A yearbook, also known as an annual, is a type of a book published
annually to record, highlight, and commemorate the past year of a
school. The term also refers to a book of statistics or facts
Many high schools, colleges, and elementary and middle schools publish
yearbooks; however, many schools are dropping yearbooks or decreasing
page counts given social media alternatives to a mass-produced
physical photographically-oriented record. From 1995 to 2013, the
number of U.S. college yearbooks dropped from roughly 2,400 to
1 U.S. schools
4 South Africa
6 U.S. military
7 Production and distribution
220.127.116.11 People (seniors, underclassmen, faculty)
18.104.22.168 Advertising pages
22.214.171.124 Signature or autograph page
7.3.1 U.S. printing companies
7.5 India printing companies
8 Digital yearbooks
9 See also
10 Further reading
12 External links
Elementary and middle schools may have a designated staff member who
is in charge of putting together that school's yearbook, with or
without the help of the students. These books are usually considerably
smaller than a high school or college yearbook.
High school yearbooks generally cover a wide variety of topics from
academics, student life, sports, clubs and other major school events.
Generally, each student is pictured with their class, while seniors
might get a page-width picture or a slightly larger photo than the
underclassmen to reflect their status in the school. Each school
organization, such as a sports team or academic/social club, is
usually pictured. A high school yearbook staff consists of students
with one or more faculty advisors. The yearbook staff can be chosen in
a variety of ways, including volunteer extracurricular organization,
academic class, or assigned to the entire senior class.[citation
High school yearbooks are considered a form of journalism by
scholastic journalism such as the Columbia Scholastic Press
Association, the National Scholastic Press Association, the Journalism
Education Association and state and regional scholastic press
associations. Numerous awards are given for
journalistic excellence annually.
Colleges that publish yearbooks follow a similar format to high
schools. Some include detailed recaps of football and
College yearbooks are considered by the Associated
Collegiate Press (ACP) to be a form of journalism. ACP holds the
annual Pacemaker competition for college yearbooks as well as other
collegiate media outlets.
Yearbooks published by Australian schools follow a consistent
structure to their North American counterparts. Australian yearbooks
function as an annual magazine for the school body, with a significant
focus on objectively reporting the events that occurred during the
schooling year. They cover various topics including academic,
sporting, extra-curricular, student life and other activities.
Yearbook staff predominantly consist of only one or two school
teachers who serve as editors in chief. Australian school yearbooks
are predominantly created on A4 paper size, featuring a softcover
style front-and-back cover, typically 250 or 300 g/m² density.
Hardcover style yearbooks are not as common, although exceptions
In recent years, companies have been servicing Australian schools with
online yearbook systems that allow schools to create their yearbooks
collaboratively online. This is sold as allowing a
higher level of student involvement whilst making the workflow simpler
and easier for all involved. Additionally, some schools feature a
separate yearbook for students in Year 12.
Australian school yearbooks are primarily published with offset
printing technology, with a mix of colour, spot colour, and black and
white pages, depending on the school's budget. In the past, Year 12
yearbooks were simply printed using a photocopier, but Australian
yearbook publishers have improved the quality of these publications by
providing low cost digital printing solutions.
India does not have a long history of publishing school yearbooks.
However, top Business schools and Engineering colleges publish custom
yearbooks. This is typically created by the final year students of the
batch. A yearbook or a memory book would consist of testimonials and
common pages such as Directors address and events, festivals picture
Most top schools do create schools magazines which are shared with
each student. Some of the early adopters among school students are
starting to create custom yearbooks in the same line as created by
students from US or Europe. This trend is likely to pick up with the
advent of technology platforms that make it easy for students to
In South Africa it is not as common to find yearbooks in schools as it
is in countries such as the US and Canada, though there are a number
of schools that allocate annual funding and publish yearbooks at the
end of the school year (November or December). These yearbooks closely
resemble those found in the US, with columns about certain themes,
in-depth coverage of major events and large collections of photos, as
well as drawings reflecting daily life at these schools.
Major events covered include Matric Farewell Dances (equivalent to
Prom in the US), annual sporting events (such as Inter-schools
where a number of schools assemble and compete in various sports as
well as with dance routines in competition for spirit awards etc.),
and grade group events organized specifically for a specific grade.
In Nigeria, it is very common to find yearbooks in schools as it is in
countries such as the US and Canada, though there are a number of
schools that allocate annual funding and publish yearbooks at the end
of the school year (July or August). These yearbooks closely resemble
those found in the US, with columns about certain themes, in-depth
coverage of major events and large collections of photos, as well as
drawings reflecting daily life at these schools. Some schools do
produce yearbook every year.
