not part of the coalition. The National
Religious Party joined the coalition on 30 October 1974 and Ratz left
on 6 November. Play media Short video about
Yitzhak Rabin from
Israeli News Company
In foreign policy, the major development at the beginning of Rabin's
term was the
Sinai Interim Agreement between
Israel and Egypt, signed
on 1 September 1975. Both countries declared that the conflict between
them and in the Middle East shall not be resolved by military force
but by peaceful means. This agreement followed
Henry Kissinger 's
shuttle diplomacy and a threatened "reassessment" of the United
States' regional policy and its relations with Israel. Rabin notes it
was "an innocent-sounding term that heralded one of the worst periods
in American–Israeli relations." But the agreement was an important
step towards the
Camp David Accords of 1978 and the peace treaty with
Egypt signed in 1979.
Operation Entebbe was perhaps the most dramatic event during Rabin's
first term of office. On his orders, the IDF performed a long-range
undercover raid to rescue passengers of an airliner hijacked by
militants belonging to the Popular Front for the Liberation of
Wadie Haddad faction and the German Revolutionary Cells
(RZ), who had been brought to
Idi Amin 's
Uganda . The operation was
generally considered a tremendous success, and its spectacular
character has made it the subject of much continued comment and study.
Towards the end of 1976 his coalition government with the religious
parties suffered a crisis: A motion of no confidence had been brought
Agudat Yisrael over a breach of the Sabbath on an Israeli Air Force
base when four
F-15 jets were delivered from the US and the National
Religious Party had abstained. Rabin dissolved his government and
decided on new elections, which were to be held in May 1977.
Following the March 1977 meeting between Rabin and U.S. President
Jimmy Carter , Rabin publicly announced that the U.S. supported the
Israeli idea of defensible borders; Carter then issued a
clarification. A "fallout" in U.S./Israeli relations ensued. It is
thought that the fallout contributed to the Israeli Labor Party's
defeat in the May 1977 elections. On 15 March 1977, Haaretz
journalist Dan Margalit revealed that a joint dollar account in the
names of Yitzhak and Leah Rabin, opened in a Washington, D.C., bank
during Rabin's term of office as
Israel ambassador (1968–73), was
still open, in breach of Israeli law. According to Israeli currency
regulations at the time, it was illegal for citizens to maintain
foreign bank accounts without prior authorization. Rabin resigned on 8
April 1977, following the revelation by Maariv journalist S. Isaac
Mekel that the Rabins held two accounts in Washington, not one,
containing $10,000, and that a Finance Ministry administrative penalty
committee fined them IL 150,000. Rabin withdrew from the party
leadership and candidacy for prime minister.
OPPOSITION KNESSET MEMBER AND MINISTER OF DEFENSE
Following his resignation and Labour Party defeat at the elections,
Menachem Begin was elected in 1977 . Until 1984 Rabin had
been a member of
Knesset and had sat on the Foreign Affairs and
Defense Committee. From 1984 to 1990, he served as Minister of Defense
in several national unity governments led by prime ministers Yitzhak
Shimon Peres . When Rabin came to office, Israeli troops
were still deep in Lebanon. Rabin ordered their withdrawal to a
"Security Zone" on the Lebanese side of the border. The South Lebanon
Army was active in this zone, along with the
Israeli Defence Forces .
When the first Intifada broke out, Rabin adopted harsh measures to
stop the demonstrations, even authorizing the use of "Force, might and
beatings," on the demonstrators. Rabin the "bone breaker" was used
as an International image. The combination of the failure of the
"Iron Fist" policy, Israel's deteriorating international image, and
Jordan cutting legal and administrative ties to the
West Bank with the
U.S.'s recognition of the
PLO as the representative of the Palestinian
people forced Rabin to seek an end to the violence through negotiation
and dialogue with the PLO. From 1990 to 1992, Rabin again served as
Knesset member and sat on the Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee.
