Yerevan (/ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn/, YE-rə-VAHN; Armenian: Երևան[a]
[jɛɾɛˈvɑn] ( listen), sometimes spelled Erevan)[b] is
the capital and largest city of
Armenia as well as one of the world's
oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan
Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center
of the country. It has been the capital since 1918, the thirteenth in
the history of Armenia, and the seventh located in or around the
Ararat plain. The city also serves as the seat of the Araratian
Pontifical Diocese; the largest diocese of the Armenian Apostolic
Church and one of the oldest dioceses in the world.
The history of
Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the
founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at
the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni was "designed as
a great administrative and religious centre, a fully royal
capital." By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities
were established and
Yerevan declined in importance. Under Iranian and
Russian rule, it was the center of the
Erivan Khanate from 1736 to
1828 and the
Erivan Governorate from 1850 to 1917, respectively. After
World War I,
Yerevan became the capital of the First Republic of
Armenia as thousands of survivors of the
Armenian Genocide in the
Ottoman Empire arrived in the area. The city expanded rapidly
during the 20th century as
Armenia became part of the Soviet Union. In
a few decades,
Yerevan was transformed from a provincial town within
Russian Empire to Armenia's principal cultural, artistic, and
industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national
With the growth of the economy of the country,
Yerevan has been
undergoing major transformation as many parts of the city have been
the recipient of new construction since the early 2000s, and retail
outlets as much as restaurants, shops, and street cafés, which were
rare during Soviet times, have multiplied. As of 2011[update], the
Yerevan was 1,060,138, just over 35% of the Republic of
Armenia's total population. According to the official estimate of
2016, the current population of the city is 1,073,700.
named the 2012
World Book Capital by UNESCO.
Yerevan is an
associate member of Eurocities.
Of the notable landmarks of Yerevan,
Erebuni Fortress is considered to
be the birthplace of the city, the Katoghike Tsiranavor church is the
oldest surviving church of
Yerevan and Saint Gregory Cathedral is the
largest Armenian cathedral in the world,
Tsitsernakaberd is the
official memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, and several
opera houses, theatres, museums, libraries, and other cultural
Yerevan Opera Theatre
Yerevan Opera Theatre is the main spectacle hall of the
Armenian capital, the National Gallery of
Armenia is the largest art
museum in the Republic of
Armenia and shares a building with the
History Museum of Armenia, and the
Matenadaran repository contains one
of the largest depositories of ancient books and manuscripts in the
world. The neoclassical Republic Square is the center of the city and
the monumental Cascade steps lead from the city center to Victory
Park, home of a Luna Park and the statue Mother
3.1 Pre-history and pre-classical era
3.3 Median and Achaemenid rules
3.4 Ancient Kingdom of Armenia
3.5 Sasanian period
3.6 Arab Islamic invasion
3.7 Bagratid Armenia
3.8 Seljuk period, Zakarid
Armenia and Mongol rule
Aq Qoyunlu and
Kara Koyunlu tribes
3.10 Iranian rule
3.11 Russian rule
3.12 Brief independence
3.13 Soviet rule
4.1 Topography and cityscape
5 Politics and government
5.3 Administrative districts
6.1 Ethnic groups
6.2.1 Armenian Apostolic Church
6.2.2 Russian Orthodox Church
6.2.3 Other religions
6.3 Health and medical care
City buses, public vans and trolleybus
9 Economy and services
9.2 Finance and banking
9.5 Telecommunication and postal services
9.6 Tourism and nightlife
10.1 Science and research
11.6 Artistic gymnastics
11.7 Other sports
12 International relations
12.1 Twin towns/sister cities
13 Notable natives
14 Panorama view
15 See also
19 External links
The "birth certificate" of
Yerevan at the Erebuni Fortress—a
cuneiform inscription left by King
Argishti I of Urartu
Argishti I of Urartu on a basalt
stone slab about the foundation of the city in 782 BC
"YEREVAN" (ԵՐԵՒԱՆ) in an inscription from Kecharis, dating back
One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was
named after the Armenian king, Yervand (Orontes) IV, the last leader
of the Orontid Dynasty, and founder of the city of Yervandashat.
However, it is likely that the city's name is derived from the
Urartian military fortress of Erebuni (Էրեբունի), which was
founded on the territory of modern-day
Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti
I. As elements of the
Urartian language blended with that of the
Armenian one, the name eventually evolved into
Yerevan (Erebuni =
Erevani = Erevan = Yerevan). Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these
changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at
The transcription of the second cuneiform bu [original emphasis] of
the word was very essential in our interpretation as it is the
Urartaean b that has been shifted to the Armenian v (b > v). The
original writing of the inscription read «er-bu-ni»; therefore the
prominent Armenianologist-orientalist Prof. G. A. Ghapantsian justly
objected, remarking that the
Urartu b changed to v at the beginning of
the word (Biani > Van) or between two vowels (ebani > avan,
Zabaha > Javakhk)....In other words b was placed between two
vowels. The true pronunciation of the fortress-city was apparently
Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name
Yerevan to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in
Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had
Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded,
believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!" ("it appeared!").
In the late medieval and early modern periods, when
Yerevan was under
Turkic and later Persian rule, the city was known in Persian as
Iravân (Persian: ایروان). This name is still widely used by
Azerbaijanis (Azerbaijani: İrəvan). The city was officially known as
Erivan (Russian: Эривань) under Russian rule during the 19th
and early 20th centuries. The city was renamed back to Yerevan
(Ереван) in 1936. Up until the mid-1970s the city's name was
spelled Erevan, more often than Yerevan, in English sources.
Mount Ararat, the national symbol of Armenia, dominates the Yerevan
The principal symbol of
Yerevan is Mount Ararat, which is visible from
any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a
pedestal with the inscriptit in the upper part. The emblem is a
rectangular shield with a blue border.
On 27 September 2004,
Yerevan adopted an anthem, "Erebuni-Yerevan",
Paruyr Sevak and composed by Edgar Hovhanisyan. It was
selected in a competition for a new anthem and new flag that would
best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with
the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red
triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia. The
flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag. The
lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging.
See also: Timeline of Yerevan
Pre-history and pre-classical era
See also: Kura–Araxes culture
Foundations of Shengavit historical site (site settled 3200 BC cal to
2500 BC cal)
The territory of
Yerevan has been inhabited approximately during the
2nd half of the 4th millennium BC. The southern part of the city
currently known as Shengavit has been populated since at least 3200
BC, during the period of
Kura–Araxes culture of the early Bronze
Age. The first excavations at the Shengavit historical site was
conducted between 1936 and 1938 under the guidance of archaeologist
Yevgeny Bayburdyan. After two decades, archaeologist Sandro Sardarian
resumed the excavations starting from 1958 until 1983. The 3rd
phase of the excavations started in 2000, under the guidance of
archaeologist Hakob Simonyan. In 2009, Simonyan was joined by
professor Mitchell S. Rothman from the
Widener University of
Pennsylvania. Together they conducted three series of excavations in
2009, 2010, and 2012 respectively. During the process, a full
stratigraphic column to bedrock was reached, showing there to be 8 or
9 distinct stratigraphic levels. These levels cover a time between
3200 BC and 2500 BC. Evidences of later use of the site, possibly
until 2200 BC, were also found. The excavation process revealed a
series of large round buildings with square adjoining rooms and minor
round buildings. A series of ritual installations was discovered in
2010 and 2012.
Main article: Erebuni Fortress
Erebuni Fortress founded by King Argishti I in 782 BC
The ancient kingdom of
Urartu was formed in the 9th century BC in the
Lake Van of the Armenian Highland, including the territory of
modern-day Yerevan. King Arame was the founder of the kingdom, that
was one of the most developed states of its age. Archaeological
evidence, such as a cuneiform inscription, indicates that the
Urartian military fortress of Erebuni (Էրեբունի) was founded
in 782 BC by the orders of King Argishti I at the site of modern-day
Yerevan, to serve as a fort and citadel guarding against attacks from
the north Caucasus. Yerevan, as mentioned, is considered one of
the oldest cities in the world. The cuneiform inscription found at
Erebuni Fortress reads:
By the greatness of the God Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, built this
mighty stronghold and proclaimed it Erebuni for the glory of Biainili
[Urartu] and to instill fear among the king's enemies. Argishti says,
"The land was a desert, before the great works I accomplished upon it.
By the greatness of Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, is a mighty king,
king of Biainili, and ruler of Tushpa." [Van].
During the height of the
Urartian power, irrigation canals and
artificial reservoirs were built in Erebuni and its surrounding
Teishebaini building commenced in mid-7th century BC
In mid-7th century BC, the city of
Teishebaini was built by
Rusa II of
Urartu, around 7 kilometres (4.3 miles) west of Erebuni Fortress. 
It was fortified on a hill -currently known as Karmir Blur within
Shengavit District of Yerevan- to protect the eastern borders of
Urartu from the barbaric
Cimmerians and Scythians. During excavations,
the remains of a governors palace that contained a hundred and twenty
rooms spreading across more than 40,000 m2 (10 acres) was found,
along with a citadel dedicated to the
Urartian god Teisheba. The
construction of the city of Teishebaini, as well as the palace and the
citadel was completed by the end of the 7th century BC, during the
reign of Rusa III. However,
Teishebaini was destroyed by an alliance
Medes and the
Scythians in 585 BC.
Median and Achaemenid rules
Satrapy of Armenia
Achaemenid rhyton from Erebuni
In 590 BC, following the fall of the Kingdom of
Urartu in the hands of
the Iranian Medes, Erebuni along with the
Armenian Highland became
part of the Median Empire.
However, in 550 BC, the Median Empire was conquered by Cyrus the
Great, and Erebuni became part of the Achaemenid Empire. Between 522
BC and 331 BC, Erebuni was one of the main centers of the
Armenia, a region controlled by the
Orontid Dynasty as one of the
satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire. The
Armenia was divided
into two parts: the northern part and the southern part, with the
cities of Erebuni (Yerevan) and
Tushpa (Van) as their centres,
Coins issued in 478 BC along with many other items found in the
Erebuni Fortress, reveal the importance of Erebuni as a major centre
for trade under the Achaemenid rule.
After 2 centuries under the Achaemenid rule, Erebuni has been
gradually turned into a city of Persian image and culture.
Ancient Kingdom of Armenia
See also: Kingdom of
During the victorious period of Alexander the Great, and following the
decline of the Achaemenid Empire, the Orontid rulers of the Armenian
Satrapy achieved independence as a result of the Battle of Gaugamela
in 331 BC, founding the Kingdom of Armenia. With the establishment of
new cities such as Armavir, Zarehavan, Bagaran and Yervandashat, the
importance of Erebuni had gradually declined.
With the rise of the
Artaxiad dynasty of
Armenia who seized power in
189 BC, the Kingdom of
Armenia greatly expanded to include major
territories of Asia Minor, Atropatene, Iberia,
Phoenicia and Syria.
The Artaxiads considered Erebuni and
Tushpa as cities of Persian
heritage. Consequently, new cities and commercial centres were built
by Kings Artaxias I, Artavasdes I and Tigranes the Great. Thus, with
the dominance of cities such as
Artaxata and Tigranocerta, Erebuni had
significantly lost its importance as a central city.
The ruins of the 4th-century Holy Mother of God Chapel in Avan, north
Under the rule of the Arsacid dynasty of
Armenia (54–428 AD), many
other cities around Erebuni including
Vagharshapat and Dvin
flourished. Consequently, Erebuni was completely neutralized, losing
its role as an economic and strategic centre of Armenia. During the
period of the Arsacid kings, Erebuni was only recorded in a Manichaean
text of the 3rd century, where it is mentioned that one of the
disciples of the prophet Mani founded a Manichaean community near the
Christian community in Erebuni.
According to Ashkharatsuyts, Erebuni was part of the Kotayk canton
(Կոտայք գավառ, Kotayk gavar, not to be confused with the
current Kotayk Province) of
Ayrarat province, within
Armenia became a Christian nation in the early 4th century, during the
reign of the Arsacid king Tiridates III.
See also: Persian
Armenia and Marzpanate Armenia
Katoghike Tsiranavor Church of Avan, 6th century
Following the partition of
Armenia by the Byzantine and Sasanian
empires in 387 and in 428, Erebuni and the entire territory of Eastern
Armenia came under the rule of Sasanian Persia. The Armenian
territories formed the province of Persian
Armenia within the Sasanian
Due to the diminished role of Erebuni, as well as the absence of
proper historical data, much of the city's history under the Sasanian
rule is unknown.
