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Yerevan
Yerevan
(/ˌjɛrəˈvɑːn/, YE-rə-VAHN; Armenian: Երևան[a] [jɛɾɛˈvɑn] ( listen), sometimes spelled Erevan)[b] is the capital and largest city of Armenia
Armenia
as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities.[12] Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan
Yerevan
is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. It has been the capital since 1918, the thirteenth in the history of Armenia, and the seventh located in or around the Ararat plain. The city also serves as the seat of the Araratian Pontifical Diocese; the largest diocese of the Armenian Apostolic Church and one of the oldest dioceses in the world.[13] The history of Yerevan
Yerevan
dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain.[14] Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a fully royal capital."[15] By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities were established and Yerevan
Yerevan
declined in importance. Under Iranian and Russian rule, it was the center of the Erivan Khanate
Erivan Khanate
from 1736 to 1828 and the Erivan Governorate
Erivan Governorate
from 1850 to 1917, respectively. After World War I, Yerevan
Yerevan
became the capital of the First Republic of Armenia
Armenia
as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
arrived in the area.[16] The city expanded rapidly during the 20th century as Armenia
Armenia
became part of the Soviet Union. In a few decades, Yerevan
Yerevan
was transformed from a provincial town within the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
to Armenia's principal cultural, artistic, and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government. With the growth of the economy of the country, Yerevan
Yerevan
has been undergoing major transformation as many parts of the city have been the recipient of new construction since the early 2000s, and retail outlets as much as restaurants, shops, and street cafés, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied. As of 2011[update], the population of Yerevan
Yerevan
was 1,060,138, just over 35% of the Republic of Armenia's total population. According to the official estimate of 2016, the current population of the city is 1,073,700.[17] Yerevan
Yerevan
was named the 2012 World Book Capital by UNESCO.[18] Yerevan
Yerevan
is an associate member of Eurocities.[19] Of the notable landmarks of Yerevan, Erebuni Fortress
Erebuni Fortress
is considered to be the birthplace of the city, the Katoghike Tsiranavor church is the oldest surviving church of Yerevan
Yerevan
and Saint Gregory Cathedral is the largest Armenian cathedral in the world, Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
is the official memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, and several opera houses, theatres, museums, libraries, and other cultural institutions. Yerevan Opera Theatre
Yerevan Opera Theatre
is the main spectacle hall of the Armenian capital, the National Gallery of Armenia
Armenia
is the largest art museum in the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
and shares a building with the History Museum of Armenia, and the Matenadaran
Matenadaran
repository contains one of the largest depositories of ancient books and manuscripts in the world. The neoclassical Republic Square is the center of the city and the monumental Cascade steps lead from the city center to Victory Park, home of a Luna Park and the statue Mother Armenia
Armenia
overlooking Yerevan.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Symbols 3 History

3.1 Pre-history and pre-classical era 3.2 Erebuni 3.3 Median and Achaemenid rules 3.4 Ancient Kingdom of Armenia 3.5 Sasanian period 3.6 Arab Islamic invasion 3.7 Bagratid Armenia 3.8 Seljuk period, Zakarid Armenia
Armenia
and Mongol rule 3.9 Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
and Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
tribes 3.10 Iranian rule 3.11 Russian rule 3.12 Brief independence 3.13 Soviet rule 3.14 Post-independence

4 Geography

4.1 Topography and cityscape 4.2 Climate 4.3 Architecture 4.4 Parks

5 Politics and government

5.1 Capital 5.2 Municipality 5.3 Administrative districts

6 Demographics

6.1 Ethnic groups 6.2 Religion

6.2.1 Armenian Apostolic Church 6.2.2 Russian Orthodox Church 6.2.3 Other religions

6.3 Health and medical care

7 Culture

7.1 Museums 7.2 Libraries 7.3 Art

7.3.1 Music 7.3.2 Dance 7.3.3 Theatre 7.3.4 Cinema

7.4 Festivals 7.5 Media 7.6 Monuments

7.6.1 Historic 7.6.2 Contemporary

8 Transportation

8.1 Air 8.2 City
City
buses, public vans and trolleybus 8.3 Underground 8.4 Railway 8.5 Taxi

9 Economy and services

9.1 Industry 9.2 Finance and banking 9.3 Construction 9.4 Energy 9.5 Telecommunication and postal services 9.6 Tourism and nightlife

10 Education

10.1 Science and research

11 Sport

11.1 Football 11.2 Chess 11.3 Futsal 11.4 Basketball 11.5 Tennis 11.6 Artistic gymnastics 11.7 Other sports

12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns/sister cities 12.2 Partnerships

13 Notable natives 14 Panorama view 15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 Bibliography 19 External links

Etymology[edit]

The "birth certificate" of Yerevan
Yerevan
at the Erebuni Fortress—a cuneiform inscription left by King Argishti I of Urartu
Argishti I of Urartu
on a basalt stone slab about the foundation of the city in 782 BC

"YEREVAN" (ԵՐԵՒԱՆ) in an inscription from Kecharis, dating back to 1223[20]

One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand (Orontes) IV, the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, and founder of the city of Yervandashat.[21] However, it is likely that the city's name is derived from the Urartian
Urartian
military fortress of Erebuni (Էրեբունի), which was founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan
Yerevan
in 782 BC by Argishti I.[21] As elements of the Urartian
Urartian
language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name eventually evolved into Yerevan
Yerevan
(Erebuni = Erevani = Erevan = Yerevan). Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at Erebuni:

The transcription of the second cuneiform bu [original emphasis] of the word was very essential in our interpretation as it is the Urartaean b that has been shifted to the Armenian v (b > v). The original writing of the inscription read «er-bu-ni»; therefore the prominent Armenianologist-orientalist Prof. G. A. Ghapantsian justly objected, remarking that the Urartu
Urartu
b changed to v at the beginning of the word (Biani > Van) or between two vowels (ebani > avan, Zabaha > Javakhk)....In other words b was placed between two vowels. The true pronunciation of the fortress-city was apparently Erebuny.[22]

Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name Yerevan
Yerevan
to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat
Mount Ararat
and the flood waters had receded, Noah
Noah
is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!" ("it appeared!").[21] In the late medieval and early modern periods, when Yerevan
Yerevan
was under Turkic and later Persian rule, the city was known in Persian as Iravân (Persian: ایروان‎). This name is still widely used by Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijanis
(Azerbaijani: İrəvan). The city was officially known as Erivan (Russian: Эривань) under Russian rule during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The city was renamed back to Yerevan (Ереван) in 1936.[23] Up until the mid-1970s the city's name was spelled Erevan, more often than Yerevan, in English sources.[24][25] Symbols[edit]

Mount Ararat, the national symbol of Armenia, dominates the Yerevan skyline[26][27]

The principal symbol of Yerevan
Yerevan
is Mount Ararat, which is visible from any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscriptit in the upper part. The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border.[28] On 27 September 2004, Yerevan
Yerevan
adopted an anthem, "Erebuni-Yerevan", written by Paruyr Sevak
Paruyr Sevak
and composed by Edgar Hovhanisyan. It was selected in a competition for a new anthem and new flag that would best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia. The flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag. The lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging.[29] History[edit] See also: Timeline of Yerevan Pre-history and pre-classical era[edit] See also: Kura–Araxes culture

Foundations of Shengavit historical site (site settled 3200 BC cal to 2500 BC cal)

The territory of Yerevan
Yerevan
has been inhabited approximately during the 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC. The southern part of the city currently known as Shengavit has been populated since at least 3200 BC, during the period of Kura–Araxes culture
Kura–Araxes culture
of the early Bronze Age. The first excavations at the Shengavit historical site was conducted between 1936 and 1938 under the guidance of archaeologist Yevgeny Bayburdyan. After two decades, archaeologist Sandro Sardarian resumed the excavations starting from 1958 until 1983.[30] The 3rd phase of the excavations started in 2000, under the guidance of archaeologist Hakob Simonyan. In 2009, Simonyan was joined by professor Mitchell S. Rothman from the Widener University
Widener University
of Pennsylvania. Together they conducted three series of excavations in 2009, 2010, and 2012 respectively. During the process, a full stratigraphic column to bedrock was reached, showing there to be 8 or 9 distinct stratigraphic levels. These levels cover a time between 3200 BC and 2500 BC. Evidences of later use of the site, possibly until 2200 BC, were also found. The excavation process revealed a series of large round buildings with square adjoining rooms and minor round buildings. A series of ritual installations was discovered in 2010 and 2012. Erebuni[edit] Main article: Erebuni Fortress

Erebuni Fortress
Erebuni Fortress
founded by King Argishti I in 782 BC

The ancient kingdom of Urartu
Urartu
was formed in the 9th century BC in the basin of Lake Van
Lake Van
of the Armenian Highland, including the territory of modern-day Yerevan. King Arame was the founder of the kingdom, that was one of the most developed states of its age.[31] Archaeological evidence, such as a cuneiform inscription,[32] indicates that the Urartian
Urartian
military fortress of Erebuni (Էրեբունի) was founded in 782 BC by the orders of King Argishti I at the site of modern-day Yerevan, to serve as a fort and citadel guarding against attacks from the north Caucasus.[21] Yerevan, as mentioned, is considered one of the oldest cities in the world.[33] The cuneiform inscription found at Erebuni Fortress
Erebuni Fortress
reads:

By the greatness of the God Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, built this mighty stronghold and proclaimed it Erebuni for the glory of Biainili [Urartu] and to instill fear among the king's enemies. Argishti says, "The land was a desert, before the great works I accomplished upon it. By the greatness of Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, is a mighty king, king of Biainili, and ruler of Tushpa." [Van].[34]

During the height of the Urartian
Urartian
power, irrigation canals and artificial reservoirs were built in Erebuni and its surrounding territories.

Foundations of Teishebaini
Teishebaini
building commenced in mid-7th century BC

In mid-7th century BC, the city of Teishebaini
Teishebaini
was built by Rusa II
Rusa II
of Urartu, around 7 kilometres (4.3 miles) west of Erebuni Fortress. [35] It was fortified on a hill -currently known as Karmir Blur within Shengavit District
Shengavit District
of Yerevan- to protect the eastern borders of Urartu
Urartu
from the barbaric Cimmerians
Cimmerians
and Scythians. During excavations, the remains of a governors palace that contained a hundred and twenty rooms spreading across more than 40,000 m2 (10 acres) was found, along with a citadel dedicated to the Urartian
Urartian
god Teisheba. The construction of the city of Teishebaini, as well as the palace and the citadel was completed by the end of the 7th century BC, during the reign of Rusa III. However, Teishebaini
Teishebaini
was destroyed by an alliance of Medes
Medes
and the Scythians
Scythians
in 585 BC. Median and Achaemenid rules[edit] See also: Satrapy
Satrapy
of Armenia

Achaemenid rhyton from Erebuni

In 590 BC, following the fall of the Kingdom of Urartu
Urartu
in the hands of the Iranian Medes, Erebuni along with the Armenian Highland
Armenian Highland
became part of the Median Empire. However, in 550 BC, the Median Empire was conquered by Cyrus the Great, and Erebuni became part of the Achaemenid Empire. Between 522 BC and 331 BC, Erebuni was one of the main centers of the Satrapy
Satrapy
of Armenia, a region controlled by the Orontid Dynasty
Orontid Dynasty
as one of the satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire. The Satrapy
Satrapy
of Armenia
Armenia
was divided into two parts: the northern part and the southern part, with the cities of Erebuni (Yerevan) and Tushpa
Tushpa
(Van) as their centres, respectively. Coins issued in 478 BC along with many other items found in the Erebuni Fortress, reveal the importance of Erebuni as a major centre for trade under the Achaemenid rule. After 2 centuries under the Achaemenid rule, Erebuni has been gradually turned into a city of Persian image and culture. Ancient Kingdom of Armenia[edit] See also: Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
(antiquity) During the victorious period of Alexander the Great, and following the decline of the Achaemenid Empire, the Orontid rulers of the Armenian Satrapy
Satrapy
achieved independence as a result of the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC, founding the Kingdom of Armenia. With the establishment of new cities such as Armavir, Zarehavan, Bagaran and Yervandashat, the importance of Erebuni had gradually declined. With the rise of the Artaxiad dynasty
Artaxiad dynasty
of Armenia
Armenia
who seized power in 189 BC, the Kingdom of Armenia
Armenia
greatly expanded to include major territories of Asia Minor, Atropatene, Iberia, Phoenicia
Phoenicia
and Syria. The Artaxiads considered Erebuni and Tushpa
Tushpa
as cities of Persian heritage. Consequently, new cities and commercial centres were built by Kings Artaxias I, Artavasdes I and Tigranes the Great. Thus, with the dominance of cities such as Artaxata
Artaxata
and Tigranocerta, Erebuni had significantly lost its importance as a central city.

The ruins of the 4th-century Holy Mother of God Chapel in Avan, north of Yerevan

Under the rule of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia
Armenia
(54–428 AD), many other cities around Erebuni including Vagharshapat
Vagharshapat
and Dvin flourished. Consequently, Erebuni was completely neutralized, losing its role as an economic and strategic centre of Armenia. During the period of the Arsacid kings, Erebuni was only recorded in a Manichaean text of the 3rd century, where it is mentioned that one of the disciples of the prophet Mani founded a Manichaean community near the Christian community in Erebuni. According to Ashkharatsuyts, Erebuni was part of the Kotayk canton (Կոտայք գավառ, Kotayk gavar, not to be confused with the current Kotayk Province) of Ayrarat
Ayrarat
province, within Armenia
Armenia
Major. Armenia
Armenia
became a Christian nation in the early 4th century, during the reign of the Arsacid king Tiridates III. Sasanian period[edit] See also: Persian Armenia
Armenia
and Marzpanate Armenia

Katoghike Tsiranavor Church of Avan, 6th century

Following the partition of Armenia
Armenia
by the Byzantine and Sasanian empires in 387 and in 428, Erebuni and the entire territory of Eastern Armenia
Armenia
came under the rule of Sasanian Persia.[36] The Armenian territories formed the province of Persian Armenia
Armenia
within the Sasanian Empire. Due to the diminished role of Erebuni, as well as the absence of proper historical data, much of the city's history under the Sasanian rule is unknown. The Katoghike Tsiranavor Church in Avan, built between 595 and 602 during Sasanian rule and partly damaged during the 1679 earthquake), is the oldest surviving church within modern Yerevan
Yerevan
city limits. The province of Persian Armenia
Armenia
(also known as Persarmenia) lasted until 646, when the province was dissolved with the Muslim conquest of Persia. Arab Islamic invasion[edit] See also: Arminiya

The 7th-century church of the Holy Mother of God, demolished in 1936

In 658 AD, at the height of the Arab Islamic invasions, Erebuni- Yerevan
Yerevan
was conquered during the Muslim conquest of Persia, as it was part of Persian-ruled Armenia. The city became part of the Emirate of Armenia
Armenia
under the Umayyad Caliphate. The city of Dvin was the centre of the newly created emirate. Starting from this period, as a result of the developing trade activities with the Arabs, the Armenian territories had gained strategic importance as a crossroads for the Arab caravan routes passing between Europe and India
India
through the Arab-controlled Ararat plain
Ararat plain
of Armenia. Most probably, "Erebuni" has become known as "Yerevan" since at least the 7th century AD. Bagratid Armenia[edit] See also: Bagratid Armenia After 2 centuries of Islamic rule over Armenia, the Bagratid prince Ashot I of Armenia
Armenia
led the revolution against the Abbasid Caliphate. Ashot I liberated Yerevan
Yerevan
in 850, and was recognized as the Prince of Princes of Armenia
Armenia
by the Abbasid Caliph al-Musta'in in 862. Ashot was later crowned King of Armenia
Armenia
through the consent of Caliph al-Mu'tamid in 885. During the rule of the Bagratuni dynasty
Bagratuni dynasty
of Armenia
Armenia
between 885 and 1045, Yerevan
Yerevan
was relatively a secure part of the Kingdom before falling to the Byzantines. However, Yerevan
Yerevan
did not have any strategic role during the reign of the Bagratids, who developed many other cities of Ayrarat, such as Shirakavan, Dvin, and Ani. Seljuk period, Zakarid Armenia
Armenia
and Mongol rule[edit] See also: Zakarid Armenia
Armenia
and Mongol Armenia

