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Yeshua
Yeshua
(ישוע‬, with vowel pointing יֵשׁוּעַ‬ – yēšūă‘ in Hebrew) or Y'shua (spelling of Messianic Jews) was a common alternative form of the name יְהוֹשֻׁעַ‬ ("Yehoshua" – Joshua) in later books of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
and among Jews of the Second Temple
Second Temple
period. The name corresponds to the Greek spelling Iesous, from which, through the Latin IESVS/Iesus, comes the English spelling Jesus.[1][2] The Hebrew spelling Yeshua
Yeshua
(ישוע‬) appears in some later books of the Hebrew Bible. Once for Joshua
Joshua
the son of Nun, and 28 times for Joshua
Joshua
the High Priest and ( KJV
KJV
"Jeshua") and other priests called Jeshua – although these same priests are also given the spelling Joshua
Joshua
in 11 further instances in the books of Haggai and Zechariah. It differs from the usual Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
spelling of Joshua (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ‬ y'hoshuaʿ), found 218 times in the Hebrew Bible, in the absence of the consonant he ה‬ and placement of the semivowel vav ו after, not before, the consonant shin ש‬. It also differs from the Hebrew spelling Yeshu
Yeshu
(ישו‬) which is found in Ben Yehuda's dictionary and used in most secular contexts in Modern Hebrew to refer to Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, although the Hebrew spelling Yeshua
Yeshua
(ישוע‬) is generally used in translations of the New Testament into Hebrew[3] and used by Hebrew speaking Christians in Israel. The name Yeshua
Yeshua
is also used in Israelite Hebrew historical texts to refer to other Joshuas recorded in Greek texts such as Jesus ben Ananias and Jesus
Jesus
ben Sira.[4] In English, the name Yeshua
Yeshua
is extensively used by followers of Messianic Judaism,[5] whereas East Syrian Christian denominations use the name Isho in order to preserve the Aramaic
Aramaic
or Syriac name of Jesus.[6]

The Greek transliteration Ἰησοῦς (Iēsous) *jesu-os → [jeˈsus] can stand for both Classical Biblical Hebrew Yehoshua [jəhoˈʃuaʕ] (top two) and Late Biblical Hebrew Yeshua
Yeshua
[jeˈʃuaʕ] (bottom). This later form developed within Hebrew (not Aramaic).[7] All three spelling variants occur in the Hebrew Bible, including when referring to the same person. During the Second Temple
Second Temple
Period, Jews of Galilee tended to preserve the traditional spelling, keeping the <ו> letter for the [o] in the first syllable, even adding another letter for the [u] in the second syllable. However, Jews of Jerusalem tended to spell the name as they pronounced it, [jeˈʃuaʕ], contracting the spelling to ישוע without the [o] letter. Later, Aramaic
Aramaic
references to the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
adopted the contracted phonetic form of this Hebrew name as an Aramaic
Aramaic
name.