The Katoghike Tsiranavor Church in Avan, built between 595 and 602
during Sasanian rule and partly damaged during the 1679 earthquake),
is the oldest surviving church within modern
Yerevan city limits.
The province of Persian
Armenia (also known as Persarmenia) lasted
until 646, when the province was dissolved with the Muslim conquest of
Arab Islamic invasion
See also: Arminiya
The 7th-century church of the Holy Mother of God, demolished in 1936
In 658 AD, at the height of the Arab Islamic invasions,
Yerevan was conquered during the Muslim conquest of Persia, as
it was part of Persian-ruled Armenia. The city became part of the
Armenia under the Umayyad Caliphate. The city of Dvin was
the centre of the newly created emirate. Starting from this period, as
a result of the developing trade activities with the Arabs, the
Armenian territories had gained strategic importance as a crossroads
for the Arab caravan routes passing between Europe and
Ararat plain of Armenia. Most probably, "Erebuni"
has become known as "Yerevan" since at least the 7th century AD.
See also: Bagratid Armenia
After 2 centuries of Islamic rule over Armenia, the Bagratid prince
Ashot I of
Armenia led the revolution against the Abbasid Caliphate.
Ashot I liberated
Yerevan in 850, and was recognized as the Prince of
Armenia by the Abbasid Caliph al-Musta'in in 862. Ashot was
later crowned King of
Armenia through the consent of Caliph
al-Mu'tamid in 885. During the rule of the
Bagratuni dynasty of
Armenia between 885 and 1045,
Yerevan was relatively a secure part of
the Kingdom before falling to the Byzantines.
Yerevan did not have any strategic role during the reign of
the Bagratids, who developed many other cities of Ayrarat, such as
Shirakavan, Dvin, and Ani.
Seljuk period, Zakarid
Armenia and Mongol rule
See also: Zakarid
Armenia and Mongol Armenia
The remains of Surp Hovhannes Chapel, dating back to the 12–13th
After a brief Byzantine rule over
Armenia between 1045 and 1064, the
invading Seljuks -led by
Tughril and later by his successor Alp
Arslan- ruled over the entire region, including Yerevan. However, with
the establishment of the Zakarid Principality of
Armenia in 1201 under
the Georgian protectorate, the Armenian territories of
Lori had significantly grown. After the Mongols captured
Ani in 1236,
Armenia turned into a Mongol protectorate as part of the Ilkhanate,
and the Zakarids became vassals to the Mongols. After the fall of the
Ilkhanate in the mid-14th century, the Zakarid princes ruled over
Lori, Shirak and
Ararat plain until 1360 when they fell to the
invading Turkic tribes.
Aq Qoyunlu and
Kara Koyunlu tribes
See also: Turkmen Armenia
Mausoleum of Kara Koyunlu emirs
Mausoleum of Kara Koyunlu emirs in Argavand near Yerevan
During the last quarter of the 14th century, the
Aq Qoyunlu Sunni
Oghuz Turkic tribe took over Armenia, including Yerevan. In 1400,
Armenia and Georgia, and captured more than 60,000 of
the survived local people as slaves. Many districts including Yerevan
Armenia fell under the control of the
Turkic tribe. According to the Armenian historian Thomas of Metsoph,
Kara Koyunlu levied heavy taxes against the Armenians,
the early years of their rule were relatively peaceful and some
reconstruction of towns took place. The Kara Koyunlus made Yerevan
the centre of the newly formed Chukhur Saad administrative territory.
The territory was named after a Turkic leader known as Emir Saad.
However, this peaceful period was shattered with the rise of Qara
Iskander between 1420 and 1436, who reportedly made
Armenia a "desert"
and subjected it to "devastation and plunder, to slaughter, and
captivity". The wars of Iskander and his eventual defeat against
the Timurids, invited further destruction in Armenia, as many more
Armenians were taken captive and sold into slavery and the land was
subjected to outright pillaging, forcing many of them to leave the
Following the fall of the
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in 1375, the
seat of the Armenian Church was transferred from Sis back to
Yerevan in 1441. Thus,
Yerevan became the main
economic, cultural and administrative centre in Armenia.
See also: Iranian
Armenia (1502–1828) and Erivan Khanate
An illustration of
Yerevan by French traveler
Jean Chardin in 1673
while he was travelling through the Safavid Empire
In 1501–02, most of the
Eastern Armenian territories including
Yerevan were swiftly conquered by the emerging
Safavid dynasty of Iran
led by Shah Ismail I. Soon after in 1502,
Yerevan became the
centre of the Erivan Beglarbegi, a new administrative territory of
Iran formed by the Safavids. For the following 3 centuries, it
remained, with brief intermissions, under the Iranian rule. Due to its
Yerevan -known as Revan by the Ottomans- was
initially often fought over, and passed back and forth, between the
dominion of the rivaling Iranian and Ottoman Empire, until it
permanently became controlled by the Safavids. In 1555,
secured its legitimate possession over
Yerevan with the Ottomans
through the Treaty of Amasya.
In 1582–1583, the Ottomans led by
Serdar Ferhad Pasha took brief
control over Yerevan. Ferhad Pasha managed to build the Erivan
Fortress on the ruins of one thousand-years old ancient Armenian
fortress, on the shores of
Hrazdan river. However, Ottoman control
ended in 1604 when the Persians regained
Yerevan as a result of first
Abbas I of Persia
Abbas I of Persia who ruled between 1588 and 1629, ordered the
deportation of hundreds of thousands of Armenians including citizens
Yerevan to mainland Persia. As a consequence, Yerevan
significantly lost its Armenian population who had declined to 20%,
while Muslims including Persians, Turks,
Kurds and Tatars gained
dominance with around 80% of the city's population. Muslims were
either sedentary, semi-sedentary, or nomadic. Armenians mainly
Kond neighbourhood of
Yerevan and the rural suburbs
around the city. However, the Armenians dominated over various
professions and trade in the area and were of great economic
significance to the Persian administration.
Kond, a historic neighbourhood of Yerevan, formed during the 17th
Yerevan in 1796 in the Qajar era, by G. Sergeevich. An Armenian church
is seen on the left and a Persian mosque on the right
During the second Ottoman-Safavid War, Ottoman troops under the
command of Sultan
Murad IV conquered the city in August 8, 1635.
Returning in triumph to Constantinople, he opened the "
(Revan Köşkü) in
Topkapı Palace in 1636. However, Iranian troops
under commanded by Shah Safi retook
Yerevan on April 1, 1636. As a
result of the
Treaty of Zuhab in 1639, the Iranians reconfirmed their
control over Eastern Armenia, including Yerevan. On 7 June 1679, a
devastating earthquake razed the city to the ground.
In 1724, the
Erivan Fortress was besieged by the Ottoman army. After a
period of resistance, the fortress fell to the Turks. As a result of
the Ottoman invasion, the Erivan Beglarbegi of the Safavids was
Following a brief period of Ottoman rule over Eastern
1724 and 1736, and as a result of the fall of the
Safavid dynasty in
Yerevan along with the adjacent territories became part of the
newly formed administrative territory of
Erivan Khanate under the
Afsharid dynasty of Iran, which encompassed an area of 15,000 square
kilometres (5,800 square miles). The Afsharids controlled Eastern
Armenia from the mid 1730s until the 1790s. Following the fall of the
Qajar dynasty of
Iran took control of Eastern Armenia
until 1828, when the region was conquered by the
Russian Empire after
their victory over the Qajars that resulted in the Treaty of
Turkmenchay of 1828.
Armenian Oblast and Erivan Governorate
Franz Roubaud's painting of the
Erivan Fortress siege in 1827 by the
Russian forces under leadership of
Ivan Paskevich during the
Russo-Persian War (1826–28)
Dzoragyugh neighbourhood of old
Yerevan in the 19th century
During the second Russo-Persian War of the 19th century, the
Russo-Persian War of 1826–28,
Yerevan was captured by Russian troops
Ivan Paskevich on 1 October 1827. It was
formally ceded by the Iranians in 1828, following the Treaty of
Turkmenchay. After 3 centuries of Iranian occupation, Yereven
along with the rest of Eastern
Armenia designated as the "Armenian
Oblast", became part of the Russian Empire, a period that would last
until the collapse of the Empire in 1917. The
Russians sponsored the
resettlement process of the Armenian population from
Turkey. Due to the resettlement, the percentage of the Armenian
Yerevan increased from 28% to 53.8%. The resettlement
was intended to create Russian power bridgehead in the Middle
East. In 1829, Armenian repatriates from
Persia were resettled in
the city and a new quarter was built.
Yerevan served as the seat of the newly formed
Armenian Oblast between
1828 and 1840. By the time of Nicholas I's visit in 1837,
become an uyezd. In 1840, the
Armenian Oblast was dissolved and its
territory incorporated into a new larger province; the
Georgia-Imeretia Governorate. In 1850 the territory of the former
oblast was reorganized into the Erivan Governorate, covering an area
of 28,000 square kilometres (11,000 square miles).
Yerevan was the
centre of the newly established governorate.
Saint Gregory Church opened in 1900 (later destroyed in 1939)
The Main Square of Yerevan, 1916
At that period,
Yerevan was a small town with narrow roads and alleys,
including the central quarter of Shahar, the Ghantar commercial
centre, and the residential neighbourhoods of Kond, Dzoragyugh, Nork
and Shentagh. During the 1840s and the 1850s, many schools were opened
in the city. However, the first major plan of
Yerevan was adopted in
1856, during which, Saint Hripsime and Saint Gayane women's colleges
were founded and the English Park was opened. In 1863, the Astafyan
Street was redeveloped and opened. In 1874, Zacharia Gevorkian opened
Yerevan's first printing house, while the first theatre opened its
doors in 1879.
On October 1, 1879,
Yerevan was granted the status of a city through a
decree issued by Alexander II of Russia. In 1881, The Yerevan
Teachers' Seminary and the
Yerevan Brewery were opened, followed by
the Tairyan's wine and brandy factory in 1887. Other factories for
alcoholic beverages and mineral water were opened during the 1890s.
The monumental church of Saint Gregory the Illuminator was opened in
1900. Electricity and telephone lines were introduced to the city in
1907 and 1913 respectively.
Yerevan had rapidly grown under the Russian rule, both
economically and politically. Old buildings were torn down and new
buildings of European style were erected instead.
At the beginning of the 20th century,
Yerevan city's population was
over 29,000. In 1902, a railway line linked
Tiflis and Julfa. In the same year, Yerevan's first
public library was opened. In 1905, the grandnephew of Napoleon I;
prince Louis Joseph Jérôme Napoléon (1864–1932) was appointed as
Yerevan province. In 1913, for the first time in the
city, a telephone line with eighty subscribers became operational.
Yerevan served as the centre of the governorate until 1917, when
Erivan governorate was dissolved with the collapse of the Russian
Main article: First Republic of Armenia
Government house of
Armenia from where
Aram Manukian declared
independence in May 1918
Celebration of the first anniversary of the First Republic of Armenia
At the beginning of the 20th century,
Yerevan was a small city with a
population of 30,000. In 1917, the
Russian Empire ended with the
October Revolution. In the aftermath, Armenian, Georgian and Muslim
Transcaucasia united to form the Transcaucasian Federation
and proclaimed Transcaucasia's secession.
The Federation, however, was short-lived. After gaining control over
Alexandropol, the Turkish army was advancing towards the south and
east to eliminate the center of Armenian resistance based in Yerevan.
On May 21, 1918, the Turks started their campaign moving towards
Yerevan via Sardarabad. Catholicos Gevorg V ordered that church bells
peal for 6 days as Armenians from all walks of life – peasants,
poets, blacksmiths, and even the clergymen – rallied to form
organized military units. Civilians, including children, aided in
the effort as well, as "Carts drawn by oxen, water buffalo, and cows
jammed the roads bringing food, provisions, ammunition, and volunteers
from the vicinity" of Yerevan.
