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The YANGTZE RIVER DELTA, YANGTZE DELTA or YRD, also called YANGZI JIANG DELTA, CHANGJIANG DELTA, RIVER CHANG DELTA, LAKE TAI REGION or the GOLDEN TRIANGLE OF THE YANGTZE, generally comprises the triangle-shaped territory of Wu -speaking Shanghai
Shanghai
, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province of China
China
. The area lies at the heart of the region traditionally called Jiangnan
Jiangnan
(literally, "south of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
"). The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
drains into the East China
China
Sea . The urban build-up in the area has given rise to what may be the largest concentration of adjacent metropolitan areas in the world. It covers an area of 99,600 square kilometres (38,500 sq mi) and is home to over 115 million people as of 2013, of which an estimated 83 million is urban. If based on the greater Yangtze River Delta zone, it has over 140 million people in this region. Having a fertile soil, the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta abundantly produces grain, cotton, hemp and tea.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early history * 2 Population

* 3 The greater Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta metropolitan region

* 3.1 Cities

* 4 Transportation

* 4.1 Main bridges * 4.2 Sea * 4.3 Air * 4.4 Road

* 4.5 Rail

* 4.5.1 High-speed Rail

* 4.6 Urban Rapid Transit

* 4.6.1 Metro * 4.6.2 Light Rail * 4.6.3 Bus Rapid Transit

* 5 Climate * 6 Fishing and agriculture * 7 References * 8 External links

EARLY HISTORY

Since the fourth century, when the national capital was moved to Jiankang (present-day Nanjing
Nanjing
) at the start of the Eastern Jin dynasty (AD 317–420), the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta has been a major cultural, economic, and political centre of China. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
served as the Chinese capital during the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279), and Nanjing
Nanjing
was the early capital of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(1368–1644) before the Yongle Emperor moved the capital to Beijing
Beijing
in 1421.

Other key cities of the region in pre-modern times include Suzhou
Suzhou
and Shaoxing . The ancient Suzhou
Suzhou
was the capital of the Wu state (12th century BC–473 BC), and the ancient Shaoxing was the capital of the Yue state (20th century BC?–222 BC). Nanjing
Nanjing
first served as a capital in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period as the capital of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
(AD 229–280). In these periods, there were several concomitant states or empires in China
China
and each one had its own capital.

POPULATION

The delta is one of the most densely populated regions on earth, and includes one of the world's largest cities on its banks — Shanghai
Shanghai
, with a density of 2,700 inhabitants per square kilometre (7,000/sq mi). Because of the large population of the delta, and factories, farms, and other cities upriver, the World Wide Fund for Nature says the Yangtze Delta is the biggest cause of marine pollution in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
.

Most of the people in this region speak Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
(sometimes called Shanghainese , although Shanghainese is actually one of the dialects within the Wu group of Chinese) as their mother tongue , in addition to Mandarin . Wu is mutually unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, including Mandarin.

The area of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta incorporates more than twenty relatively developed cities in three provinces. The term can be generally used to refer to the entire region extending as far north as Lianyungang
Lianyungang
, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and as far south as Wenzhou , Zhejiang. The region includes some of the fastest-growing economies in China
China
in recent years, and as of 2004 has occupied over 21% of China's total gross GDP
GDP
.

THE GREATER YANGTZE RIVER DELTA METROPOLITAN REGION

Since the ninth century, the Yangtze Delta has been the most populous area in China, East Asia
East Asia
, and one of the most densely populated areas of the world. During the mid to late period of the Tang dynasty (618-907), the region emerged as an economic centre, and the Yangtze River Delta became the most important agricultural, handicraft industrial and economic centre for the late Tang dynasty.

In the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
, especially during the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279), with its capital situated in Lin'an (present-day Hangzhou
Hangzhou
), Lin'an became the biggest city in East Asia
East Asia
with a population more than 1.5 million, and the economic status of the Yangtze Delta became more enhanced. Ningbo
Ningbo
became one of the two biggest seaports in East Asia
East Asia
along with Quanzhou (in Fujian province).

