Yeshua (ישוע, with vowel pointing יֵשׁוּעַ –
yēšūă‘ in Hebrew) or Y'shua (spelling of Messianic Jews) was a
common alternative form of the name יְהוֹשֻׁעַ
("Yehoshua" – Joshua) in later books of the
Hebrew Bible and among
Jews of the
Second Temple period. The name corresponds to the Greek
spelling Iesous, from which, through the Latin IESVS/Iesus, comes the
English spelling Jesus.
The Hebrew spelling
Yeshua (ישוע) appears in some later books
of the Hebrew Bible. Once for
Joshua the son of Nun, and 28 times for
Joshua the High Priest and (
KJV "Jeshua") and other priests called
Jeshua – although these same priests are also given the spelling
Joshua in 11 further instances in the books of Haggai and Zechariah.
It differs from the usual
Hebrew Bible spelling of Joshua
(יְהוֹשֻׁעַ y'hoshuaʿ), found 218 times in the Hebrew
Bible, in the absence of the consonant he ה and placement of the
semivowel vav ו after, not before, the consonant shin ש. It also
differs from the Hebrew spelling
Yeshu (ישו) which is found in
Ben Yehuda's dictionary and used in most secular contexts in Modern
Hebrew to refer to
Jesus of Nazareth, although the Hebrew spelling
Yeshua (ישוע) is generally used in translations of the New
Testament into Hebrew and used by Hebrew speaking Christians in
Israel. The name
Yeshua is also used in Israelite Hebrew historical
texts to refer to other Joshuas recorded in Greek texts such as Jesus
ben Ananias and
Jesus ben Sira.
In English, the name
Yeshua is extensively used by followers of
Messianic Judaism, whereas East Syrian Christian denominations use
the name Isho in order to preserve the
Aramaic or Syriac name of
The Greek transliteration Ἰησοῦς (Iēsous) *jesu-os →
[jeˈsus] can stand for both Classical Biblical Hebrew Yehoshua
[jəhoˈʃuaʕ] (top two) and Late Biblical Hebrew
(bottom). This later form developed within Hebrew (not Aramaic).
All three spelling variants occur in the Hebrew Bible, including when
referring to the same person. During the
Second Temple Period, Jews of
Galilee tended to preserve the traditional spelling, keeping the
<ו> letter for the [o] in the first syllable, even adding
another letter for the [u] in the second syllable. However, Jews of
Jerusalem tended to spell the name as they pronounced it,
[jeˈʃuaʕ], contracting the spelling to ישוע without the [o]
Aramaic references to the
Hebrew Bible adopted the
contracted phonetic form of this Hebrew name as an
Main article: Names and titles of
Jesus in the New Testament
Yeshua in Hebrew is a verbal derivative from "to rescue", "to
deliver". Among the Jews of the
Second Temple Period, the Biblical
Aramaic/Hebrew name יֵשׁוּעַ Yeshua‘ was common: the
Hebrew Bible mentions several individuals with this name – while
also using their full name Joshua. This name is a feature of biblical
books written in the post-Exilic period (Ezra, Nehemiah, and
Chronicles) and was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls, though Haggai and
Zechariah prefer the spelling Joshua.
Strong's Concordance connects
the name יֵשׁוּעַ Yeshua`, in the English form Jeshua (as
used in multiple instances in Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles),
with the verb "to deliver" (or, "to rescue"). It is often
translated as "He saves," to conform with Matthew 1:21: "She will bear
a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for He will save His people
from their sins" (NASB).
The name יֵשׁוּעַ "Yeshua" (transliterated in the English
Old Testament as Jeshua) is a late form of the Biblical Hebrew name
יְהוֹשֻׁעַ Yehoshua (Joshua), and spelled with a waw in
the second syllable. The Late Biblical Hebrew spellings for earlier
names often contracted the theophoric element Yeho- to Yo-. Thus
יהוחנן Yehochanan contracted to יוחנן Yochanan.