The remains of Surp Hovhannes Chapel, dating back to the 12–13th centuries

After a brief Byzantine rule over Armenia
Armenia
between 1045 and 1064, the invading Seljuks -led by Tughril
Tughril
and later by his successor Alp Arslan- ruled over the entire region, including Yerevan. However, with the establishment of the Zakarid Principality of Armenia
Armenia
in 1201 under the Georgian protectorate, the Armenian territories of Yerevan
Yerevan
and Lori had significantly grown. After the Mongols captured Ani
Ani
in 1236, Armenia
Armenia
turned into a Mongol protectorate as part of the Ilkhanate, and the Zakarids became vassals to the Mongols. After the fall of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in the mid-14th century, the Zakarid princes ruled over Lori, Shirak and Ararat plain
Ararat plain
until 1360 when they fell to the invading Turkic tribes. Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
and Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
tribes[edit] See also: Turkmen Armenia

The Mausoleum of Kara Koyunlu emirs
Mausoleum of Kara Koyunlu emirs
in Argavand near Yerevan

During the last quarter of the 14th century, the Aq Qoyunlu
Aq Qoyunlu
Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribe took over Armenia, including Yerevan. In 1400, Timur
Timur
invaded Armenia
Armenia
and Georgia, and captured more than 60,000 of the survived local people as slaves. Many districts including Yerevan were depopulated.[37] In 1410, Armenia
Armenia
fell under the control of the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
Shia
Shia
Oghuz Turkic tribe. According to the Armenian historian Thomas of Metsoph, although the Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
levied heavy taxes against the Armenians, the early years of their rule were relatively peaceful and some reconstruction of towns took place.[38] The Kara Koyunlus made Yerevan the centre of the newly formed Chukhur Saad administrative territory. The territory was named after a Turkic leader known as Emir Saad. However, this peaceful period was shattered with the rise of Qara Iskander between 1420 and 1436, who reportedly made Armenia
Armenia
a "desert" and subjected it to "devastation and plunder, to slaughter, and captivity".[39] The wars of Iskander and his eventual defeat against the Timurids, invited further destruction in Armenia, as many more Armenians were taken captive and sold into slavery and the land was subjected to outright pillaging, forcing many of them to leave the region.[40] Following the fall of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
in 1375, the seat of the Armenian Church was transferred from Sis back to Vagharshapat
Vagharshapat
near Yerevan
Yerevan
in 1441. Thus, Yerevan
Yerevan
became the main economic, cultural and administrative centre in Armenia. Iranian rule[edit] See also: Iranian Armenia
Armenia
(1502–1828) and Erivan Khanate

An illustration of Yerevan
Yerevan
by French traveler Jean Chardin
Jean Chardin
in 1673 while he was travelling through the Safavid Empire

In 1501–02, most of the Eastern Armenian
Eastern Armenian
territories including Yerevan
Yerevan
were swiftly conquered by the emerging Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Iran led by Shah Ismail I.[41] Soon after in 1502, Yerevan
Yerevan
became the centre of the Erivan Beglarbegi, a new administrative territory of Iran
Iran
formed by the Safavids. For the following 3 centuries, it remained, with brief intermissions, under the Iranian rule. Due to its strategic significance, Yerevan
Yerevan
-known as Revan by the Ottomans- was initially often fought over, and passed back and forth, between the dominion of the rivaling Iranian and Ottoman Empire, until it permanently became controlled by the Safavids. In 1555, Iran
Iran
had secured its legitimate possession over Yerevan
Yerevan
with the Ottomans through the Treaty of Amasya.[42] In 1582–1583, the Ottomans led by Serdar Ferhad Pasha took brief control over Yerevan. Ferhad Pasha managed to build the Erivan Fortress on the ruins of one thousand-years old ancient Armenian fortress, on the shores of Hrazdan
Hrazdan
river.[43] However, Ottoman control ended in 1604 when the Persians regained Yerevan
Yerevan
as a result of first Ottoman-Safavid War. Shah Abbas I of Persia
Abbas I of Persia
who ruled between 1588 and 1629, ordered the deportation of hundreds of thousands of Armenians including citizens from Yerevan
Yerevan
to mainland Persia. As a consequence, Yerevan significantly lost its Armenian population who had declined to 20%, while Muslims including Persians, Turks, Kurds
Kurds
and Tatars gained dominance with around 80% of the city's population. Muslims were either sedentary, semi-sedentary, or nomadic. Armenians mainly occupied the Kond
Kond
neighbourhood of Yerevan
Yerevan
and the rural suburbs around the city. However, the Armenians dominated over various professions and trade in the area and were of great economic significance to the Persian administration.[44]

Kond, a historic neighbourhood of Yerevan, formed during the 17th century

Yerevan
Yerevan
in 1796 in the Qajar era, by G. Sergeevich. An Armenian church is seen on the left and a Persian mosque on the right

During the second Ottoman-Safavid War, Ottoman troops under the command of Sultan Murad IV
Murad IV
conquered the city in August 8, 1635. Returning in triumph to Constantinople, he opened the " Yerevan
Yerevan
Kiosk" (Revan Köşkü) in Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Palace
in 1636. However, Iranian troops under commanded by Shah Safi retook Yerevan
Yerevan
on April 1, 1636. As a result of the Treaty of Zuhab in 1639, the Iranians reconfirmed their control over Eastern Armenia, including Yerevan. On 7 June 1679, a devastating earthquake razed the city to the ground. In 1724, the Erivan Fortress
Erivan Fortress
was besieged by the Ottoman army. After a period of resistance, the fortress fell to the Turks. As a result of the Ottoman invasion, the Erivan Beglarbegi of the Safavids was dissolved. Following a brief period of Ottoman rule over Eastern Armenia
Armenia
between 1724 and 1736, and as a result of the fall of the Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
in 1736, Yerevan
Yerevan
along with the adjacent territories became part of the newly formed administrative territory of Erivan Khanate
Erivan Khanate
under the Afsharid dynasty
Afsharid dynasty
of Iran, which encompassed an area of 15,000 square kilometres (5,800 square miles). The Afsharids controlled Eastern Armenia
Armenia
from the mid 1730s until the 1790s. Following the fall of the Afsharids, the Qajar dynasty
Qajar dynasty
of Iran
Iran
took control of Eastern Armenia until 1828, when the region was conquered by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
after their victory over the Qajars that resulted in the Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828.[45] Russian rule[edit] See also: Armenian Oblast
Armenian Oblast
and Erivan Governorate

Franz Roubaud's painting of the Erivan Fortress
Erivan Fortress
siege in 1827 by the Russian forces under leadership of Ivan Paskevich
Ivan Paskevich
during the Russo-Persian War (1826–28)

Dzoragyugh neighbourhood of old Yerevan
Yerevan
in the 19th century

During the second Russo-Persian War of the 19th century, the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28, Yerevan
Yerevan
was captured by Russian troops under general Ivan Paskevich
Ivan Paskevich
on 1 October 1827.[21][46][47] It was formally ceded by the Iranians in 1828, following the Treaty of Turkmenchay.[48] After 3 centuries of Iranian occupation, Yereven along with the rest of Eastern Armenia
Armenia
designated as the "Armenian Oblast", became part of the Russian Empire, a period that would last until the collapse of the Empire in 1917. The Russians
Russians
sponsored the resettlement process of the Armenian population from Persia
Persia
and Turkey. Due to the resettlement, the percentage of the Armenian population of Yerevan
Yerevan
increased from 28% to 53.8%. The resettlement was intended to create Russian power bridgehead in the Middle East.[49] In 1829, Armenian repatriates from Persia
Persia
were resettled in the city and a new quarter was built. Yerevan
Yerevan
served as the seat of the newly formed Armenian Oblast
Armenian Oblast
between 1828 and 1840. By the time of Nicholas I's visit in 1837, Yerevan
Yerevan
had become an uyezd. In 1840, the Armenian Oblast
Armenian Oblast
was dissolved and its territory incorporated into a new larger province; the Georgia-Imeretia Governorate. In 1850 the territory of the former oblast was reorganized into the Erivan Governorate, covering an area of 28,000 square kilometres (11,000 square miles). Yerevan
Yerevan
was the centre of the newly established governorate.

Saint Gregory Church opened in 1900 (later destroyed in 1939)

The Main Square of Yerevan, 1916

At that period, Yerevan
Yerevan
was a small town with narrow roads and alleys, including the central quarter of Shahar, the Ghantar commercial centre, and the residential neighbourhoods of Kond, Dzoragyugh, Nork and Shentagh. During the 1840s and the 1850s, many schools were opened in the city. However, the first major plan of Yerevan
Yerevan
was adopted in 1856, during which, Saint Hripsime and Saint Gayane women's colleges were founded and the English Park was opened. In 1863, the Astafyan Street was redeveloped and opened. In 1874, Zacharia Gevorkian opened Yerevan's first printing house, while the first theatre opened its doors in 1879. On October 1, 1879, Yerevan
Yerevan
was granted the status of a city through a decree issued by Alexander II of Russia. In 1881, The Yerevan Teachers' Seminary and the Yerevan
Yerevan
Brewery were opened, followed by the Tairyan's wine and brandy factory in 1887. Other factories for alcoholic beverages and mineral water were opened during the 1890s. The monumental church of Saint Gregory the Illuminator was opened in 1900. Electricity and telephone lines were introduced to the city in 1907 and 1913 respectively. In general, Yerevan
Yerevan
had rapidly grown under the Russian rule, both economically and politically. Old buildings were torn down and new buildings of European style were erected instead. At the beginning of the 20th century, Yerevan
Yerevan
city's population was over 29,000.[50] In 1902, a railway line linked Yerevan
Yerevan
with Alexandropol, Tiflis
Tiflis
and Julfa. In the same year, Yerevan's first public library was opened. In 1905, the grandnephew of Napoleon I; prince Louis Joseph Jérôme Napoléon (1864–1932) was appointed as governor of Yerevan
Yerevan
province.[51] In 1913, for the first time in the city, a telephone line with eighty subscribers became operational. Yerevan
Yerevan
served as the centre of the governorate until 1917, when Erivan governorate was dissolved with the collapse of the Russian Empire. Brief independence[edit] Main article: First Republic of Armenia

Government house of Armenia
Armenia
from where Aram Manukian
Aram Manukian
declared independence in May 1918

Celebration of the first anniversary of the First Republic of Armenia in 1919

At the beginning of the 20th century, Yerevan
Yerevan
was a small city with a population of 30,000.[52] In 1917, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
ended with the October Revolution. In the aftermath, Armenian, Georgian and Muslim leaders of Transcaucasia
Transcaucasia
united to form the Transcaucasian Federation and proclaimed Transcaucasia's secession. The Federation, however, was short-lived. After gaining control over Alexandropol, the Turkish army was advancing towards the south and east to eliminate the center of Armenian resistance based in Yerevan. On May 21, 1918, the Turks started their campaign moving towards Yerevan
Yerevan
via Sardarabad. Catholicos Gevorg V ordered that church bells peal for 6 days as Armenians from all walks of life – peasants, poets, blacksmiths, and even the clergymen – rallied to form organized military units.[53] Civilians, including children, aided in the effort as well, as "Carts drawn by oxen, water buffalo, and cows jammed the roads bringing food, provisions, ammunition, and volunteers from the vicinity" of Yerevan.[54]

Map of Yerevan
Yerevan
in 1920, made before the Soviet reconstruction of the city by Alexander Tamanyan
Alexander Tamanyan
in 1924. Taken looking west, with the Hrazdan River
Hrazdan River
to the north rather than the west

By the end of May 1918, Armenians were able to defeat the Turkish army in the battles of Sardarabad, Abaran and Karakilisa. Thus, on 28 May 1918, the Dashnak leader Aram Manukian
Aram Manukian
declared the independence of Armenia. Subsequently, Yerevan
Yerevan
became the capital and the center of the newly founded Republic of Armenia, although the members of the Armenian National Council were yet to stay in Tiflis
Tiflis
until their arrival in Yerevan
Yerevan
to form the government in the summer of the same year. Armenia
Armenia
became a parliamentary republic with four administrative divisions. The capital Yerevan
Yerevan
was part of the Araratian Province. At the time, Yerevan
Yerevan
received more than 75,000 refugees from Western Armenia, who escaped the massacres perpetrated by the Ottoman Turks during the Armenian Genocide. On 26 May 1919, the government passed a law to open the Yerevan
Yerevan
State University, which was located on the main Astafyan (now Abovyan) street of Yerevan. After the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
in 1920, Armenia
Armenia
was granted formal international recognition. The United States, as well as many South American countries, officially opened diplomatic channels with the government of independent Armenia. Yerevan
Yerevan
had also opened representatives in Great Britain, Italy, Germany, Serbia, Greece, Iran
Iran
and Japan. However, after the short period of independence, Yerevan
Yerevan
fell to the Bolsheviks, and Armenia
Armenia
was incorporated into the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on 2 December 1920. Although nationalist forces managed to retake the city in February 1921 and successfully released all the imprisoned political and military figures, the city's nationalist elite were once again defeated by the Soviet forces
Soviet forces
on 2 April 1921. Soviet rule[edit] See also: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic

Mother Armenia
Armenia
erected in 1967, replacing the monumental statue of Joseph Stalin

Monument commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Sovietization of Armenia

The Red Soviet Army invaded Armenia
Armenia
on 29 November 1920 from the northeast. On 2 December 1920, Yerevan
Yerevan
along with the other territories of the Republic of Armenia, became part of the Soviet Union, known as the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. However, the Armenian SSR formed the Transcaucasian SFSR (TSFSR) together with the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
and the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, between 1922 and 1936. Under the Soviet rule, Yerevan
Yerevan
became the first among the cities in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
for which a general plan was developed. The "General Plan of Yerevan" developed by the academician Alexander Tamanian, was approved in 1924. It was initially designed for a population of 150,000. The city was quickly transformed into a modern industrial metropolis of over one million people. New educational, scientific and cultural institutions were founded as well. Tamanian incorporated national traditions with contemporary urban construction. His design presented a radial-circular arrangement that overlaid the existing city and incorporated much of its existing street plan. As a result, many historic buildings were demolished, including churches, mosques, the Persian fortress, baths, bazaars and caravanserais. Many of the districts around central Yerevan
Yerevan
were named after former Armenian communities that were destroyed by the Ottoman Turks during the Armenian Genocide. The districts of Arabkir, Malatia-Sebastia and Nork Marash, for example, were named after the towns Arabkir, Malatya, Sebastia, and Marash, respectively. After the end of World War II, German POWs were used to help in the construction of new buildings and structures, such as the Kievyan Bridge. Within the years, the central Kentron district
Kentron district
has become the most developed area in Yerevan, something that created a significant gap compared with other districts in the city. Most of the educational, cultural and scientific institutions were centred in the Kentron district. In 1965, during the commemorations of the fiftieth anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, Yerevan
Yerevan
was the location of a demonstration, the first such demonstration in the Soviet Union, to demand recognition of the Genocide by the Soviet authorities.[55] In 1968, the city's 2,750th anniversary was commemorated. Yerevan
Yerevan
played a key role in the Armenian national democratic movement that emerged during the Gorbachev era of the 1980s. The reforms of Glasnost
Glasnost
and Perestroika
Perestroika
opened questions on issues such as the status of Nagorno-Karabakh, the environment, Russification, corruption, democracy, and eventually independence. At the beginning of 1988, nearly one million Armenians from several regions of Armenia
Armenia
engaged in demonstrations concerning these subjects, centered in the city's Theater Square (currently Freedom Square).[56] Post-independence[edit]

Nighttime view of Yerevan
Yerevan
in September 2013

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yerevan
Yerevan
became the capital of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
on 21 September 1991.[57] Maintaining supplies of gas and electricity proved difficult; constant electricity was not restored until 1996 amidst the chaos of the badly instigated and planned transition to a market-based economy.

The redeveloped Yerevan
Yerevan
downtown is the commercial and business centre of the city

Since 2000, central Yerevan
Yerevan
has been transformed into a vast construction site, with cranes erected all over the Kentron district. Officially, the scores of multi-storied buildings are part of large-scale urban planning projects. Roughly $1.8 billion was spent on such construction in 2006, according to the national statistical service. Prices for downtown apartments have increased by about ten times during the first decade of the 21st century. Many new streets and avenues were opened, such as the Argishti street, Italy street, Saralanj Avenue, Monte Melkonian Avenue, and the Northern Avenue. However, as a result of this construction booming, the majority of the historic buildings located on the central Aram Street, were either entirely destroyed or transformed into modern residential buildings through the construction of additional floors. Only a few structures were preserved, mainly in the portion that extends between Abovyan Street and Mashtots Avenue.