Main article: Names and titles of Jesus
Jesus
in the New Testament Yeshua
Yeshua
in Hebrew is a verbal derivative from "to rescue", "to deliver".[8] Among the Jews of the Second Temple
Second Temple
Period, the Biblical Aramaic/Hebrew name יֵשׁוּעַ‬ Yeshua‘ was common: the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
mentions several individuals with this name – while also using their full name Joshua. This name is a feature of biblical books written in the post-Exilic period (Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles) and was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls, though Haggai and Zechariah prefer the spelling Joshua. Strong's Concordance
Strong's Concordance
connects the name יֵשׁוּעַ‬ Yeshua`, in the English form Jeshua (as used in multiple instances in Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles), with the verb "to deliver" (or, "to rescue").[8] It is often translated as "He saves," to conform with Matthew 1:21: "She will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people from their sins" (NASB).[9] The name יֵשׁוּעַ‬ "Yeshua" (transliterated in the English Old Testament as Jeshua) is a late form of the Biblical Hebrew name יְהוֹשֻׁעַ‬ Yehoshua (Joshua), and spelled with a waw in the second syllable. The Late Biblical Hebrew spellings for earlier names often contracted the theophoric element Yeho- to Yo-. Thus יהוחנן‬ Yehochanan contracted to יוחנן‬ Yochanan.[10] However, there is no name (aside from Yehoshua`) in which Yeho- became Ye-.[citation needed] The name ישוע occurs in the Hebrew of the Old Testament at verses Ezra 2:2, 2:6, 2:36, 2:40, 3:2, 3:8, 3:9, 3:10, 3:18, 4:3, 8:33; Nehemiah 3:19, 7:7, 7:11, 7:39, 7:43, 8:7, 8:17, 9:4, 9:5, 11:26, 12:1, 12:7, 12:8, 12:10, 12:24, 12:26; 1 Chronicles 24:11; and 2 Chronicles 31:15, and also in Aramaic
Aramaic
at Ezra 5:2. In Nehemiah 8:17 this name refers to Joshua
Joshua
son of Nun, the successor of Moses, as leader of the Israelites. Note that in earlier English (where adaptations of names of Biblical figures were generally based on the Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
forms), Yeshua
Yeshua
was generally transcribed identically to "Jesus" in English. It was only when the Protestant Bible translators of ca. 1600 went back to the original languages that a distinction between Jesus
Jesus
and Jeshua appeared in English.[citation needed] The name Yehoshua has the form of a compound of "Yeho-" and "shua": Yeho- יְהוֹ‬ is another form of יָהו‬ Yahu, a theophoric element standing for the name of God יהוה (the Tetragrammaton YHWH, sometimes transcribed into English as Yahweh), and שׁוּעַ‬ shua‘ is a noun meaning "a cry for help", "a saving cry",[11][12][13] that is to say, a shout given when in need of rescue. Together, the name would then literally mean, "YHWH (Yahu) is a saving-cry," that is to say, shout to YHWH [God] when in need of help.[citation needed] Another explanation for the name Yehoshua is that it comes from the root ישע‬ yod-shin-‘ayin, meaning "to deliver, save, or rescue". According to the Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers
verse 13:16, the name of Joshua
Joshua
son of Nun was originally Hoshea` הוֹשֵעַ‬, and the name "Yehoshua`" יְהוֹשֻׁעַ‬ is usually spelled the same but with a yod added at the beginning. "Hoshea`" certainly comes from the root ישע‬, "yasha", yod-shin-`ayin (in the Hif'il form the yod becomes a waw), and not from the word שוע‬ Shúaʻ (Jewish Encyclopedia[14]) although ultimately both roots appear to be related.[citation needed] In the 1st century, Philo of Alexandria, in a Greek exposition, offered this understanding of Moses’s reason for the name change of the biblical hero Jehoshua/ Joshua
Joshua
son of Nun from Hoshea
Hoshea
[similar to hoshia` meaning "He rescued"] to Yehoshua in commemoration of his salvation: "And Ιησους refers to salvation of the Lord" [Ιησους or Iesous being the Greek form of the name] (Ἰησοῦ δὲ σωτηρία κυρίου) (On the Change of Names 21.121).[15] Similarly, the Septuagint[16] renders Ben Sira
Ben Sira
as saying (in the Greek form of the name): "Ιησους the son of Naue [Yehoshua Ben Nun] who according to his name became great unto [the] salvation/deliverance of his chosen ones" (Ἰησοῦς Ναυῆ .. ὃς ἐγένετο κατὰ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ μέγας ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ ἐκλεκτῶν αὐτοῦ) ( Ben Sira
Ben Sira
46:1–2). However, Ben Sira
Ben Sira
originally wrote in Hebrew in the 2nd century BC, and the only extant Hebrew manuscript for this passage has "in his days" (בימיו‬), not "according to his name" (which would be כשמו‬ in Hebrew),[17] and thus does not comment on the name Yehoshua as connoting יְּשׁוּעָה‬ "deliverance": "Yehoshua Ben Nun, who was formed to be in his days a great deliverer for his chosen ones" (יהושע בן נון... אשר נוצר להיות בימיו תשועה גדלה לבחיריו‬). Possibly, the translators understood the phrase "was formed in his days" to refer to being transformed by his name change, and thus has "according to his name" as a paraphrastic translation, or else they were working from a different text.[citation needed] The distinction between the longer Yehoshua and shorter Yeshua
Yeshua
forms does not exist in Greek.[citation needed] The name Yeshua
Yeshua
is a shortened version of the name Yehoshua or Joshua
Joshua
and is the literal Hebrew word for Salvation.[18]

