YANGON (Burmese : ရန်ကုန်, MLCTS rankun mrui,
pronounced ; formerly known as RANGOON, literally: "End of Strife")
is the capital of the
Yangon Region of
Myanmar , also known as Burma.
Yangon served as the capital of
Myanmar until 2006, when the military
government relocated the capital to the purpose-built city of
Naypyidaw in central Myanmar. With over 7 million people,
Myanmar's largest city and is its most important commercial centre.
Yangon boasts the largest number of colonial-era buildings in
Southeast Asia, and has a unique colonial-era urban core that is
remarkably intact. The colonial-era commercial core is centred around
Sule Pagoda , which reputed to be over 2,000 years old. The city
is also home to the gilded
Shwedagon Pagoda — Myanmar's most sacred
Buddhist pagoda. The mausoleum of the last Mughal Emperor is located
in Yangon, where he had been exiled following the Indian Mutiny of
Yangon suffers from deeply inadequate infrastructure, especially
compared to other major cities in
Southeast Asia . Though many
historic residential and commercial buildings have been renovated
throughout central Yangon, most satellite towns that ring the city
continue to be profoundly impoverished and lack basic infrastructure.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history
* 2.2 Colonial Rangoon
* 2.3 Contemporary
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 4 Cityscape
* 4.1 Architecture
* 4.2 Road layout
* 4.3 Parks and gardens
* 5 Administration
* 6 Transport
* 6.1 Air
* 6.2 Railways
* 6.3 Buses and cars
* 6.4 River
* 7 Demographics
* 7.1 Religions
* 7.2 Media
* 7.3 Communication
* 7.4 Lifestyle
* 7.5 Sports
* 8 Economy
* 9 Education
* 10 Health care
* 11 Notable sites
* 11.1 Pagodas
* 11.2 Recreation
* 11.3 Museums and art galleries
* 11.4 Concert halls and theatres
* 12 International relations
* 12.1 Twin towns – sister cities
* 13 References
* 14 Bibliography
* 15 External links
The name "Yangon" (ရန်ကုန်) is derived from the
combination of the Burmese words yan (ရန်) and koun
(ကုန်), which mean "enemies" and "run out of", respectively.
This word combination is commonly translated as "End of Strife".
The city's colonial era name, "Rangoon", likely is derived from the
Anglicization of the Arakanese pronunciation of "Yangon", which is .
Timeline of Yangon and
List of name changes in Yangon
Yangon was founded as Dagon in the early 11th century
(c. 1028–1043) by the Mon , who dominated
Lower Burma at that
time. Dagon was a small fishing village centred about the Shwedagon
Pagoda . In 1755, King
Alaungpaya conquered Dagon, renamed it
"Yangon", and added settlements around Dagon. The British captured
Yangon during the
First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26), but returned it
to Burmese administration after the war. The city was destroyed by a
fire in 1841.
Rangoon and Environ map, 1911 A view of the Cantonment
Gardens (now Kandaw Minglar Garden) in 1868. Damage of central
Rangoon in the aftermath of World War II.
The British seized
Yangon and all of
Lower Burma in the Second
Anglo-Burmese War of 1852, and subsequently transformed
the commercial and political hub of British Burma. In 1853, the
British moved the capital of Burma from Moulmein (present-day
Mawlamyine ) to Yangon.
Yangon is also the place where the British
Bahadur Shah II
Bahadur Shah II , the last Mughal emperor, to live after the
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857 . Based on the design by army engineer Lt.
Alexander Fraser, the British constructed a new city on a grid plan on
delta land, bounded to the east by the
Pazundaung Creek and to the
south and west by the
Yangon River .
Yangon became the capital of all
British-ruled Burma after the British had captured
Upper Burma in the
Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885. By the 1890s Yangon's increasing
population and commerce gave birth to prosperous residential suburbs
to the north of Royal Lake (Kandawgyi) and
Inya Lake . The British
also established hospitals including Rangoon General Hospital and
colleges including Rangoon University .
Colonial Yangon, with its spacious parks and lakes and mix of modern
buildings and traditional wooden architecture, was known as "the
garden city of the East." By the early 20th century,
public services and infrastructure on par with London.
World War II
World War II , about 55% of Yangon's population of 500,000 was
South Asian , and only about a third was
Karens , the Chinese , the
Anglo-Burmese and others made up the rest.
World War I
World War I ,
Yangon became the epicentre of Burmese
independence movement, with leftist Rangoon University students
leading the way. Three nationwide strikes against the British Empire
in 1920, 1936 and 1938 all began in Yangon.
Yangon was under Japanese
occupation (1942–45), and incurred heavy damage during World War II.
The city was retaken by the Allies in May 1945.
Yangon became the capital of Union of Burma on 4 January 1948 when
the country regained independence from the British Empire.
Soon after Burma's independence in 1948, many colonial names of
streets and parks were changed to more nationalistic Burmese names. In
1989, the current military junta changed the city's English name to
"Yangon", along with many other changes in English transliteration of
Burmese names. (The changes have not been accepted by many Burmese who
consider the junta unfit to make such changes, nor by many
publications, news bureaus including, most notably, the
foreign nations including the United Kingdom and United States.)