A reconstructed park at the centre of the city

The first major post-independence protest in Yerevan
Yerevan
took place in September 1996, after the announcement of incumbent Levon Ter-Petrosyan's victory in the presidential election. Major opposition parties of the time, consolidated around the former Karabakh Committee member and former Prime Minister Vazgen Manukyan, organized mass demonstrations between 23 and 25 September, claiming electoral fraud by Ter-Petrosyan.[58] An estimated of 200,000 people gathered in the Freedom Square to protest the election results.[59] After a series of riot and violent protests around the Parliament building on 25 September, the government sent tanks and troops to Yerevan
Yerevan
to enforce the ban on rallies and demonstrations on the following day.[60] Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsyan
Vazgen Sargsyan
and Minister of National Security Serzh Sargsyan announced on the Public Television of Armenia
Armenia
that their respective agencies have prevented an attempted coup d'état.[61]

The monumental statue of Garegin Nzhdeh
Garegin Nzhdeh
at the centre of Yerevan erected on May 28, 2016, on the 98th anniversary of the First Republic

In February 2008, unrest in the capital between the authorities and opposition demonstrators led by ex-President Levon Ter-Petrosyan
Levon Ter-Petrosyan
took place after the 2008 Armenian presidential election. The events resulted in 10 deaths[62] and a subsequent 20-day state of emergency declared by President Robert Kocharyan.[63] In July 2016, a group of armed men calling themselves the Daredevils of Sassoun (Armenian: Սասնա Ծռեր Sasna Tsrrer) stormed a police station in Erebuni District
Erebuni District
of Yerevan, taking several hostages, demanding the release of opposition leader Jirair Sefilian and the resignation of President Serzh Sargsyan. 3 policeman were killed as a result of the attack.[64] Many anti-government protestors held rallies in solidarity with the gunmen.[65] However, after 2 weeks of negotiations, the crisis ended and the gunmen surrendered. Geography[edit] Topography and cityscape[edit]

Hrazdan River
Hrazdan River
flowing through Yerevan

Yerevan
Yerevan
is situated at the northeast of Ararat plain

Yerevan
Yerevan
has an average height of 990 m (3,248.03 ft), with a minimum of 865 m (2,837.93 ft) and a maximum of 1,390 m (4,560.37 ft) above sea level.[66] It is located on to the edge of the Hrazdan
Hrazdan
River, northeast of the Ararat plain
Ararat plain
(Ararat Valley), to the center-west of the country. The upper part of the city is surrounded with mountains on three sides while it descends to the banks of the river Hrazdan
Hrazdan
at the south. The Hrazdan
Hrazdan
divides Yerevan into two parts through a picturesque canyon. Historically, the city is situated at the heart of the Armenian Highland,[67] in Kotayk canton (Armenian: Կոտայք գավառ Kotayk gavar, not to be confused with the current Kotayk Province) of Ayrarat
Ayrarat
province, within Armenia
Armenia
Major. As the capital of Armenia, Yerevan
Yerevan
is not part of any marz ("province"). Instead, it is bordered with the following provinces: Kotayk from the north and the east, Ararat from the south and the south-west, Armavir from the west and Aragatsotn
Aragatsotn
from the north-west. The Erebuni State Reserve
Erebuni State Reserve
formed in 1981, is located around 8 km southeast of the city centre within the Erebuni District
Erebuni District
of the city. At a height between 1300 and 1450 meters above sea level, the reserve occupies an area of 120 hectares, mainly consisted of semi-deserted mountains-steppe.[68] Climate[edit]

Winter view of Yerevan

Yerevan
Yerevan
features a continental influenced steppe climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk or "cold semi-arid climate"), with long, hot, dry summers and short, but cold and snowy winters. This is attributed to Yerevan
Yerevan
being on a plain surrounded by mountains and to its distance from the sea and its effects. The summers are usually very hot with the temperature in August reaching up to 40 °C (104 °F), and winters generally carry snowfall and freezing temperatures with January often being as cold as −15 °C (5 °F) and lower. The amount of precipitation is small, amounting annually to about 318 millimetres (12.5 in). Yerevan experiences an average of 2,700 sunlight hours per year.[66] Temperature regime in Yerevan
Yerevan
is close to the southern Midwest cities such as Kansas City, Missouri, Detroit, Michigan, and Omaha, Nebraska, though Yerevan
Yerevan
is much drier.

Climate data for Yerevan

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 19.5 (67.1) 19.6 (67.3) 28.0 (82.4) 35.0 (95) 34.2 (93.6) 38.6 (101.5) 41.6 (106.9) 42.0 (107.6) 40.0 (104) 34.1 (93.4) 26.0 (78.8) 20.0 (68) 42.6 (108.7)

Average high °C (°F) 1.2 (34.2) 5.5 (41.9) 12.6 (54.7) 19.4 (66.9) 24.1 (75.4) 29.9 (85.8) 33.7 (92.7) 33.4 (92.1) 28.7 (83.7) 21.0 (69.8) 12.4 (54.3) 4.6 (40.3) 18.9 (66)

Daily mean °C (°F) −3.6 (25.5) 0.1 (32.2) 6.3 (43.3) 12.9 (55.2) 17.4 (63.3) 22.6 (72.7) 26.4 (79.5) 26.1 (79) 21.1 (70) 13.8 (56.8) 6.2 (43.2) −0.2 (31.6) 12.4 (54.3)

Average low °C (°F) −7.5 (18.5) −4.4 (24.1) 0.7 (33.3) 7.0 (44.6) 11.2 (52.2) 15.4 (59.7) 19.4 (66.9) 18.8 (65.8) 13.4 (56.1) 7.5 (45.5) 1.1 (34) −3.9 (25) 6.6 (43.9)

Record low °C (°F) −27.6 (−17.7) −26 (−15) −19.1 (−2.4) −10.2 (13.6) −0.6 (30.9) 3.7 (38.7) 7.5 (45.5) 7.9 (46.2) 0.1 (32.2) −6.5 (20.3) −14.4 (6.1) −28.2 (−18.8) −28.2 (−18.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 20 (0.79) 21 (0.83) 29 (1.14) 51 (2.01) 42 (1.65) 22 (0.87) 16 (0.63) 9 (0.35) 8 (0.31) 32 (1.26) 26 (1.02) 20 (0.79) 296 (11.65)

Average rainy days 2 4 8 12 12 8 5 4 4 8 7 4 78

Average snowy days 7 7 2 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 1 5 22

Average relative humidity (%) 81 74 62 59 58 51 47 47 51 64 73 79 62

Mean monthly sunshine hours 93.0 108 162 177 242 297 343 332 278 212 138 92 2,474

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net [69]

Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[70]

Among European capital cities Yerevan
Yerevan
has highest difference between average summer (June–August) and winter (December–February) temperatures. Architecture[edit]

Traditional 19th-century buildings of Yerevan
Yerevan
on Aram Street

The Yerevan TV Tower
Yerevan TV Tower
is the tallest structure in the city, and one of the tallest structures in the Transcaucasian region. The Republic Square, the Yerevan
Yerevan
Opera Theatre, and the Yerevan Cascade are among the main landmarks at the centre of Yerevan, mainly developed based on the original design of the academician Alexander Tamanian, and the revised plan of architect Jim Torosyan. A major redevelopment process has been launched in Yerevan
Yerevan
since 2000. As a result, many historic structures have been demolished and replaced with new buildings. This urban renewal plan has been met with opposition[71] and criticism from some residents, as the projects destroy historic buildings dating back to the period of the Russian Empire, and often leave residents homeless.[72][73][74] Downtown houses deemed too small are increasingly demolished and replaced by high-rise buildings.

Modern buildings on the Northern Avenue

The Saint Gregory Cathedral, the new building of Yerevan
Yerevan
City
City
Council, the new section of Matenadaran
Matenadaran
institute, the new terminal of Zvartnots International Airport, the Cafesjian Center for the Arts at the Cascade, the Northern Avenue, and the new government complex of ministries are among the major construction projects fulfilled during the first two decades of the 21st century. Aram Street
Aram Street
of old Yerevan
Yerevan
and the newly-built Northern Avenue are respectively among the notable examples featuring the traditional and modern architectural characteristics of Yerevan. As of May 2017, Yerevan
Yerevan
is home to 4,883 residential apartment buildings, and 65,199 street lamps installed on 39,799 street light posts, covering a total length of 1,514 km. The city has 1,080 streets with a total length of 750 km.[75] Parks[edit]

The Lovers' Park

Yerevan
Yerevan
is a densely-built city but still offers several public parks throughout its districts, graced with mid-sized green gardens. The public park of Erebuni District
Erebuni District
along with its artificial lake is the oldest garden in the city. Occupying an area of 17 hectares, the origins of the park and the artificial lake date back to the period of king Argishti I of Urartu
Argishti I of Urartu
during the 8th century BC. In 2011, the garden was entirely remodeled and named as Lyon
Lyon
Park, to become a symbol of the partnership between the cities of Lyon
Lyon
and Yerevan.[76] The Lovers' Park
Lovers' Park
on Marshal Baghramyan Avenue
Baghramyan Avenue
and the English Park at the centre of the city, dating back to the 18th and 19th centuries respectively, are among the most popular parks for the Yerevantsis. The Yerevan Botanical Garden
Yerevan Botanical Garden
opened in 1935, the Victory park formed in the 1950s and the Circular Park
Circular Park
are among the largest green spaces of the city.

The Swan Lake

Formed in the 1960s, the Yerevan
Yerevan
opera garden along with its artificial Swan Lake is also among the favourite green spaces of the city. The lake is converted into an ice-skating arena during winters. The Yerevan Lake
Yerevan Lake
is an artificial reservoir opened in 1967 on Hrazdan riverbed at the south of the city centre, with a surface of 0.65 km2 (0.25 sq mi). Each administrative district of Yerevan
Yerevan
has its own public park, such as the Buenos Aires Park
Buenos Aires Park
and Tumanyan Park
Tumanyan Park
in Ajapnyak, Komitas
Komitas
park in Shengavit, Vahan Zatikian park in Malatia-Sebastia, David Anhaght park in Kanaker-Zeytun, the Family park in Avan, and Fridtjof Nansen park in Nor Nork. Politics and government[edit] Capital[edit]

The National Assembly of Armenia
Armenia
on Baghramyan Avenue

Yerevan
Yerevan
has been the capital of Armenia
Armenia
since the independence of the First Republic in 1918. Situated in the Ararat plain, the historic lands of Armenia, it served as the best logical choice for capital of the young republic at the time. When Armenia
Armenia
became a republic of the Soviet Union, Yerevan
Yerevan
remained as capital and accommodated all the political and diplomatic institutions in the republic. In 1991 with the independence of Armenia, Yerevan
Yerevan
continued with its status as the political and cultural centre of the country, being home to all the national institutions: the Government House, the National Assembly, the Presidential Palace, the Central Bank, the Constitutional Court, all ministries, judicial bodies and other government organizations. Municipality[edit] See also: List of mayors of Yerevan

Yerevan
Yerevan
City
City
Hall

Yerevan
Yerevan
received the status of a city on October 1, 1879, upon a decree issued by Tsar Alexander II of Russia. The first city council formed was headed by Hovhannes Ghorghanyan who became the first mayor of Yerevan. The Constitution of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
adopted on 5 July 1995, granted Yerevan
Yerevan
the status of a marz (province).[77] Therefore, Yerevan
Yerevan
functions similarly to the provinces of Armenia
Armenia
with a few specifications.[78] The administrative authority of Yerevan
Yerevan
is thus represented by:

the mayor, appointed by the President (who can remove him at any moment) upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister,[77] alongside a group of four deputy mayors heading eleven ministries (of which financial, transport, urban development etc.),[79] the Yerevan
Yerevan
City
City
Council, regrouping the Heads of community districts under the authority of the mayor,[80] twelve "community districts", with each having its own leader and their elected councils.[81] Yerevan
Yerevan
has a principal city hall and twelve deputy mayors of districts.

In the modified Constitution of 27 November 2005, Yerevan
Yerevan
city was turned into a "community" (hamaynk); since, the Constitution declares that this community has to be led by a mayor, elected directly or indirectly, and that the city needs to be governed by a specific law.[82] The first election of the Yerevan
Yerevan
City
City
Council took place in 2009 and won by the ruling Republican Party of Armenia.[83][84] In addition to the national police and road police, Yerevan
Yerevan
has its own municipal police. All three bodies cooperate to maintain law in the city. Administrative districts[edit]

The twelve districts of Yerevan

Main article: Districts of Yerevan Yerevan
Yerevan
is divided into twelve "administrative districts" (վարչական շրջան, varčakan šrĵan)[85] each with an elected leader. The total area of the 12 districts of Yerevan
Yerevan
is 223 square kilometres (86 square miles).[86][87][88]

District Armenian Population (2011 census) Population (2016 estimate) Area (km²)

Ajapnyak Աջափնյակ 108,282 109,100 25.82

Arabkir Արաբկիր 117,704 115,800 13.29

Avan Ավան 53,231 53,100 7.26

Davtashen Դավթաշեն 42,380 42,500 6.47

Erebuni Էրեբունի 123,092 126,500 47.49

Kanaker-Zeytun Քանաքեր-Զեյթուն 73,886 74,100 7.73

Kentron Կենտրոն 125,453 125,700 13.35

Malatia-Sebastia Մալաթիա-Սեբաստիա 132,900 135,900 25.16

Nork-Marash Նորք-Մարաշ 12,049 11,800 4.76

Nor Nork Նոր Նորք 126,065 130,300 14.11

Nubarashen Նուբարաշեն 9,561 9,800 17.24

Shengavit Շենգավիթ 135,535 139,100 40.6

Demographics[edit]

Historical ethnic composition of Yerevan (excluding the Erivan Fortress)[89]

Year Armenians Azerbaijanisa Russians Others Total

c. 1650[89] absolute majority — — — —

c. 1725[90] absolute majority — — — ~20,000

1830[91] 4,132 35.7% 7,331 64.3% — 195 1.7% 11,463

1873[92] 5,900 50,1% 5,800 48,7% 150 1.3% 24 0.2% 11,938

1897[93] 12,523 43,2% 12,359 42,6% 2,765 9.5% 1,359 4.7% 29,006

1926[94] 59,838 89.2% 5,216 7.8% 1,401 2.1% 666 1% 67,121

1939[94] 174,484 87.1% 6,569 3.3% 15,043 7.5% 4,300 2.1% 200,396

1959[94] 473,742 93% 3,413 0.7% 22,572 4.4% 9,613 1.9% 509,340

1970[95] 738,045 95.2% 2,721 0.4% 21,802 2.8% 12,460 1.6% 775,028

1979[94] 974,126 95.8% 2,341 0.2% 26,141 2.6% 14,681 1.4% 1,017,289

1989[96][97] 1,100,372 96.5% 897 0.0% 22,216 2.0% 17,507 1.5% 1,201,539

2001[98] 1,088,389 98.63% — 6,684 0.61% 8,415 0.76% 1,103,488

2011[99] 1.048.940 98.94% — 4,940 0.47% 6258 0.59% 1,060,138

^a Called Tatars prior to 1918

Originally a small town, Yerevan
Yerevan
became the capital of Armenia
Armenia
and a large city with over one million inhabitants. Until the fall of the Soviet Union, the majority of the population of Yerevan
Yerevan
were Armenians with minorities of Russians, Kurds, Azerbaijanis
Azerbaijanis
and Iranians present as well. However, with the breakout of the Nagorno-Karabakh War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
from 1988 to 1994, the Azerbaijani minority diminished in the country in what was part of population exchanges between Armenia
Armenia
and Azerbaijan. A big part of the Russian minority also fled the country during the 1990s economic crisis in the country. Today, the population of Yerevan is overwhelmingly Armenian. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, due to economic crises, thousands fled Armenia, mostly to Russia, North America and Europe. The population of Yerevan
Yerevan
fell from 1,250,000 in 1989[66] to 1,103,488 in 2001[100] and to 1,091,235 in 2003.[101] However, the population of Yerevan
Yerevan
has been increasing since. In 2007, the capital had 1,107,800 inhabitants. Yerevantsis in general use the Yerevan
Yerevan
dialect, an Eastern Armenian dialect most probably formed during the 13th century. It is currently spoken in and around Yerevan, including the towns of Vagharshapat
Vagharshapat
and Ashtarak. Classical Armenian
Classical Armenian
(Grabar) words compose significant part of the dialect's vocabulary.[102] Throughout the history, it was influenced by several languages, especially Russian and Persian and loan words have significant presence in it today. It is currently the most widespread Armenian dialect.[103] Ethnic groups[edit]