Contents

1 Archaeological evidence 2 Pronunciation 3 Original name for Jesus

3.1 East Syriac Ishoʕ

4 Yeshua, Yehoshua, and Yeshu
Yeshu
in the Talmud

4.1 Rabbinical commentary on the difference Yeshu/Yeshua

5 See also 6 References

Archaeological evidence[edit] Tal Ilan's lexicon of Second Temple period
Second Temple period
names on inscriptions in Palestine (2002) includes for "Joshua" 85 examples of Hebrew Yeshua, 15 of Yehoshua, and 48 examples of Iesous in Greek inscriptions," with only one Greek variant as Iesoua.[19] One ossuary of the around twenty known with the name Yeshua, Rahmani No.9, discovered by Ezra Sukenik in 1931, has "Yeshu... Yeshua
Yeshua
ben Yosef." The "Yeshu..." may have been scratched out.[20] Two Jewish
Jewish
magical incantation bowls have been discovered both bearing variant spellings of Yeshua.[21] Apart from the "Yesh.. Yeshua
Yeshua
ben Yosef" ossuary, the only other known evidence for the existence of a Yeshu
Yeshu
form prior to the material related to Jesus
Jesus
in the Talmud, is a graffito which Joachim Jeremias identified in Bethesda in 1966, but which is now filled in.[22] Pronunciation[edit] Yeshua
Yeshua
יֵשוּעַ [jeˈʃuăʕ]. The Hebrew letter Yod י /j/ is vocalized with the Hebrew vowel tsere /e/ (a 'long' e like the first syllable of "neighbor" but not diphthongized) rather than with a shva /ə/ (as Y'shua) or segol /ɛ/ (Yesh-shua). The final letter Ayin ע is /ʕ/ (a rough, guttural sound not found in Greek or English), sometimes transcribed " ` " (Yeshua`). The final [ăʕ] represents the "patach genuvah" ("furtive" patach), indicating that the consonant `ayin is pronounced after the a vowel, and the word's stress is moved to the middle syllable (the characteristics of the furtive patach can be seen in other words, such as רוח [ˈruăħ] 'spirit').[23] Thus it is pronounced [jeˈʃu.a(ʕ)] in Modern Hebrew, approximately ye-SHEW-ə. The Hebrew name of the historical Jesus
Jesus
is probably pronounced 'Yeshua', although this is uncertain and depends on the reconstruction of several ancient Hebrew dialects. Talshir suggests, even though Galileans tended to keep the traditional spelling for 'Yehoshua' יהושוע with the letter Vav for /o/, they still pronounced the name similarly to the Judeans, as 'Yeshua' [jeˈʃuaʕ], who tended to spell the name phonetically as ישוע, perhaps reducing the name thus: [jəhoˈʃuaʕ] > [joˈʃuaʕ] > [jeˈʃuaʕ], with the /o/ palatizing (via 'dissimilation') before the /ʃ/.[24] Qimron describes the general linguistic environment of Hebrew dialects by the time of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The articulation of the /h/ (along with other guttural phonemes /ʔ/, /ħ/, and /ʕ/, as well as approximants /j/ and /w/) weakened significantly.[25] Thus Hebrew pronunciations became less stable when two successive vowels were no longer separated by a consonant /h/. The speakers optionally either reduced the two vowels to a single vowel or oppositely expanded them to emphasize each vowel separately, sometimes forming a furtive glide in between, [w] or [j].[26] For example, the Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls
spell the Hebrew word ראוי /rɔˈʔui̯/ ('seen') variously, recording both pronunciations: reduced ראו [ro] and expanded ראואי [rɔˈuwi].[27] The Hebrew name 'Yehoshua' generally reduced to 'Yeshua', but an expanded 'Yehoshua' is possible, especially in Galilee whose traditional orthography possibly reflects this. Original name for Jesus[edit] The English name Jesus
Jesus
derives from the Late Latin
Late Latin
name Iesus, which transliterates the Koine
Koine
Greek name Ἰησοῦς Iēsoûs. In the Septuagint
Septuagint
and other Greek-language Jewish
Jewish
texts, such as the writings of Josephus
Josephus
and Philo of Alexandria, Ἰησοῦς Iēsoûs is the standard Koine
Koine
Greek form used to translate both of the Hebrew names: Yehoshua and Yeshua. Greek Ἰησοῦς or Iēsoûs is also used to represent the name of Joshua
Joshua
son of Nun in the New Testament passages Acts 7:45 and Hebrews 4:8. (It was even used in the Septuagint
Septuagint
to translate the name Hoshea
Hoshea
in one of the three verses where this referred to Joshua
Joshua
the son of Nun—Deut. 32:44.) During the second Temple period (beginning 538 BC – 70 AD), Yeshua first became a known form of the name Yehoshua. All occurrences of Yeshua
Yeshua
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
are in I Chron. 24:11, II Chron. 31:15, Ezra, and Nehemiah where it is transliterated into English as Jeshua. Two of these men ( Joshua
Joshua
the son of Nun and Joshua
Joshua
the High Priest) are mentioned in other books of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
where they are instead called Yehoshua [28] (transliterated into English as Joshua). The earlier form Yehoshua did not disappear, however, and remained in use as well. In the post-exilic books, Joshua
Joshua
the son of Nun is called both Yeshua
Yeshua
bin-Nun (Nehemiah 8:17) and Yehoshua (I Chronicles 7:27). The short form Yeshua
Yeshua
was used for Jesus ben Sirach
Jesus ben Sirach
in Hebrew fragments of the Wisdom of Sirach. (Some concern remains over whether these fragments faithfully represent the original Hebrew text or are instead a later translation back into Hebrew.[29]) The earlier form Yehoshua saw revived usage from the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
period onwards, although the name Yeshua
Yeshua
is still found in letters from the time of the Bar Kokhba Revolt (132–135 AD). In the documentary The Lost Tomb of Jesus, archeologist Amos Kloner stated that the name Yeshua
Yeshua
was then a popular form of the name Yehoshua and was "one of the common names in the time of the Second Temple."[30] In discussing whether it was remarkable to find a tomb with the name of Jesus
Jesus
(the particular ossuary in question bears the inscription "Yehuda bar Yeshua"), he pointed out that the name had been found 71 times in burial caves from that time period.[31] Thus, both the full form Yehoshua and the abbreviated form Yeshua
Yeshua
were in use during the Gospel
Gospel
period – and in relation to the same person, as in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
references to Yehoshua/ Yeshua
Yeshua
son of Nun, and Yehoshua/ Yeshua
Yeshua
the high priest in the days of Ezra. An argument in favor of the Hebrew reduced form ישוע‬ Yeshua, as opposed to Yehoshua, is the West Syriac dialect
Syriac dialect
in which the pronunciation is Yeshu` /jeʃuʕ/. East Syriac Ishoʕ[edit]