1968 military yearbook
Warships of the
United States Navy
United States Navy often produce a yearbook style
publication upon completion of a long deployment (typically six months
or more). These books, referred to by sailors as "cruise books" are
produced on board by the ship's Morale, Welfare and Recreation
department and Public Affairs staff, and then printed ashore by the
same printing companies that publish high school and college
yearbooks. The cruise book of a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier
typically reaches over 600 pages in length, as it includes portraits
of the more than 5,000 sailors and Marines assigned to the ship's
company and embarked carrier air wing.
The Navy's Recruit Training Center in Great Lakes,
produces yearbook style publications for each graduating division of
recruits. These publications are much smaller, as each recruit
division totals roughly 80 sailors. The book is called "The Keel"
after the part of a ship that is constructed first, as RTC or boot
camp sets the foundation for the sailor's career. These books contain
a color section common to all books published that year, with a
specific black and white section added for each recruit division and
their "brother" or "sister" division.
Production and distribution
Yearbooks are generally compiled by a student club or a yearbook
class, usually advised by a faculty member. The yearbook staff usually
has one or more editors who are responsible for collecting and
compiling all of the information to be contained within the book, also
deciding the layout and allocation of space for each contributor.
Most yearbooks have a similar format, which includes individual
photographs of students, information on activities, sports and other
People (seniors, underclassmen, faculty)
In the U.S., where a yearbook often covers the whole school and not
just the senior class, these sections are usually arranged in
chronological order by class (freshmen, sophomore, junior, and
senior), in either ascending or descending order. Normally students
will have individual portraits accompanied by their names. Senior
photographs are usually larger than those of underclassmen and are
sometimes accompanied by text about their accomplishments throughout
high school and their future plans. Frequently, seniors are polled to
nominate their classmates for "superlatives" or "class celebrities"
(such as "most likely to succeed", "most athletic", "most spirited",
"best smile", and "class clown"), are often published in the senior
section. Some private schools and smaller high schools set aside an
entire page for each senior. These pages are sometimes designed by the
seniors themselves, with each senior submitting a digital or physical
version of the page he or she would like featured in the book.
"Picture Day" is the school day in the United States and Canada when
students have their photographs taken by a professional photographer.
Parents can purchase packages of these portraits to distribute, often
accompanied by other items featuring the portrait. These portraits
often go into the school yearbook, which are usually distributed at
the end of the school year. The pictures may also be used on student
ID cards. There will also generally be a second day ("retake day") to
take pictures if the student is absent.
Slovak yearbook from the 1977–78 academic year
In the UK and other countries, where yearbooks often only cover the
final year group and not the entire school, each student may have more
space for answers to various questions as well as their photo (or
photos). In Year 11 (England & Wales) members are usually grouped
by form/class; whilst Year 13 tend not to be grouped in such a way,
but instead just appear alphabetically throughout the book. Its common
in these markets for each person to have between a quarter and a whole
page each, depending on the budget available for the yearbook (as more
pages means a higher cost). The editorial team chooses questions for
members to answer (such as "Favourite teacher?" or "Where will you be
in 5 years time?") and these answers appear alongside member photos.
These photos and answers are sometimes also collected online.
Several pages are often used for pages chronicling activities
undertaken by students, such as trips abroad, activity trips, sporting
and other special events. This part of the book often covers students'
lives both inside and outside of the campus.
Sometimes members of a yearbook write editorial and journalistic
content about life as a student, current events (local, national, and
international), and other matters of interest to the peer group.
This section covers the classes, projects and more educational aspects
of the school year.
This section describes student organizations (sometimes referred to as
clubs) and what they did during the year. These descriptions are often
accompanied by a photo or photos of the organizations' members. This
section sometimes includes a list of the members of each organization.
Often listed by season or club, these pages chronicle the
accomplishments of the school's teams. Along with a short article
listing the season's highlights, these pages include team photographs
and action pictures.
Many yearbooks gain revenue by including a section of ads from local
Some schools sell advertisements for seniors. Parents, other family
members, and friends use these ads to congratulate a senior — or
group of seniors — for their accomplishments.
Bigger yearbooks tend to include an alphabetical listing of everyone
included in the yearbook, along with a listing of the pages they may
be found on.
Usually near the end of the book, the colophon lists staff members and
acknowledgements. The colophon includes technical information
pertaining to the yearbook such as publisher, total number of pages,
paper weight and copyright.
Signature or autograph page
Some yearbooks contain a few pages which will be left blank for people
to write messages about the preceding year and summer.
Students may design yearbook pages themselves or use company-provided
templates in most cases.
In general, most yearbook pages are designed as double-page spreads
and include several items:
Headline: An abbreviated sentence highlighting the content of the
spread, usually involving word play along with factual information
Story/Copy: Staffs usually write short stories capturing the
highlights of a specific department, sports season, organization,
etc., from the past year. Often, yearbook staff members will either
interview students, teachers and others for comments. Alternative
story formats have gained popularity in recent times, allowing stories
to be told in visual ways (graphs, charts, polls, timelines, etc.).