SECOND TERM AS PRIME MINISTER
Bill Clinton watches Jordan's
King Hussein (left) and Israeli
Yitzhak Rabin (right) sign the Israel–
treaty Yitzhak Rabin,
Bill Clinton , and
Yasser Arafat during
Oslo Accords on 13 September 1993
Yitzhak Rabin Shaking
hands with Jordan's
King Hussein after signing a peace treaty between
the two countries in 1994.
In 1992 Rabin was elected as chairman of the Labor Party, winning
against Shimon Peres. In the elections that year his party, strongly
focusing on the popularity of its leader, managed to win a clear
victory over the
Likud of incumbent Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir.
However, the left-wing bloc in the
Knesset only won an overall narrow
majority, facilitated by the disqualification of small nationalist
parties that did not manage to pass the electoral threshold. Rabin
formed the first Labor-led government in fifteen years, supported by a
Meretz , a left wing party, and
Shas , a Mizrahi
ultra-orthodox religious party.
On 25 July 1993, after
Hezbollah fired rockets into northern Israel,
Rabin authorized a week-long military operation in Lebanon. Rabin
played a leading role in the signing of the
Oslo Accords , which
Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority and granted it partial
control over parts of the
Gaza Strip and
West Bank . Prior to the
signing of the accords, Rabin received a letter from
Yasser Arafat renouncing violence and officially recognizing Israel,
and on the same day, 9 September 1993, Rabin sent Arafat a letter
officially recognizing the PLO.
After the announcement of the
Oslo Accords there were many protest
Israel objecting to the Accords. As these protests
dragged on, Rabin insisted that as long as he had a majority in the
Knesset he would ignore the protests and the protesters. In this
context he said, "they (the protesters) can spin around and around
like propellers" but he would continue on the path of the Oslo
Accords. Rabin's parliamentary majority rested on non-coalition member
Arab support. Rabin also denied the right of American Jews to object
to his plan for peace, calling any such dissent "chutzpah ." The Oslo
agreement was also opposed by
Hamas and other Palestinian factions,
which launched suicide bombings at Israel.
After the historical handshake with Yasser Arafat, Rabin said, on
behalf of the Israeli people, "We who have fought against you, the
Palestinians, we say to you today, in a loud and a clear voice, enough
of blood and tears ... enough!" During this term of office, Rabin
also oversaw the signing of the Israel–
Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL REFORMS
Rabin significantly reformed Israel's economy, as well as its
education and healthcare systems. His government significantly
expanded the privatization of business, moving away from the country's
traditionally socialized economy. The scheme was described by Moshe
Arens as a "privatization frenzy." In 1993, his government set up the
"Yozma" program, under which attractive tax incentives were offered to
foreign venture capital funds that invested in
Israel and promised to
double any investment with government funding. As a result, foreign
venture capital funds invested heavily in the growing Israeli
high-tech industry, contributing to Israel's economic growth and
status as a world leader in high-tech. In 1995, the National Health
Insurance Law was passed. The law created Israel's universal health
care system, moving away from the traditionally Histadrut-dominated
health insurance system. Doctors' wages were also raised by 50%.
Education spending was raised by 70%, with new colleges being built in
Israel's peripheral areas, and teachers' wages rising by one-fifth.
His government also launched new public works projects such as the
Israel Highway and an expansion of
Ben Gurion Airport .
NOBEL PEACE PRIZE
(right to left) Yitzhak Rabin,
Shimon Peres and Yasser Arafat
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize following the
For his role in the creation of the Oslo Accords, Rabin was awarded
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize , along with
Yasser Arafat and Shimon Peres
. The Accords greatly divided Israeli society, with some seeing
Rabin as a hero for advancing the cause of peace and some seeing him
as a traitor for giving away land they viewed as rightfully belonging
to Israel. Many Israelis on the right wing often blame him for Jewish
deaths in terror attacks, attributing them to the Oslo agreements.
"Military cemeteries in every corner of the world are silent
testimony to the failure of national leaders to sanctify human life."