Yeshuuʕ or Ishoʕ, the Syriac name of Jesus

Aramaic
Aramaic
and (Classical Syriac) render the pronunciation of the same letters as ܝܫܘܥ yeshuuʕ (yešuʕ) /yeʃuʕ/ and ܝܫܘܥ ishoʕ (išoʕ) /iʃoʕ/. The Aramaic
Aramaic
Bibles and the Peshitta
Peshitta
Syriac preserve these same spellings. Current scholarly consensus posits that the NT texts were translated from the Greek, but this theory is not supported directly at least by the name for Jesus, which is not a simple transliteration of the Greek form as would otherwise be expected, as Greek did not have an "sh" [ʃ] sound, and substituted [s]; and likewise lacked and therefore omitted the final ‘ayin sound [ʕ]. Moreover, Eusebius
Eusebius
(early fourth century) reports that Papius (early second century) reports that Jesus's disciple Matthew wrote a gospel "in the Hebrew language". (Note, scholars typically argue the word "Hebrew" in the New Testament refers to Aramaic.[32] But others have attempted to refute this view. See Randall Buth and Chad Pierce, "Ebraisti in Ancient Texts: Does Ἐβραϊστί ever Mean "Aramaic"?" in Buth and Notley, ed., The Language Environment in First Century Judea, Brill, 2014.) The Aramaic
Aramaic
of the Peshitta
Peshitta
does not distinguish between Joshua
Joshua
and Jesus, and the Lexicon of William Jennings gives the same form ܝܫܘܥ for both names.[6] The Hebrew final letter ayin ע‬ is equivalent to final ܥ in Classical Syriac and East Syriac and West Syriac. It can be argued that the Aramaic speakers who used this name had a continual connection to the Aramaic-speakers in communities founded by the apostles and other students of Jesus, thus independently preserved his historical name Yeshuuʕ and the Eastern dialectical Ishoʕ. Those churches following the East Syrian Rite
East Syrian Rite
still preserve the name Ishoʕ. Yeshua, Yehoshua, and Yeshu
Yeshu
in the Talmud[edit] In the Talmud, only one reference is made to the spelling Yeshua, in verbatim quotation from the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
regarding Jeshua son of Jozadak (elsewhere called Joshua
Joshua
son of Josedech). The Talmud
Talmud
does refer to several people named Yehoshua from before (e.g. Joshua
Joshua
ben Perachyah) and after Jesus
Jesus
(e.g., Joshua
Joshua
ben Hananiah). In references to Jesus
Jesus
in the Talmud, however, where the name occurs, it is rendered Yeshu, which is a name reserved in Aramaic
Aramaic
and Hebrew literature from the early medieval period until today, solely for Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, not for other Joshuas. Some scholars, such as Maier (1978), regard the two named "Yeshu" texts in the Talmud
Talmud
(Sanhedrin 43a and 107b) to be later amendments, and not original.[33] Rabbinical commentary on the difference Yeshu/Yeshua[edit] Yeshua
Yeshua
was used as the name for Jesus
Jesus
in late additions to the Yosippon; however, its usage here is a translation back into the Hebrew Yeshua
Yeshua
from the Greek.[citation needed] In general rabbinical sources use Yeshu, and this is the form to which some named references to Jesus in the Talmud
Jesus in the Talmud
as Yeshu
Yeshu
occur in some manuscripts of the Babylonian Talmud, though some scholars, such as Maier (1978) have argued that the presence of the name Yeshu
Yeshu
in these texts is a late interpolation. Some of the Hebrew sources referencing Yeshu
Yeshu
include the Toledot Yeshu, Sefer Nestor ha-Komer, Jacob ben Reuben's Milhamoth ha-Shem, Sefer Nizzahon Yashan, Sefer Joseph Hamekane, the works of Ibn Shaprut, Moses ha-Kohen de Tordesillas, and Hasdai Crescas.[citation needed] The name Yeshu
Yeshu
is unknown in archeological sources and inscriptions, except for one ossuary found in Palestine which has an inscription where someone has started to write first Yeshu.. (incorrectly?) and then written Yeshua
Yeshua
bar Yehosef beneath it.[34] There are 24 other ossuaries to various Yeshuas and Yehoshuas. None of the others have Yeshu. All other "Joshuas" in the Talmud, rabbinical writings, modern Hebrew, are always Yeshua
Yeshua
or Yehoshua. There are no undisputed examples of any Aramaic
Aramaic
or Hebrew text where Yeshu
Yeshu
refers to anyone else than Jesus.[35] Some of rabbinical sources comment on the reasons for the missing ayin from Yeshu, as opposed to the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
Yeshua
Yeshua
and Yehoshuah. Leon Modena argues that it was Jesus
Jesus
himself who made his disciples remove the ayin, and that therefore they cannot now restore it. (Modena was a 17th-century polemicist and does not have reliable lingusitic evidence for the claim.) A tradition states that the shortening to Yeshu relates to the Y-SH-U of the yimach shemo "may his name be obliterated."[36][37] Against this David Flusser suggested that the name Yeshu
Yeshu
itself was "in no way abusive," but "almost certainly" a Galilean dialect form of Yeshua.[38] But E.Y. Kutscher showed that the `ayin was still pronounced in Galilee, refuting a thesis by Paul Kahle.[39] See also[edit]