Yerevan in 1920, made before the Soviet reconstruction of the
Alexander Tamanyan in 1924. Taken looking west, with the
Hrazdan River to the north rather than the west
By the end of May 1918, Armenians were able to defeat the Turkish army
in the battles of Sardarabad, Abaran and Karakilisa. Thus, on 28 May
1918, the Dashnak leader
Aram Manukian declared the independence of
Yerevan became the capital and the center of
the newly founded Republic of Armenia, although the members of the
Armenian National Council were yet to stay in
Tiflis until their
Yerevan to form the government in the summer of the same
Armenia became a parliamentary republic with four administrative
divisions. The capital
Yerevan was part of the Araratian Province. At
Yerevan received more than 75,000 refugees from Western
Armenia, who escaped the massacres perpetrated by the Ottoman Turks
during the Armenian Genocide.
On 26 May 1919, the government passed a law to open the
University, which was located on the main Astafyan (now Abovyan)
street of Yerevan.
After the signing of the
Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres in 1920,
granted formal international recognition. The United States, as well
as many South American countries, officially opened diplomatic
channels with the government of independent Armenia.
Yerevan had also
opened representatives in Great Britain, Italy, Germany, Serbia,
Iran and Japan.
However, after the short period of independence,
Yerevan fell to the
Armenia was incorporated into the
Soviet Union on 2
December 1920. Although nationalist forces managed to retake the city
in February 1921 and successfully released all the imprisoned
political and military figures, the city's nationalist elite were once
again defeated by the
Soviet forces on 2 April 1921.
See also: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
Armenia erected in 1967, replacing the monumental statue of
Monument commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Sovietization of
The Red Soviet Army invaded
Armenia on 29 November 1920 from the
northeast. On 2 December 1920,
Yerevan along with the other
territories of the Republic of Armenia, became part of the Soviet
Union, known as the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. However, the
Armenian SSR formed the Transcaucasian SFSR (TSFSR) together with the
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist
Republic, between 1922 and 1936.
Under the Soviet rule,
Yerevan became the first among the cities in
Soviet Union for which a general plan was developed. The "General
Plan of Yerevan" developed by the academician Alexander Tamanian, was
approved in 1924. It was initially designed for a population of
150,000. The city was quickly transformed into a modern industrial
metropolis of over one million people. New educational, scientific and
cultural institutions were founded as well.
Tamanian incorporated national traditions with contemporary urban
construction. His design presented a radial-circular arrangement that
overlaid the existing city and incorporated much of its existing
street plan. As a result, many historic buildings were demolished,
including churches, mosques, the Persian fortress, baths, bazaars and
caravanserais. Many of the districts around central
Yerevan were named
after former Armenian communities that were destroyed by the Ottoman
Turks during the Armenian Genocide. The districts of Arabkir,
Malatia-Sebastia and Nork Marash, for example, were named after the
towns Arabkir, Malatya, Sebastia, and Marash, respectively. After the
end of World War II, German POWs were used to help in the construction
of new buildings and structures, such as the Kievyan Bridge.
Within the years, the central
Kentron district has become the most
developed area in Yerevan, something that created a significant gap
compared with other districts in the city. Most of the educational,
cultural and scientific institutions were centred in the Kentron
In 1965, during the commemorations of the fiftieth anniversary of the
Yerevan was the location of a demonstration, the
first such demonstration in the Soviet Union, to demand recognition of
the Genocide by the Soviet authorities. In 1968, the city's
2,750th anniversary was commemorated.
Yerevan played a key role in the Armenian national democratic movement
that emerged during the Gorbachev era of the 1980s. The reforms of
Perestroika opened questions on issues such as the status
of Nagorno-Karabakh, the environment, Russification, corruption,
democracy, and eventually independence. At the beginning of 1988,
nearly one million Armenians from several regions of
in demonstrations concerning these subjects, centered in the city's
Theater Square (currently Freedom Square).
Nighttime view of
Yerevan in September 2013
Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union,
Yerevan became the
capital of the Republic of
Armenia on 21 September 1991.
Maintaining supplies of gas and electricity proved difficult; constant
electricity was not restored until 1996 amidst the chaos of the badly
instigated and planned transition to a market-based economy.
Yerevan downtown is the commercial and business centre
of the city
Since 2000, central
Yerevan has been transformed into a vast
construction site, with cranes erected all over the Kentron district.
Officially, the scores of multi-storied buildings are part of
large-scale urban planning projects. Roughly $1.8 billion was
spent on such construction in 2006, according to the national
statistical service. Prices for downtown apartments have increased by
about ten times during the first decade of the 21st century. Many new
streets and avenues were opened, such as the Argishti street, Italy
street, Saralanj Avenue, Monte Melkonian Avenue, and the Northern
However, as a result of this construction booming, the majority of the
historic buildings located on the central Aram Street, were either
entirely destroyed or transformed into modern residential buildings
through the construction of additional floors. Only a few structures
were preserved, mainly in the portion that extends between Abovyan
Street and Mashtots Avenue.
A reconstructed park at the centre of the city
The first major post-independence protest in
Yerevan took place in
September 1996, after the announcement of incumbent Levon
Ter-Petrosyan's victory in the presidential election. Major opposition
parties of the time, consolidated around the former Karabakh Committee
member and former Prime Minister Vazgen Manukyan, organized mass
demonstrations between 23 and 25 September, claiming electoral fraud
by Ter-Petrosyan. An estimated of 200,000 people gathered in the
Freedom Square to protest the election results. After a series of
riot and violent protests around the Parliament building on 25
September, the government sent tanks and troops to
Yerevan to enforce
the ban on rallies and demonstrations on the following day. Prime
Vazgen Sargsyan and Minister of National Security Serzh
Sargsyan announced on the Public Television of
Armenia that their
respective agencies have prevented an attempted coup d'état.
The monumental statue of
Garegin Nzhdeh at the centre of Yerevan
erected on May 28, 2016, on the 98th anniversary of the First Republic
In February 2008, unrest in the capital between the authorities and
opposition demonstrators led by ex-President
Levon Ter-Petrosyan took
place after the 2008 Armenian presidential election. The events
resulted in 10 deaths and a subsequent 20-day state of emergency
declared by President Robert Kocharyan.
In July 2016, a group of armed men calling themselves the Daredevils
of Sassoun (Armenian: Սասնա Ծռեր Sasna Tsrrer) stormed a
police station in
Erebuni District of Yerevan, taking several
hostages, demanding the release of opposition leader Jirair Sefilian
and the resignation of President Serzh Sargsyan. 3 policeman were
killed as a result of the attack. Many anti-government protestors
held rallies in solidarity with the gunmen. However, after 2 weeks
of negotiations, the crisis ended and the gunmen surrendered.
Topography and cityscape
Hrazdan River flowing through Yerevan
Yerevan is situated at the northeast of Ararat plain
Yerevan has an average height of 990 m (3,248.03 ft), with a
minimum of 865 m (2,837.93 ft) and a maximum of 1,390 m
(4,560.37 ft) above sea level. It is located on to the edge
Hrazdan River, northeast of the
Ararat plain (Ararat Valley),
to the center-west of the country. The upper part of the city is
surrounded with mountains on three sides while it descends to the
banks of the river
Hrazdan at the south. The
Hrazdan divides Yerevan
into two parts through a picturesque canyon.
Historically, the city is situated at the heart of the Armenian
Highland, in Kotayk canton (Armenian: Կոտայք գավառ
Kotayk gavar, not to be confused with the current Kotayk Province) of
Ayrarat province, within
As the capital of Armenia,
Yerevan is not part of any marz
("province"). Instead, it is bordered with the following provinces:
Kotayk from the north and the east, Ararat from the south and the
south-west, Armavir from the west and
Aragatsotn from the north-west.
Erebuni State Reserve
Erebuni State Reserve formed in 1981, is located around 8 km
southeast of the city centre within the
Erebuni District of the city.
At a height between 1300 and 1450 meters above sea level, the reserve
occupies an area of 120 hectares, mainly consisted of semi-deserted
Winter view of Yerevan
Yerevan features a continental influenced steppe climate (Köppen
climate classification: BSk or "cold semi-arid climate"), with long,
hot, dry summers and short, but cold and snowy winters. This is
Yerevan being on a plain surrounded by mountains and to
its distance from the sea and its effects. The summers are usually
very hot with the temperature in August reaching up to 40 °C
(104 °F), and winters generally carry snowfall and freezing
temperatures with January often being as cold as −15 °C
(5 °F) and lower. The amount of precipitation is small,
amounting annually to about 318 millimetres (12.5 in). Yerevan
experiences an average of 2,700 sunlight hours per year.
Temperature regime in
Yerevan is close to the southern Midwest cities
such as Kansas City, Missouri, Detroit, Michigan, and Omaha, Nebraska,
Yerevan is much drier.
Climate data for Yerevan
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net 
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)
Among European capital cities
Yerevan has highest difference between
average summer (June–August) and winter (December–February)
Traditional 19th-century buildings of
Yerevan on Aram Street
Yerevan TV Tower
Yerevan TV Tower is the tallest structure in the city, and one of
the tallest structures in the Transcaucasian region.
The Republic Square, the
Yerevan Opera Theatre, and the Yerevan
Cascade are among the main landmarks at the centre of Yerevan, mainly
developed based on the original design of the academician Alexander
Tamanian, and the revised plan of architect Jim Torosyan.
A major redevelopment process has been launched in
Yerevan since 2000.
As a result, many historic structures have been demolished and
replaced with new buildings. This urban renewal plan has been met with
opposition and criticism from some residents, as the projects
destroy historic buildings dating back to the period of the Russian
Empire, and often leave residents homeless. Downtown
houses deemed too small are increasingly demolished and replaced by
Modern buildings on the Northern Avenue
The Saint Gregory Cathedral, the new building of
the new section of
Matenadaran institute, the new terminal of
Zvartnots International Airport, the Cafesjian Center for the Arts at
the Cascade, the Northern Avenue, and the new government complex of
ministries are among the major construction projects fulfilled during
the first two decades of the 21st century.
Aram Street of old
Yerevan and the newly-built Northern Avenue are
respectively among the notable examples featuring the traditional and
modern architectural characteristics of Yerevan.
As of May 2017,
Yerevan is home to 4,883 residential apartment
buildings, and 65,199 street lamps installed on 39,799 street light
posts, covering a total length of 1,514 km. The city has 1,080
streets with a total length of 750 km.
The Lovers' Park
Yerevan is a densely-built city but still offers several public parks
throughout its districts, graced with mid-sized green gardens. The
public park of
Erebuni District along with its artificial lake is the
oldest garden in the city. Occupying an area of 17 hectares, the
origins of the park and the artificial lake date back to the period of
Argishti I of Urartu
Argishti I of Urartu during the 8th century BC. In 2011, the
garden was entirely remodeled and named as
Lyon Park, to become a
symbol of the partnership between the cities of
Lyon and Yerevan.
Lovers' Park on Marshal
Baghramyan Avenue and the English Park at
the centre of the city, dating back to the 18th and 19th centuries
respectively, are among the most popular parks for the Yerevantsis.
Yerevan Botanical Garden
Yerevan Botanical Garden opened in 1935, the Victory park formed
in the 1950s and the
Circular Park are among the largest green spaces
of the city.
The Swan Lake
Formed in the 1960s, the
Yerevan opera garden along with its
artificial Swan Lake is also among the favourite green spaces of the
city. The lake is converted into an ice-skating arena during winters.
Yerevan Lake is an artificial reservoir opened in 1967 on Hrazdan
riverbed at the south of the city centre, with a surface of
0.65 km2 (0.25 sq mi).
Each administrative district of
Yerevan has its own public park, such
Buenos Aires Park
Buenos Aires Park and
Tumanyan Park in Ajapnyak,
in Shengavit, Vahan Zatikian park in Malatia-Sebastia, David Anhaght
park in Kanaker-Zeytun, the Family park in Avan, and Fridtjof Nansen
park in Nor Nork.
Politics and government
The National Assembly of
Armenia on Baghramyan Avenue
Yerevan has been the capital of
Armenia since the independence of the
First Republic in 1918. Situated in the Ararat plain, the historic
lands of Armenia, it served as the best logical choice for capital of
the young republic at the time.
Armenia became a republic of the Soviet Union,
as capital and accommodated all the political and diplomatic
institutions in the republic. In 1991 with the independence of
Yerevan continued with its status as the political and
cultural centre of the country, being home to all the national
institutions: the Government House, the National Assembly, the
Presidential Palace, the Central Bank, the Constitutional Court, all
ministries, judicial bodies and other government organizations.