However, there is no name (aside from Yehoshua`) in which Yeho- became
The name ישוע occurs in the Hebrew of the Old Testament at verses
Ezra 2:2, 2:6, 2:36, 2:40, 3:2, 3:8, 3:9, 3:10, 3:18, 4:3, 8:33;
Nehemiah 3:19, 7:7, 7:11, 7:39, 7:43, 8:7, 8:17, 9:4, 9:5, 11:26,
12:1, 12:7, 12:8, 12:10, 12:24, 12:26; 1 Chronicles 24:11; and 2
Chronicles 31:15, and also in
Aramaic at Ezra 5:2. In Nehemiah 8:17
this name refers to
Joshua son of Nun, the successor of Moses, as
leader of the Israelites. Note that in earlier English (where
adaptations of names of Biblical figures were generally based on the
Yeshua was generally transcribed identically to
"Jesus" in English. It was only when the Protestant Bible translators
of ca. 1600 went back to the original languages that a distinction
Jesus and Jeshua appeared in English.
The name Yehoshua has the form of a compound of "Yeho-" and "shua":
Yeho- יְהוֹ is another form of יָהו Yahu, a theophoric
element standing for the name of God יהוה (the Tetragrammaton
YHWH, sometimes transcribed into English as Yahweh), and
שׁוּעַ shua‘ is a noun meaning "a cry for help", "a saving
cry", that is to say, a shout given when in need of
rescue. Together, the name would then literally mean, "YHWH (Yahu) is
a saving-cry," that is to say, shout to YHWH [God] when in need of
Another explanation for the name Yehoshua is that it comes from the
root ישע yod-shin-‘ayin, meaning "to deliver, save, or
rescue". According to the
Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers verse 13:16, the name of
Joshua son of Nun was originally Hoshea` הוֹשֵעַ, and the
name "Yehoshua`" יְהוֹשֻׁעַ is usually spelled the same
but with a yod added at the beginning. "Hoshea`" certainly comes from
the root ישע, "yasha", yod-shin-`ayin (in the
Hif'il form the
yod becomes a waw), and not from the word שוע Shúaʻ (Jewish
Encyclopedia) although ultimately both roots appear to be
In the 1st century, Philo of Alexandria, in a Greek exposition,
offered this understanding of Moses’s reason for the name change of
the biblical hero Jehoshua/
Joshua son of Nun from
Hoshea [similar to
hoshia` meaning "He rescued"] to Yehoshua in commemoration of his
salvation: "And Ιησους refers to salvation of the Lord"
[Ιησους or Iesous being the Greek form of the name]
(Ἰησοῦ δὲ σωτηρία κυρίου) (On the Change of
Similarly, the Septuagint renders
Ben Sira as saying (in the Greek
form of the name): "Ιησους the son of Naue [Yehoshua Ben Nun]
who according to his name became great unto [the]
salvation/deliverance of his chosen ones" (Ἰησοῦς Ναυῆ ..
ὃς ἐγένετο κατὰ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ
μέγας ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ ἐκλεκτῶν αὐτοῦ)
Ben Sira 46:1–2). However,
Ben Sira originally wrote in Hebrew in
the 2nd century BC, and the only extant Hebrew manuscript for this
passage has "in his days" (בימיו), not "according to his name"
(which would be כשמו in Hebrew), and thus does not comment
on the name Yehoshua as connoting יְּשׁוּעָה
"deliverance": "Yehoshua Ben Nun, who was formed to be in his days a
great deliverer for his chosen ones" (יהושע בן נון... אשר
נוצר להיות בימיו תשועה גדלה לבחיריו).
Possibly, the translators understood the phrase "was formed in his
days" to refer to being transformed by his name change, and thus has
"according to his name" as a paraphrastic translation, or else they
were working from a different text.
The distinction between the longer Yehoshua and shorter
does not exist in Greek. The name
Yeshua is a
shortened version of the name Yehoshua or
Joshua and is the literal
Hebrew word for Salvation.
1 Archaeological evidence
3 Original name for Jesus
3.1 East Syriac Ishoʕ
4 Yeshua, Yehoshua, and
Yeshu in the Talmud
4.1 Rabbinical commentary on the difference Yeshu/Yeshua
5 See also
Tal Ilan's lexicon of
Second Temple period
Second Temple period names on inscriptions in
Palestine (2002) includes for "Joshua" 85 examples of Hebrew Yeshua,
15 of Yehoshua, and 48 examples of Iesous in Greek inscriptions," with
only one Greek variant as Iesoua. One ossuary of the around twenty
known with the name Yeshua, Rahmani No.9, discovered by Ezra Sukenik
in 1931, has "Yeshu...