Christianity portal

Aramaic
Aramaic
of Jesus Isa Jesus Yoseph Yoshua Josiah The Ma'aynei Hayeshua Kiruv Movement Yahshua Yahshuah Tikkun olam

References[edit]

^ Ilan, Tal (2002). Lexicon of Jewish
Jewish
Names in Late Antiquity Part I: Palestine 330 BCE–200 CE (Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum 91). Tübingen, Germany: J.C.B. Mohr. p. 129.  ^ Stern, David (1992). Jewish
Jewish
New Testament Commentary. Clarksville, Maryland: Jewish
Jewish
New Testament Publications. pp. 4–5.  ^ Franz Delitzsch
Franz Delitzsch
Hebrew New Testament, Matthew 1:1, BFBS 1877, Isaac Salkinsohn Hebrew New Testament Matthew 1:1, TBS 1891 ^ Robert E. Van Voorst Jesus
Jesus
outside the New Testament 2000 ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5 p124 "This is likely an inference from the Talmud
Talmud
and other Jewish
Jewish
usage, where Jesus
Jesus
is called Yeshu, and other Jews with the same name are called by the fuller name Yehoshua, "Joshua"" ^ Kjær-Hansen, Kai. "An Introduction to the Names Yehoshua/Joshua, Yeshua, Jesus
Jesus
and Yeshu". Jews for Jesus
Jesus
Headquarters. Retrieved 27 March 2014.  ^ a b "Word 'y$w('". dukhrana.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ David Talshir, 'Rabbinic Hebrew as Reflected in Personal Names', Scripta Hierosylamitana vol. 37, Magnes Press, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, 1998:374ff. ^ a b Brown Driver Briggs
Brown Driver Briggs
Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon; Hendrickson Publishers 1996 ISBN 1-56563-206-0 ^ "The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers 1990) ^ David Talmshir, "Rabbinic Hebrew as Reflected in Personal Names" in Scripta Hierosolymitana: Publications of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, vol. 37 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press: Hebrew University of Jerusalem 1998) ^ "וֹשֻׁשׁוּעַ‬", Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language (New York: Macmillan Publishing Company 1987), where it means "a cry for help". ^ "וֹשֻׁשׁוּעַ‬", William L. Holladay, A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic
Aramaic
Lexicon of the Old Testament (Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing 1971), where it means "a cry for help". ^ "שָׁוַע‬", M. Jastrow, Dictionary of the Talmud
Talmud
reprinted (Jerusalem: Khorev 1990), where שׁוֹשֻׁוּעַ‬ is explained by the verb "to cry for help", ^ Jewish
Jewish
Encyclopedia. entry JOSHUA (JEHOSHUA): Funk and Wagnalls. 1901-06-19.  ^ Farber, Zev (11 July 2016). Images of Joshua
Joshua
in the Bible and Their Reception. De Gruyter. p. 159. ISBN 978-3-11-034336-6. [Per Philo’s interpretation of the name Joshua
Joshua
as “salvation of the Lord”] since Joshua
Joshua
[Hoshea] is such an excellent person, it would be more fitting for him to receive this “most excellent of names” (ὄνομα τῆς άρίστης). [On the Change of Names - De Mutatione Nominum - Mut.]  ^ Taylor, Bernard Alwyn (2009), Analytical lexicon to the Septuagint, Hendrickson Publishers, p. 286, ISBN 978-1-56563-516-6, [New Testament uses Ἰησοῦ as the dative, Septuagint
Septuagint
uses] Ἰησοῖ  pr noun masc dat sg . . . . Ἰησοῦς   ^ Segel, Moshe Tsvi (1953). Sefer Ben-Sira Hash-Shalem. Chapter 46 verse 2: Mosad Byalik. p. 317.  ^ Price, R. (28 September 2013). " Jesus