During the mid-late Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(1368–1644), the first capitalism bud of the East Asia
East Asia
was born and developed in this area, although it was disrupted by the Manchu invasion and controlled strictly and carefully by the Confucian central government in Beijing
Beijing
, it continued its development slowly throughout the rest of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911). During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the delta became a large economic centre for the country, and also played the most important role in agriculture and handicraft industry.

During the Qianlong era (1735-1796) of the Qing dynasty, Shanghai began developing rapidly and became the largest port in the Far East. From late 19th century to early 20th century, Shanghai
Shanghai
was the biggest commercial centre in the Far East. The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta became the first industrialized area in China.

After the Chinese economic reform program, which began in 1978, Shanghai
Shanghai
again became the most important economic centre in mainland China
China
, and is emerging to become one of Asia's centres for commerce. In modern times, the Yangtze Delta metropolitan region is centred at Shanghai, and also flanked by the major metropolitan areas of Hangzhou , Suzhou
Suzhou
, Ningbo
Ningbo
, and Nanjing
Nanjing
, home to nearly 105 million people (of which an estimated 80 million are urban residents). It is the centre of Chinese economic development, and surpasses other concentrations of metropolitan areas (including the Pearl River delta ) in China
China
in terms of economic growth, productivity and per capita income.

CITIES

SHANGHAI Jiaxing Huzhou Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Shaoxing Ningbo
Ningbo
Zhoushan Suzhou
Suzhou
Wuxi
Wuxi
Changzhou
Changzhou
Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
NANJING Nantong Jinhua
Jinhua
Taizhou Quzhou
Quzhou
Yangzhou
Yangzhou
Taizhou Yancheng Huai\'an Ma\'anshan Hefei

In 1982, the Chinese government set up the Shanghai
Shanghai
Economic Area. Besides Shanghai
Shanghai
, four cities in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
( Suzhou
Suzhou
, Wuxi
Wuxi
, Changzhou
Changzhou
, Nantong ) and five cities in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
( Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, Jiaxing , Shaoxing , Huzhou , Ningbo
Ningbo
) were included. In 1992, a 14-city cooperative joint meeting was launched. Besides the previous 10 cities, the members included Nanjing
Nanjing
, Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
and Yangzhou
Yangzhou
in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
, and Zhoushan in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
. In 1997, the regular joint meeting resulted in the establishment of the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta Economic Coordination Association, which included a new member Taizhou in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
in that year. In 2003, Taizhou in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
also joined the association. In 2010, the association accepted six new members after a six-year observation and review, including Yancheng and Huai\'an in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
, Jinhua
Jinhua
and Quzhou
Quzhou
in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and Ma\'anshan and Hefei in Anhui
Anhui
. The total number of cities in the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta Economic Coordination Association is now 22. Some other cities that have been in consideration and in review include Wenzhou and Lishui in Zhejiang , Lianyungang
Lianyungang
and Xuzhou
Xuzhou
in Jiangsu
Jiangsu
, and Chuzhou
Chuzhou
, Wuhu , Tongling , Huainan and Xuancheng in Anhui
Anhui
.