See also: List of mayors of Yerevan
Yerevan received the status of a city on October 1, 1879, upon a
decree issued by Tsar Alexander II of Russia. The first city council
formed was headed by Hovhannes Ghorghanyan who became the first mayor
The Constitution of the Republic of
Armenia adopted on 5 July 1995,
Yerevan the status of a marz (province). Therefore,
Yerevan functions similarly to the provinces of
Armenia with a few
specifications. The administrative authority of
Yerevan is thus
the mayor, appointed by the President (who can remove him at any
moment) upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister, alongside a
group of four deputy mayors heading eleven ministries (of which
financial, transport, urban development etc.),
City Council, regrouping the Heads of community districts
under the authority of the mayor,
twelve "community districts", with each having its own leader and
their elected councils.
Yerevan has a principal city hall and
twelve deputy mayors of districts.
In the modified Constitution of 27 November 2005,
Yerevan city was
turned into a "community" (hamaynk); since, the Constitution declares
that this community has to be led by a mayor, elected directly or
indirectly, and that the city needs to be governed by a specific
law. The first election of the
City Council took place in
2009 and won by the ruling Republican Party of Armenia.
In addition to the national police and road police,
Yerevan has its
own municipal police. All three bodies cooperate to maintain law in
The twelve districts of Yerevan
Main article: Districts of Yerevan
Yerevan is divided into twelve "administrative districts"
(վարչական շրջան, varčakan šrĵan) each with an
elected leader. The total area of the 12 districts of
Yerevan is 223
square kilometres (86 square miles).
Historical ethnic composition of Yerevan
(excluding the Erivan Fortress)
^a Called Tatars prior to 1918
Originally a small town,
Yerevan became the capital of
Armenia and a
large city with over one million inhabitants. Until the fall of the
Soviet Union, the majority of the population of
Yerevan were Armenians
with minorities of Russians, Kurds,
Azerbaijanis and Iranians present
as well. However, with the breakout of the
Nagorno-Karabakh War from
1988 to 1994, the Azerbaijani minority diminished in the country in
what was part of population exchanges between
Armenia and Azerbaijan.
A big part of the Russian minority also fled the country during the
1990s economic crisis in the country. Today, the population of Yerevan
is overwhelmingly Armenian.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, due to economic crises,
thousands fled Armenia, mostly to Russia, North America and Europe.
The population of
Yerevan fell from 1,250,000 in 1989 to 1,103,488
in 2001 and to 1,091,235 in 2003. However, the population of
Yerevan has been increasing since. In 2007, the capital had 1,107,800
Yerevantsis in general use the
Yerevan dialect, an Eastern Armenian
dialect most probably formed during the 13th century. It is currently
spoken in and around Yerevan, including the towns of
Classical Armenian (Grabar) words compose significant part
of the dialect's vocabulary. Throughout the history, it was
influenced by several languages, especially Russian and Persian and
loan words have significant presence in it today. It is currently the
most widespread Armenian dialect.
Saint Nikolai Russian Cathedral, destroyed in 1931
Yerevan was inhabited first by Armenians and remained homogeneous
until the 15th century. The population of the Erivan
Fortress, founded in the 1580s, was mainly composed of Muslim
soldiers, estimated two to three thousand. The city itself was
mainly populated by Armenians. French traveler Jean-Baptiste
Tavernier, who visited
Yerevan possibly up to six times between 1631
and 1668, states that the city is exclusively populated by
Armenians. During the 1720's Ottoman–Persian War its absolute
majority were Armenians. The demographics of the region changed
because of a series of wars between the Ottoman Empire,
Russia. By the early 19th century,
Yerevan had a Muslim majority.
Until the Sovietizaton of Armenia,
Yerevan was a multicultural city,
mainly with Armenian and Caucasian Tatar (nowadays Azerbaijanis)
population. After the Armenian Genocide, many refugees from what
Armenians call Western
Armenia (nowadays Turkey, then Ottoman Empire)
escaped to Eastern Armenia. In 1919, about 75,000 Armenian refugees
Ottoman Empire arrived in Yerevan, mostly from the Vaspurakan
region (city of Van and surroundings). A significant part of these
refugees died of typhus and other diseases.
From 1921 to 1936, about 42,000 ethnic Armenians from Iraq, Turkey,
Iran, Greece, Syria, France,
Bulgaria etc. came to Soviet Armenia,
with most of them settling in Yerevan. The second wave of repatriation
occurred from 1946 to 1948, when about 100,000 ethnic Armenians from
Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus, Palestine,
Iraq, Egypt, France,
United States etc. came to Soviet Armenia, again
most of whom settled in Yerevan. Thus, the ethnic makeup of Yerevan
became more monoethnic during the first 3 decades in the Soviet Union.
In the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the remaining 2,000 Azeris left
the city, because of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
List of churches in Yerevan
List of churches in Yerevan and Religion in Armenia
Armenian Apostolic Church
The 5th-century Saint Paul and Peter Church
Saint John the Baptist Church consecrated in 1710
Surp Sarkis consecrated in 1842, is the main cathedral of Yerevan
Armenian Apostolic Christianity is the predominant religion in
Armenia. The 5th-century Saint Paul and Peter Church demolished in
November 1930 by the Soviets, was among the earliest churches ever
built in Erebuni-Yerevan. Many of the ancient Armenian and medieval
churches of the city were destroyed by the Soviets in the 1930s during
the Great Purge.
The regulating body of the Armenian Church in
Yerevan is the Araratian
Pontifical Diocese, with the Surp Sarkis Cathedral being the seat of
the diocese. It is the largest diocese of the Armenian Church and one
of the oldest dioceses in the world, covering the city of
Ararat Province of Armenia.
Yerevan is currently home to the largest Armenian church in the world,
the Cathedral of Saint Gregory the Illuminator. It was consecrated in
2001, during the 1700th anniversary of the establishment of the
Armenian Church and the adoption of Christianity as the national
religion in Armenia.
As of 2017,
Yerevan has 17 active Armenian churches as well as 4
Russian Orthodox Church
Holy Cross Russian Church
After the capture of
Yerevan by the
Russians as a result of the
Russo-Persian War of 1826–28, many Russian Orthodox churches were
built in the city under the orders of the Russian commander General
Ivan Paskevich. The Saint Nikolai Cathedral opened during the second
half of the 19th century, was the largest Russian church in the city.
Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God
Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God was opened in
1916 in Kanaker-Zeytun.
However, most of the churches were either closed or demolished by the
Soviets during the 1930s. The Saint Nikolai Cathedral was entirely
destroyed in 1931, while the Church of the Intercession of the Holy
Mother of God was closed and converted first into a warehouse and
later into a club for the military personnel. Religious services
resumed in the church it in 1991, and in 2004 a cupola and a belfry
were added to the building. In 2010, the groundbreaking ceremony
of the new Holy Cross Russian Orthodox church took place with the
presence of Patriarch Kirill I of Moscow. The church was eventually
consecrated on 7 October 2017, with the presence of Catholicos Karekin
II, Russian bishops and the church benefactor Ara Abramyan.
According to Ivan Chopin, there were eight mosques in
Yerevan in the
middle of the 19th century. The 18th-century Blue Mosque of
Yerevan was restored and reopened in the 1990s, with Iranian
funding, and is currently the only active mosque in Armenia,
mainly serving the Iranian
Yerevan is home to tiny Yezidi, Molokan, Neopagan, Bahai and Jewish
communities, with the Jewish community being represented by the Jewish
Council of Armenia. A variety of nontrinitarian communities
-considered as dangerous sects by the state-sponsored Armenian
Apostolic Church- are also found in the city, including Jehovah's
Witnesses, Mormons, Seventh-day Adventists and Word of Life.
Health and medical care
Astghik Medical Centre
Medical services in
Armenia -except from maternity- are not subsidized
by the government. However, the government annually allocates a
certain amount from the state budget for the medical needs of the
socially vulnerable groups.
Yerevan is a major healthcare and medical service centre in the
region. Several hospitals of
Yerevan refurbished with modern
technologies, provide healthcare and medical researches, such as
Shengavit Medical Center, Erebouni Medical Center, Izmirlian Medical
Center, Saint Gregory the Illuminator Medical Center, Nork-Marash
Armenia Republican Medical Center, Astghik Medical
Centre, Armenian American Wellness Center, and Mkhitar Heratsi
Hospital Complex of the
Yerevan State Medical University. The
municipality runs 39 polyclinics/medical centres throughout the city.
The Research Center of Maternal and Child Health Protection is
Yerevan since 1937, while the
Armenicum Clinical Center
was opened in 1999, where researches are conducted mainly about
infectious diseases and associated researches, including HIV,
immunodeficiency and hepatitis.
The Liqvor Pharmaceuticals Factory operating since 1991 in Yerevan, is
currently the largest medicines manufacturer of Armenia.
See also: List of museums in Yerevan
Yerevan is home to a large number of museums, art galleries and
libraries. The most prominent of these are the National Gallery of
Armenia, the History Museum of Armenia, the Cafesjian Museum of Art,
Matenadaran library of ancient manuscripts, and the Armenian
Genocide museum of
The National Gallery of Armenia
Founded in 1921, the National Gallery of
Armenia and the History
Armenia are the principal museums of city. In addition to
having a permanent exposition of works of Armenian painters, the
gallery houses a collection of paintings, drawings and sculptures
issued from German, American, Austrian, Belgian, Spanish, French,
Hungarian, Italian, Dutch, Russian and Swiss artists. It usually
hosts temporary expositions.
Armenian Genocide museum is found at the foot of Tsitsernakaberd
memorial and features numerous eyewitness accounts, texts and
photographs from the time. It comprises a memorial stone made of three
parts, the latter of which is dedicated to the intellectual and
political figures who, as the museum's site says, "raised their
protest against the Genocide committed against the Armenians by the
Turks. Among them there are Armin T. Wegner, Hedvig Büll, Henry
Morgenthau Sr., Franz Werfel, Johannes Lepsius, James Bryce, Anatole
France, Giacomo Gorrini, Benedict XV, Fritjof Nansen, and others.
View from a garden terrace of the
Cafesjian Museum of Art
Cafesjian Museum of Art at the
Cafesjian Museum of Art
Cafesjian Museum of Art within the Cascade complex, is an art centre
opened on November 7, 2009. It showcases a massive collection glass
artwork, particularly the works of the Czech artists Stanislav
Libenský and Jaroslava Brychtová. The front gardens showcase
sculptures from Gerard L. Cafesjian's collection.
Erebuni Museum founded in 1968, is an archaeological museum
Urartian artifacts found during excavations at the Erebuni
Yerevan History Museum
Yerevan History Museum and the Armenian Revolutionary
Federation History Museum are among the prominent museums that feature
the history of
Yerevan and the First Republic of
The Military Museum within the Mother
Armenia complex is about the
participation of Armenian soldiers in
World War II
World War II and
The city is also home to a large number of art museums. Sergei
Parajanov Museum opened in 1988 is dedicated to Sergei Parajanov's art
works in cinema and painting.
Komitas Museum opened in 2015, is a
musical art museum devoted to the renowned Armenian composer Komitas.
Charents Museum of Literature and Arts
Charents Museum of Literature and Arts opened in 1921, Modern Art
Yerevan opened in 1972, and the Middle East Art Museum
opened in 1993, are also among the notable arte museums of the
Biographical museums are also common in Yerevan. Many renowned
Armenian poets, painters and musicians are honored with house-museums
in their memory, such as poet Hovhannes Tumanyan, composer Aram
Khachaturian, painter Martiros Saryan, novelist Khachatur Abovian, and
French-Armenian singer Charles Aznavour.
Recently, many museums of science and technology were opened in
Yerevan, such as the Museum of Armenian Medicine (1999), the Space
Yerevan (2001), Museum of Science and Technology (2008),
Museum of Communications (2012) and the Little Einstein Interactive
Science Museum (2016).
The National Library of
Armenia located on Teryan Street of Yerevan,
is the public library of the city and the entire republic. It was
founded in 1832 and is operating in its current building since 1939.
Another national library of
Yerevan is the Khnko Aper Children's
Library, founded in 1933. Other major public libraries include the
Avetik Isahakyan Central Library founded in 1935, the Republican
Library of Medical Sciences founded in 1939, the Library of Science
and Technology founded in 1957, and the Musical Library founded in
1965. In addition, each administrative district of
Yerevan has its own
public library (usually more than one library).