Photographs: Every spread that isn't a portrait or an ad spread
contains candid shots of students, suitable to the page's topic and
theme. Included with the photographs are one or more captions, which
describe each picture; these often begin with a lead-in.
In the past, most yearbooks were laid out by hand, with photographs
physically cropped and placed on layout boards. The work was tedious,
and required multiple deadlines and contact with a yearbook publisher.
Today, virtually all yearbooks are published using computers, which
allows for shorter deadlines and easier editing. Students typically
design pages using a desktop publishing program, usually Adobe
InDesign. Some schools use a proprietary web-based design program
belonging to the company that prints the book.
U.S. printing companies
Yearbook printing companies usually have representatives who work with
the adviser and staff at each school to assist in the creation of the
Yearbook companies that use off-set printing require that groups of
pages be sent periodically, rather than all at once, to the plant.
This is done to stagger the work required to complete yearbooks for
all the schools they cover. After the editors review each page and
make changes, the pages are sent to the yearbook plant, usually via
Yearbook companies that use digital printing methods may
only require one submission since the entire book is printed at
If the proofing process is not performed on-line, the adviser and
editors receive proofs (typically full size prints) about a week or so
after the submission of pages. This gives the school a final
opportunity to make adjustments or changes. After all the proofs have
been returned to the printing company the requested corrections are
made, the books are printed, bound, and then sent to the school for
A number of educational institutions and yearbook printing companies
operate camps and summer sessions at which student yearbook personnel
can learn or polish the skills they need in their work.
Often, yearbooks are distributed at the end of a school year to allow
students, teachers, and other members of the school to obtain the
books and signatures/personal messages from classmates. In the U.S.,
those that distribute at this time may publish a supplemental insert
with photographs from spring sports and milestone events (such as prom
and graduation) and other important events. Many schools at which
yearbooks are distributed at or before the end of a school year have a
tradition of having students sign and leave notes on each other's
Some schools distribute yearbooks after the end of the school
year—such as in July, at homecoming (US) in October or another
designated time in order to include year-end activities. In some
cases, yearbooks are mailed to the parents' homes of graduated
India printing companies
Yearbook printing is gaining acceptance in developing countries such
as India. Students want to preserve their sweet memories of their
childhood and teen years. India is also seeing a high growth of
students proute moving to study in the International board. This trend
will further provide impetus to the acceptance and growth of Yearbooks
with students. Zaffingo and yearbookcanvas have been instrumental in
introducing and promoting yearbooks with students in India.
A digital yearbook or e
Yearbook is a yearbook holding memories of a
given time with a given group of people—most commonly, a school year
at a particular school—that exists in digital form.
A digital yearbook may contain text, images, audio, and video. While a
traditional paper yearbook may contain 300+ pages, a digital yearbook
can contain unlimited pages. The end product of a digital yearbook can
be a CD-ROM, a DVD or is captured in an eBook format. The first CD-ROM
yearbook was created by students at South Eugene High
A digital yearbook page, also known as a dyp, makes an existing
yearbook interactive using Portrait Recognition Technology. A mobile
application and smartphone or tablet is used to scan a student's
portrait. Scanning the portrait will take the student to the Digital
Yearbook Page. DYPs contain multimedia content archived throughout the
school year. The DYP can also contain links with contact information.
Columbia Scholastic Press Association
List of college and university yearbooks in the United States
National Scholastic Press Association
Akers, M. (ed.), Scholastic
Yearbook Fundamentals. 1993. New York:
Columbia Scholastic Press Association.
Blakely, D. and Evans, C., A Complete Guide to
1991. Sylvania, Ohio: Advise Publications.
Cutsinger, J. and Herron, M., History Worth Repeating: A Chronology of
School Yearbooks. 1996. Minneapolis, MN: Jostens, Inc.
Yearbook Guidebook. 1994. Minneapolis, MN: National
Scholastic Press Association.
^ Dern, Daniel. "In the Facebook era, will printed yearbooks
survive?". betaBoston. The Boston Globe. Retrieved 9 October
^ Smith, Susan. "The Future of the Venerable Yearbook". cmreview.org.
College Media Review. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
^ "Lifetouch - Photography for a Lifetime".
Schoolportraits.lifetouch.com. Retrieved 2012-11-12.
^ "See the Difference". Picaboo Yearbooks. Retrieved 12 April
^ "University of Iowa
Yearbook Workshop". Archived from the original
on 2007-07-01. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
^ "Oregon State University High
Yearbook Workshop". Archived
from the original on 2007-08-06. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
Yearbook Workshop". Retrieved 2007-09-02.
^ Layton, Tom (April–May 1991). "The Electronic Eugenean: A
Yearbook Project". Writing Notebook: Creative Word
Processing in the Classroom. 8 (4).
Works written on the topic Yearbooks at Wikisource
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