* Urban cores: SHANGHAI (a municipality of China), NANJING (the capital of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province), HANGZHOU (the capital of Zhejiang Province), Suzhou
Suzhou
, Ningbo
Ningbo
, Wuxi
Wuxi
. * Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province: Nanjing
Nanjing
, Suzhou
Suzhou
(including county-level urban centres of Changshu , Taicang
Taicang
, Kunshan
Kunshan
, Wujiang and Zhangjiagang ), Wuxi
Wuxi
(including county-level urban centres of Jiangyin and Yixing ), Nantong (including county-level urban centres of Rugao , Haimen , and Qidong ), Changzhou
Changzhou
(including county-level urban centres of Jintan and Liyang ), Yangzhou
Yangzhou
(including urban centre of Yizheng ), Yancheng (including county-level urban centres of Dafeng and Dongtai
Dongtai
), Taizhou (including county-level urban centres of Jiangyan
Jiangyan
, Jingjiang
Jingjiang
, Taixing and Xinghua ), Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
(including county-level urban centres of Danyang , Jurong and Yangzhong ), Huai\'an . * Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province: Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(including county-level urban centres of Lin\'an , Fuyang , Tonglu , Jiande and Chun\'an ), Ningbo (including county-level urban centre of Cixi , Fenghua
Fenghua
and Yuyao ), Shaoxing (including county-level urban centres of Shangyu , Shengzhou and Zhuji ), Jinhua
Jinhua
(including urban centres of Dongyang
Dongyang
, Lanxi , Yongkang and Yiwu ), Jiaxing (including county-level urban centres of Haining , Pinghu
Pinghu
and Tongxiang ), Taizhou (including urban centre of Linhai
Linhai
), Huzhou , Zhoushan , Quzhou
Quzhou
(including urban centre of Jiangshan ). * Anhui
Anhui
Province: Ma\'anshan and Hefei have also been considered as among the cities in the greater Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta since 2010. * In addition, the Shanghai
Shanghai
districts of Minhang , Jinshan , Jiading and Pudong
Pudong
, although nominally "districts", are all municipal-level in administration ( Pudong
Pudong
is sub-provincial in administrative status), and all have de facto separate urban planning systems.

CITY HANZI HANYU PINYIN WU REGIONAL POPULATION(2010) NON-AGRICULTURAL POPULATION OF URBAN DISTRICTS(2010) GDP(2011)(BILLION YUAN) IMAGE

Shanghai
Shanghai
上海 Shànghǎi Zaonhe 23,019,148 12,286,274 1,919.57

Nanjing
Nanjing
( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 南京 Nánjīng Noecin 8,004,680 6,852,984 614.55

Hangzhou
Hangzhou
( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
) 杭州 Hángzhōu Ghaontseu 8,700,400 3,075,212 701.18

Suzhou
Suzhou
( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 苏州/ 蘇州 Sūzhōu Soutseu 10,465,994 2,424,759 1,071.70

Ningbo
Ningbo
( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
) 宁波/ 寧波 Níngbō Nyinpou 7,605,689 1,364,963 601.05

Wuxi
Wuxi
( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 无锡/ 無錫 Wúxī Vusih 6,372,624 2,252,571 688.02

Changzhou
Changzhou
( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 常州 Chángzhōu Zantseu 4,591,972 1,219,557 358.04

Nantong ( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 南通 Nántōng Noethon 7,282,835 1,361,003 408.02

Shaoxing ( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
) 绍兴/ 紹興 Shàoxīng Zaushin 4,912,200 481,720 329.12

Jinhua
Jinhua
( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
) 金华/ 金華 Jīnhuá Cinho 4,614,100 321,632 244.77

Jiaxing ( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
) 嘉兴/ 嘉興 Jiāxīng Ciashin 4,501,700 428,609 266.81

Taizhou ( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
) 台州 Tāizhōu Thetseu 5,968,800 310,464 279.49

Yangzhou
Yangzhou
( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 扬州/ 揚州 Yángzhōu Ghiantseu 4,459,760 1,705,209 263.03

Yancheng ( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 盐城 Yánchéng Ghiezen 7,260,240 892,874 277.13

Taizhou ( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 泰州 Tàizhōu Thatseu 4,618,558 551,730 242.26

Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 镇江/ 鎮江 Zhènjiāng Tsenkaon 3,113,384 671,808 231.04

Huzhou ( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
) 湖州 Húzhōu Ghoutseu 2,893,500 443,102 151.88