Matenadaran is a library-museum and a research centre, regrouping
17,000 ancient manuscripts and several bibles from the Middle Ages.
Its archives hold a rich collection of valuable ancient Armenian,
Ancient Greek, Aramaic, Assyrian, Hebrew, Latin, Middle and Modern
Persian manuscripts. It is located on
Mashtots Avenue at central
On 6 June 2010,
Yerevan was named as the 2012
World Book Capital by
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO). The Armenian capital was chosen for the quality and variety
of the programme it presented to the selection committee, which met at
UNESCO’s headquarters in
Paris on 2 July 2010.
The National Archives of
Armenia founded in 1923, is a scientific
research centre and depositary, with a collection of around 3.5
million units of valuable documents.
Main article: Armenian art
Handmade Armenian rugs at the
Yerevan is one of the historic centres of traditional Armenian carpet.
Various rug fragments have been excavated in areas around Yerevan
dating back to the 7th century BC or earlier. The tradition was
further developed from the 16th century when
Yerevan became the
central city of Persian Armenia. However, carpet manufacturing in the
city was greatly enriched with the flock of Western Armenian migrants
Ottoman Empire throughout the 19th century, and the arrival
of Armenian refugees escaping the genocide in early 20th century.
Currently, the city is home to the Arm Carpet factory opened in 1924,
as well as the Tufenkian handmade carpets (since 1994), and Megerian
handmade carpets (since 2000).
Paintings exhibited at Saryan park
Yerevan Vernissage open-air exhibition-market formed in late 1980s
on Aram Street, features a large collection of different types of
traditional Armenian hand-made art works, especially woodwork
sculptures, rugs and carpets. On the other hand, the Saryan park
located near the opera house, is famous for being a permanent venue
where artists exhibit their paintings.
Armenian Center for Contemporary Experimental Art
Armenian Center for Contemporary Experimental Art founded in 1992
in Yerevan, is a creativity centre helping to exchange experience
between professional artists in an appropriate atmosphere.
Main article: Music of Armenia
Yerevan Opera Theater
Jazz, classical, folk and traditional music are among several genres
that are popular in the city of Yerevan. A large number of ensembles,
orchestras and choirs of different types of Armenian and international
music are active in the city.
Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra
Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra founded in 1925, is one of the
oldest musical groups in
Yerevan and modern Armenia. The Armenian
National Radio Chamber Choir founded in 1929, won the First Prize of
Soviet Union in the 1931 competition of choirs among the republics
of the Soviet Union. Folk and classical music of
Armenia was taught in
state-sponsored conservatoires during the Soviet days. The Sayat-Nova
Armenian Folk Song Ensemble was founded in
Yerevan in 1938. Currently
directed by Tovmas Poghosyan, the ensemble performs the works of
Gusans such as Sayat-Nova, Jivani, and Sheram.
In 1939, the Armenian National Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet
was opened. It is home to the Aram Khatchaturian concert hall and the
Alexander Spendiarian auditorium of the National Theatre of Opera and
Komitas Chamber Music House
Komitas Chamber Music House opened in 1977, is the home of chamber
music performers and lovers in Armenia. In 1983, the Karen Demirchyan
Sports and Concerts Complex was opened. It is currently the largest
indoor venue in Armenia.
The National Chamber Orchestra of
Armenia (founded in 1961), Yerevan
State Brass Band (1964), Folk Instruments Orchestra of
Gusans and Folk Song Ensemble of
Armenia (1983), Shoghaken Folk
Yerevan State Chamber Choir (1996), State Orchestra
of Armenian National Instruments (2004), and the Youth State Orchestra
Armenia (2005), are also among the famous musical ensembles of the
city of Yerevan. The
Ars lunga piano-cello duo achieved international
fame since its foundation in 2009 in Yerevan.
Armenian religious music remained liturgical until
polyphony by the end of the 19th century. Starting from the late
1950s, religious music became widely-spread when Armenian chants (also
known as Sharakans) were performed by the soprano Lusine Zakaryan. The
state-run Tagharan Ensemble of
Yerevan founded in 1981 and currently
directed by Sedrak Yerkanian, also performs ritual and ancient
Jazz is also among the popular genres in Yerevan. The first jazz band
Yerevan was founded in 1936. Currently, many jazz and ethno jazz
bands are active in
Yerevan such as Time Report, Art Voices, and
Jazz Band. The Malkhas jazz club founded by renowned artist
Levon Malkhasian, is among the most popular clubs in the city. The
Jazz Fest is an annual jazz festival taking place every autumn
since 2015, organized by the Armenian
Jazz Association with the
support of the
KOHAR performing at the Freedom Square in 2011
Armenian rock has been originated in
Yerevan in mid 1960s, mainly
Arthur Meschian and his band Arakyalner (Disciples). In the
early 1970s, there were a range of professional bands in Yerevan
strong enough to compete with their Soviet counterparts. In
post-Soviet Armenia, an Armenian progressive rock scene has been
developed in Yerevan, mainly through Vahan Artsruni, the Oaksenham
rock band, and the Dorians band. The Armenian Navy Band founded by
Arto Tunçboyacıyan in 1998 is also famous for jazz, avant-garde and
Reggae is also becoming popular in
Yerevan mainly through
the Reincarnation musical band.
The Cafesjian Center for the Arts is known for its regularly
programmed events including the "Cafesjian Classical Music Series" on
the first Wednesday of each month, and the "Music Cascade" series of
jazz, pop and rock music live concerts performed every Friday and
Open-air concerts are frequently held in curtain location in Yerevan
during summer, such as the Cafesjian Sculpture Garden on Tamanyan
Street, the Freedom Square near the Opera House, the Republic Square,
etc. The famous
KOHAR Symphony Orchestra and Choir
KOHAR Symphony Orchestra and Choir occasionally
performs open-air concerts in the city.
Open-air traditional dance lessons at Tamanyan Street, performed by
the Karin Traditional Song and Dance Ensemble
Traditional dancing is very popular among Armenians. During the cool
summertime of the
Yerevan city, it is very common to find people
dancing in groups at the Northern Avenue or the
Tamanyan Street near
Professional dance groups were formed in
Yerevan during the Soviet
days. The first group was the Armenian Folk Music and Dance Ensemble
founded in 1938 by Tatul Altunyan. It was followed by the State Dance
Armenia in 1958. In 1963, the
Berd Dance Ensemble was
formed. The Barekamutyun State Dance Ensemble of
Armenia was founded
in 1987 by Norayr Mehrabyan.
The Karin Traditional Song and Dance Ensemble founded in 2001 by Gagik
Ginosyan is known for reviving and performing the ancient Armenian
dances of the historical regions of the Armenian Highland, such
as Hamshen, Mush, Sasun, Karin, etc.
See also: List of theaters in Yerevan
Yerevan is home to many theatre groups, mainly operating under the
support of the ministry of culture. Theatre halls in the city organize
several shows and performances throughout the year. Most prominent
state-run theatres of
Yerevan are the Sundukyan State Academic
Theatre, Paronyan Musical Comedy Theatre, Stanislavski Russian
Theatre, Hrachya Ghaplanyan Drama Theatre, and the Sos Sargsyan
Hamazgayin State Theatre. The Edgar Elbakyan Theatre of Drama and
Comedy is among the prominent theatres run by the private sector.
Yerevan is also home to several specialized theatres such as the
Tumanyan Puppet Theatre,
Yerevan State Pantomime Theatre, and the
Yerevan State Marionettes Theatre.
Main article: Cinema of Armenia
Armenia was born on April 16, 1923, when the Armenian State
Committee of Cinema was established upon a decree issued by the Soviet
In March 1924, the first Armenian film studio;
Հայֆիլմ "Hayfilm," Russian: Арменкино "Armenkino") was
opened in Yerevan, starting with a documentary film called Soviet
Namus was the first Armenian silent black and white film,
Hamo Beknazarian in 1925, based on a play of Alexander
Shirvanzade, describing the ill fate of two lovers, who were engaged
by their families to each other since childhood, but because of
violations of namus (a tradition of honor), the girl was married by
her father to another person. The first produced sound film was Pepo
Hamo Beknazarian in 1935.
Yerevan is home to many movie theatres including the Moscow
Cinema, Nairi Cinema, Hayastan Cinema, Cinema Star multiplex cinemas
of the Dalma Garden Mall, and the KinoPark multiplex cinemas of
Yerevan Mall. Since 2004, the
Moscow Cinema hosts annual the Golden
Yerevan International Film Festival. The ReAnimania
International Animation Film & Comics Art Festival of Yerevan
launched in 2005, is also among the popular annual events in the
Vardavar in Yerevan
In addition to the art festivals, the city organizes many public
celebrations that greatly attract the locals as well as the visitors.
Vardavar is the most widely celebrated festival among Armenians,
having it roots back to the pagan history of Armenia. It is celebrated
98 days (14 weeks) after Easter. During the day of Vardavar, people
from a wide array of ages are allowed to douse strangers with water.
It is common to see people pouring buckets of water from balconies on
unsuspecting people walking below them. The Swan Lake of the Yerevan
Opera is the most popular venue for the
In August 2015, Teryan Cultural Centre supported by the Yerevan
Municipality has launched its 1st Armenian traditional clothing
festival known as the
Yerevan Taraz Fest.
As one of the ancient winemaking regions, many wine festivals are
celebrated in Armenia.
Yerevan launched its 1st annual wine festivals
known as the
Yerevan Wine Days in May 2016. The Watermelon Fest
launched in 2013 is also becoming a popular event in the city. The
Yerevan Beer Fest is held annually during the month of August. It was
first organized in 2014.
Yerevan TV Tower
Many public and private TV and radio channels operate in Yerevan. The
Public TV of
Armenia is in service since 1956. It became a satellite
television in 1996. Other satellite TVs include the
Armenia TV owned
by the Pan-Armenian Media Group,
Kentron TV owned by Gagik Tsarukyan,
Shant TV and
Shant TV premium. On the other hand, Yerkir Media,
Armenia 2, Shoghakat TV,
Yerevan TV, 21TV and the TV channels of the
Pan-Armenian Media Group are among the most notable local televisions
Notable newspapers published in
Yerevan include the daily newspapers
of Aravot, Azg,
Golos Armenii and Hayastani Hanrapetutyun.
Monuments of Yerevan
Monuments of Yerevan and List of statues in Yerevan
Katoghike Church at the centre of Yerevan
Zoravor Surp Astvatsatsin Church
Many of the structures of
Yerevan had been destroyed either during
foreign invasions or as a result of the devastating earthquake in
1679. However, some structures have remained moderately intact and
were renovated during the following years.
Erebuni Fortress, also known as Arin Berd, is the hill where the city
Yerevan was founded in 782 BC by King Argishti I. The remains of
other structures from earlier periods are also found in Shengavit.
The Blue Mosque
The 4th-century chapel of the Holy Mother of God and the 6th-century
Tsiranavor Church both located in
Avan District at the north of
Yerevan, are among the oldest surviving Christian structures of the
city. Originally a suburb at the north of Yerevan, Avan was eventually
absorbed by the city's gradual expansion. The district is also home to
the remains of Surp Hovhannes Chapel dating back to the 12–13th
Katoghike Church; a medieval chapel in the centre of
Yerevan built in
1264, is one of the best preserved churches of the city. Zoravor
Surp Astvatsatsin Church is also among the best surviving churches of
Yerevan, built 1693–94 right after the devastating earthquake, on
the ruins of a medieval church. Saint Sarkis Cathedral rebuilt in
1835–42, is the seat of
Araratian Pontifical Diocese
Araratian Pontifical Diocese of the Armenian
The Blue Mosque or "Gök Jami", built between 1764 and 1768 at the
centre of the city, is currently the only operating mosque in Armenia.
The Red Bridge of
Hrazdan River is a 17th-century structure, built
after the 1679 earthquake and later reconstructed in 1830.
Aerial view of
Tsitsernakaberd memorial and the genocide museum
Yerevan Opera Theater
Yerevan Opera Theater or the Armenian National Academic Opera and
Ballet Theatre opened in 1933, is a major landmark in the city along
with the Mesrop Mashtots
Matenadaran opened in 1959, and
Tsitsernakaberd monument of the
Armenian Genocide opened in 1967.