Yeshua ben Yosef." The "Yeshu..." may have been
scratched out. Two
Jewish magical incantation bowls have been
discovered both bearing variant spellings of Yeshua.
Apart from the "Yesh..
Yeshua ben Yosef" ossuary, the only other known
evidence for the existence of a
Yeshu form prior to the material
Jesus in the Talmud, is a graffito which Joachim Jeremias
identified in Bethesda in 1966, but which is now filled in.
Yeshua יֵשוּעַ [jeˈʃuăʕ]. The Hebrew letter Yod י /j/ is
vocalized with the Hebrew vowel tsere /e/ (a 'long' e like the first
syllable of "neighbor" but not diphthongized) rather than with a shva
/ə/ (as Y'shua) or segol /ɛ/ (Yesh-shua). The final letter
is /ʕ/ (a rough, guttural sound not found in Greek or English),
sometimes transcribed " ` " (Yeshua`). The final [ăʕ] represents the
"patach genuvah" ("furtive" patach), indicating that the consonant
`ayin is pronounced after the a vowel, and the word's stress is moved
to the middle syllable (the characteristics of the furtive patach can
be seen in other words, such as רוח [ˈruăħ] 'spirit'). Thus
it is pronounced [jeˈʃu.a(ʕ)] in Modern Hebrew, approximately
The Hebrew name of the historical
Jesus is probably pronounced
'Yeshua', although this is uncertain and depends on the reconstruction
of several ancient Hebrew dialects. Talshir suggests, even though
Galileans tended to keep the traditional spelling for 'Yehoshua'
יהושוע with the letter Vav for /o/, they still pronounced the
name similarly to the Judeans, as 'Yeshua' [jeˈʃuaʕ], who tended to
spell the name phonetically as ישוע, perhaps reducing the name
thus: [jəhoˈʃuaʕ] > [joˈʃuaʕ] > [jeˈʃuaʕ], with the
/o/ palatizing (via 'dissimilation') before the /ʃ/.
Qimron describes the general linguistic environment of Hebrew dialects
by the time of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The articulation of the /h/
(along with other guttural phonemes /ʔ/, /ħ/, and /ʕ/, as well as
approximants /j/ and /w/) weakened significantly. Thus Hebrew
pronunciations became less stable when two successive vowels were no
longer separated by a consonant /h/. The speakers optionally either
reduced the two vowels to a single vowel or oppositely expanded them
to emphasize each vowel separately, sometimes forming a furtive glide
in between, [w] or [j]. For example, the
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls spell
the Hebrew word ראוי /rɔˈʔui̯/ ('seen') variously, recording
both pronunciations: reduced ראו [ro] and expanded ראואי
The Hebrew name 'Yehoshua' generally reduced to 'Yeshua', but an
expanded 'Yehoshua' is possible, especially in Galilee whose
traditional orthography possibly reflects this.
Original name for Jesus
The English name
Jesus derives from the
Late Latin name Iesus, which
Koine Greek name Ἰησοῦς Iēsoûs.
Septuagint and other Greek-language
Jewish texts, such as the
Josephus and Philo of Alexandria, Ἰησοῦς Iēsoûs
is the standard
Koine Greek form used to translate both of the Hebrew
names: Yehoshua and Yeshua. Greek Ἰησοῦς or Iēsoûs is also
used to represent the name of
Joshua son of Nun in the New Testament
passages Acts 7:45 and Hebrews 4:8. (It was even used in the
Septuagint to translate the name
Hoshea in one of the three verses
where this referred to
Joshua the son of Nun—Deut. 32:44.)
During the second Temple period (beginning 538 BC – 70 AD), Yeshua
first became a known form of the name Yehoshua. All occurrences of
Yeshua in the
Hebrew Bible are in I Chron. 24:11, II Chron. 31:15,
Ezra, and Nehemiah where it is transliterated into English as Jeshua.
Two of these men (
Joshua the son of Nun and
Joshua the High Priest)
are mentioned in other books of the
Hebrew Bible where they are
instead called Yehoshua  (transliterated into English as Joshua).
The earlier form Yehoshua did not disappear, however, and remained in
use as well. In the post-exilic books,
Joshua the son of Nun is called
Yeshua bin-Nun (Nehemiah 8:17) and Yehoshua (I Chronicles 7:27).
