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YERKISH is an artificial language developed for use by non-human primates . It employs a keyboard whose keys contain lexigrams, symbols corresponding to objects or ideas.

A LEXIGRAM represents a word but is not necessarily indicative of the object to which it refers. Lexigrams were notably used by the Georgia State University Language
Language
Research Center to communicate with bonobos and chimpanzees . Researchers and primates were able to communicate using lexigram boards made in up to three panels with a total of 384 keys.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References

HISTORY

Lexigram representing Sue Savage-Rumbaugh , a developer of the language

The language was developed by Ernst von Glasersfeld and used by Duane Rumbaugh and Sue Savage-Rumbaugh of Georgia State University while working with primates at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia
Atlanta, Georgia
. Primates were taught to communicate by means of a lexigram board, a computerized array of keys labeled with lexigrams. Von Glasersfeld coined the term "lexigram" in 1971, created the first 120 of them, and designed the grammar that regulated their combination. This artificial language was called Yerkish in honor of Robert M. Yerkes , the founder of the laboratory within which the lexigrams were first used.

The first ape trained to communicate in Yerkish was the chimpanzee Lana , beginning in 1973 within the context of the LANA project.

SEE ALSO

* Primate cognition * Kanzi
Kanzi
* Panbanisha * Great Ape Trust * Great ape language

NOTES

* ^ A B Interactive Lexigram, History of Ape Language, Great Ape Trust , 2010. Archived May 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Jeffrey Kluger, "Inside the Minds of Animals", Time , August 5, 2010.

REFERENCES

* Rumbaugh, D. M. ed. (1977) Language
Language
Learning by a Chimpanzee. The LANA Project. New York, Academic Press * von Glasersfeld, E., Department of Psychology, University of Georgia. The Yerkish language for Non- Human
Human
Primates. American Journal of Computational Linguistics, 1974, 1.

* v * t * e

Great ape language

Languages taught to non-human apes

* American Sign Language
Language
* Yerkish

Non-human apes taught simple languages

BONOBOS

* Kanzi
Kanzi
* Nyota * Panbanisha

CHIMPANZEES

* Lana * Loulis * Lucy * Nim Chimpsky * Sarah * Viki * Washoe

GORILLAS

* Koko * Michael

ORANGUTANS

* Azy * Chantek

RESEARCHERS

* Francine Patterson * Sue Savage-Rumbaugh * Maurice K. Temerlin * Roger Fouts * Tetsuro Matsuzawa * William M. Fields

RESEARCH CENTERS

* Chimpanzee and Human
Human
Communication Institute * Elgin Center * Iowa Primate Learning Sanctuary * The Gorilla
Gorilla
Foundation

MEDIA

* Koko: A Talking Gorilla
Gorilla
(1978 film) * The Mind of an Ape (1983 book) * Next of Kin (1997 book) * Project Nim (2011 film)

SEE ALSO

* Animal language * Animal communication * Primate cognition * Animal cognition * Human–animal communication

* v * t * e

Types of writing systems

OVERVIEW

* History of writing
History of writing
* Grapheme

LISTS

* Writing systems

* undeciphered * inventors * constructed

* Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

TYPES

ABJADS

* Numerals

* Aramaic

* Hatran

* Arabic * Pitman shorthand
Pitman shorthand

* Hebrew

* Ashuri * Cursive * Rashi * Solitreo

* Tifinagh * Manichaean * Nabataean * Old North Arabian * Pahlavi * Pegon

* Phoenician

* Paleo-Hebrew

* Proto-Sinaitic * Psalter * Punic * Samaritan

* South Arabian

* Zabur * Musnad

* Sogdian

* Syriac

* ʾEsṭrangēlā * Serṭā * Maḏnḥāyā

* Teeline Shorthand * Ugaritic

ABUGIDAS

BRAHMIC

NORTHERN

* Asamiya (Ôxômiya) * Bānglā * Bhaikshuki * Bhujinmol * Brāhmī * Devanāgarī * Dogra * Gujarati * Gupta * Gurmukhī * Kaithi * Kalinga * Khojki * Khotanese * Khudawadi * Laṇḍā * Lepcha * Limbu * Mahajani * Marchen * Marchung * Meitei Mayek * Modi * Multani * Nāgarī * Nandinagari
Nandinagari
* Odia * \'Phags-pa * Newar * Pungs-chen * Pungs-chung * Ranjana * Sharada * Saurashtra * Siddhaṃ * Soyombo * Sylheti Nagari * Takri