Moscow Cinema, opened in 1937 on the site of Saint Paul and Peter
Church of the 5th century, is an important example of the Soviet-era
architecture. In 1959, a monument was erected near the
Station dedicated to the legendary Armenian hero David of Sassoun. The
monumental statue of Mother
Armenia is a female personification of the
Armenian nation, erected in 1967, replacing the huge statue of Joseph
Stalin in the Victory park.
Komitas Pantheon is a cemetery opened in 1936 where many famous
Armenians are buried, while the
Yerablur Pantheon, is a military
cemetery where over 1,000 Armenian martyrs of the Nagorno-Karabakh War
are buried since 1990.
Many new notable buildings were constructed after the independence of
Armenia such as the
Yerevan Cascade, and the Saint Gregory Cathedral
opened in 2001 to commemorate the 1700th anniversary of Christianity
in Armenia. In May 2016, a monumental statue of the prominent Armenian
statesman and military leader
Garegin Nzhdeh was erected at the centre
Zvartnots International Airport
Zvartnots International Airport and Erebuni Airport
The main entrance to the Zvartnots Airport
Yerevan is served by the Zvartnots International Airport, located 12
kilometres (7 miles) west of the city center. It is the primary
airport of the country. Inaugurated in 1961 during the Soviet era,
Zvartnots airport was renovated for the first time in 1985 and a
second time in 2002 in order to adapt to international norms. It went
through a facelift starting in 2004 with the construction of a new
terminal. The first phase of the construction ended in September 2006
with the opening of the arrivals zone. A second section designated for
departures was inaugurated in May 2007. The departure terminal is
anticipated, October 2011 housing state of the art facilities and
technology. This will make
Yerevan Zvartnots International Airport,
the largest, busiest and most modern airport in the entire Caucasus.
Currently there are no national airlines operating in Armenia.
The entire project costs more than $100 million USD.
A second airport, Erebuni Airport, is located just south of the city.
Since the independence, "Erebuni" is mainly used for military or
private flights. The
Armenian Air Force
Armenian Air Force has equally installed its base
there and there are several MiG-29s stationed on Erebuni's tarmac.
City buses, public vans and trolleybus
Main article: Trolleybuses in Yerevan
Public transport in
Yerevan is heavily privatized and mostly handled
by around 60 private operators. As of May 2017, 39 city bus lines are
being operated throughout Yerevan. These lines mostly consist of
about 425 Bogdan, Higer
City Bus and
Hyundai County buses. However,
the market share these buses in public transit is only about 39.1%.
But the 50.4% of public transit is still served by "public vans",
locally-known as marshrutka. These are about 1210 Russian-made GAZelle
vans with 13 seats, that operate same way as buses, having 79
different lines with certain routes and same stops. According to
Yerevan Municipality office, in future, marshrutkas should be replaced
by ordinary larger buses. Despite having about 13 seats, the limit of
passengers is not controlled, so usually these vans carry much more
people who stand inside.
Yerevan trolleybus system has been operating since 1949. Some old
Soviet-era trolleybuses have been replaced with comparably new ones.
As of May 2017, only 5 trolleybus lines are in operation (2.6% share),
with around 45 units in service. The trolleybus system is owned and
operated by the municipality.
A trolleybus in Yerevan
The tram network that operated in
Yerevan since 1906 was
decommissioned in January 2004. Its operation had a cost 2.4 times
higher than the generated profits, which pushed the municipality to
shut down the network, despite a last-ditch effort to save it
towards the end of 2003. Since the closure, the rails have been
dismantled and sold.
Due to being dispersed among dozens of private operators, the
transportation is barely regulated, with only trip fee is being a
subject of regulation. Thus, the quality of vehicles is often
inadequate, with no certain regulations for safety. Unlike the
majority of world capitals, there is no established ticketing system
in Yerevan's public transportation. Passengers need to pay the money
directly to the driver when getting out of the vehicle. The fare
-being one of the few things that is regulated- is fixed and
controlled by authorities. A one-way trip costs AMD 100 (around
US$0.21) for all buses and public vans, while it is AMD 50 for
The central station in Nor Kilikia neighborhood serves as bus terminal
for inter-city transport, serving outbound routes towards practically
all the cities of
Armenia as well as abroad, notably
The Republic Square underground station
Yerevan Metro named after Karen Demirchyan, (Armenian: Կարեն
Դեմիրճյանի անվան Երեւանի
մետրոպոլիտեն կայարան (Karen Dyemirchyani anvan
Yerevani metropoliten kayaran)) is a rapid transit system that serves
the capital city since 1981. It has a single line of 12.1 km
(7.5 mi) length with 10 active stations and 45 units in service.
The interiors of the stations resemble that of the former western
Soviet nations, with chandeliers hanging from the corridors. The metro
stations had most of their names changed after the collapse of the
Soviet Union and the independence of the Republic of Armenia.
A northeastern extension of the line with two new stations is
currently being developed. The construction of the first station
(Ajapnyak) and of the one-kilometre (0.62-mile) tunnel linking it to
the rest of the network will cost 18 million USD. The time
of the end of the project has not yet been defined. Another long term
project is the construction of two new lines, but these have been
suspended due to lack of finance.
More than 60,000 people are being transported by the
Yerevan Metro on
a daily basis.
Main article: Armenian Railway
Yerevan railway station, with the statue of David of Sassoun
Yerevan has a single central train station (several train stations of
suburbs have not been used since 1990) that is connected to the metro
via the Sasuntsi Davit station. The train station is made in
Soviet-style architecture with its long point on the building roof,
representing the symbols of communism: red star, hammer and sickle.
Due to the Turkish and Azerbaijani blockades of Armenia, there is only
one international train that passes by once every two days, with
neighboring Georgia being its destination. For example, for a sum of
9 000 to 18 000 dram, it is possible to take the night train
to the Georgian capital, Tbilisi. This train then continues to
its destination of Batumi, on the shores of the
Black sea in the
The only railway that goes to
Iran to the south passes by the closed
border of Nakhichevan. For this reason, there are no trains that go
south from Yerevan. A construction project on a new railway line
Iran directly is currently being studied.
During the first decade of the 21st century, the South Caucasus
Railway CJSC -which is the current operator of the railway system in
Armenia- announced its readiness to put the Yerevan-Gyumri-Kars
railway line in service in case the Armenian-Turkish protocols are
ratified and the opening of the borders between the two countries is
As of July 2017, the following railway trips are scheduled from and to
Yerevan-Tbilisi-Batumi-Yerevan, with a daily trip operating since June
15, 2017, in coordination with the Georgian Railways.
Yerevan-Gyumri-Yerevan, with 3 daily trips operating since June 15,
Yerevan-Yeraskh-Yerevan, with a daily trip operating since July 12,
Yerevan-Araks-Yerevan, with a daily trip.
Yerevan-Shorzha-Yerevan, with weekend trips.
Yerevan route is temporarily not in operation,
while the Yerevan-Tbilisi-
Yerevan route will operate starting from
October 2, 2017.
Armenia is among the top 10 safest countries where one can wander
around and go home alone safely at night.
Yerevan prides itself on
having connections 24/7 as taxis are available at any time of the day
or night. Taxis service companies are cover the entire city in
addition to many online taxi service providers, including the Russian
Economy and services
Yerevan Ararat Brandy Factory
Yerevan Ararat Brandy Factory (left)
As of 2013[update], the share of
Yerevan in the annual total
industrial product of
Armenia is 41%. The industry of
quite diversified including chemicals, primary metals and steel
products, machinery, rubber products, plastics, rugs and carpets,
textiles, clothing and footwear, jewellery, wood products and
furniture, building materials and stone-processing, alcoholic
beverages, mineral water, dairy product and processed food. Even
though the economic crisis of the '90s ravaged the industry of the
country, several factories remain always in service, notably in the
petrochemical and the aluminium sectors.
Yerevan Brandy Company
Armenian beverages, especially Armenian cognac and beer, have a
worldwide fame. Hence,
Yerevan is home to many leading enterprises of
Armenia and the
Caucasus for the production of alcoholic beverages,
such as the
Yerevan Ararat Brandy Factory,
Yerevan Brandy Company,
Yerevan Champagne Wines Factory, "Beer of Yerevan" (Kilikia Beer)
brewery, Armco Brandy Factory,
Proshyan Brandy Factory
Proshyan Brandy Factory and Astafian
Wine-Brandy Factory. The 2 tobacco producers in
Yerevan are the
"Cigaronne" and "Grand Tabak" companies.
Yerevan Champagne Wines Factory
Carpet industry in
Armenia has a deeply rooted history with ancient
traditions, therefore, carpet production is rather developed in
Yerevan with three major factories that also produce hand-made
rugs. The "Megerian Carpet" factory is the leading in
Other major plants in the city include the "Nairit" chemical and
Rusal Armenal aluminum foil mill, "Grand Candy"
Armenian-Canadian confectionery manufacturers, "Arcolad" chocolate
factory, "Marianna" factory for dairy products, "Talgrig Group" for
wheat and flour products, "Shant" ice cream factory, "Crown Chemicals"
for paints, "ATMC" travertine mining company,
Yerevan Watch Factory
Yerevan Jewellry Plant, and the mineral water factories
of "Arzni", "Sil", and "
Food products include processed meat, all types of canneries, wheat
and flour, sweets and chocolate, dried fruits, soft drinks and
beverages. Building materials mainly include travertine, crushed
stones, asphalt and asphalt concrete.
Finance and banking
The Central Bank of Armenia
As an attractive outsourcing location for Western European, Russian
and American multinationals,
Yerevan headquarters many international
companies. It is Armenia's financial hub, being home to the Central
Bank of Armenia, the
Armenian Stock Exchange
Armenian Stock Exchange (NASDAQ OMX Armenia), as
well as the majority of the country's largest commercial banks.
As of 2013[update], the city dominates over 85% of the annual total
services in Armenia, as well as over 84% of the annual total retail
Many subsidiaries of Russian service companies and banks operate in
Yerevan, including Gazprom, Ingo Armenia,
Rosgosstrakh and VTB Bank.
The ACBA Bank is a subsidiary of the French Crédit Agricole. HSBC
Armenia is also headquartered in Yerevan.
A 19th-century building in downtown Yerevan, remodeled with modern
The construction sector has experienced a significant growth during
the 1st decade of the 21st century. Starting from 2000, Yerevan
has witnessed a massive construction boom, funded mostly by Armenian
Russia and the United States, with an extensive and
controversial redevelopment process in which many 18th and
19th-century buildings have been demolished and replaced with new
buildings. This growth was coupled with a significant increase in real
Historical districts being demolished and replaced with modern
Many major construction projects has been conducted in Yerevan, such
as the Northern Avenue and the rehabilitation of Old
Yerevan on Aram
Street. The Northern Avenue is completed and was opened in 2007, while
Yerevan project is still under development. In the past few
years, the city centre has also witnessed major road reconstruction,
as well as the renovation of the Republic square, funded by the
American-Armenian billionaire Kirk Kerkorian. On the other hand, the
Argentina-based Armenian businessman
Eduardo Eurnekian took over the
airport, while the cascade development project was funded by the US
based Armenian millionaire Gerard L. Cafesjian.
However, the sector has significantly dropped by the end of the 1st
decade of the 21st century, as a result of the global real estate
crisis in 2007–09. In 2013,
Yerevan dominated over 58% of the annual
total construction sector of Armenia.
In February 2017, the urban development committee of the government
revealed its plans for the upcoming major construction projects in the
city. With a total cost of US$300 million, a new business district
will rise at the centre of the city, to replace the current Firdowsi
shopping area. The committee has also announced about the
construction of Noy (Noah) ethnographic residential district at the
western vicinity of Kentron District, with an approximate cost of
US$100 million. The new neighbourhood will be known as, and its .
Kanaker HPP of Yerevan
The location of the city on the shores of
Hrazdan river has enabled
the production of hydroelectricity. As part of the Sevan–Hrazdan
Cascade, 3 hydroelectric power plants are established within the
administrative territory of Yerevan: Kanaker HPP, Yerevan-1
HPP, and Yerevan-3 HPP. The entire plant was privatized in
2003, and is currently owned by RusHydro.