Huai\'an ( Jiangsu
Jiangsu
) 淮安 Huái'ān Ghuaoe 4,799,889 1,133,946 169.00

Zhoushan ( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
) 舟山 Zhōushān Tseuse 1,121,300 281,423 76.53

Quzhou
Quzhou
( Zhejiang
Zhejiang
) 衢州 Qúzhōu Jiutseu 2,456,100 275,973 89.03

Ma\'anshan ( Anhui
Anhui
) 马鞍山/ 馬鞍山 Mǎ'ānshān Mooese 1,366,302 532,410 114.42

Hefei ( Anhui
Anhui
) 合肥 Héféi Ghehvi 7,457,466 1,783,612 363.66

NOTE:

* ^ A B C D E F G H The dialects in these areas are generally not Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
. * ^ including Chaohu City and Lujiang County

TRANSPORTATION

The area is home to a very extensive transport network that include railways and expressways . The area has one of the highest private vehicle ownership rates in the country, and traffic rules governing Jiangsu, Shanghai, and Zhejiang
Zhejiang
are relatively strict compared to the rest of the country.

MAIN BRIDGES

* Danyang– Kunshan
Kunshan
Grand Bridge , longest bridge in the world (164.8 km or 102.4 mi), carries the high-speed railway over the delta * Donghai Bridge
Donghai Bridge
, Shanghai-Yangshan deep water port (Port of Shanghai), 32.5 km * Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay Bridge , Ningbo-Shanghai, 36 km, the world's longest cross-sea bridge * Runyang Bridge
Runyang Bridge
* Jiangyin Suspension Bridge * Nanjing
Nanjing
Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Bridge * Lupu Bridge , Puxi - Pudong
Pudong
* Sutong Bridge

SEA

The region is served by some of the country's largest seaports:

* Port of Shanghai
Shanghai
, sea & river, the world's largest container port and 2nd largest cargo port as of 2013 * Port of Ningbo- Zhoushan , sea & river, the world's largest cargo port as of 2013 * Port of Suzhou
Suzhou
, river & lake, the world's sixth largest cargo port as of 2013 * Port of Lianyungang
Lianyungang
, sea port (not actually situated within the delta itself, but at the northern tip of the Jiangsu
Jiangsu
coastline) * Port of Wenzhou , sea height:17em;position:relative;padding:0;margin:0"> 51 8 1 57 9 2 99 13 6 89 19 11 102 24 16 170 28 21 156 32 25 158 31 25 137 27 21 63 23 15 46 17 9 37 11 3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

2 47 34 2.2 49 36 3.9 55 42 3.5 66 52 4 75 61 6.7 82 69 6.2 89 77 6.2 88 77 5.4 81 69 2.5 73 59 1.8 63 48 1.5 52 37

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

The Yangtze Delta has a marine monsoon subtropical climate, with hot and humid summers, cool and dry winters, and warm spring and fall. Winter temperatures can drop as low as -10 °C (a record), however, and even in springtime, large temperature fluctuations can occur.

FISHING AND AGRICULTURE

The Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta contains the most fertile soils in all of China. Rice is the dominant crop of the delta, but further inland fishing rivals it. In Qing Pu, 50 ponds, containing five different species of fish, produce 29,000 tons of fish each year. One of the biggest fears of fish farmers in this region is that toxic water will seep into their man-made lagoons and threaten their livelihood.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Yangtze (Yangzi, Changjiang) River Delta". China
China
Today . Retrieved 27 March 2013. * ^ Shanghai
Shanghai
Vice-Mayor Zhou Yupeng: 周禹鹏:加快推进长三角城市群的连带发展 People.cn retrieved 2010-01-09 * ^ A B 合肥马鞍山挤上“长三角快车” * ^ source from 《中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料2010》 * ^ "Longest Bridge - Danyang- Kunshan
Kunshan
Grand Bridge". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 11 December 2012.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chang Jiang— Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta.

* PBS.org, Journey to Planet Earth,