* Tibetan

* Uchen * Umê

* Tirhuta
Tirhuta
* Tocharian * Zanabazar Square

SOUTHERN

* Ahom * Balinese * Batak * Baybayin * Bhattiprolu * Buhid * Burmese * Chakma * Cham * Grantha * Goykanadi * Hanunó\'o * Javanese * Kadamba * Kannada * Kawi * Khmer * Kulitan * Lanna * Lao * Leke * Lontara * Malayalam

* Maldivian

* Dhives Akuru * Eveyla Akuru * Thaana
Thaana

* Mon * Old Sundanese * Pallava * Pyu * Rejang * Rencong * Sinhala * Sundanese * Tagbanwa * Tai Le * Tai Tham * Tai Viet * Tamil * Telugu * Thai * Tigalari

* Vatteluttu

* Kolezhuthu * Malayanma

* Visayan

OTHERS

* Boyd\'s syllabic shorthand

* Canadian syllabics

* Blackfoot * Déné syllabics

* Fox I * Ge\'ez * Gunjala Gondi * Japanese Braille
Japanese Braille
* Jenticha * Kayah Li * Kharosthi * Mandombe * Masaram Gondi * Meroitic * Miao * Mwangwego * Sorang Sompeng * Pahawh Hmong * Thomas Natural Shorthand

ALPHABETS

LINEAR

* Abkhaz * Adlam * Armenian * Avestan * Avoiuli * Bassa Vah * Borama * Carian * Caucasian Albanian * Coorgi–Cox alphabet
Coorgi–Cox alphabet
* Coptic * Cyrillic * Deseret

* Duployan shorthand

* Chinook writing

* Early Cyrillic * Eclectic shorthand * Elbasan * Etruscan * Evenki * Fox II * Fraser * Gabelsberger shorthand
Gabelsberger shorthand
* Garay

* Georgian

* Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
* Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
* Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli

* Glagolitic * Gothic * Gregg shorthand
Gregg shorthand
* Greek * Greco-Iberian alphabet
Greco-Iberian alphabet
* Hangul * IPA * Kaddare

* Latin

* Beneventan * Blackletter * Carolingian minuscule * Fraktur
Fraktur
* Gaelic * Insular * Kurrent
Kurrent
* Merovingian * Sigla * Sütterlin
Sütterlin
* Tironian notes
Tironian notes
* Visigothic

* Luo * Lycian * Lydian * Manchu * Mandaic * Molodtsov * Mongolian * Mru * Neo- Tifinagh * New Tai Lue * N\'Ko * Ogham * Oirat * Ol Chiki * Old Hungarian * Old Italic * Old Permic * Orkhon * Old Uyghur * Osage * Osmanya * Pau Cin Hau * Rohingya Hanifi

* Runic

* Anglo-Saxon * Cipher * Dalecarlian * Elder Futhark
Elder Futhark
* Younger Futhark * Gothic * Marcomannic * Medieval * Staveless

* Sidetic * Shavian * Somali * Tifinagh * Vagindra * Visible Speech * Vithkuqi * Zaghawa

NON-LINEAR

* Braille
Braille
* Maritime flags * Morse code
Morse code
* New York Point * Semaphore line
Semaphore line
* Flag semaphore * Moon type

IDEOGRAMS /PICTOGRAMS

* Adinkra * Aztec * Blissymbol * Dongba * Ersu Shaba * Emoji * IConji
IConji
* Isotype * Kaidā * Míkmaq * Mixtec * New Epoch Notation Painting
New Epoch Notation Painting
* Nsibidi * Ojibwe Hieroglyphs * Siglas poveiras * Testerian
Testerian
* Yerkish * Zapotec