The city is also home to the
Yerevan Thermal Power Plant, a unique
facility in the region for its quality and high technology, situated
in the southern part of the city. Originally opened in 1961, a modern
plant was built in 2007, furnished with a new gas-steam combined
cycled turbine, to generate electric power. In March 2017,
the construction of a new thermal power plant was launched with an
initial investment of US$258 million and an envisaged capacity of 250
megawatts. The power station will be in service in 2019.
Telecommunication and postal services
Main article: Telecommunications in Armenia
Vivacell-MTS headquarters in Yerevan
As of 2017,
Armenia has 3 mobile phone service providers:
Armenia Telephone Company's Beeline, currently owned by VimpelCom.
Based in Yerevan, the company is operating since 1995.
K-Telecom's Vicacell-MTS, founded in 2004 in Yerevan, and currently
owned by MTS.
Ucom, founded as an internet service provider in 2009 in Yerevan. It
Armenia as the 3rd mobile network provider in the
country in December 2015.
In addition to the mobile network providers, many other small and
middle-size companies are also involved in internet services. Access
to the Internet in
Armenia is largely unfettered. However, according
to Article 11 of the Law of the Republic of
Armenia on Police, law
enforcement has the right to block content to prevent criminal
HayPost is the official national postal operator of Armenia. Based in
Yerevan, it currently operates through 900 postal offices across
Tourism and nightlife
Grand Hotel Yerevan
Grand Hotel Yerevan operating since 1926
Armenia Marriott Hotel
Yerevan at the Republic Square, built in 1958
with traditional Armenian arch series at the façade
Armenia is developing year by year and the capital city of
Yerevan is one of the major tourist destinations. The city has a
majority of luxury hotels, modern restaurants, bars, pubs and
nightclubs. Zvartnots airport has also conducted renovation projects
with the growing number of tourists visiting the country. Numerous
Yerevan are attractive for tourists, such as the dancing
fountains of the Republic Square, the State Opera House, the Cascade
complex, the ruins of the
Urartian city of Erebuni (Arin Berd), the
historical site of Karmir Blur (Teishebaini), etc. The largest hotel
of the city is the
Ani Plaza Hotel. The
Armenia Marriott Hotel is
located at the Republic Square at the centre of Yerevan, while the
Radisson Blu Hotel is located near the Victory Park. Other major
chains operating in central
Yerevan include the
Grand Hotel Yerevan
Grand Hotel Yerevan of
the Small Luxury Hotels of the World, the
Best Western Congress
DoubleTree by Hilton, the
Hyatt Place, the Ibis Yerevan
Center, and The Alexander, a Luxury Collection Hotel of Marriott
Crowded cafés near the
Yerevan Opera House
The location of
Yerevan itself, is an inspiring factor for the
foreigners to visit the city in order to enjoy the view of the
biblical mount of Ararat, as the city lies on the feet of the mountain
forming the shape of a Roman amphitheatre.
There are many historical sites, churches and citadels in areas and
regions surrounding the city of Yerevan, such as Garni Temple,
Zvartnots Cathedral, the monasteries of
Khor Virap and Geghard, etc.
Being among the top 10 safest cities in the world,
Yerevan has an
extensive nightlife scene with a variety of nightclubs, live
venues, pedestrian zones, street cafés, jazz cafés, tea houses,
casinos, pubs, karaoke clubs and restaurants.
Casino Shangri La and
Pharaon Complex are among the largest leisure and entertainment
centres of the city.
Many world-famous music stars, Russian music celebrities, as well as
Armenian singers from diaspora, occasionally perform in concerts in
Yerevan Zoo founded in 1940, the
Yerevan Circus opened in
1956, and the
Yerevan Water World
Yerevan Water World opened in 2001, are among the
popular entertaining centres in the city.
Dalma Garden Mall
The Northern Avenue that connects the Opera House with
is a popular pedestrian zone in
Yerevan with modern residential
buildings, business centres, restaurants, bars and cafés. Another
popular landmarks is the
Yerevan Cascade and the "Cafesjian Sculpture
Tamanyan Street with its pedestrian zone, featuring many
coffee shops, bars, restaurants, and pubs at the sidewalks. The
"Cafesjian Center for the Arts" regularly organizes art events
throughout the year, including classical music series, traditional
folk dance events, and live concerts of jazz, pop and rock music.
As of 2017,
Yerevan has 3 shopping malls:
Dalma Garden Mall
Dalma Garden Mall opened in
October 2012, followed by
Yerevan Mall opened in February 2014, and
Rossia Mall opened in March 2016.
See also: List of universities in Yerevan
Yerevan State University
Yerevan is a major educational centre in the region. As of
2017[update], the city is home to 253 schools, of which 210 are
state-owned, with 159 run by the municipality and 51 run by the
ministry of education, while the rest 43 are privately owned. The
municipality runs 160 kindergartens throughout the city.
The QSI International School, École Française Internationale en
Arménie, Ayb School,
Mkhitar Sebastatsi Educational Complex
Mkhitar Sebastatsi Educational Complex and
Khoren and Shooshanig Avedisian School
Khoren and Shooshanig Avedisian School are among the prominent
international or private schools in Yerevan.
As of 2016[update], more than 60 higher education institutions are
accredited and licensed to operate in the Republic of Armenia. Yerevan
is home to about 50 institutions, of which 13 are state, 7 are
inter-governmental, 5 are international private, 3 are military, and
the rest are local private universities.
Yerevan State University,
American University of Armenia, Russian-Armenian (Slavonic)
Yerevan State Medical University
Yerevan State Medical University and Armenian State
Pedagogical University are the top rated universities of
among the top rated in the region.
Science and research
Tumo Center for Creative Technologies
Under the Soviet rule,
Yerevan has turned into a major centre for
science and research. The
Armenian National Academy of Sciences
Armenian National Academy of Sciences is the
pioneer of scientific research in Armenia. It was founded in 1943 as
the Armenian Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences to become the
primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the
fields of science in Armenia. It has many divisions, including
Mathematical and Technical Sciences, Physics and Astrophysics, Natural
Sciences, Chemistry and Earth Sciences, Armenology and Social
After the independence, many new research centres were opened in the
city, such as the
CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute
CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute (2010),
Tumo Center for Creative Technologies
Tumo Center for Creative Technologies (2011), and Nerses Mets
Medical Research and Education Center (2013).
See also: List of sports venues in Yerevan
Vazgen Sargsyan Republican Stadium
Football is the most played and popular sport in
Yerevan and the
entire country. As of 2017[update], the city has 4 football clubs
competing in the
Armenian Premier League
Armenian Premier League as well as 3 clubs in the
Armenian First League:
Ararat !Ararat Yerevan
Dzoraghbyur Training Centre
Banants Training Centre
Vazgen Sargsyan Rep. Stadium
Pyunik Training Centre
Avan Academy !Avan Academy
Football Academy Stadium
Yerevan Football Academy
Hrazdan Stadium of
Yerevan is the largest sports venue of Armenia. It
is the primary home ground of the Armenian football team along with
Vazgen Sargsyan Republican Stadium.
The Football Academy of
Yerevan operated by the Football Federation of
Armenia is an up-to-date training academy complex, opened in
The municipality has opened 126 mini-football pitches within the yards
Yerevan neighbourhoods. It is envisaged to rise the number up
to 131 by the end of 2017.
Armenia has always excelled in chess with its players being very often
among the highest ranked and decorated. The headquarters of the Chess
Armenia is located in the Tigran Petrosian
of Yerevan. The city is home to a large number of chess teams and
training schools. In 1996, despite the severe economic conditions in
Yerevan hosted the 32nd
Chess Olympiad. In 2006, the
four members from
Yerevan of the Armenian chess team won the 37th
Chess Olympiad in
Turin and repeated the feat at the 38th Chess
Olympiad in Dresden. Armenian won the chess Olympiad for the 3rd time
in 2012 in Istanbul. The Yerevan-born leader of the chess national
team; Levon Aronian, is one of the top chess players in the world.
Futsal is very popular in Armenia. Many companies as well as
universities have their own teams who participate in the Armenian
Futsal Premier League. 3 out of the 8 teams of the championship are
based in Yerevan, including:
Futsal Club Leo, Charbakh and Armenia
Mika Sports Arena
Mika Sports Arena is the home of the
futsal team as well as the futsal teams of the domestic competition.
Armenia national basketball team at the Mika Arena
Despite the popularity of basketball in Armenia, the country's
national team only recently made headlines internationally through
winning the 2016 FIBA European Championship for Small Countries.
However, the country's best players are diaspora Armenians, mainly
United States and Russia.
The first ever season of the professional domestic basketball
competition of Armenia, known as
Basketball League A, was
launched in October 2017 with 7 participating teams.
represented by 4 clubs: Engineer Yerevan, FIMA Basketball, BC Grand
Sport and BC Urartu.
Tennis is also among the popular sports in Yerevan. Several tennis
clubs operate in the city, with many of them founded during the Soviet
Tennis Club -founded in 1974– is the largest in the
city, with many indoor and outdoor courts. Ararat
founded in 1990, is also among the prominent clubs in the city.
Tennis clubs are also found within the
Yerevan State Sports College of
Olympic Reserve since 1971, and the
Yerevan Football Academy
Yerevan Football Academy since
Sargis Sargsian and
Ani Amiraghyan are the most successful tennis
players of Armenia.
Armenia has produced many Olympic champions in artistic gymnastics
during the Soviet days, such as Hrant Shahinyan,
Albert Azaryan and
Eduard Azaryan. The success of the Armenian gymnasts in the Olympic
competitions has greatly contributed in the popularity of the sport.
Thus, many prominent competitors represent the country in the European
and World championships, including
Artur Davtyan and Harutyun
Yerevan has many state-owned schools of artistic gymnastics, including
Albert Azaryan School opened in 1964 and the Hrant Shahinyan
School opened in 1965.
Figure skating event at the
Karen Demirchyan Complex
Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex is the largest
indoor arena in the city and the entire country. It is mostly used for
indoor sport events, including ice hockey and figure skating shows. On
the other hand, Dinamo and Mika indoor arenas are the regular venues
for domestic and regional competitions of basketball, volleyball,
handball and futsal.
Armenia Sports Union (Spartak Sports Union between 1935 and 1999) is a
sports society mainly involved in individual Olympic sports, including
boxing, weightlifting, athletics, wrestling, taekwondo, table tennis,
Yerevan State Sports College of Olympic Reserve" is a large
sports and educational complex located in the Malatia-Sebastia
District of the city. It was founded in 1971, and is home to
individual as well as team sport schools, such as wrestling, boxing,
weightlifting, judo, athletics, acrobatic gymnastics, artistic
gymnastics, swimming, table tennis, cycling, basketball, volleyball
In September 2015, the new Olympic Training Complex of Yerevan
-locally known as Olympavan- was opened in Davtashen District. It is
an state of the art sports complex, with training facilities for most
Olympic individual and team sports, as well as water sports. It is
also home to the anti-doping medical centre and a hotel designated to
accommodate more than 300 athletes.
Olympavan, home and training complex of the Armenian Olympic Committee
Equestrian sport was introduced to
Armenia in 1953. The Hovik
Hayrapetyan Equestrian Centre opened in 2001, occupies an area of 85
hectares at the southern
Shengavit District of Yerevan. It is the
centre of equestrian sport and horse racing in Armenia.
Golf has been introduced to the citizens of
Yerevan in 1999, with the
foundation of the Ararat Valley Country Club in the Vahakni
neighbourhood of Ajapnyak District. It is the first-ever golf course
Armenia as well as the Transcaucasian region.
Arena Bowling and Billiards Club is an up-to-date sports and leisure
centre opened in 2004 and located on
Mashtots Avenue in central
Cycling as a sport is becoming popular among the young generation. The
Yerevan Velodrome is an outdoor track cycling venue with international
standard, opened in 2011 to replace the old venue of the Soviet
days. Edgar Stepanyan of
Armenia became champion of the scratch
race in the 2015 junior UEC European Track Championships.