The short form
Yeshua was used for
Jesus ben Sirach
Jesus ben Sirach in Hebrew
fragments of the Wisdom of Sirach. (Some concern remains over whether
these fragments faithfully represent the original Hebrew text or are
instead a later translation back into Hebrew.) The earlier form
Yehoshua saw revived usage from the
Hasmonean period onwards, although
Yeshua is still found in letters from the time of the Bar
Kokhba Revolt (132–135 AD).
In the documentary The Lost Tomb of Jesus, archeologist Amos Kloner
stated that the name
Yeshua was then a popular form of the name
Yehoshua and was "one of the common names in the time of the Second
Temple." In discussing whether it was remarkable to find a tomb
with the name of
Jesus (the particular ossuary in question bears the
inscription "Yehuda bar Yeshua"), he pointed out that the name had
been found 71 times in burial caves from that time period.
Thus, both the full form Yehoshua and the abbreviated form
in use during the
Gospel period – and in relation to the same
person, as in the
Hebrew Bible references to Yehoshua/
Yeshua son of
Nun, and Yehoshua/
Yeshua the high priest in the days of Ezra. An
argument in favor of the Hebrew reduced form ישוע Yeshua, as
opposed to Yehoshua, is the West
Syriac dialect in which the
pronunciation is Yeshu` /jeʃuʕ/.
East Syriac Ishoʕ
Yeshuuʕ or Ishoʕ, the Syriac name of Jesus
Aramaic and (Classical Syriac) render the pronunciation of the same
letters as ܝܫܘܥ yeshuuʕ (yešuʕ) /yeʃuʕ/ and ܝܫܘܥ ishoʕ
(išoʕ) /iʃoʕ/. The
Aramaic Bibles and the
Peshitta Syriac preserve
these same spellings. Current scholarly consensus posits that the NT
texts were translated from the Greek, but this theory is not supported
directly at least by the name for Jesus, which is not a simple
transliteration of the Greek form as would otherwise be expected, as
Greek did not have an "sh" [ʃ] sound, and substituted [s]; and
likewise lacked and therefore omitted the final ‘ayin sound [ʕ].
Eusebius (early fourth century) reports that Papius (early
second century) reports that Jesus's disciple Matthew wrote a gospel
"in the Hebrew language". (Note, scholars typically argue the word
"Hebrew" in the New Testament refers to Aramaic. But others have
attempted to refute this view. See Randall Buth and Chad Pierce,
"Ebraisti in Ancient Texts: Does Ἐβραϊστί ever Mean
"Aramaic"?" in Buth and Notley, ed., The Language Environment in First
Century Judea, Brill, 2014.) The
Aramaic of the
Peshitta does not
Joshua and Jesus, and the Lexicon of William
Jennings gives the same form ܝܫܘܥ for both names. The Hebrew
final letter ayin ע is equivalent to final ܥ in Classical Syriac
and East Syriac and West Syriac. It can be argued that the Aramaic
speakers who used this name had a continual connection to the
Aramaic-speakers in communities founded by the apostles and other
students of Jesus, thus independently preserved his historical name
Yeshuuʕ and the Eastern dialectical Ishoʕ. Those churches following
East Syrian Rite
East Syrian Rite still preserve the name Ishoʕ.
Yeshua, Yehoshua, and
Yeshu in the Talmud
In the Talmud, only one reference is made to the spelling Yeshua, in
verbatim quotation from the
Hebrew Bible regarding Jeshua son of
Jozadak (elsewhere called
Joshua son of Josedech). The
refer to several people named Yehoshua from before (e.g.
Perachyah) and after
Joshua ben Hananiah). In references
Jesus in the Talmud, however, where the name occurs, it is rendered
Yeshu, which is a name reserved in
Aramaic and Hebrew literature from
the early medieval period until today, solely for
Jesus of Nazareth,
not for other Joshuas. Some scholars, such as Maier (1978), regard the
two named "Yeshu" texts in the
Talmud (Sanhedrin 43a and 107b) to be
later amendments, and not original.
Rabbinical commentary on the difference Yeshu/Yeshua
Yeshua was used as the name for
Jesus in late additions to the
Yosippon; however, its usage here is a translation back into the
Yeshua from the Greek.