Yangon has expanded outwards. Successive
governments have built satellite towns such as Thaketa , North
Okkalapa and South Okkalapa in the 1950s to Hlaingthaya , Shwepyitha
and South Dagon in the 1980s. Today, Greater
Yangon encompasses an
area covering nearly 600 square kilometres (230 sq mi).
Ne Win 's isolationist rule (1962–88), Yangon's
infrastructure deteriorated through poor maintenance and did not keep
up with its increasing population. In the 1990s, the current military
government's more open market policies attracted domestic and foreign
investment, bringing a modicum of modernity to the city's
infrastructure. Some inner city residents were forcibly relocated to
new satellite towns. Many colonial-period buildings were demolished to
make way for high-rise hotels, office buildings, and shopping malls,
leading the city government to place about 200 notable colonial-period
buildings under the
Yangon City Heritage List
Yangon City Heritage List in 1996. Major building
programs have resulted in six new bridges and five new highways
linking the city to its industrial back country. Still, much of
Yangon remains without basic municipal services such as 24-hour
electricity and regular garbage collection.
Yangon has become much more indigenous Burmese in its ethnic make-up
since independence. After independence, many South Asians and
Anglo-Burmese left. Many more South Asians were forced to leave during
the 1960s by Ne Win's xenophobic government. Nevertheless, sizable
South Asian and Chinese communities still exist in Yangon. The
Anglo-Burmese have effectively disappeared, having left the country or
intermarried with other Burmese groups.
Yangon was the centre of major anti-government protests in 1974, 1988
and 2007. The 1988
People Power Uprising resulted in the deaths of
hundreds, if not thousands of Burmese civilians, many in Yangoon where
hundreds of thousands of people flooded into the streets of the then
capital city. The
Saffron Revolution saw mass shootings and the use of
crematoria in Yangoon by the Burmese government to erase evidence of
their crimes against monks, unarmed protesters, journalists and
The city's streets saw bloodshed each time as protesters were gunned
down by the government.
In May 2008,
Cyclone Nargis hit Yangon. While the city had few human
casualties, three quarters of Yangon's industrial infrastructure was
destroyed or damaged, with losses estimated at US$800 million.
In November 2005, the military government designated
Naypyidaw , 320
kilometres (199 mi) north of Yangon, as the new administrative
capital, and subsequently moved much of the government to the newly
developed city. At any rate,
Yangon remains the largest city, and the
most important commercial centre of Myanmar.
Yangon metropolitan area
Yangon is located in
Lower Burma (Myanmar) at the convergence of the
Yangon and Bago Rivers about 30 km(19 mi) away from the Gulf of
Martaban at 16°48' North, 96°09' East (16.8, 96.15). Its standard
time zone is UTC/GMT +6:30 hours.
Yangon has a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate
classification system. The city features a lengthy wet season from
May through October where a substantial amount of rainfall is
received; and a dry season from November through April, where little
rainfall is seen. It is primarily due to the heavy rainfall received
during the rainy season that
Yangon falls under the tropical monsoon
climate category. During the course of the year 1961 to 1990s, average
temperatures show little variance, with average highs ranging from 29
to 36 °C (84 to 97 °F) and average lows ranging from 18 to 25 °C
(64 to 77 °F).
CLIMATE DATA FOR YANGON (1961—1990)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization, Sistema de
Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial (extremes)
Danish Meteorological Institute (sun and relative
Until the mid-1990s,
Yangon remained largely constrained to its
traditional peninsula setting between the Bago ,
Yangon and Hlaing
Rivers . People moved in, but little of the city moved out. Maps from
1944 show little development north of
Inya Lake and areas that are now
layered in cement and stacked with houses were then virtual
backwaters. Since the late 1980s, however, the city began a rapid
spread north to where
Yangon International Airport now stands. But the
result is a stretching tail on the city, with the downtown area well
removed from its geographic centre. The city's area has steadily
increased from 72.52 square kilometres (28.00 sq mi) in 1901 to 86.2
square kilometres (33.3 sq mi) in 1940 to 208.51 square kilometres
(80.51 sq mi) in 1974, to 346.13 square kilometres (133.64 sq mi) in
1985, and to 598.75 square kilometres (231.18 sq mi) in 2008.
A colonial-era building
Downtown Yangon is known for its leafy avenues and fin-de-siècle
architecture. The former British colonial capital has the highest
number of colonial period buildings in south-east Asia. Downtown
Yangon is still mainly made up of decaying colonial buildings. The
former High Court , the former Secretariat buildings , the former St.
Paul\'s English High School and the
Strand Hotel are excellent
examples of the bygone era. Most downtown buildings from this era are
four-story mix-use (residential and commercial) buildings with 14-foot
(4.3 m) ceilings, allowing for the construction of mezzanines .
Despite their less-than-perfect conditions, the buildings remain
highly sought after and most expensive in the city's property market.