Yitzhak Rabin, 1994
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize lecture
ASSASSINATION AND AFTERMATH
Main article: Assassination of
Yitzhak Rabin Monument marking
the site of the assassination: Ibn Gabirol Street between Tel Aviv
City Hall and Gan Ha'ir Graves of Yitzhak (right) and Leah
Rabin (left) on
On the evening of 4 November 1995 (12th of
Heshvan on the Hebrew
Calendar ), Rabin was assassinated by
Yigal Amir , a right-wing
extremist who opposed the signing of the
Oslo Accords . Rabin had been
attending a mass rally at the Kings of
Israel Square (now Rabin
Tel Aviv , held in support of the Oslo Accords. When the
rally ended, Rabin walked down the city hall steps towards the open
door of his car, at which point Amir fired three shots at Rabin with a
semi-automatic pistol . Two shots hit Rabin, and the third lightly
injured Yoram Rubin, one of Rabin's bodyguards. Rabin was taken to the
nearby Ichilov Hospital with considerable delay, where he died on the
operating table less than 40 minutes later due to blood loss and a
punctured lung . Amir was immediately seized by Rabin's bodyguards. He
was later tried, found guilty, and sentenced to life imprisonment .
After an emergency cabinet meeting, Israel's foreign minister, Shimon
Peres , was appointed as acting Israeli prime minister.
Rabin's assassination came as a great shock to the Israeli public and
much of the rest of the world. Hundreds of thousands of Israelis
thronged the square where Rabin was assassinated to mourn his death.
Young people, in particular, turned out in large numbers, lighting
memorial candles and singing peace songs. On 6 November 1995, he was
Mount Herzl . Rabin's funeral was attended by many world
leaders, among them U.S. president
Bill Clinton , Australian Prime
Paul Keating , Egyptian president
Hosni Mubarak and King
Jordan . Clinton delivered a eulogy whose final words were
Hebrew – "Shalom, Haver" (
Hebrew : שלום חבר, lit.
The square where he was assassinated, Kikar Malkhei Yisrael (Kings of
Israel Square), was renamed
Rabin Square in his honor. Many other
streets and public institutions in
Israel have also subsequently been
named after him. After his assassination, Rabin was hailed as a
national symbol and came to embody the ethos of the "Israeli peace
camp," despite his military career and hawkish views earlier in life.
In November 2000, his wife Leah died and was buried alongside him.
After the murder, it was revealed that
Avishai Raviv , a well known
right-wing extremist at the time, was in fact a Shin Bet
agent-informer code-named Champagne. Raviv was later acquitted in
court of charges that he failed to prevent the assassination. The
court ruled there was no evidence that Raviv knew assassin Yigal Amir
was plotting to kill Rabin. After Rabin's assassination, his daughter
Dalia Rabin-Pelossof entered politics and was elected to the Knesset
in 1999 as part of the Center Party . In 2001, she served as Israel's
deputy minister of defense .
Yitzhak Rabin Walk in Queens,
New York City
New York City
Knesset has set the 12th of
Cheshvan , the murder date
according to the
Hebrew calendar , as the official memorial day of
A memorial stone honouring Rabin in Wellington, New Zealand
* In 1995 the Israeli Postal Authority issued a commemorative Rabin
* In 1996 Israeli songwriter
Naomi Shemer translated
Walt Whitman 's
O Captain! My Captain! " to
Hebrew and wrote music for it to
mark the anniversary of Rabin's assassination. The song is since
commonly performed or played in
Yitzhak Rabin memorial day services.
Yitzhak Rabin Centre was founded in 1997 by an act of the
Knesset , to create " Memorial Centre for Perpetuating the Memory of
Yitzhak Rabin." It carries out extensive commemorative and educational
activities emphasising the ways and means of democracy and peace.
Mechinat Rabin , an Israeli pre-army preparatory program for
training recent high school graduates in leadership prior to their IDF
service, was established in 1998.
* In 2005 Rabin received the Dr.Rainer Hildebrandt Human Rights
Award endowed by
Alexandra Hildebrandt . The award is given annually
in recognition of extraordinary, non-violent commitment to human
* Many cities and towns in
Israel have named streets,
neighbourhoods, schools, bridges and parks after Rabin. The country's
largest power station,
Orot Rabin , two government office complexes
Tel Aviv and the
Sail Tower in
Haifa ), the Israeli
terminal of the Arava/Araba border crossing with Jordan, and two
synagogues are also named after him. Outside Israel, there are streets
and squares named after him in
New York City
New York City , and
Odessa and parks in
Lima . The community Jewish high school in
Ottawa is also
named after him.