Jesus
or Yeshua?". Yeshua.org. Retrieved 2017-12-18.  ^ Buried Hope Or Risen Savior: The Search for the Jesus
Jesus
Tomb 2008 p81 Charles Quarles – 2008 "The distinction between the longer and shorter forms does not exist in Greek. The Greek Iesous (Ineous) was used to represent both Yehoshua' and Yeshua'. There are 48 instances of Iesous (Iesous and several eccentric spellings), " ^ Photo in Witherington & Schanks pp 59–60 ^ Incantation bowls in Montgomery and Moussaief/Levene 2002. See transcription in Bauckham essay in Quarles. ^ New Testament theology Joachim Jeremias – 1977 "... 1965, 284–93: 285; a graffito which I found in the south wall of the southern pool at Bethesda, now covered in, also read [yfw ', see my: The Rediscovery of Bethesda, New Testament Archaeology Monograph No I, Louisville, Ky., 1966, ..." ^ "The Furtive Patach". www.hebrew4christians.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ Talshir 1998:374,376. ^ Elisha Qimron, The Hebrew Of The Dead Sea Scrolls, Scholars Press, Harvard Semitic Studies vol. 29, 1986:25. ^ Qimron:26, 31–35. ^ Qimron:35. ^ Price, James D. Yehoshua, Yeshua
Yeshua
or Yeshu; Which one is the name of Jesus
Jesus
in Hebrew?, accessed March 6, 2006. ^ William Chomsky, Hebrew: The Eternal Language, Jewish
Jewish
Publication Society of America, 1957 p.140 ^ Mendel, Roi (25 February 2007). "Ha-"chasifa" shel qever Yeshu: qiddum mkhirot". Yedioth Ahronoth. Retrieved 2007-02-27.  ^ Pilkington, Ed; Rory McCarthy (27 February 2007). "Is this really the last resting place of Jesus, Mary Magdalene – and their son?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-02-27.  ^ Wycliffe Bible Dictionary. entry HEBREW LANGUAGE: Hendrickson Publishers. 1975.  ^ J. Maier Jesus
Jesus
von Nazareth 1978. G. Theissen, Historical Jesus. 1998. R. Voorst Jesus
Jesus
outside the New Testament 2000 ^ Brother of Jesus
Jesus
Hershel Shanks, Ben Witherington photo of the "Yeshu... Yeshua
Yeshua
bar Yehosef" ossuary and dual inscription ^ Jesus
Jesus
outside the New Testament p124 Robert E. Van Voorst – 2000 "This is likely an inference from the Talmud
Talmud
and other Jewish
Jewish
usage, where Jesus
Jesus
is called Yeshu, and other Jews with the same name are called by the fuller name Yehoshua, "Joshua" (e.g., b Sanh. 107b on p. " ^ Michael H. Cohen A Friend of All Faiths – Page 42 – 2004 "In Hebrew school, one of my teachers had explained that Yeshu
Yeshu
(Hebrew for Jesus), rather than meaning "Saviour," in fact was an acronym that stood for yimach shemo ve-zichrono: "may his name and memory be erased " ^ Proceedings: Volume 4 Aḳademyah ha-leʼumit ha-Yiśreʼelit le-madaʻim – 1969 "Perhaps the most significant of these is the passage where instead of the printed 'that certain man' we find 'Jesus the Nazarene — may his name be obliterated' (thus also in a Genizah MS, British Museum, Or. 91842). " ^ New Testament theology Joachim Jeremias – 1977 "... deliberate truncation made for anti-Christian motives; rather, it is 'almost certainly' (Flusser, Jesus, 13) the Galilean pronunciation of the name; the swallowing of the 'ayin was typical of the Galilean dialect (Billerbeck I 156f. ^ E.Y. Kutscher, Studies in Galil

.