In general rabbinical sources use Yeshu, and this is the form to which
some named references to
Jesus in the Talmud
Jesus in the Talmud as
Yeshu occur in some
manuscripts of the Babylonian Talmud, though some scholars, such as
Maier (1978) have argued that the presence of the name
Yeshu in these
texts is a late interpolation. Some of the Hebrew sources referencing
Yeshu include the Toledot Yeshu, Sefer Nestor ha-Komer, Jacob ben
Reuben's Milhamoth ha-Shem, Sefer Nizzahon Yashan, Sefer Joseph
Hamekane, the works of Ibn Shaprut, Moses ha-Kohen de Tordesillas, and
Hasdai Crescas.
Yeshu is unknown in archeological sources and inscriptions,
except for one ossuary found in Palestine which has an inscription
where someone has started to write first Yeshu.. (incorrectly?) and
Yeshua bar Yehosef beneath it. There are 24 other
ossuaries to various Yeshuas and Yehoshuas. None of the others have
Yeshu. All other "Joshuas" in the Talmud, rabbinical writings, modern
Hebrew, are always
Yeshua or Yehoshua. There are no undisputed
examples of any
Aramaic or Hebrew text where
Yeshu refers to anyone
else than Jesus.
Some of rabbinical sources comment on the reasons for the missing ayin
from Yeshu, as opposed to the
Yeshua and Yehoshuah. Leon
Modena argues that it was
Jesus himself who made his disciples remove
the ayin, and that therefore they cannot now restore it. (Modena was a
17th-century polemicist and does not have reliable lingusitic evidence
for the claim.) A tradition states that the shortening to Yeshu
relates to the Y-SH-U of the yimach shemo "may his name be
obliterated." Against this
David Flusser suggested that the
Yeshu itself was "in no way abusive," but "almost certainly" a
Galilean dialect form of Yeshua. But E.Y. Kutscher showed that the
`ayin was still pronounced in Galilee, refuting a thesis by Paul
Aramaic of Jesus
The Ma'aynei Hayeshua Kiruv Movement
^ Ilan, Tal (2002). Lexicon of
Jewish Names in Late Antiquity Part I:
Palestine 330 BCE–200 CE (Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum
91). Tübingen, Germany: J.C.B. Mohr. p. 129.
^ Stern, David (1992).
Jewish New Testament Commentary. Clarksville,
Jewish New Testament Publications. pp. 4–5.
Franz Delitzsch Hebrew New Testament, Matthew 1:1, BFBS 1877, Isaac
Salkinsohn Hebrew New Testament Matthew 1:1, TBS 1891
^ Robert E. Van Voorst
Jesus outside the New Testament 2000
ISBN 978-0-8028-4368-5 p124 "This is likely an inference from the
Talmud and other
Jewish usage, where
Jesus is called Yeshu, and other
Jews with the same name are called by the fuller name Yehoshua,
^ Kjær-Hansen, Kai. "An Introduction to the Names Yehoshua/Joshua,
Jesus and Yeshu". Jews for
Jesus Headquarters. Retrieved 27
^ a b "Word 'y$w('". dukhrana.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
^ David Talshir, 'Rabbinic Hebrew as Reflected in Personal Names',
Scripta Hierosylamitana vol. 37, Magnes Press, Hebrew University in
^ a b
Brown Driver Briggs
Brown Driver Briggs Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English
Lexicon; Hendrickson Publishers 1996 ISBN 1-56563-206-0
^ "The New Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (Nashville:
Thomas Nelson Publishers 1990)
^ David Talmshir, "Rabbinic Hebrew as Reflected in Personal Names" in
Scripta Hierosolymitana: Publications of the Hebrew University of
Jerusalem, vol. 37 (Jerusalem: Magnes Press: Hebrew University of
^ "וֹשֻׁשׁוּעַ", Ernest Klein, A Comprehensive
Etymological Dictionary of the Hebrew Language (New York: Macmillan
Publishing Company 1987), where it means "a cry for help".
^ "וֹשֻׁשׁוּעַ", William L. Holladay, A Concise Hebrew
Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament (Michigan: William B.
Eerdmans Publishing 1971), where it means "a cry for help".
^ "שָׁוַע", M. Jastrow, Dictionary of the
(Jerusalem: Khorev 1990), where שׁוֹשֻׁוּעַ is explained
by the verb "to cry for help",
Jewish Encyclopedia. entry JOSHUA (JEHOSHUA): Funk and Wagnalls.