LOGOGRAMS

CHINESE FAMILY OF SCRIPTS

CHINESE CHARACTERS

* Simplified * Traditional * Oracle bone script * Bronze Script

* Seal Script

* large * small * bird-worm

* Hanja
Hanja
* Idu * Kanji * Chữ nôm * Zhuang

CHINESE-INFLUENCED

* Jurchen * Khitan large script * Sui * Tangut

CUNEIFORM

* Akkadian * Assyrian * Elamite * Hittite * Luwian * Sumerian

OTHER LOGO-SYLLABIC

* Anatolian * Bagam * Cretan * Isthmian * Maya * Proto-Elamite * Yi (Classical)

LOGO-CONSONANTAL

* Demotic * Hieratic * Hieroglyphs

NUMERALS

* Hindu-Arabic * Abjad * Attic (Greek) * Muisca * Roman

SEMI-SYLLABARIES

FULL

* Celtiberian * Northeastern Iberian * Southeastern Iberian * Khom

REDUNDANT

* Espanca * Pahawh Hmong * Khitan small script * Southwest Paleohispanic * Zhùyīn fúhào

SOMACHEIROGRAMS

* ASLwrite
ASLwrite
* SignWriting * si5s * Stokoe Notation

SYLLABARIES

* Afaka * Bamum * Bété * Byblos * Cherokee * Cypriot * Cypro-Minoan * Eskayan * Geba * Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics * Iban

* Japanese

* Hiragana * Katakana * Man\'yōgana * Hentaigana * Sogana * Jindai moji

* Kikakui * Kpelle * Linear B
Linear B
* Linear Elamite * Lisu * Loma * Nüshu * Nwagu Aneke script * Old Persian Cuneiform
Cuneiform
* Vai * Woleai * Yi (Modern) * Yugtun

* v * t * e

Braille
Braille
⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

BRAILLE CELL

* 1829 braille * International uniformity * ASCII braille * Unicode braille patterns

BRAILLE SCRIPTS

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

* Albanian * Amharic * Arabic * Armenian * Azerbaijani * Belarusian

* Bharati

* Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi / Marathi / Nepali) * Bengali * Punjabi * Sinhalese * Tamil * Urdu * etc.

* Bulgarian * Burmese * Cambodian * Cantonese * Catalan * Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) * Czech * Dutch * Dzongkha (Bhutanese) * English (Unified English ) * Esperanto * Estonian * Faroese * French * Georgian * German * Ghanaian * Greek * Guarani * Hawaiian * Hebrew * Hungarian * Icelandic * Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) * Iñupiaq * IPA * Irish * Italian * Kazakh * Kyrgyz * Latvian * Lithuanian * Maltese * Mongolian * Māori * Nigerian * Northern Sami * Persian * Philippine * Polish * Portuguese * Romanian * Russian * Samoan * Scandinavian * Slovak * South African * Spanish * Tatar * Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) * Thai border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

FREQUENCY-BASED SCRIPTS

* American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

INDEPENDENT SCRIPTS

* Japanese * Korean * Two-Cell Chinese

EIGHT-DOT SCRIPTS

* Luxembourgish * Kanji * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

SYMBOLS IN BRAILLE

* Braille
Braille
music * Canadian currency marks * Computer Braille
Braille
Code * Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) * International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) * Nemeth braille code

BRAILLE TECHNOLOGY

* Braille
Braille
e-book * Braille
Braille
embosser * Braille
Braille
translator * Braille
Braille
watch * Mountbatten Brailler * Optical braille recognition * Perforation * Perkins Brailler * Refreshable braille display * Slate and stylus * Braigo

PERSONS

* Louis Braille
Braille
* Charles Barbier * Valentin Haüy
Valentin Haüy
* Thakur Vishva Narain Singh * Sabriye Tenberken * William Bell Wait

ORGANISATIONS

* Braille
Braille
Institute of America * Braille
Braille
Without Borders * Japan Braille
Braille
Library * National Braille
Braille
Association * Blindness organizations * Schools for the blind * American Printing House for the Blind

OTHER TACTILE ALPHABETS

* Decapoint * Moon type * New York Point * Night writing * Vibratese

RELATED TOPICS

* Accessible publishing * Braille
Braille
literacy * Robo Braille
Braille

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