Saint Nikolai Russian Cathedral, destroyed in 1931

Yerevan
Yerevan
was inhabited first by Armenians and remained homogeneous until the 15th century.[89][90][104] The population of the Erivan Fortress, founded in the 1580s, was mainly composed of Muslim soldiers, estimated two to three thousand.[89] The city itself was mainly populated by Armenians. French traveler Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who visited Yerevan
Yerevan
possibly up to six times between 1631 and 1668, states that the city is exclusively populated by Armenians.[105] During the 1720's Ottoman–Persian War its absolute majority were Armenians.[90] The demographics of the region changed because of a series of wars between the Ottoman Empire, Iran
Iran
and Russia. By the early 19th century, Yerevan
Yerevan
had a Muslim majority. Until the Sovietizaton of Armenia, Yerevan
Yerevan
was a multicultural city, mainly with Armenian and Caucasian Tatar (nowadays Azerbaijanis) population. After the Armenian Genocide, many refugees from what Armenians call Western Armenia
Armenia
(nowadays Turkey, then Ottoman Empire) escaped to Eastern Armenia. In 1919, about 75,000 Armenian refugees from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
arrived in Yerevan, mostly from the Vaspurakan region (city of Van and surroundings). A significant part of these refugees died of typhus and other diseases.[106] From 1921 to 1936, about 42,000 ethnic Armenians from Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Greece, Syria, France, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
etc. came to Soviet Armenia, with most of them settling in Yerevan. The second wave of repatriation occurred from 1946 to 1948, when about 100,000 ethnic Armenians from Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus, Palestine, Iraq, Egypt, France, United States
United States
etc. came to Soviet Armenia, again most of whom settled in Yerevan. Thus, the ethnic makeup of Yerevan became more monoethnic during the first 3 decades in the Soviet Union. In the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the remaining 2,000 Azeris left the city, because of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Religion[edit] See also: List of churches in Yerevan
List of churches in Yerevan
and Religion in Armenia Armenian Apostolic Church[edit]

The 5th-century Saint Paul and Peter Church

Saint John the Baptist Church consecrated in 1710

Surp Sarkis consecrated in 1842, is the main cathedral of Yerevan

Armenian Apostolic Christianity is the predominant religion in Armenia. The 5th-century Saint Paul and Peter Church demolished in November 1930 by the Soviets, was among the earliest churches ever built in Erebuni-Yerevan. Many of the ancient Armenian and medieval churches of the city were destroyed by the Soviets in the 1930s during the Great Purge. The regulating body of the Armenian Church in Yerevan
Yerevan
is the Araratian Pontifical Diocese, with the Surp Sarkis Cathedral being the seat of the diocese. It is the largest diocese of the Armenian Church and one of the oldest dioceses in the world, covering the city of Yerevan
Yerevan
and the Ararat Province
Ararat Province
of Armenia.[13] Yerevan
Yerevan
is currently home to the largest Armenian church in the world, the Cathedral of Saint Gregory the Illuminator. It was consecrated in 2001, during the 1700th anniversary of the establishment of the Armenian Church and the adoption of Christianity as the national religion in Armenia. As of 2017, Yerevan
Yerevan
has 17 active Armenian churches as well as 4 chapels. Russian Orthodox Church[edit]

Holy Cross Russian Church

After the capture of Yerevan
Yerevan
by the Russians
Russians
as a result of the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28, many Russian Orthodox churches were built in the city under the orders of the Russian commander General Ivan Paskevich. The Saint Nikolai Cathedral opened during the second half of the 19th century, was the largest Russian church in the city. The Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God
Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God
was opened in 1916 in Kanaker-Zeytun.[107] However, most of the churches were either closed or demolished by the Soviets during the 1930s. The Saint Nikolai Cathedral was entirely destroyed in 1931, while the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God was closed and converted first into a warehouse and later into a club for the military personnel. Religious services resumed in the church it in 1991, and in 2004 a cupola and a belfry were added to the building.[108] In 2010, the groundbreaking ceremony of the new Holy Cross Russian Orthodox church took place with the presence of Patriarch Kirill I of Moscow. The church was eventually consecrated on 7 October 2017, with the presence of Catholicos Karekin II, Russian bishops and the church benefactor Ara Abramyan. Other religions[edit] According to Ivan Chopin, there were eight mosques in Yerevan
Yerevan
in the middle of the 19th century.[109][110] The 18th-century Blue Mosque of Yerevan
Yerevan
was restored and reopened in the 1990s, with Iranian funding,[111] and is currently the only active mosque in Armenia, mainly serving the Iranian Shia
Shia
visitors. Yerevan
Yerevan
is home to tiny Yezidi, Molokan, Neopagan, Bahai and Jewish communities, with the Jewish community being represented by the Jewish Council of Armenia. A variety of nontrinitarian communities -considered as dangerous sects by the state-sponsored Armenian Apostolic Church-[112] are also found in the city, including Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, Seventh-day Adventists and Word of Life.[113] Health and medical care[edit]

Astghik Medical Centre

Medical services in Armenia
Armenia
-except from maternity- are not subsidized by the government. However, the government annually allocates a certain amount from the state budget for the medical needs of the socially vulnerable groups. Yerevan
Yerevan
is a major healthcare and medical service centre in the region. Several hospitals of Yerevan
Yerevan
refurbished with modern technologies, provide healthcare and medical researches, such as Shengavit Medical Center, Erebouni Medical Center, Izmirlian Medical Center, Saint Gregory the Illuminator Medical Center, Nork-Marash Medical Center, Armenia
Armenia
Republican Medical Center, Astghik Medical Centre, Armenian American Wellness Center, and Mkhitar Heratsi Hospital Complex of the Yerevan
Yerevan
State Medical University. The municipality runs 39 polyclinics/medical centres throughout the city. The Research Center of Maternal and Child Health Protection is operating in Yerevan
Yerevan
since 1937, while the Armenicum
Armenicum
Clinical Center was opened in 1999,[114] where researches are conducted mainly about infectious diseases and associated researches, including HIV, immunodeficiency and hepatitis. The Liqvor Pharmaceuticals Factory operating since 1991 in Yerevan, is currently the largest medicines manufacturer of Armenia.[115] Culture[edit] Museums[edit] See also: List of museums in Yerevan Yerevan
Yerevan
is home to a large number of museums, art galleries and libraries. The most prominent of these are the National Gallery of Armenia, the History Museum of Armenia, the Cafesjian Museum of Art, the Matenadaran
Matenadaran
library of ancient manuscripts, and the Armenian Genocide museum of Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
complex.

The National Gallery of Armenia

Founded in 1921, the National Gallery of Armenia
Armenia
and the History Museum of Armenia
Armenia
are the principal museums of city. In addition to having a permanent exposition of works of Armenian painters, the gallery houses a collection of paintings, drawings and sculptures issued from German, American, Austrian, Belgian, Spanish, French, Hungarian, Italian, Dutch, Russian and Swiss artists.[116] It usually hosts temporary expositions. The Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
museum is found at the foot of Tsitsernakaberd memorial and features numerous eyewitness accounts, texts and photographs from the time. It comprises a memorial stone made of three parts, the latter of which is dedicated to the intellectual and political figures who, as the museum's site says, "raised their protest against the Genocide committed against the Armenians by the Turks. Among them there are Armin T. Wegner, Hedvig Büll, Henry Morgenthau Sr., Franz Werfel, Johannes Lepsius, James Bryce, Anatole France, Giacomo Gorrini, Benedict XV, Fritjof Nansen, and others.

View from a garden terrace of the Cafesjian Museum of Art
Cafesjian Museum of Art
at the Cascade

Cafesjian Museum of Art
Cafesjian Museum of Art
within the Cascade complex, is an art centre opened on November 7, 2009. It showcases a massive collection glass artwork, particularly the works of the Czech artists Stanislav Libenský and Jaroslava Brychtová. The front gardens showcase sculptures from Gerard L. Cafesjian's collection. The Erebuni Museum
Erebuni Museum
founded in 1968, is an archaeological museum housing Urartian
Urartian
artifacts found during excavations at the Erebuni Fortress. The Yerevan History Museum
Yerevan History Museum
and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation History Museum are among the prominent museums that feature the history of Yerevan
Yerevan
and the First Republic of Armenia
Armenia
respectively. The Military Museum within the Mother Armenia
Armenia
complex is about the participation of Armenian soldiers in World War II
World War II
and Nagorno-Karabakh War.

Komitas
Komitas
Museum

The city is also home to a large number of art museums. Sergei Parajanov Museum opened in 1988 is dedicated to Sergei Parajanov's art works in cinema and painting.[117] Komitas Museum
Komitas Museum
opened in 2015, is a musical art museum devoted to the renowned Armenian composer Komitas. Charents Museum of Literature and Arts
Charents Museum of Literature and Arts
opened in 1921, Modern Art Museum of Yerevan
Yerevan
opened in 1972, and the Middle East Art Museum opened in 1993, are also among the notable arte museums of the city.[118] Biographical museums are also common in Yerevan. Many renowned Armenian poets, painters and musicians are honored with house-museums in their memory, such as poet Hovhannes Tumanyan, composer Aram Khachaturian, painter Martiros Saryan, novelist Khachatur Abovian, and French-Armenian singer Charles Aznavour. Recently, many museums of science and technology were opened in Yerevan, such as the Museum of Armenian Medicine (1999), the Space Museum of Yerevan
Yerevan
(2001), Museum of Science and Technology (2008), Museum of Communications (2012) and the Little Einstein Interactive Science Museum (2016). Libraries[edit]

Matenadaran
Matenadaran
library

The National Library of Armenia
Armenia
located on Teryan Street of Yerevan, is the public library of the city and the entire republic. It was founded in 1832 and is operating in its current building since 1939. Another national library of Yerevan
Yerevan
is the Khnko Aper Children's Library, founded in 1933. Other major public libraries include the Avetik Isahakyan Central Library founded in 1935, the Republican Library of Medical Sciences founded in 1939, the Library of Science and Technology founded in 1957, and the Musical Library founded in 1965. In addition, each administrative district of Yerevan
Yerevan
has its own public library (usually more than one library). The Matenadaran
Matenadaran
is a library-museum and a research centre, regrouping 17,000 ancient manuscripts and several bibles from the Middle Ages. Its archives hold a rich collection of valuable ancient Armenian, Ancient Greek, Aramaic, Assyrian, Hebrew, Latin, Middle and Modern Persian manuscripts. It is located on Mashtots Avenue
Mashtots Avenue
at central Yerevan. On 6 June 2010, Yerevan
Yerevan
was named as the 2012 World Book Capital by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Armenian capital was chosen for the quality and variety of the programme it presented to the selection committee, which met at UNESCO’s headquarters in Paris
Paris
on 2 July 2010. The National Archives of Armenia
Armenia
founded in 1923, is a scientific research centre and depositary, with a collection of around 3.5 million units of valuable documents. Art[edit] Main article: Armenian art

Handmade Armenian rugs at the Yerevan
Yerevan
Vernissage

Yerevan
Yerevan
is one of the historic centres of traditional Armenian carpet. Various rug fragments have been excavated in areas around Yerevan dating back to the 7th century BC or earlier. The tradition was further developed from the 16th century when Yerevan
Yerevan
became the central city of Persian Armenia. However, carpet manufacturing in the city was greatly enriched with the flock of Western Armenian migrants from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
throughout the 19th century, and the arrival of Armenian refugees escaping the genocide in early 20th century. Currently, the city is home to the Arm Carpet factory opened in 1924, as well as the Tufenkian handmade carpets (since 1994), and Megerian handmade carpets (since 2000).

Paintings exhibited at Saryan park

The Yerevan Vernissage
Yerevan Vernissage
open-air exhibition-market formed in late 1980s on Aram Street, features a large collection of different types of traditional Armenian hand-made art works, especially woodwork sculptures, rugs and carpets. On the other hand, the Saryan park located near the opera house, is famous for being a permanent venue where artists exhibit their paintings. The Armenian Center for Contemporary Experimental Art
Armenian Center for Contemporary Experimental Art
founded in 1992 in Yerevan,[119] is a creativity centre helping to exchange experience between professional artists in an appropriate atmosphere.[120] Music[edit] Main article: Music of Armenia

Yerevan
Yerevan
Opera Theater

Jazz, classical, folk and traditional music are among several genres that are popular in the city of Yerevan. A large number of ensembles, orchestras and choirs of different types of Armenian and international music are active in the city. The Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra
Armenian Philharmonic Orchestra
founded in 1925, is one of the oldest musical groups in Yerevan
Yerevan
and modern Armenia. The Armenian National Radio Chamber Choir founded in 1929, won the First Prize of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the 1931 competition of choirs among the republics of the Soviet Union. Folk and classical music of Armenia
Armenia
was taught in state-sponsored conservatoires during the Soviet days. The Sayat-Nova Armenian Folk Song Ensemble was founded in Yerevan
Yerevan
in 1938. Currently directed by Tovmas Poghosyan, the ensemble performs the works of prominent Armenian Gusans
Gusans
such as Sayat-Nova, Jivani, and Sheram. In 1939, the Armenian National Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet was opened. It is home to the Aram Khatchaturian concert hall and the Alexander Spendiarian auditorium of the National Theatre of Opera and Ballet.

Inside the Komitas
Komitas
Chamber Music House

The Komitas
Komitas
Chamber Music House opened in 1977, is the home of chamber music performers and lovers in Armenia. In 1983, the Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex was opened. It is currently the largest indoor venue in Armenia. The National Chamber Orchestra of Armenia
Armenia
(founded in 1961), Yerevan State Brass Band (1964), Folk Instruments Orchestra of Armenia
Armenia
(1977), Gusans
Gusans
and Folk Song Ensemble of Armenia
Armenia
(1983), Shoghaken Folk Ensemble (1995), Yerevan
Yerevan
State Chamber Choir (1996), State Orchestra of Armenian National Instruments (2004), and the Youth State Orchestra of Armenia
Armenia
(2005), are also among the famous musical ensembles of the city of Yerevan. The Ars lunga
Ars lunga
piano-cello duo achieved international fame since its foundation in 2009 in Yerevan. Armenian religious music remained liturgical until Komitas
Komitas
introduced polyphony by the end of the 19th century. Starting from the late 1950s, religious music became widely-spread when Armenian chants (also known as Sharakans) were performed by the soprano Lusine Zakaryan. The state-run Tagharan Ensemble of Yerevan
Yerevan
founded in 1981 and currently directed by Sedrak Yerkanian, also performs ritual and ancient Armenian music. Jazz
Jazz
is also among the popular genres in Yerevan. The first jazz band in Yerevan
Yerevan
was founded in 1936. Currently, many jazz and ethno jazz bands are active in Yerevan
Yerevan
such as Time Report, Art Voices, and Nuance Jazz
Jazz
Band. The Malkhas jazz club founded by renowned artist Levon Malkhasian, is among the most popular clubs in the city. The Yerevan
Yerevan
Jazz
Jazz
Fest is an annual jazz festival taking place every autumn since 2015, organized by the Armenian Jazz
Jazz
Association with the support of the Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality.[121]

KOHAR performing at the Freedom Square in 2011

Armenian rock has been originated in Yerevan
Yerevan
in mid 1960s, mainly through Arthur Meschian
Arthur Meschian
and his band Arakyalner (Disciples). In the early 1970s, there were a range of professional bands in Yerevan strong enough to compete with their Soviet counterparts. In post-Soviet Armenia, an Armenian progressive rock scene has been developed in Yerevan, mainly through Vahan Artsruni, the Oaksenham rock band, and the Dorians band. The Armenian Navy Band founded by Arto Tunçboyacıyan in 1998 is also famous for jazz, avant-garde and folk music. Reggae
Reggae
is also becoming popular in Yerevan
Yerevan
mainly through the Reincarnation musical band. The Cafesjian Center for the Arts is known for its regularly programmed events including the "Cafesjian Classical Music Series" on the first Wednesday of each month, and the "Music Cascade" series of jazz, pop and rock music live concerts performed every Friday and Saturday. Open-air concerts are frequently held in curtain location in Yerevan during summer, such as the Cafesjian Sculpture Garden on Tamanyan Street, the Freedom Square near the Opera House, the Republic Square, etc. The famous KOHAR Symphony Orchestra and Choir
KOHAR Symphony Orchestra and Choir
occasionally performs open-air concerts in the city. Dance[edit]