Israel Society hosts its annual academic
lecture in honour of Yitzhak Rabin.
* Biography portal
List of Israeli Nobel laureates
List of Jewish Nobel laureates
Kempler video , assassination of
Yitzhak Rabin video
Shir LaShalom , the "Peace Song" sung by Rabin at the peace rally
short before his assassination
* Avner, Yehuda (2010). The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative
of Israeli Leadership .
Toby Press . ISBN 978-1-59264-278-6 . OCLC
* Ben Artzi-Pelossof, Noa (1997). In the Name of Sorrow and Hope.
ISBN 978-0-517-17963-5 .
* Benedikt, Linda. Yitzhak Rabin: The Battle for Peace. ISBN
* Cleveland, William I. (1994). A History of the Modern Middle East.
* Ephron, Dan (2015). Killing a King: The Assassination of Yitzhak
Rabin and the Remaking of Israel.
W. W. Norton & Company . ISBN
* Gresh, Alain; Vidal, Dominique (2004). The New A to Z of the
Middle East. I B Tauris.
* Horowitz (ed.), David (1996).
Yitzhak Rabin - Soldier of Peace.
Peter Halban. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link )
* Horowitz (ed.), David. Shalom, Friend: the Life and Legacy of
Yitzhak Rabin. ISBN 1-55704-287-X . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors
list (link )
* Inbar, Efraim (1999). Rabin and
Israel National Security. Woodrow
* Kurzman, Dan (1998). Soldier of Peace: The Life of Yitzhak Rabin
1922-1995. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-018684-4 .
* Milstein, Uri (1999). The Rabin File. Gefen. ISBN 965-229-196-X .
* Pappe, Ilan (2004). A History of Modern Palestine. Cambridge
* Quigley, John (2004). The Case for Palestine: The International
Law Perspective. Duke University Press.
* Rabin, Leah . Rabin: Our Life, His Legacy. ISBN 0-399-14217-7 .
* Rabin, Yitzhak. The Rabin Memoirs. ISBN 0-520-20766-1 .
* Shlaim, Avi (2000). The Iron Wall:
Israel and the Arab World.
* Slater, Robert (2015). Rabin: 20 Years After. Kotarim
International Publishing . ISBN 978-9-657-58913-7 .
* Slater, Robert (1993). Rabin of Israel. Robson Books.
* Smith, Charles D. (2004). Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict
(5th ed.). Macmillan Press.
* Sorek, Tamir (2015). Palestinian Commemoration in Israel:
Calendars, Monuments, and Martyrs. Stanford, CA: Stanford University
Press. pp. 217–232. ISBN 9780804795180 .
* Sprinzak, Ehud (2000), Yoram Peri, ed., "Israeli Radical Right",
The Association of Yitzhak Rabin, Stanford University Press
* Tessler, Mark (1974). A History of the Israeli-Palestinian
Conflict. Indiana University Press.
* ^ izrus.co.il (18 March 2010). "Доказано
украинское происхождение Ицхака
Рабина Еврейские новости мира и
Украины ВЕК – Всеукраинский
еврейский конгресс". Jewish.kiev.ua. Retrieved 31
Yitzhak Rabin – from soldier to
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
* ^ Slater, Robert (1993). Rabin of Israel: Biography of the
Embattled Prime Minister. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 25. ISBN
* ^ Slater, pp. 27–28
* ^ Slater, p. 34
* ^ Slater, pp. 28–29
* ^ Slater, p. 31
* ^ Slater, pp. 37, 39–40
* ^ Kurzman, Dan (1998). Soldier of Peace: The Life of Yitzhak
Rabin, 1922–1995 (1. ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 75. ISBN
* ^ Slater, p. 41
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* One of the last recorded interviews with
Yitzhak Rabin – a
six-minute interview with David Esing, recorded one month before