HOME
The Info List - Yerkish


--- Advertisement ---



Yerkish is an artificial language developed for use by non-human primates. It employs a keyboard whose keys contain lexigrams, symbols corresponding to objects or ideas.[1] A lexigram represents a word but is not necessarily indicative of the object to which it refers. Lexigrams were notably used by the Georgia State University Language
Language
Research Center to communicate with bonobos and chimpanzees. Researchers and primates were able to communicate using lexigram boards made in up to three panels with a total of 384 keys.[1][2]

Contents

1 History 2 See also 3 Notes 4 References

History[edit]

Lexigram representing Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, a developer of the language

The language was developed by Ernst von Glasersfeld
Ernst von Glasersfeld
and used by Duane Rumbaugh and Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
of Georgia State University
Georgia State University
while working with primates at the Yerkes National Primate
Primate
Research Center of Emory University
Emory University
in Atlanta, Georgia. Primates were taught to communicate by means of a lexigram board, a computerized array of keys labeled with lexigrams. Von Glasersfeld coined the term "lexigram" in 1971, created the first 120 of them, and designed the grammar that regulated their combination. This artificial language was called Yerkish in honor of Robert M. Yerkes, the founder of the laboratory within which the lexigrams were first used. The first ape trained to communicate in Yerkish was the chimpanzee Lana, beginning in 1973 within the context of the LANA project. See also[edit]

Primate
Primate
cognition Kanzi Panbanisha Great Ape Trust Great ape language

Notes[edit]

^ a b Interactive Lexigram, History of Ape Language, Great Ape Trust, 2010. Archived May 20, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Jeffrey Kluger, "Inside the Minds of Animals", Time, August 5, 2010.

References[edit]

Rumbaugh, D. M. ed. (1977) Language
Language
Learning by a Chimpanzee. The LANA Project. New York, Academic Press von Glasersfeld, E., Department of Psychology, University of Georgia. The Yerkish language for Non- Human
Human
Primates. American Journal of Computational Linguistics, 1974, 1.

v t e

Great ape language

Languages taught to non-human apes

American Sign Language Yerkish

Non-human apes taught simple languages

Bonobos

Kanzi Nyota Panbanisha

Chimpanzees

Lana Loulis Lucy Nim Chimpsky Sarah Viki Washoe

Gorillas

Koko Michael

Orangutans

Azy Chantek

Researchers

Francine Patterson Sue Savage-Rumbaugh Maurice K. Temerlin Roger Fouts Tetsuro Matsuzawa William M. Fields

Research centers

Chimpanzee
Chimpanzee
and Human
Human
Communication Institute Elgin Center Iowa Primate
Primate
Learning Sanctuary The Gorilla
Gorilla
Foundation

Media

Koko: A Talking Gorilla
Gorilla
(1978 film) The Mind of an Ape (1983 book) Next of Kin (1997 book) Project Nim (2011 film)

See also

Animal language Animal communication Primate
Primate
cognition Animal cognition Human–animal communication

v t e

Constructed languages

Classification

Purpose

Artistic

Fictional Language
Language
game

Auxiliary (IAL/LAI)

Universal Zonal

Engineered

Experimental Musical Philosophical

Source

A priori A posteriori

Characteristics

Oligosynthetic Oligoisolating

Specific languages by group

Auxiliary

Babm Blissymbols Bolak Esperanto

Esperantido Esperanto
Esperanto
1894 Esperanto
Esperanto
II Ido Mundolinco Romániço

Glosa

Interglossa

Idiom Neutral Interlingua
Interlingua
de IALA International Sign Kotava Langue nouvelle Latino sine flexione Lingua Franca Nova Lingwa de planeta Mondial Nal Bino Neo Novial Occidental Pandunia Sambahsa Solresol Sona Spokil Unish Universalglot Uropi Volapük

Zonal

Afrihili Folkspraak Interslavic / Medžuslovjansky Romanid Slovio

Engineered

aUI Ithkuil Kalaba-X Loglan Lojban Ro Toki Pona

Fictional and other artistic

Atlantean Brithenig Dothraki Enchanta Kēlen Klingon Kobaïan Láadan Loxian Middle-earth languages

Adûnaic Quenya Sindarin more...