Open-air traditional dance lessons at Tamanyan Street, performed by the Karin Traditional Song and Dance Ensemble

Traditional dancing is very popular among Armenians. During the cool summertime of the Yerevan
Yerevan
city, it is very common to find people dancing in groups at the Northern Avenue or the Tamanyan Street
Tamanyan Street
near the cascade. Professional dance groups were formed in Yerevan
Yerevan
during the Soviet days. The first group was the Armenian Folk Music and Dance Ensemble founded in 1938 by Tatul Altunyan. It was followed by the State Dance Ensemble of Armenia
Armenia
in 1958. In 1963, the Berd
Berd
Dance Ensemble was formed. The Barekamutyun State Dance Ensemble of Armenia
Armenia
was founded in 1987 by Norayr Mehrabyan. The Karin Traditional Song and Dance Ensemble founded in 2001 by Gagik Ginosyan is known for reviving and performing the ancient Armenian dances of the historical regions of the Armenian Highland,[122] such as Hamshen, Mush, Sasun, Karin, etc. Theatre[edit] See also: List of theaters in Yerevan Yerevan
Yerevan
is home to many theatre groups, mainly operating under the support of the ministry of culture. Theatre halls in the city organize several shows and performances throughout the year. Most prominent state-run theatres of Yerevan
Yerevan
are the Sundukyan State Academic Theatre, Paronyan Musical Comedy Theatre, Stanislavski Russian Theatre, Hrachya Ghaplanyan Drama Theatre, and the Sos Sargsyan Hamazgayin State Theatre. The Edgar Elbakyan Theatre of Drama and Comedy is among the prominent theatres run by the private sector. Yerevan
Yerevan
is also home to several specialized theatres such as the Tumanyan Puppet Theatre, Yerevan
Yerevan
State Pantomime Theatre, and the Yerevan
Yerevan
State Marionettes Theatre. Cinema[edit] Main article: Cinema of Armenia

Moscow
Moscow
Cinema

Cinema in Armenia
Armenia
was born on April 16, 1923, when the Armenian State Committee of Cinema was established upon a decree issued by the Soviet Armenian government. In March 1924, the first Armenian film studio; Armenfilm (Armenian: Հայֆիլմ "Hayfilm," Russian: Арменкино "Armenkino") was opened in Yerevan, starting with a documentary film called Soviet Armenia. Namus was the first Armenian silent black and white film, directed by Hamo Beknazarian
Hamo Beknazarian
in 1925, based on a play of Alexander Shirvanzade, describing the ill fate of two lovers, who were engaged by their families to each other since childhood, but because of violations of namus (a tradition of honor), the girl was married by her father to another person. The first produced sound film was Pepo directed by Hamo Beknazarian
Hamo Beknazarian
in 1935. Nowadays, Yerevan
Yerevan
is home to many movie theatres including the Moscow Cinema, Nairi Cinema, Hayastan Cinema, Cinema Star multiplex cinemas of the Dalma Garden Mall, and the KinoPark multiplex cinemas of Yerevan
Yerevan
Mall. Since 2004, the Moscow Cinema
Moscow Cinema
hosts annual the Golden Apricot Yerevan
Yerevan
International Film Festival. The ReAnimania International Animation Film & Comics Art Festival of Yerevan launched in 2005, is also among the popular annual events in the city.[123] Festivals[edit]

Vardavar
Vardavar
in Yerevan

In addition to the art festivals, the city organizes many public celebrations that greatly attract the locals as well as the visitors. Vardavar
Vardavar
is the most widely celebrated festival among Armenians, having it roots back to the pagan history of Armenia. It is celebrated 98 days (14 weeks) after Easter. During the day of Vardavar, people from a wide array of ages are allowed to douse strangers with water. It is common to see people pouring buckets of water from balconies on unsuspecting people walking below them. The Swan Lake of the Yerevan Opera is the most popular venue for the Vardavar
Vardavar
celebrations. In August 2015, Teryan Cultural Centre supported by the Yerevan Municipality has launched its 1st Armenian traditional clothing festival known as the Yerevan
Yerevan
Taraz Fest.[124] As one of the ancient winemaking regions, many wine festivals are celebrated in Armenia. Yerevan
Yerevan
launched its 1st annual wine festivals known as the Yerevan
Yerevan
Wine Days in May 2016.[125] The Watermelon Fest launched in 2013 is also becoming a popular event in the city. The Yerevan
Yerevan
Beer Fest is held annually during the month of August. It was first organized in 2014.[126] Media[edit]

Yerevan
Yerevan
TV Tower

Many public and private TV and radio channels operate in Yerevan. The Public TV of Armenia
Armenia
is in service since 1956. It became a satellite television in 1996. Other satellite TVs include the Armenia
Armenia
TV owned by the Pan-Armenian Media Group, Kentron TV owned by Gagik Tsarukyan, Shant TV and Shant TV premium. On the other hand, Yerkir Media, Armenia
Armenia
2, Shoghakat TV, Yerevan
Yerevan
TV, 21TV and the TV channels of the Pan-Armenian Media Group are among the most notable local televisions of Yerevan. Notable newspapers published in Yerevan
Yerevan
include the daily newspapers of Aravot, Azg, Golos Armenii
Golos Armenii
and Hayastani Hanrapetutyun. Monuments[edit] Main articles: Monuments of Yerevan
Monuments of Yerevan
and List of statues in Yerevan Historic[edit]

Katoghike Church at the centre of Yerevan

Zoravor Surp Astvatsatsin Church

Many of the structures of Yerevan
Yerevan
had been destroyed either during foreign invasions or as a result of the devastating earthquake in 1679. However, some structures have remained moderately intact and were renovated during the following years. Erebuni Fortress, also known as Arin Berd, is the hill where the city of Yerevan
Yerevan
was founded in 782 BC by King Argishti I. The remains of other structures from earlier periods are also found in Shengavit.

The Blue Mosque

The 4th-century chapel of the Holy Mother of God and the 6th-century Tsiranavor Church both located in Avan District
Avan District
at the north of Yerevan, are among the oldest surviving Christian structures of the city. Originally a suburb at the north of Yerevan, Avan was eventually absorbed by the city's gradual expansion. The district is also home to the remains of Surp Hovhannes Chapel dating back to the 12–13th centuries. Katoghike Church; a medieval chapel in the centre of Yerevan
Yerevan
built in 1264, is one of the best preserved churches of the city.[127] Zoravor Surp Astvatsatsin Church is also among the best surviving churches of Yerevan, built 1693–94 right after the devastating earthquake, on the ruins of a medieval church. Saint Sarkis Cathedral rebuilt in 1835–42, is the seat of Araratian Pontifical Diocese
Araratian Pontifical Diocese
of the Armenian Church. The Blue Mosque or "Gök Jami", built between 1764 and 1768 at the centre of the city, is currently the only operating mosque in Armenia. The Red Bridge of Hrazdan River
Hrazdan River
is a 17th-century structure, built after the 1679 earthquake and later reconstructed in 1830. Contemporary[edit]

Aerial view of Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
memorial and the genocide museum

Yerevan Opera Theater
Yerevan Opera Theater
or the Armenian National Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre opened in 1933, is a major landmark in the city along with the Mesrop Mashtots Matenadaran
Matenadaran
opened in 1959, and Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
monument of the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
opened in 1967. Moscow
Moscow
Cinema, opened in 1937 on the site of Saint Paul and Peter Church of the 5th century, is an important example of the Soviet-era architecture. In 1959, a monument was erected near the Yerevan
Yerevan
Railway Station dedicated to the legendary Armenian hero David of Sassoun. The monumental statue of Mother Armenia
Armenia
is a female personification of the Armenian nation, erected in 1967, replacing the huge statue of Joseph Stalin in the Victory park. Komitas
Komitas
Pantheon is a cemetery opened in 1936 where many famous Armenians are buried, while the Yerablur
Yerablur
Pantheon, is a military cemetery where over 1,000 Armenian martyrs of the Nagorno-Karabakh War are buried since 1990. Many new notable buildings were constructed after the independence of Armenia
Armenia
such as the Yerevan
Yerevan
Cascade, and the Saint Gregory Cathedral opened in 2001 to commemorate the 1700th anniversary of Christianity in Armenia. In May 2016, a monumental statue of the prominent Armenian statesman and military leader Garegin Nzhdeh
Garegin Nzhdeh
was erected at the centre of Yerevan. Transportation[edit] Air[edit] Main articles: Zvartnots International Airport
Zvartnots International Airport
and Erebuni Airport

The main entrance to the Zvartnots Airport

Yerevan
Yerevan
is served by the Zvartnots International Airport, located 12 kilometres (7 miles) west of the city center. It is the primary airport of the country. Inaugurated in 1961 during the Soviet era, Zvartnots airport was renovated for the first time in 1985 and a second time in 2002 in order to adapt to international norms. It went through a facelift starting in 2004 with the construction of a new terminal. The first phase of the construction ended in September 2006 with the opening of the arrivals zone. A second section designated for departures was inaugurated in May 2007. The departure terminal is anticipated, October 2011 housing state of the art facilities and technology. This will make Yerevan
Yerevan
Zvartnots International Airport, the largest, busiest and most modern airport in the entire Caucasus. Currently there are no national airlines operating in Armenia.[128] The entire project costs more than $100 million USD. A second airport, Erebuni Airport, is located just south of the city. Since the independence, "Erebuni" is mainly used for military or private flights. The Armenian Air Force
Armenian Air Force
has equally installed its base there and there are several MiG-29s stationed on Erebuni's tarmac. City
City
buses, public vans and trolleybus[edit] Main article: Trolleybuses in Yerevan

A marshrutka

Public transport in Yerevan
Yerevan
is heavily privatized and mostly handled by around 60 private operators. As of May 2017, 39 city bus lines are being operated throughout Yerevan.[129] These lines mostly consist of about 425 Bogdan, Higer City
City
Bus and Hyundai County
Hyundai County
buses. However, the market share these buses in public transit is only about 39.1%. But the 50.4% of public transit is still served by "public vans", locally-known as marshrutka. These are about 1210 Russian-made GAZelle vans with 13 seats, that operate same way as buses, having 79 different lines with certain routes and same stops. According to Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality office, in future, marshrutkas should be replaced by ordinary larger buses. Despite having about 13 seats, the limit of passengers is not controlled, so usually these vans carry much more people who stand inside. The Yerevan
Yerevan
trolleybus system has been operating since 1949. Some old Soviet-era trolleybuses have been replaced with comparably new ones. As of May 2017, only 5 trolleybus lines are in operation (2.6% share), with around 45 units in service. The trolleybus system is owned and operated by the municipality.

A trolleybus in Yerevan

The tram network that operated in Yerevan
Yerevan
since 1906 was decommissioned in January 2004. Its operation had a cost 2.4 times higher than the generated profits, which pushed the municipality to shut down the network,[130] despite a last-ditch effort to save it towards the end of 2003. Since the closure, the rails have been dismantled and sold. Due to being dispersed among dozens of private operators, the transportation is barely regulated, with only trip fee is being a subject of regulation. Thus, the quality of vehicles is often inadequate, with no certain regulations for safety. Unlike the majority of world capitals, there is no established ticketing system in Yerevan's public transportation. Passengers need to pay the money directly to the driver when getting out of the vehicle. The fare -being one of the few things that is regulated- is fixed and controlled by authorities. A one-way trip costs AMD 100 (around US$0.21) for all buses and public vans, while it is AMD 50 for trolleybuses. The central station in Nor Kilikia neighborhood serves as bus terminal for inter-city transport, serving outbound routes towards practically all the cities of Armenia
Armenia
as well as abroad, notably Tbilisi
Tbilisi
and Tabriz. Underground[edit] Main article: Yerevan
Yerevan
Metro

The Republic Square underground station

The Yerevan Metro
Yerevan Metro
named after Karen Demirchyan, (Armenian: Կարեն Դեմիրճյանի անվան Երեւանի մետրոպոլիտեն կայարան (Karen Dyemirchyani anvan Yerevani metropoliten kayaran)) is a rapid transit system that serves the capital city since 1981. It has a single line of 12.1 km (7.5 mi) length with 10 active stations and 45 units in service. The interiors of the stations resemble that of the former western Soviet nations, with chandeliers hanging from the corridors. The metro stations had most of their names changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the independence of the Republic of Armenia. A northeastern extension of the line with two new stations is currently being developed. The construction of the first station (Ajapnyak) and of the one-kilometre (0.62-mile) tunnel linking it to the rest of the network will cost 18 million USD.[131] The time of the end of the project has not yet been defined. Another long term project is the construction of two new lines, but these have been suspended due to lack of finance. More than 60,000 people are being transported by the Yerevan Metro
Yerevan Metro
on a daily basis. Railway[edit] Main article: Armenian Railway

Yerevan
Yerevan
railway station, with the statue of David of Sassoun

Yerevan
Yerevan
has a single central train station (several train stations of suburbs have not been used since 1990) that is connected to the metro via the Sasuntsi Davit station. The train station is made in Soviet-style architecture with its long point on the building roof, representing the symbols of communism: red star, hammer and sickle. Due to the Turkish and Azerbaijani blockades of Armenia, there is only one international train that passes by once every two days, with neighboring Georgia being its destination. For example, for a sum of 9 000 to 18 000 dram, it is possible to take the night train to the Georgian capital, Tbilisi.[132] This train then continues to its destination of Batumi, on the shores of the Black sea
Black sea
in the summer season. The only railway that goes to Iran
Iran
to the south passes by the closed border of Nakhichevan. For this reason, there are no trains that go south from Yerevan. A construction project on a new railway line connecting Armenia
Armenia
and Iran
Iran
directly is currently being studied. During the first decade of the 21st century, the South Caucasus Railway CJSC -which is the current operator of the railway system in Armenia- announced its readiness to put the Yerevan-Gyumri-Kars railway line in service in case the Armenian-Turkish protocols are ratified and the opening of the borders between the two countries is achieved. As of July 2017, the following railway trips are scheduled from and to Yerevan:

Yerevan-Tbilisi-Batumi-Yerevan, with a daily trip operating since June 15, 2017, in coordination with the Georgian Railways.[133] Yerevan-Gyumri-Yerevan, with 3 daily trips operating since June 15, 2017.[134] Yerevan-Yeraskh-Yerevan, with a daily trip operating since July 12, 2014.[135] Yerevan-Araks-Yerevan, with a daily trip.[136] Yerevan-Shorzha-Yerevan, with weekend trips.

The Yerevan-Ararat- Yerevan
Yerevan
route is temporarily not in operation, while the Yerevan-Tbilisi- Yerevan
Yerevan
route will operate starting from October 2, 2017. Taxi[edit] Armenia
Armenia
is among the top 10 safest countries where one can wander around and go home alone safely at night. Yerevan
Yerevan
prides itself on having connections 24/7 as taxis are available at any time of the day or night.[137] Taxis service companies are cover the entire city in addition to many online taxi service providers, including the Russian Yandex.Taxi. Economy and services[edit] Industry[edit]

Yerevan Ararat Brandy Factory
Yerevan Ararat Brandy Factory
(left)

As of 2013[update], the share of Yerevan
Yerevan
in the annual total industrial product of Armenia
Armenia
is 41%.[138] The industry of Yerevan
Yerevan
is quite diversified including chemicals, primary metals and steel products, machinery, rubber products, plastics, rugs and carpets, textiles, clothing and footwear, jewellery, wood products and furniture, building materials and stone-processing, alcoholic beverages, mineral water, dairy product and processed food. Even though the economic crisis of the '90s ravaged the industry of the country, several factories remain always in service, notably in the petrochemical and the aluminium sectors.