^ Farber, Zev (11 July 2016). Images of
Joshua in the Bible and Their
Reception. De Gruyter. p. 159. ISBN 978-3-11-034336-6. [Per
Philo’s interpretation of the name
Joshua as “salvation of the
Joshua [Hoshea] is such an excellent person, it would
be more fitting for him to receive this “most excellent of names”
(ὄνομα τῆς άρίστης). [On the Change of Names - De
Mutatione Nominum - Mut.]
^ Taylor, Bernard Alwyn (2009), Analytical lexicon to the Septuagint,
Hendrickson Publishers, p. 286, ISBN 978-1-56563-516-6, [New
Testament uses Ἰησοῦ as the dative,
Ἰησοῖ pr noun masc dat sg . . . .
^ Segel, Moshe Tsvi (1953). Sefer Ben-Sira Hash-Shalem. Chapter 46
verse 2: Mosad Byalik. p. 317.
^ Price, R. (28 September 2013). "
Jesus or Yeshua?". Yeshua.org.
^ Buried Hope Or Risen Savior: The Search for the
Jesus Tomb 2008 p81
Charles Quarles – 2008 "The distinction between the longer and
shorter forms does not exist in Greek. The Greek Iesous (Ineous) was
used to represent both Yehoshua' and Yeshua'. There are 48 instances
of Iesous (Iesous and several eccentric spellings), "
^ Photo in Witherington & Schanks pp 59–60
^ Incantation bowls in Montgomery and Moussaief/Levene 2002. See
transcription in Bauckham essay in Quarles.
^ New Testament theology
Joachim Jeremias – 1977 "... 1965,
284–93: 285; a graffito which I found in the south wall of the
southern pool at Bethesda, now covered in, also read [yfw ', see my:
The Rediscovery of Bethesda, New Testament Archaeology Monograph No I,
Louisville, Ky., 1966, ..."
^ "The Furtive Patach". www.hebrew4christians.com. Retrieved 1 April
^ Talshir 1998:374,376.
^ Elisha Qimron, The Hebrew Of The Dead Sea Scrolls, Scholars Press,
Harvard Semitic Studies vol. 29, 1986:25.
^ Qimron:26, 31–35.
^ Price, James D. Yehoshua,
Yeshua or Yeshu; Which one is the name of
Jesus in Hebrew?, accessed March 6, 2006.
^ William Chomsky, Hebrew: The Eternal Language,
Society of America, 1957 p.140
^ Mendel, Roi (25 February 2007). "Ha-"chasifa" shel qever Yeshu:
qiddum mkhirot". Yedioth Ahronoth. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
^ Pilkington, Ed; Rory McCarthy (27 February 2007). "Is this really
the last resting place of Jesus, Mary Magdalene – and their son?".
The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-02-27.
^ Wycliffe Bible Dictionary. entry HEBREW LANGUAGE: Hendrickson
^ J. Maier
Jesus von Nazareth 1978. G. Theissen, Historical Jesus.
1998. R. Voorst
Jesus outside the New Testament 2000
^ Brother of
Jesus Hershel Shanks,
Ben Witherington photo of the
Yeshua bar Yehosef" ossuary and dual inscription
Jesus outside the New Testament p124 Robert E. Van Voorst – 2000
"This is likely an inference from the
Talmud and other
Jesus is called Yeshu, and other Jews with the same name are
called by the fuller name Yehoshua, "Joshua" (e.g., b Sanh. 107b on p.
^ Michael H. Cohen A Friend of All Faiths – Page 42 – 2004 "In
Hebrew school, one of my teachers had explained that
Yeshu (Hebrew for
Jesus), rather than meaning "Saviour," in fact was an acronym that
stood for yimach shemo ve-zichrono: "may his name and memory be erased
^ Proceedings: Volume 4 Aḳademyah ha-leʼumit ha-Yiśreʼelit
le-madaʻim – 1969 "Perhaps the most significant of these is the
passage where instead of the printed 'that certain man' we find 'Jesus
the Nazarene — may his name be obliterated' (thus also in a Genizah
MS, British Museum, Or. 91842). "
^ New Testament theology
Joachim Jeremias – 1977 "... deliberate
truncation made for anti-Christian motives; rather, it is 'almost
certainly' (Flusser, Jesus, 13) the Galilean pronunciation of the
name; the swallowing of the 'ayin was typical of the Galilean dialect
(Billerbeck I 156f.
^ E.Y. Kutscher, Studies in Galil