Na'vi Nadsat Syldavian Teonaht Tsolyáni Valyrian Verdurian Wenedyk

Ritual and other

Balaibalan Damin Efatese Enochian Eskayan Lincos Lingua Ignota Medefaidrin N'Ko Yerkish Zaum

Writing systems

Constructed script Esperanto
Esperanto
orthography Interglossa alphabet Tolkien's writing systems

Cirth Sarati Tengwar

Related

Conlanging: The Art of Crafting Tongues Relexification zompist.com

Portal List of constructed languages List of language creators

v t e

Types of writing systems

Overview

History of writing Grapheme

Lists

Writing systems

undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

Types

Abjads

Numerals

Aramaic

Hatran

Arabic Pitman shorthand Hebrew

Ashuri Cursive Rashi Solitreo

Tifinagh Manichaean Nabataean Old North Arabian Pahlavi Pegon Phoenician

Paleo-Hebrew

Proto-Sinaitic Psalter Punic Samaritan South Arabian

Zabur Musnad

Sogdian Syriac

ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

Teeline Shorthand Ugaritic

Abugidas

Brahmic

Northern

Asamiya (Ôxômiya) Bānglā Bhaikshuki Bhujinmol Brāhmī Devanāgarī Dogri Gujarati Gupta Gurmukhī Kaithi Kalinga Khojki Khotanese Khudawadi Laṇḍā Lepcha Limbu Mahajani Meitei Mayek Modi Multani Nāgarī Nandinagari Odia 'Phags-pa Newar Ranjana Sharada Saurashtra Siddhaṃ Soyombo Sylheti Nagari Takri Tibetan

Uchen Umê

Tirhuta Tocharian Zanabazar Square Zhang-Zhung

Drusha Marchen Marchung Pungs-chen Pungs-chung

Southern

Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

Dhives Akuru Eveyla Akuru Thaana

Mon Old Makassarese Old Sundanese Pallava Pyu Rejang Rencong Sinhala Sundanese Tagbanwa Tai Le Tai Tham Tai Viet Tamil Telugu Thai Tigalari Vatteluttu

Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian syllabics

Blackfoot Déné syllabics

Fox I Ge'ez Gunjala Gondi Japanese Braille Jenticha Kayah Li Kharosthi Mandombe Masaram Gondi Meroitic Miao Mwangwego Sorang Sompeng Pahawh Hmong Thomas Natural Shorthand

Alphabets

Linear

Abkhaz Adlam Armenian Avestan Avoiuli Bassa Vah Borama Carian Caucasian Albanian Coorgi–Cox alphabet Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand

Chinook writing

Early Cyrillic Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Etruscan Evenki Fox II Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Garay Georgian

Asomtavruli Nuskhuri Mkhedruli

Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul Hanifi IPA Kaddare Latin

Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

Luo Lycian Lydian Manchu Mandaic Medefaidrin Molodtsov Mongolian Mru Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Oirat Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Old Uyghur Osage Osmanya Pau Cin Hau Runic

Anglo-Saxon Cipher Dalecarlian Elder Futhark Younger Futhark Gothic Marcomannic Medieval Staveless

Sidetic Shavian Somali Tifinagh Vagindra Visible Speech Vithkuqi Wancho Zaghawa

Non-linear

Braille Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore Moon type

Ideograms/Pictograms

Adinkra Aztec Blissymbol Dongba Ersu Shaba Emoji IConji Isotype Kaidā Míkmaq Mixtec New Epoch Notation Painting Nsibidi Ojibwe Hieroglyphs Siglas poveiras Testerian Yerkish Zapotec

Logograms

Chinese family of scripts

Chinese Characters

Simplified Traditional Oracle bone script Bronze Script Seal Script

large small bird-worm

Hanja Idu Kanji Chữ nôm Zhuang

Chinese-influenced

Jurchen Khitan large script Sui Tangut

Cuneiform

Akkadian Assyrian Elamite Hittite Luwian Sumerian

Other logo-syllabic

Anatolian Bagam Cretan Isthmian Maya Proto-Elamite Yi (Classical)

Logo-consonantal

Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs

Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
braille patterns

Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

Algerian Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

American Braille
Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

Japanese Korean Two-Cell Chinese

Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

v t e

Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

v t e

Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktio

.