Yerevan
Yerevan
Brandy Company

Armenian beverages, especially Armenian cognac and beer, have a worldwide fame. Hence, Yerevan
Yerevan
is home to many leading enterprises of Armenia
Armenia
and the Caucasus
Caucasus
for the production of alcoholic beverages, such as the Yerevan
Yerevan
Ararat Brandy Factory, Yerevan
Yerevan
Brandy Company, Yerevan
Yerevan
Champagne Wines Factory, "Beer of Yerevan" (Kilikia Beer) brewery, Armco Brandy Factory, Proshyan Brandy Factory
Proshyan Brandy Factory
and Astafian Wine-Brandy Factory. The 2 tobacco producers in Yerevan
Yerevan
are the "Cigaronne" and "Grand Tabak" companies.

Yerevan
Yerevan
Champagne Wines Factory

Carpet industry in Armenia
Armenia
has a deeply rooted history with ancient traditions, therefore, carpet production is rather developed in Yerevan
Yerevan
with three major factories that also produce hand-made rugs.[139][140][141] The "Megerian Carpet" factory is the leading in this sector. Other major plants in the city include the "Nairit" chemical and rubber plant, Rusal Armenal aluminum foil mill, "Grand Candy" Armenian-Canadian confectionery manufacturers, "Arcolad" chocolate factory, "Marianna" factory for dairy products, "Talgrig Group" for wheat and flour products, "Shant" ice cream factory, "Crown Chemicals" for paints, "ATMC" travertine mining company, Yerevan
Yerevan
Watch Factory "AWI watches", Yerevan
Yerevan
Jewellry Plant, and the mineral water factories of "Arzni", "Sil", and " Dilijan
Dilijan
Frolova". Food products include processed meat, all types of canneries, wheat and flour, sweets and chocolate, dried fruits, soft drinks and beverages. Building materials mainly include travertine, crushed stones, asphalt and asphalt concrete. Finance and banking[edit]

The Central Bank of Armenia

As an attractive outsourcing location for Western European, Russian and American multinationals, Yerevan
Yerevan
headquarters many international companies. It is Armenia's financial hub, being home to the Central Bank of Armenia, the Armenian Stock Exchange
Armenian Stock Exchange
(NASDAQ OMX Armenia), as well as the majority of the country's largest commercial banks.[142] As of 2013[update], the city dominates over 85% of the annual total services in Armenia, as well as over 84% of the annual total retail trade. Many subsidiaries of Russian service companies and banks operate in Yerevan, including Gazprom, Ingo Armenia, Rosgosstrakh
Rosgosstrakh
and VTB Bank. The ACBA Bank is a subsidiary of the French Crédit Agricole. HSBC Armenia
Armenia
is also headquartered in Yerevan. Construction[edit]

A 19th-century building in downtown Yerevan, remodeled with modern additions

The construction sector has experienced a significant growth during the 1st decade of the 21st century.[143] Starting from 2000, Yerevan has witnessed a massive construction boom, funded mostly by Armenian millionaires from Russia
Russia
and the United States, with an extensive and controversial redevelopment process in which many 18th and 19th-century buildings have been demolished and replaced with new buildings. This growth was coupled with a significant increase in real estate prices.[144]

Historical districts being demolished and replaced with modern buildings

Many major construction projects has been conducted in Yerevan, such as the Northern Avenue and the rehabilitation of Old Yerevan
Yerevan
on Aram Street. The Northern Avenue is completed and was opened in 2007, while the Old Yerevan
Yerevan
project is still under development. In the past few years, the city centre has also witnessed major road reconstruction, as well as the renovation of the Republic square, funded by the American-Armenian billionaire Kirk Kerkorian. On the other hand, the Argentina-based Armenian businessman Eduardo Eurnekian
Eduardo Eurnekian
took over the airport, while the cascade development project was funded by the US based Armenian millionaire Gerard L. Cafesjian. However, the sector has significantly dropped by the end of the 1st decade of the 21st century, as a result of the global real estate crisis in 2007–09. In 2013, Yerevan
Yerevan
dominated over 58% of the annual total construction sector of Armenia. In February 2017, the urban development committee of the government revealed its plans for the upcoming major construction projects in the city. With a total cost of US$300 million, a new business district will rise at the centre of the city, to replace the current Firdowsi shopping area.[145] The committee has also announced about the construction of Noy (Noah) ethnographic residential district at the western vicinity of Kentron District, with an approximate cost of US$100 million. The new neighbourhood will be known as, and its .[146] Energy[edit]

Kanaker HPP of Yerevan

The location of the city on the shores of Hrazdan
Hrazdan
river has enabled the production of hydroelectricity. As part of the Sevan–Hrazdan Cascade, 3 hydroelectric power plants are established within the administrative territory of Yerevan: Kanaker HPP,[147] Yerevan-1 HPP,[148] and Yerevan-3 HPP.[149] The entire plant was privatized in 2003, and is currently owned by RusHydro.[150][151] The city is also home to the Yerevan
Yerevan
Thermal Power Plant, a unique facility in the region for its quality and high technology, situated in the southern part of the city. Originally opened in 1961, a modern plant was built in 2007, furnished with a new gas-steam combined cycled turbine, to generate electric power.[152][153] In March 2017, the construction of a new thermal power plant was launched with an initial investment of US$258 million and an envisaged capacity of 250 megawatts. The power station will be in service in 2019.[154] Telecommunication and postal services[edit] Main article: Telecommunications in Armenia

Vivacell-MTS headquarters in Yerevan

As of 2017, Armenia
Armenia
has 3 mobile phone service providers:

Armenia
Armenia
Telephone Company's Beeline, currently owned by VimpelCom. Based in Yerevan, the company is operating since 1995.[155] K-Telecom's Vicacell-MTS, founded in 2004 in Yerevan, and currently owned by MTS.[156] Ucom, founded as an internet service provider in 2009 in Yerevan. It replaced Orange Armenia
Armenia
as the 3rd mobile network provider in the country in December 2015.[157]

In addition to the mobile network providers, many other small and middle-size companies are also involved in internet services. Access to the Internet in Armenia
Armenia
is largely unfettered. However, according to Article 11 of the Law of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
on Police, law enforcement has the right to block content to prevent criminal activity.[158] HayPost
HayPost
is the official national postal operator of Armenia. Based in Yerevan, it currently operates through 900 postal offices across Armenia.[159] Tourism and nightlife[edit]

Grand Hotel Yerevan
Grand Hotel Yerevan
operating since 1926

Armenia
Armenia
Marriott Hotel Yerevan
Yerevan
at the Republic Square, built in 1958 with traditional Armenian arch series at the façade

Tourism in Armenia
Armenia
is developing year by year and the capital city of Yerevan
Yerevan
is one of the major tourist destinations.[160] The city has a majority of luxury hotels, modern restaurants, bars, pubs and nightclubs. Zvartnots airport has also conducted renovation projects with the growing number of tourists visiting the country. Numerous places in Yerevan
Yerevan
are attractive for tourists, such as the dancing fountains of the Republic Square, the State Opera House, the Cascade complex, the ruins of the Urartian
Urartian
city of Erebuni (Arin Berd), the historical site of Karmir Blur (Teishebaini), etc. The largest hotel of the city is the Ani
Ani
Plaza Hotel. The Armenia
Armenia
Marriott Hotel is located at the Republic Square at the centre of Yerevan, while the Radisson Blu Hotel is located near the Victory Park. Other major chains operating in central Yerevan
Yerevan
include the Grand Hotel Yerevan
Grand Hotel Yerevan
of the Small Luxury Hotels of the World,[161] the Best Western
Best Western
Congress Hotel, the DoubleTree
DoubleTree
by Hilton, the Hyatt
Hyatt
Place, the Ibis Yerevan Center, and The Alexander, a Luxury Collection Hotel of Marriott International.

Crowded cafés near the Yerevan
Yerevan
Opera House

The location of Yerevan
Yerevan
itself, is an inspiring factor for the foreigners to visit the city in order to enjoy the view of the biblical mount of Ararat, as the city lies on the feet of the mountain forming the shape of a Roman amphitheatre. There are many historical sites, churches and citadels in areas and regions surrounding the city of Yerevan, such as Garni Temple, Zvartnots Cathedral, the monasteries of Khor Virap
Khor Virap
and Geghard, etc. Being among the top 10 safest cities in the world, Yerevan
Yerevan
has an extensive nightlife scene with a variety of nightclubs,[162] live venues, pedestrian zones, street cafés, jazz cafés, tea houses, casinos, pubs, karaoke clubs and restaurants. Casino
Casino
Shangri La and Pharaon Complex are among the largest leisure and entertainment centres of the city. Many world-famous music stars, Russian music celebrities, as well as Armenian singers from diaspora, occasionally perform in concerts in Yerevan.

Yerevan
Yerevan
Zoo

The Yerevan Zoo
Yerevan Zoo
founded in 1940,[163] the Yerevan Circus
Yerevan Circus
opened in 1956, and the Yerevan Water World
Yerevan Water World
opened in 2001, are among the popular entertaining centres in the city.

Dalma Garden Mall

The Northern Avenue that connects the Opera House with Abovyan
Abovyan
street is a popular pedestrian zone in Yerevan
Yerevan
with modern residential buildings, business centres, restaurants, bars and cafés. Another popular landmarks is the Yerevan Cascade
Yerevan Cascade
and the "Cafesjian Sculpture Garden" on Tamanyan Street
Tamanyan Street
with its pedestrian zone, featuring many coffee shops, bars, restaurants, and pubs at the sidewalks. The "Cafesjian Center for the Arts" regularly organizes art events throughout the year, including classical music series, traditional folk dance events, and live concerts of jazz, pop and rock music.[164] As of 2017, Yerevan
Yerevan
has 3 shopping malls: Dalma Garden Mall
Dalma Garden Mall
opened in October 2012, followed by Yerevan Mall
Yerevan Mall
opened in February 2014, and Rossia Mall
Rossia Mall
opened in March 2016. Education[edit] See also: List of universities in Yerevan

Yerevan
Yerevan
State University

Yerevan
Yerevan
is a major educational centre in the region. As of 2017[update], the city is home to 253 schools, of which 210 are state-owned, with 159 run by the municipality and 51 run by the ministry of education, while the rest 43 are privately owned. The municipality runs 160 kindergartens throughout the city.[165] The QSI International School, École Française Internationale en Arménie, Ayb School, Mkhitar Sebastatsi Educational Complex
Mkhitar Sebastatsi Educational Complex
and Khoren and Shooshanig Avedisian School
Khoren and Shooshanig Avedisian School
are among the prominent international or private schools in Yerevan. As of 2016[update], more than 60 higher education institutions are accredited and licensed to operate in the Republic of Armenia. Yerevan is home to about 50 institutions, of which 13 are state, 7 are inter-governmental, 5 are international private, 3 are military, and the rest are local private universities. Yerevan
Yerevan
State University, American University of Armenia, Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, Yerevan State Medical University
Yerevan State Medical University
and Armenian State Pedagogical University are the top rated universities of Armenia
Armenia
and among the top rated in the region.[166] Science and research[edit]

Tumo Center for Creative Technologies

Under the Soviet rule, Yerevan
Yerevan
has turned into a major centre for science and research. The Armenian National Academy of Sciences
Armenian National Academy of Sciences
is the pioneer of scientific research in Armenia. It was founded in 1943 as the Armenian Branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences to become the primary body that conducts research and coordinates activities in the fields of science in Armenia. It has many divisions, including Mathematical and Technical Sciences, Physics and Astrophysics, Natural Sciences, Chemistry and Earth Sciences, Armenology and Social Sciences.[167] After the independence, many new research centres were opened in the city, such as the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute
CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute
(2010),[168] Tumo Center for Creative Technologies
Tumo Center for Creative Technologies
(2011),[169] and Nerses Mets Medical Research and Education Center (2013).[170] Sport[edit] See also: List of sports venues in Yerevan Football[edit]

Hrazdan
Hrazdan
Stadium

Vazgen Sargsyan
Vazgen Sargsyan
Republican Stadium

Football is the most played and popular sport in Yerevan
Yerevan
and the entire country. As of 2017[update], the city has 4 football clubs competing in the Armenian Premier League
Armenian Premier League
as well as 3 clubs in the Armenian First League:[171]

Club Stadium Location Training centre

Alashkert !Alashkert Alashkert Stadium Shengavit

Ararat !Ararat Yerevan Mika Stadium Shengavit Dzoraghbyur Training Centre

Banants !Banants Banants Stadium Malatia-Sebastia Banants Training Centre

Pyunik !Pyunik Vazgen Sargsyan
Vazgen Sargsyan
Rep. Stadium Kentron Pyunik Training Centre

Erebuni !Erebuni Erebuni Stadium Erebuni

Avan Academy !Avan Academy Football Academy Stadium Avan Yerevan
Yerevan
Football Academy

Artsakh !Artsakh Mika Stadium Shengavit

Hrazdan Stadium
Hrazdan Stadium
of Yerevan
Yerevan
is the largest sports venue of Armenia. It is the primary home ground of the Armenian football team along with the Vazgen Sargsyan
Vazgen Sargsyan
Republican Stadium.[172] The Football Academy of Yerevan
Yerevan
operated by the Football Federation of Armenia
Armenia
is an up-to-date training academy complex, opened in 2010.[173] The municipality has opened 126 mini-football pitches within the yards of the Yerevan
Yerevan
neighbourhoods. It is envisaged to rise the number up to 131 by the end of 2017.[174] Chess[edit]

Tigran Petrosian Chess
Chess
House

Armenia
Armenia
has always excelled in chess with its players being very often among the highest ranked and decorated. The headquarters of the Chess Federation of Armenia
Armenia
is located in the Tigran Petrosian Chess
Chess
House of Yerevan.[175] The city is home to a large number of chess teams and training schools. In 1996, despite the severe economic conditions in the country, Yerevan
Yerevan
hosted the 32nd Chess
Chess
Olympiad.[176] In 2006, the four members from Yerevan
Yerevan
of the Armenian chess team won the 37th Chess
Chess
Olympiad in Turin
Turin
and repeated the feat at the 38th Chess Olympiad in Dresden. Armenian won the chess Olympiad for the 3rd time in 2012 in Istanbul. The Yerevan-born leader of the chess national team; Levon Aronian, is one of the top chess players in the world. Futsal[edit] Futsal
Futsal
is very popular in Armenia. Many companies as well as universities have their own teams who participate in the Armenian Futsal
Futsal
Premier League. 3 out of the 8 teams of the championship are based in Yerevan, including: Futsal
Futsal
Club Leo, Charbakh and Armenia Travel.[171] The Mika Sports Arena
Mika Sports Arena
is the home of the Armenia
Armenia
national futsal team as well as the futsal teams of the domestic competition. Basketball[edit]

Armenia
Armenia
national basketball team at the Mika Arena

Despite the popularity of basketball in Armenia, the country's national team only recently made headlines internationally through winning the 2016 FIBA European Championship for Small Countries. However, the country's best players are diaspora Armenians, mainly from the United States
United States
and Russia. The first ever season of the professional domestic basketball competition of Armenia, known as Armenia
Armenia
Basketball
Basketball
League A, was launched in October 2017 with 7 participating teams. Yerevan
Yerevan
is represented by 4 clubs: Engineer Yerevan, FIMA Basketball, BC Grand Sport and BC Urartu.[177] Tennis[edit] Tennis
Tennis
is also among the popular sports in Yerevan. Several tennis clubs operate in the city, with many of them founded during the Soviet days. Incourt Tennis
Tennis
Club -founded in 1974– is the largest in the city, with many indoor and outdoor courts.[178] Ararat Tennis
Tennis
Club founded in 1990, is also among the prominent clubs in the city.[179] Tennis
Tennis
clubs are also found within the Yerevan
Yerevan
State Sports College of Olympic Reserve since 1971, and the Yerevan Football Academy
Yerevan Football Academy
since 2010. Sargis Sargsian
Sargis Sargsian
and Ani
Ani
Amiraghyan are the most successful tennis players of Armenia. Artistic gymnastics[edit] Armenia
Armenia
has produced many Olympic champions in artistic gymnastics during the Soviet days, such as Hrant Shahinyan, Albert Azaryan
Albert Azaryan
and Eduard Azaryan. The success of the Armenian gymnasts in the Olympic competitions has greatly contributed in the popularity of the sport. Thus, many prominent competitors represent the country in the European and World championships, including Artur Davtyan
Artur Davtyan
and Harutyun Merdinyan. Yerevan
Yerevan
has many state-owned schools of artistic gymnastics, including the Albert Azaryan
Albert Azaryan
School opened in 1964 and the Hrant Shahinyan School opened in 1965. Other sports[edit]