In an attempt to promote figure skating and ice hockey in Armenia, the
Irina Rodnina Figure Skating Centre
Irina Rodnina Figure Skating Centre was opened in Yerevan, in December
Recently, MMA has gained massive popularity in Armenia, being promoted
by Armfighting Professional Federation based in Yerevan. It was
founded in 2005 by Hayk Ghukasyan and currently runs several branches
throughout the provinces of
Armenia and Artsakh with more than 2,000
With the increased interest in healthy lifestyle and fitness, many
large and modern training complexes with indoor and outdoor swimming
pools have recently been opened in the city such as the Davit
Hambardzumyan Swimming and Diving Olympic School, Orange Fitness
Premium Club, DDD Sports Complex, Aqua Land Sports Complex, Gold's
Gym, Grand Sport Complex,
Reebok Sports Club, and Multi Wellness Sport
and Health Center.
The city of
Yerevan is member of many international organizations: the
International Assembly of CIS Countries' Capitals and Big Cities
(MAG), the Black Sea Capitals' Association (BSCA), the International
Association of Francophone Mayors (AIMF), the Organization of
World Heritage Cities (OWHC), the International Association of
Large-scale Communities, and the International Urban Community
Lighting Association (LUCI).
Twin towns/sister cities
The hands of friendship from
Carrara to Yerevan
As of March 2017,
Yerevan is twinned with 24 cities:
Carrara, Italy, since 1965
Antananarivo, Madagascar, since 1981
Cambridge, MA, United States, since 1987
Marseille, France, since 1992
Stavropol, Russia, since 1994
Isfahan, Iran, since 1995
Odessa, Ukraine, since 1995
Tbilisi, Georgia, since 1996
Beirut, Lebanon, since 1997
Damascus, Syria, since 1997
Montreal, Canada, since 1998
Buenos Aires, Argentina, since 2000
Bratislava, Slovakia, since 2001
São Paulo, Brazil, since 2002
Chişinău, Moldova, since 2005
Los Angeles, United States, since 2007
Nice, France, since 2007
Venice, Italy, since 2011
Riga, Latvia, since 2013
Amman, Jordan, since 2014
Novosibirsk, Russia, since 2014
Volgograd, Russia, since 2015
France with the statue of
Jules Bastien-Lepage by Auguste
Rodin at the centre are among the symbols featuring the partnership
Yerevan and Paris
As of March 2017,
Yerevan has a partnership agreement with 25
Podgorica, Montenegro, since 1974
Athens, Greece, since 1993
Lyon, France, since 1993
Stavropol, Russia, since 1994
Kiev, Ukraine, since 1995
Moscow, Russia, since 1995
Tuscany region, Italy, since 1996
Saint Petersburg, Russia, since 1997
Volgograd, Russia, since 1998
Minsk, Belarus, since 2002
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 2007
Sofia, Bulgaria, since 2008
Delhi, India, since 2008
Beijing, China, since 2009
Kaliningrad, Russia, since 2009
Paris, France, since 2011
France region, France, since 2011
Stepanakert, Artsakh, since 2012
Bucharest, Romania, since 2013
Warsaw, Poland, since 2013
Krasnodar, Russia, since 2014
Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, since 2014
Qazvin, Iran, since 2014
Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia, since 2014
Tallinn, Estonia, since 2015
List of notable persons born in Yerevan: People from Yerevan
Terter Yerevantsi (1290–1350), first person from
Yerevan with fully
known biography; scribe and poet; author of first known poems about
Voskan Yerevantsi (17th century), printer
Simeon I of Yerevan (1710–1780), Catholicos of All Armenians
Fazil Iravani (1782–1885), Shaykh al-Islām
Khachatur Abovian (1809–1848), writer
Irakli Gruzinsky (1826–1882), Prince of Georgia
Jabbar Baghtcheban (1886–1966), Iranian educator
Hamo Beknazarian (1891–1965), film director
Silva Kaputikyan (1919–2006), poet
Arno Babajanian (1921–1983), Soviet composer
Grigor Khanjyan (1926–2000), artist, painter
Karen Demirchyan (1932–1999), Soviet and Armenian politician
Armen Dzhigarkhanyan (1935– ), Soviet and Russian actor
Henrik Edoyan (1940– ), poet
Mikhail Piotrovsky (1944– ), Russian historian
Ihor Tselovalnykov (1944–1986), Ukrainian cyclist
Arthur Meschian (1949– ), composer and architect
Têmûrê Xelîl (1949– ), Yazidi journalist
Ruben Hakhverdyan (1950– ), singer-songwriter
Khoren Oganesian (1955– ), football player
William Weiner (1955– ), composer
Vardan Petrosyan (1959– ), actor
Hasmik Papian (1961– ), soprano
Tata Simonyan (1962– ), pop singer
Ruben Vardanyan (1968– ), entrepreneur and philanthropist
Garik Martirosyan (1974– ), Russia-based comedian
Shavo Odadjian (1974– ), member of System of a Down
Arthur Abraham (1980– ), boxer, world champion
Armenchik (1980– ), pop-folk singer
Levon Aronian (1982– ), chess player
Anna Chicherova (1982– ), Russian high jumper
Sergey Khachatryan (1985– ), violinist
Giorgio Petrosyan (1985– ), kickboxer
Sirusho (1987– ), contemporary singer
Henrikh Mkhitaryan (1989– ), football player
Panorama of Yerevan
^ classical spelling: Երեւան
^ Sometimes locally pronounced [ɛɾɛˈvɑn], which is phonetically
spelled Էրևան, Ērevan.
^ Billock, Jennifer (28 December 2016). "How Ancient Volcanoes Created
Armenia's Pink City". Smithsonian.
^ Hovasapyan, Zara (1 August 2012). "When in Armenia, Go Where the
Armenians Go". Armenian National Committee of America. Made of local
pink tufa stones, it gives
Yerevan the nickname of "the Pink
^ Dunn, Ashley (21 February 1988). "Pink Rock Comes as Gift From
Homeland in Answer to Armenian College's Dreams".
Los Angeles Times.
To Armenians, though, the stone is unique. They often refer to
Yerevan, the capital of their homeland, as "Vartakouyn Kaghak," or the
"Pink City" because of the extensive use of the stone, which can vary
from pink to a light purple.
^ "Տուֆ [Tuff]". encyclopedia.am (in Armenian). Երևանն
անվանում են վարդագույն քաղաք,
որովհետև մեր մայրաքաղաքը
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^ "Old Yerevan". yerevan.am.
Yerevan Municipality. Since this
construction material gave a unique vividness and specific tint to the
Yerevan was called "Rosy city".
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Պատմական իրադարձությունների բերումով
Երեւանին ուշ է հաջողվել քաղաք դառնալ։
Այդ կարգավիճակը նրան տրվել է 1879
թվականին, Ալեքսանդր Երկրորդ ցարի
հոկտեմբերի 1—ի հրամանով։
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(2012). The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and
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ISBN 9781107016521. ...of even the most modern Yerevantsi.
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Central Asia and the Caucasus: Transnationalism and Diaspora. New
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հիմի Էրեւան ըլնեի, դու դժվար թե ըսենց
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եմ քեզ, ի'մ Էրևան, արժեր հասնել աշխարհի
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the roads of time. Union of Writers of Armenia. p. 17. The sacred
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Yerevan was the very visiting card
by which foreigners came to know our country.
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^ "Word of Life is most dangerous sect operating in Armenia" says
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Armenian Apostolic Church priest
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Serzh Sargsyan visited the newly opened industrial unit of
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^ History of Karin Traditional Song and Dance Ensemble
^ About ReAnimania festival
Yerevan Taraz Fest
Yerevan Wine Days festival
Yerevan Beer Fest
^ "中国公民赴亚美尼亚注意事项" (in Chinese).
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Serge Sargsyan during a visit to the
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Yerevan railway trips
Yerevan railway trips
Yerevan railway trips
Armenia among the top 10 safest countries
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Ֆիրդուսի շուկայի փոխարեն
^ «Նոյ» թաղամասը կարժենա $ 100 մլն
^ Kanaker HPP
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Serzh Sargsyan participated at the official inauguration
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Yerevan State Sports College of Olympic Reserve
^ Olympic Training Complex of
^ Horse-racing in Armenia
^ Ararat Valley Country Club
^ Arena Bowling and Billiards Club
^ Edgar Stepanyan track cycling
Yerevan has an up-to-date figure skating and ice hockey centre
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^ "Երևանի և Ստեփանակերտի քաղաքապետերը
բարեկամության համաձայնագիր են
ստորագրել." [Mayors of
Friendship Agreement]. Tert.am. 28 September 2012.
See also: Bibliography of the history of Yerevan
The capitals of Armenia, Sergey Vardanyan, Apolo 1995,
My Yerevan, G. Zakoyan, M. Sivaslian, V. Navasardian, Acnalis 2001,
Yerevan at GEOnet Names Server
Evliya Çelebi (1834). "Description of the Town of Erivan". Narrative
of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in the Seventeenth Century. 2.
Translated by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall. London: Oriental
Yerevan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yerevan.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Yerevan.
Yerevan History Museum
Yerevan and more...
Yerevan article on Armeniapedia
Historical sites and
Shengavit archaeological site
Teishebaini archaeological site
Tsiranavor Church of Avan
Saint John the Baptist Church
Saint Sarkis Cathedral
Holy Mother of God Russian Church
Saint Gregory Cathedral
Tsitsernakaberd Genocide Memorial
Yerevan TV Tower
Yerablur Military Pantheon
Nature and parks
Yerevan Botanical Garden
Buenos Aires Park
Grand Hotel Yerevan
Ani Plaza Hotel
Radisson Blu Yerevan
Dalma Garden Mall
Culture and art
H. Tumanyan Puppet Theatre
Stanislavski Russian Theatre
Paronyan Musical Comedy Theatre
H. Ghaplanyan Drama Theatre
Komitas Chamber Music House
National Gallery of Armenia
Contemporary Art Center
History Museum of Armenia
Charents Museum of Literature
Yerevan History Museum
Modern Art Museum
House-Museum of A. Khachaturian
Yeghishe Charents Memorial Museum
Sergei Parajanov Museum
Ara Sargsyan and Hakob Kojoyan Museum
Near East Art Museum
Cafesjian Museum of Art
ARF History Museum
Charles Aznavour Museum
Yerevan State University
National University of Architecture and Construction
State Medical University
State Pedagogical University
Komitas State Conservatory
National Agrarian University
National Polytechnic University
Brusov State University of Languages
State Institute of Theatre and Cinematography
State Institute of Physical Culture
State Academy of Fine Arts
State University of Economics
American University of Armenia
French University in Armenia
British School of Business
Mkhitar Sebastatsi School
Anatole France French School
Khnko Aper Children's Library
National Academy of Sciences
Yerevan Physics Institute
Institute of Mathematics of National Academy
Yerevan Computer Research Institute
CANDLE Synchrotron Institute
Tumo Center for Technologies
Economic Research Center
International Center for Human Development
Ararat Center for Strategic Research
Shengavit Medical Center
Nork-Marash Medical Center
Izmirlian Medical Center
Vazgen Sargsyan Rep. Stadium
Yerevan Football Academy
H. Hayrapetyan Equestrian Centre
Karen Demirchyan Complex
Mika Sports Arena
I. Rodnina Figure Skating Centre
Yerevan railway station
Trolleybuses in Yerevan
Zvartnots International Airport
Garegin Nzhdeh Square
Hrazdan Gorge Aqueduct
Great Bridge of Hrazdan
National Assembly Building
National Security Service
Police of Armenia
Central Bank of Armenia
Armenian Stock Exchange
Yerevan Ararat Brandy Factory
Proshyan Brandy Factory
Yerevan Brandy Factory
Yerevan Champagne Factory
Elite Plaza Center
City of Yerevan
Historical capitals of Armenia
Tushpa (832–590 BC)
Armavir (331–210 BC)
Yervandashat (210-176 BC)
Artashat (176-77 BC and 69 BC-120 AD)
Tigranakert (77-69 BC)
Yerevan (since 1918)
Cities and towns in Armenia
Provinces of Armenia
City with special status
World Book Capitals
2003: New Delhi
2011: Buenos Aires
2014: Port Harcourt
Capitals of European states and territories
Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is
disputed shown in italics.
Andorra la Vella, Andorra
Douglas, Isle of Man (UK)
London, United Kingdom
Saint Helier, Jersey (UK)
Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)
Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway)
Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland)
Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)
Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway)
Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)
Prague, Czech Republic
Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK)
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5
San Marino, San Marino
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Vatican City, Vatican City
Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5
Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5
1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of
European Union and
Brussels and the European Union
3 Transcontinental country
4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political
connections with Europe
5 Partially recognised country