Figure skating
Figure skating
event at the Karen Demirchyan
Karen Demirchyan
Complex

Karen Demirchyan
Karen Demirchyan
Sports and Concerts Complex[180] is the largest indoor arena in the city and the entire country. It is mostly used for indoor sport events, including ice hockey and figure skating shows. On the other hand, Dinamo and Mika indoor arenas are the regular venues for domestic and regional competitions of basketball, volleyball, handball and futsal.[181] Armenia
Armenia
Sports Union (Spartak Sports Union between 1935 and 1999) is a sports society mainly involved in individual Olympic sports, including boxing, weightlifting, athletics, wrestling, taekwondo, table tennis, etc.[182] The " Yerevan
Yerevan
State Sports College of Olympic Reserve" is a large sports and educational complex located in the Malatia-Sebastia District of the city. It was founded in 1971, and is home to individual as well as team sport schools, such as wrestling, boxing, weightlifting, judo, athletics, acrobatic gymnastics, artistic gymnastics, swimming, table tennis, cycling, basketball, volleyball and handball.[183] In September 2015, the new Olympic Training Complex of Yerevan -locally known as Olympavan- was opened in Davtashen District. It is an state of the art sports complex, with training facilities for most Olympic individual and team sports, as well as water sports. It is also home to the anti-doping medical centre and a hotel designated to accommodate more than 300 athletes.[184]

Olympavan, home and training complex of the Armenian Olympic Committee

Equestrian sport was introduced to Armenia
Armenia
in 1953. The Hovik Hayrapetyan Equestrian Centre opened in 2001, occupies an area of 85 hectares at the southern Shengavit District
Shengavit District
of Yerevan. It is the centre of equestrian sport and horse racing in Armenia.[185] Golf
Golf
has been introduced to the citizens of Yerevan
Yerevan
in 1999, with the foundation of the Ararat Valley Country Club in the Vahakni neighbourhood of Ajapnyak District. It is the first-ever golf course opened in Armenia
Armenia
as well as the Transcaucasian region.[186] Arena Bowling and Billiards Club is an up-to-date sports and leisure centre opened in 2004 and located on Mashtots Avenue
Mashtots Avenue
in central Yerevan.[187] Cycling
Cycling
as a sport is becoming popular among the young generation. The Yerevan Velodrome
Yerevan Velodrome
is an outdoor track cycling venue with international standard, opened in 2011 to replace the old venue of the Soviet days.[188] Edgar Stepanyan of Armenia
Armenia
became champion of the scratch race in the 2015 junior UEC European Track Championships.[189] In an attempt to promote figure skating and ice hockey in Armenia, the Irina Rodnina Figure Skating Centre
Irina Rodnina Figure Skating Centre
was opened in Yerevan, in December 2015.[190] Recently, MMA has gained massive popularity in Armenia, being promoted by Armfighting Professional Federation based in Yerevan. It was founded in 2005 by Hayk Ghukasyan and currently runs several branches throughout the provinces of Armenia
Armenia
and Artsakh with more than 2,000 athletes.[191] With the increased interest in healthy lifestyle and fitness, many large and modern training complexes with indoor and outdoor swimming pools have recently been opened in the city such as the Davit Hambardzumyan Swimming and Diving Olympic School, Orange Fitness Premium Club, DDD Sports Complex, Aqua Land Sports Complex, Gold's Gym, Grand Sport Complex, Reebok
Reebok
Sports Club, and Multi Wellness Sport and Health Center. International relations[edit] The city of Yerevan
Yerevan
is member of many international organizations: the International Assembly of CIS Countries' Capitals and Big Cities (MAG), the Black Sea Capitals' Association (BSCA), the International Association of Francophone Mayors (AIMF),[192] the Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC), the International Association of Large-scale Communities, and the International Urban Community Lighting Association (LUCI). Twin towns/sister cities[edit]

The hands of friendship from Carrara
Carrara
to Yerevan

As of March 2017, Yerevan
Yerevan
is twinned with 24 cities:[193]

Carrara, Italy, since 1965 Antananarivo, Madagascar, since 1981 Cambridge, MA, United States, since 1987  Marseille, France, since 1992 Stavropol, Russia, since 1994 Isfahan, Iran, since 1995  Odessa, Ukraine, since 1995 Tbilisi, Georgia, since 1996  Beirut, Lebanon, since 1997 Damascus, Syria, since 1997  Montreal, Canada, since 1998 Buenos Aires, Argentina, since 2000

 Bratislava, Slovakia, since 2001  São Paulo, Brazil, since 2002 Chişinău, Moldova, since 2005 Rostov-on-Don, Russia  Los Angeles, United States, since 2007  Nice, France, since 2007  Venice, Italy, since 2011  Riga, Latvia, since 2013 Amman, Jordan, since 2014  Novosibirsk, Russia, since 2014 Volgograd, Russia, since 2015

Partnerships[edit]

Place de France
France
with the statue of Jules Bastien-Lepage
Jules Bastien-Lepage
by Auguste Rodin at the centre are among the symbols featuring the partnership between Yerevan
Yerevan
and Paris

As of March 2017, Yerevan
Yerevan
has a partnership agreement with 25 cities/administrative regions:[194]

 Podgorica, Montenegro, since 1974  Athens, Greece, since 1993  Lyon, France, since 1993 Stavropol, Russia, since 1994  Kiev, Ukraine, since 1995  Moscow, Russia, since 1995   Tuscany
Tuscany
region, Italy, since 1996  Saint Petersburg, Russia, since 1997  Volgograd, Russia, since 1998  Minsk, Belarus, since 2002  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, since 2007  Sofia, Bulgaria, since 2008 Delhi, India, since 2008

Beijing, China, since 2009  Kaliningrad, Russia, since 2009  Paris, France, since 2011  Île-de- France
France
region, France, since 2011 Stepanakert, Artsakh, since 2012[195]  Bucharest, Romania, since 2013  Warsaw, Poland, since 2013 Krasnodar, Russia, since 2014 Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, since 2014 Qazvin, Iran, since 2014 Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia, since 2014  Tallinn, Estonia, since 2015

Notable natives[edit]

List of notable persons born in Yerevan: People from Yerevan

Terter Yerevantsi (1290–1350), first person from Yerevan
Yerevan
with fully known biography; scribe and poet; author of first known poems about Yerevan Voskan Yerevantsi
Voskan Yerevantsi
(17th century), printer Simeon I of Yerevan (1710–1780), Catholicos of All Armenians Fazil Iravani (1782–1885), Shaykh al-Islām Khachatur Abovian
Khachatur Abovian
(1809–1848), writer Irakli Gruzinsky
Irakli Gruzinsky
(1826–1882), Prince of Georgia Jabbar Baghtcheban (1886–1966), Iranian educator Hamo Beknazarian
Hamo Beknazarian
(1891–1965), film director Silva Kaputikyan
Silva Kaputikyan
(1919–2006), poet Arno Babajanian
Arno Babajanian
(1921–1983), Soviet composer Grigor Khanjyan
Grigor Khanjyan
(1926–2000), artist, painter Karen Demirchyan
Karen Demirchyan
(1932–1999), Soviet and Armenian politician Armen Dzhigarkhanyan
Armen Dzhigarkhanyan
(1935– ), Soviet and Russian actor Henrik Edoyan (1940– ), poet Mikhail Piotrovsky
Mikhail Piotrovsky
(1944– ), Russian historian Ihor Tselovalnykov (1944–1986), Ukrainian cyclist Arthur Meschian
Arthur Meschian
(1949– ), composer and architect Têmûrê Xelîl (1949– ), Yazidi journalist Ruben Hakhverdyan
Ruben Hakhverdyan
(1950– ), singer-songwriter Khoren Oganesian (1955– ), football player William Weiner
William Weiner
(1955– ), composer Vardan Petrosyan
Vardan Petrosyan
(1959– ), actor Hasmik Papian
Hasmik Papian
(1961– ), soprano Tata Simonyan (1962– ), pop singer Ruben Vardanyan (1968– ), entrepreneur and philanthropist Garik Martirosyan
Garik Martirosyan
(1974– ), Russia-based comedian Shavo Odadjian
Shavo Odadjian
(1974– ), member of System of a Down Arthur Abraham
Arthur Abraham
(1980– ), boxer, world champion Armenchik
Armenchik
(1980– ), pop-folk singer Levon Aronian
Levon Aronian
(1982– ), chess player Anna Chicherova
Anna Chicherova
(1982– ), Russian high jumper Sergey Khachatryan
Sergey Khachatryan
(1985– ), violinist Giorgio Petrosyan (1985– ), kickboxer Sirusho
Sirusho
(1987– ), contemporary singer Henrikh Mkhitaryan
Henrikh Mkhitaryan
(1989– ), football player

Panorama view[edit]

Panorama of Yerevan

See also[edit]

Armenia
Armenia
portal

Yerevan
Yerevan
City
City
Council Iravani (surname)

Notes[edit]

^ classical spelling: Երեւան ^ Sometimes locally pronounced [ɛɾɛˈvɑn], which is phonetically spelled Էրևան,[10][11] Ērevan.

References[edit]

^ Billock, Jennifer (28 December 2016). "How Ancient Volcanoes Created Armenia's Pink City". Smithsonian.  ^ Hovasapyan, Zara (1 August 2012). "When in Armenia, Go Where the Armenians Go". Armenian National Committee of America. Made of local pink tufa stones, it gives Yerevan
Yerevan
the nickname of "the Pink City.  ^ Dunn, Ashley (21 February 1988). "Pink Rock Comes as Gift From Homeland in Answer to Armenian College's Dreams". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. To Armenians, though, the stone is unique. They often refer to Yerevan, the capital of their homeland, as "Vartakouyn Kaghak," or the "Pink City" because of the extensive use of the stone, which can vary from pink to a light purple.  ^ "Տուֆ [Tuff]". encyclopedia.am (in Armenian). Երևանն անվանում են վարդագույն քաղաք, որովհետև մեր մայրաքաղաքը կառուցապատված է վարդագույն գեղեցիկ տուֆե շենքերով:  ^ "Old Yerevan". yerevan.am. Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality. Since this construction material gave a unique vividness and specific tint to the city, Yerevan
Yerevan
was called "Rosy city".  ^ Sarukhanyan, Petros (21 September 2011). Շնորհավո՛ր տոնդ, Երեւան դարձած իմ Էրեբունի. Hayastani Hanrapetutyun (in Armenian). Retrieved 1 February 2014. Պատմական իրադարձությունների բերումով Երեւանին ուշ է հաջողվել քաղաք դառնալ։ Այդ կարգավիճակը նրան տրվել է 1879 թվականին, Ալեքսանդր Երկրորդ ցարի հոկտեմբերի 1—ի հրամանով։  ^ Armstat ^ Hartley, Charles W.; Yazicioğlu, G. Bike; Smith, Adam T., eds. (2012). The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 9781107016521. ...of even the most modern Yerevantsi.  ^ Ishkhanian, Armine (2005). Atabaki, Touraj; Mehendale, Sanjyot, eds. Central Asia and the Caucasus: Transnationalism and Diaspora. New York: Routledge. p. 122. ISBN 9781134319947. ...Yerevantsis (residents of Yerevan)...  ^ Shekoyan, Armen (24 June 2006). "Ծերունին եւ ծովը Գլուխ հինգերորդ [The Old Man and The Sea. Chapter Five]". Aravot
Aravot
(in Armenian). – Ես առավո՛տը ղալաթ արի, որ չգացի Էրեւան,- ասաց Հերոսը.- որ հիմի Էրեւան ըլնեի, դու դժվար թե ըսենց բլբլայիր:  ^ ""Ես քեզ սիրում եմ",- այս խոսքերը ասում եմ քեզ, ի'մ Էրևան, արժեր հասնել աշխարհի ծերը, որ էս բառերը հասկանամ...»". panorama.am (in Armenian). 21 September 2011.  ^ Bournoutian, George A. (2003). A concise history of the Armenian people: (from ancient times to the present) (2nd ed.). Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. ISBN 9781568591414.  ^ a b History Archived 16 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Katsenelinboĭgen, Aron (1990). The Soviet Union: Empire, Nation and Systems. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 143. ISBN 0-88738-332-7.  ^ R. D. Barnett (1982). "Urartu". In John Boardman; I. E. S. Edwards; N. G. L. Hammond; E. Sollberger. The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 3, Part 1: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 346. ISBN 978-0521224963.  ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The First Year, 1918–1919, Vol. I. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 0-520-01984-9.  ^ The official estimate of the population in Armenia
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Volume 3. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1977, pp. 548–564. ^ (in Armenian) Israelyan, Margarit A. Էրեբունի: Բերդ-Քաղաքի Պատմություն (Erebuni: The History of a Fortress-City). Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Hayastan Publishing Press, 1971, p. 137. ^ ЭРИВАНИ Мирза Кадым Мамед-Гусейн оглы ЭРИДА. "ЭРИВАНЬ – это... Что такое ЭРИВАНЬ?". Dic.academic.ru. Retrieved 2017-12-11.  ^ "Yerevan, Erevan (1900–2008)". Google Ngram Viewer.  ^ Lottman, Herbert R. (29 February 1976). "Despite Ages of Captivity, The Armenians Persevere". The New York Times. p. 287. ...Erevan, capital of Armenia.  ^ Boniface, Brian; Cooper, Chris; Cooper, Robyn (2012). Worldwide Destinations: The Geography of Travel and Tourism (6th ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 338. ISBN 978-0-415-52277-9. The snow-capped peak of Ararat is a holy mountain and national symbol for Armenians, dominating the horizon in the capital, Erevan, yet it is virtually inaccessible as it lies across the border in Turkey.  ^ Avagyan, Ṛafayel (1998). Yerevan—heart of Armenia: meetings on the roads of time. Union of Writers of Armenia. p. 17. The sacred biblical mountain prevailing over Yerevan
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Atlas of Central Eurasian Affairs. Routledge. p. 52. ISBN 9781136310478.  ^ Erebuni State Reserve ^ "Weather and Climate- The Climate of Yerevan" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 28 November 2015.  ^ "Yerevan/Zvartnots Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 28 November 2015.  ^ "ArmeniaNow.com". ArmeniaNow.com. Retrieved 2 July 2010.  ^ By Gayane Mirzoyan (2015-08-11). "Former Iranian Market Ferdowsi – To be Demolished Gayane Mirzoyan". Chai Khana. Retrieved 2017-12-11.  ^ "Kond: Stepping Back in Time Onnik James Krikorian". Onnik-krikorian.com. Retrieved 2017-12-11.  ^ Aghajanian, Liana (2015-03-19). " City
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park at Erebuni ^ a b "Article 108 of the Armenian Constitution". Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2008.  ^ "Article 117 of the Armenian Constitution". Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2008.  ^ " Yerevan
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population, 2011 census ^ Administrative districts of Yerevan ^ OVERALL CHARACTERISTICS OF YEREVAN DISTRICT COMMUNITIES FOR 2015 ^ a b c d (in Armenian) M. Karapetyan (1986) "The Dynamics of the Number and Ethnic Structure of the Population of Yerevan
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from 1724 to 1800), Patma-Banasirakan Handes, 1987, Yerevan, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0135-0536 ^ (in Armenian) Երևան քաղաքի բնակչության շարժընթացը 1824–1914թթ. Yerevan
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History Museum ^ (in Russian) Эривань // Географическо-статистический словарь Российской империи. Сост. по поручению Русского географического общества действ. член Общества П. Семёнов, при содействии действ. члена В. Зверинского. Т. V. Спб., 1885, с. 870. ^ (in Russian) Демоскоп Weekly – г. Эривань ^ a b c d (in Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: Армения ^ Demographics of Yerevan
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1970 ^ Demographics of Armenian SSR (1989) ^ Demographics of Yerevan
Yerevan
(1989) Archived 4 February 2012 at WebCite ^ Yerevan
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city: Ethnic Structure of De Jure Population National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia ^ Demographics of Yerevan
Yerevan
2011 National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia
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2011 ^ 2001 Census : ArmStat. ^ "ArmStat, 2003 Census" (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2008.  ^ Markossian, Razmik (1989). "Արարատյան բարբառ (Araratian dialect)" (in Armenian). Yerevan: Luys: 390. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ Baghdassarian-Tapaltsian, S. H. (1971). Արարատյան և Բայազետի բարբառների փոխհարաբերությունները [Relationship between Araratian and Bayazet dialects]. Patma-Banasirakan Handes
Patma-Banasirakan Handes
(in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian National Academy of Sciences
Armenian National Academy of Sciences
(4): 217–234. Retrieved 16 March 2013.  ^ Ramirez-Faria, Carlos (2007). Concise Encyclopaedia of World History. Atlantic. pp. 42–44. ISBN 81-269-0775-4.  ^ Tavernier, Jean-Baptiste. Les six voyages en Turquie, en Perse et aux Indes, Volume 1, p. 623 ^ Richard G. Hovannisian, The Republic of Armenia: The first year, 1918–1919, Universito of California, Los Angeles, 1971 ^ Потто, Василий Александрович (2000). Кавказская война. Том 3. Персидская война 1826–1828 гг. MintRight Inc. p. 359. ISBN 9785425080998.  ^ "Russian Orthodox Church, External Church Relations Official Website:Patriarch Kirill visits a Russian church in Yerevan". Mospat.ru. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2011.  ^ Chopin, Jean-Marie (1852). Исторический памятник состояния Армянской области в эпоху ея присоединения к Российской Империи. Императорская Академия Наук. p. 468.  ^ Bournoutian, George A. (1992). The khanate of Erevan under Qajar rule, 1795–1828. Mazda Publishers. p. 173. ISBN 9780939214181.  ^ Kiesling, Brady (2005). Rediscovering Armenia, 2nd edition. Yerevan: Matit. p. 37.  ^ "Word of Life is most dangerous sect operating in Armenia" says Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
priest ^ Religions in Armenia ^ Armenicum
Armenicum
Clinical Centre ^ President Serzh Sargsyan
Serzh Sargsyan
visited the newly opened industrial unit of the Likvor Ltd pharmaceutical company ^ "Website of the National Gallery of Armenia". Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2008.  ^ "ArmeniaTour". Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2008.  ^ Brady Kiesling, Rediscovering Armenia, 2000, Read online Archived 26 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Art and AsiaPacific. 3. Fine Arts Press. 2008. p. 144.  ^ Art and Asia Pacific Almanac. 5. Art AsiaPacific Pub. 2010. p. 91.  ^ Yerevan
Yerevan
Jazz
Jazz
Fest ^ History of Karin Traditional Song and Dance Ensemble ^ About ReAnimania festival ^ Yerevan
Yerevan
Taraz Fest ^ Yerevan
Yerevan
Wine Days festival ^ Yerevan
Yerevan
Beer Fest ^ "中国公民赴亚美尼亚注意事项" (in Chinese). 中华人民共和国驻亚美尼亚共和国大使馆. 2016-04-27. Retrieved 2017-07-09.  ^ "Website of Zvartnots International Airport". Retrieved 18 May 2008.  ^ "Transport department of Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality" (in Armenian). Retrieved 5 July 2016.  ^ "Arminfo, "Last Tram Put Out Of Operation in Yerevan"". 22 January 2004. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2008.  ^ Announcement by Prime Minister Serge Sargsyan
Serge Sargsyan
during a visit to the network in January 2008. ^ "ArmenPress, " Yerevan
Yerevan
- Batumi
Batumi
railway communication to resume in Summer", ArmeniaDiaspora.com". 15 February 2007. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008.  ^ Yerevan-Tbilisi-Batumi- Yerevan
Yerevan
railway trip ^ Yerevan-Gyumri- Yerevan
Yerevan
railway trips ^ Yerevan-Yeraskh- Yerevan
Yerevan
railway trips ^ Yerevan-Araks- Yerevan
Yerevan
railway trips ^ Armenia
Armenia
among the top 10 safest countries ^ Armstat: Yerevan
Yerevan
Archived 8 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Tufenkian Trans Caucasus
Caucasus
Co.Ltd". Spyur.am. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.  ^ "Araratrugs Closed Joint-Stock Company". Spyur.am. Retrieved 2 July 2010.  ^ "Megarian Carpet Open Joint-Stock Company". Spyur.am. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.  ^ "NASDAQ OMX Armenia". Capitalmarket.Banks.am. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.  ^ "Haroutiun Khatchatrian, " Un ambitieux agenda économique pour l'Arménie: Le nouveau gouvernement pourra-t-il relever le défi ? " sur Caucaz.com, le 18 juillet 2007" (in French). Retrieved 26 May 2008.  ^ "Stéphane/armenews, " Les prix de l'immobilier à Erevan en hausse en 2007 " sur Armenews, le 1er janvier 2008" (in French). Retrieved 26 May 2008.  ^ Երևանի 33-րդ թաղամասը Նոր հրապարակ` Ֆիրդուսի շուկայի փոխարեն ^ «Նոյ» թաղամասը կարժենա $ 100 մլն ^ Kanaker HPP ^ Yereavn-1 HPP ^ Yerevan-3 HPP ^ RusHydro
RusHydro
International Energy Corporation ^ G. Beglaryan, Atlas of Armenia
Armenia
and adjacent countries, Noyan Tapan, 2007, p. 8. ^ 22/04/2010 11:58 (22 April 2010). "President Sargsyan attends opening of reconstructed Yerevan
Yerevan
thermal power plant. Retrieved 22 April 2010". Arka.am. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2010.  ^ Yerevan
Yerevan
TPP ^ President attended the groundbreaking ceremony of Yerevan’s new thermoelectric power station ^ Beeline in Armenia ^ About Vivacell-MTS ^ About Ucom ^ Article 11 of the Law of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
on Police, adopted on 16 April 2001, Official Bulletin No. 15(147) of 31 May 2001. ^ HayPost
HayPost
Today ^ "亚美尼亚国家概况" (in Chinese). 中华人民共和国外交部. Archived from the original on 2017-07-08. Retrieved 2017-07-08.  ^ Grand Hotel Yerevan, member of the Small Luxury Hotels of the World ^ "Armenian directing and locating system". Hi-loc.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.  ^ "The Yerevan Zoo
Yerevan Zoo
on Armeniapedia". Retrieved 20 May 2008.  ^ Cafesjian Center for the Arts: Programs ^ Education in Yerevan ^ Ranking web of universities: Armenia ^ About the Armenian National Academy of Sciences ^ RA Government to participate in establishment of CANDLE international center ^ President Serzh Sargsyan
Serzh Sargsyan
participated at the official inauguration of the Tumo Center of Creative Technologies ^ Izmirlian Foundation: Izmirlian Medical Center
Izmirlian Medical Center
and Nerses Mets Medical Research and Education Center ^ a b "Football clubs & Futsal
Futsal
clubs". Retrieved 25 February 2017.  ^ Football history in Armenia ^ FFA Technical centre/Football Academy ^ Construction plans and improvement of Yerevan ^ "Tigran Petrosian Chess
Chess
House" (in Armenian).  ^ "32nd Chess
Chess
Olympiad: Yerevan
Yerevan
1996". the encyclopaedia of team chess. Retrieved 2008-05-01.  ^ Բասկետբոլ. Մեկնարկում է Ա լիգայի կանոնավոր առաջնությունը ^ Incourt Tennis
Tennis
Club history ^ Ararat Tennis
Tennis
Club ^ "Yerevak magazine". Yerevak.am. Retrieved 2009-08-12.  ^ "Mika sporting facility placed under management of Armenian finance ministry". arka.am. Retrieved 2016-11-08.  ^ ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆԻ ՀԱՆՐԱՊԵՏՈՒԹՅԱՆ ԿԱՌԱՎԱՐՈՒԹՅՈՒՆ ՈՐՈՇՈՒՄ ^ Yerevan
Yerevan
State Sports College of Olympic Reserve ^ Olympic Training Complex of Yerevan
Yerevan
"Olympavan" ^ Horse-racing in Armenia ^ Ararat Valley Country Club ^ Arena Bowling and Billiards Club ^ Renco.it: Yerevan
Yerevan
Velodrome ^ Edgar Stepanyan track cycling ^ Yerevan
Yerevan
has an up-to-date figure skating and ice hockey centre ^ Armfighting Professional Federation ^ "AIMF: Liste des membres". Archived from the original on 26 October 2010.  ^ " Yerevan
Yerevan
– Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2017 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 2017-03-19.  ^ " Yerevan
Yerevan
– Partner Cities". Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2017 www.yerevan.am. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 2017-03-19.  ^ "Երևանի և Ստեփանակերտի քաղաքապետերը բարեկամության համաձայնագիր են ստորագրել." [Mayors of Yerevan
Yerevan
and Stepanakert
Stepanakert
Sign Friendship Agreement]. Tert.am. 28 September 2012.

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Yerevan

The capitals of Armenia, Sergey Vardanyan, Apolo 1995, ISBN 5-8079-0778-7 My Yerevan, G. Zakoyan, M. Sivaslian, V. Navasardian, Acnalis 2001, ISBN 99930-902-0-4 Yerevan
Yerevan
at GEOnet Names Server Evliya Çelebi
Evliya Çelebi
(1834). "Description of the Town of Erivan". Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in the Seventeenth Century. 2. Translated by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall. London: Oriental Translation Fund. 

External links[edit]

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Sights

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Yerevan
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Historical sites and notable landmarks

Shengavit archaeological site Erebuni Fortress Teishebaini
Teishebaini
archaeological site Tsiranavor Church of Avan Katoghike Chapel Kond
Kond
settlement Zoravor Church Saint John the Baptist Church Blue Mosque Saint Sarkis Cathedral Holy Mother of God Russian Church Saint Gregory Cathedral Red Bridge Mother Armenia Tsitsernakaberd
Tsitsernakaberd
Genocide Memorial Yerevan
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Cascade Yerevan
Yerevan
TV Tower Komitas
Komitas
Pantheon Yerablur
Yerablur
Military Pantheon

Nature and parks

Hrazdan
Hrazdan
River Yerevan
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Lake Lovers' Park English Park Yerevan
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Botanical Garden Yerevan
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Zoo Khachatur Abovyan
Abovyan
Park Circular Park Victory Park Lyon
Lyon
Park Tumanyan Park Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Park

Entertainment and recreation

Grand Hotel Yerevan Children's railway Armenia
Armenia
Marriott Ani
Ani
Plaza Hotel Water World Radisson Blu Yerevan Dalma Garden Mall Yerevan
Yerevan
Mall Rossia Mall

Culture and art

Yerevan
Yerevan
Opera Sundukyan Theatre H. Tumanyan Puppet Theatre Stanislavski Russian Theatre Paronyan Musical Comedy Theatre H. Ghaplanyan Drama Theatre Komitas
Komitas
Chamber Music House Moscow
Moscow
Cinema Nairi Cinema Yerevan
Yerevan
Circus National Gallery of Armenia Yerevan
Yerevan
Vernissage Contemporary Art Center

Museums

History Museum of Armenia Charents Museum of Literature Yerevan
Yerevan
History Museum Matenadaran Erebuni Museum Modern Art Museum House-Museum of A. Khachaturian Yeghishe Charents Memorial Museum Sergei Parajanov
Sergei Parajanov
Museum Ara Sargsyan and Hakob Kojoyan Museum Near East Art Museum Cafesjian Museum of Art ARF History Museum Charles Aznavour
Charles Aznavour
Museum Komitas
Komitas
Museum

Education

Yerevan
Yerevan
State University National University of Architecture and Construction State Medical University State Pedagogical University Komitas
Komitas
State Conservatory National Agrarian University National Polytechnic University Brusov State University of Languages State Institute of Theatre and Cinematography State Institute of Physical Culture State Academy of Fine Arts State University of Economics Haybusak University American University of Armenia French University in Armenia Russian-Armenian University British School of Business PhysMath School Mkhitar Sebastatsi School Anatole France
Anatole France
French School QSI School Avedisian School Ayb School

Science, research and technology

National Library National Archives Khnko Aper Children's Library National Academy of Sciences Yerevan
Yerevan
Physics Institute Institute of Mathematics of National Academy Yerevan
Yerevan
Computer Research Institute CANDLE Synchrotron Institute Tumo Center for Technologies Economic Research Center International Center for Human Development Caucasus
Caucasus
Institute Ararat Center for Strategic Research Shengavit Medical Center Nork-Marash Medical Center Izmirlian Medical Center

Sport

Vazgen Sargsyan
Vazgen Sargsyan
Rep. Stadium Hrazdan
Hrazdan
Stadium Yerevan
Yerevan
Football Academy Tigran Petrosian Chess
Chess
House H. Hayrapetyan Equestrian Centre Karen Demirchyan
Karen Demirchyan
Complex Mika Sports Arena Yerevan
Yerevan
Velodrome I. Rodnina Figure Skating Centre

Transportation

Yerevan
Yerevan
railway station Trolleybuses in Yerevan Erebuni Airport Zvartnots International Airport Yerevan
Yerevan
Underground

Squares, streets and bridges

Republic Square Freedom Square Garegin Nzhdeh
Garegin Nzhdeh
Square Aram Street Abovyan
Abovyan
Street Mashtots Avenue Sayat-Nova
Sayat-Nova
Avenue Baghramyan Avenue Tamanyan Street Komitas
Komitas
Avenue Liberty Avenue Northern Avenue Victory Bridge Hrazdan
Hrazdan
Gorge Aqueduct Great Bridge of Hrazdan Davtashen Bridge

Government

Presidential Palace Government House National Assembly Building National Security Service Yerevan
Yerevan
City
City
Hall Constitutional Court Police of Armenia

Economy

Central Bank of Armenia Armenian Stock Exchange Yerevan
Yerevan
Ararat Brandy Factory Proshyan Brandy Factory Yerevan
Yerevan
Brandy Factory Yerevan
Yerevan
Champagne Factory Elite Plaza Center

Precincts

Ajapnyak Arabkir Avan Davtashen Erebuni Kanaker-Zeytun Kentron Malatia-Sebastia Nork-Marash Nor Nork Nubarashen Shengavit

Category:Yerevan

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City
City
of Yerevan

Ajapnyak Arabkir Avan Davtashen Erebuni Kanaker-Zeytun Kentron Malatia-Sebastia Nork-Marash Nor Nork Nubarashen Shengavit

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Historical capitals of Armenia

Tushpa
Tushpa
(832–590 BC) Armavir (331–210 BC) Yervandashat (210-176 BC) Artashat (176-77 BC and 69 BC-120 AD) Tigranakert (77-69 BC) Vagharshapat
Vagharshapat
(120-330) Dvin (336-428) Bagaran (885-890) Shirakavan (890-929) Kars
Kars
(929-961) Ani
Ani
(961-1045) Sis (1080-1375) Yerevan
Yerevan
(since 1918)

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Cities and towns in Armenia

Aragatsotn

Ashtarak Aparan Talin

Ararat

Artashat Ararat Masis Vedi

Armavir

Armavir Metsamor Vagharshapat

Gegharkunik

Gavar Chambarak Martuni Sevan Vardenis

Kotayk

Hrazdan Abovyan Byureghavan Charentsavan Nor Hachn Tsaghkadzor Yeghvard

Lori

Vanadzor Akhtala Alaverdi Spitak Stepanavan Tashir Tumanyan

Shirak

Gyumri Artik Maralik

Syunik

Kapan Goris Kajaran Meghri Sisian

Tavush

Ijevan Ayrum Berd Dilijan Noyemberyan

Vayots Dzor

Yeghegnadzor Jermuk Vayk

Capital city

Yerevan

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Provinces of Armenia

Provinces (մարզեր)

Aragatsotn Ararat Armavir Gegharkunik Kotayk Lori Shirak Syunik Tavush Vayots Dzor

City
City
with special status

Yerevan
Yerevan
(capital)

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World Book Capitals

2001: Madrid 2002: Alexandria 2003: New Delhi 2004: Antwerp 2005: Montreal 2006: Turin 2007: Bogotá 2008: Amsterdam 2009: Beirut 2010: Ljubljana 2011: Buenos Aires 2012: Yerevan 2013: Bangkok 2014: Port Harcourt 2015: Incheon 2016: Wrocław 2017: Conakry 2018: Athens 2019: Sharjah

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 247662678 LCCN: n79142628 GND: 4098059-5 BNF:

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