In 1996, the
Yangon City Development Committee created a
Heritage List of old buildings and structures in the city that cannot
be modified or torn down without approval. In 2012, the city of
Yangon imposed a 50-year moratorium on demolition of buildings older
than 50 years. The
Yangon Heritage Trust , an NGO started by Thant
Myint-U , aims to create heritage areas in Downtown, and attract
investors to renovate buildings for commercial use. City centre
A latter day hallmark of
Yangon is the eight-story apartment building
Yangon parlance, a building with no elevators (lifts) is called
an apartment building and one with elevators is called a condominium .
Condos which have to invest in a local power generator to ensure
24-hour electricity for the elevators are beyond the reach of most
Yangonites.) Found throughout the city in various forms, eight-story
apartment buildings provide relatively inexpensive housing for many
Yangonites. The apartments are usually eight stories high (including
the ground floor) mainly because city regulations, until February
2008, required that all buildings higher than 75 feet (23 m) or eight
stories to install lifts. The current code calls for elevators in
buildings higher than 62 feet (19 m) or six stories, likely ushering
in the era of the six-story apartment building. Although most
apartment buildings were built only within the last 20 years, they
look much older and rundown due to shoddy construction and lack of
proper maintenance. An apartment building in the city centre
Unlike other major Asian cities,
Yangon does not have any
skyscrapers. Aside from a few high-rise hotels and office towers, most
high-rise buildings (usually 10 stories and up) are "condos" scattered
across prosperous neighbourhoods north of downtown such as Bahan ,
Dagon , Kamayut and Mayangon . The tallest building in Yangon, Pyay
Gardens, is a 25-story condo in the city's north.
Older satellite towns such as Thaketa , North Okkalapa and South
Okkalapa are lined mostly with one to two story detached houses with
access to the city's electricity grid. Newer satellite towns such as
North Dagon and South Dagon are still essentially slums in a grid
layout. The satellite towns—old or new—receive little or no
Downtown Yangon at night Corner of
Sule Pagoda the medium
and broad roads are named.
For example, the 100-foot (30 m) Lanmadaw Road is followed by 30-foot
(9.1 m)-wide 17th and 18th streets then the medium 50-foot (15 m)
Sint-Oh-Dan Road, the 30-foot 19th and 20th streets, followed by
another 100-foot (30 m) wide Latha Road, followed again by the two
numbered small roads 21st and 22nd streets, and so on.
The roads running parallel west to east were the Strand Road,
Merchant Road, Maha Bandula (née Dalhousie) Road, Anawrahta (Fraser)
Road, and Bogyoke Aung San (Montgomerie) Road.
Kandawgyi Lake , a
popular park near downtown
PARKS AND GARDENS
The largest and best maintained parks in
Yangon are located around
Shwedagon Pagoda . To the south-east of the gilded stupa is the most
popular recreational area in the city –
Kandawgyi Lake . The
150-acre (61-ha) lake is surrounded by the 110-acre (45-ha) Kandawgyi
Nature Park , and the 69.25-acre (28-ha)
Yangon Zoological Gardens ,
which consists of a zoo, an aquarium and an amusement park. West of
the pagoda towards the former Hluttaw (Parliament) complex is the
130-acre (53-ha) People\'s Square and Park , (the former parading
ground on important national days when
Yangon was the capital.) A few
miles north of the pagoda lies the 37-acre (15-ha)
Inya Lake Park –
a favorite hangout place of
Yangon University students, and a
well-known place of romance in Burmese popular culture.
Hlawga National Park and Allied War Memorial at the outskirts of the
city are popular day-trip destinations with the well-to-do and
Yangon City Hall
Yangon is administered by the
Yangon City Development Committee
(YCDC). YCDC also coordinates urban planning . The city is divided
into four districts. The districts combined have a total of 33
townships. The current mayor of
Maung Maung Soe . Each
township is administered by a committee of township leaders, who make
decisions regarding city beautification and infrastructure. Myo-thit
(lit. "New Towns", or satellite towns ) are not within such
Yangon Administrative Districts
WESTERN DISTRICT (DOWNTOWN)
* Dagon Seikkan
* East Dagon
* North Dagon
* North Okkalapa
* South Dagon
* South Okkalapa
* Mingala Taungnyunt
* Seikkyi Kanaungto
Yangon is a member of
Asian Network of Major Cities 21 .
Yangon is Burma's main domestic and international hub for air, rail,
and ground transportation.
Yangon International Airport
Yangon International Airport , located 12 miles (19 km) from the
centre, is the country's main gateway for domestic and international
air travel. The airport has three terminals, known as T1, T2 and T3
which is also known as Domestic. It has direct flights to regional
cities in Asia – mainly,
Hanoi , Ho
Chi Minh City ,
Hong Kong ,
Kuala Lumpur ,
Singapore . Although
domestic airlines offer service to about twenty domestic locations,
most flights are to tourist destinations such as
Ngapali , and to the capital
Yangon Central Railway Station
Yangon Central Railway Station is the main terminus of Myanmar
Railways ' 5,403-kilometre (3,357 mi) rail network whose reach covers
Shwebo ), upcountry (Myitkyina
), Shan hills (
Lashio ) and the Taninthayi coast
Yangon Circular Railway operates a 45.9-kilometre (28.5 mi)
39-station commuter rail network that connects Yangon's satellite
towns. The system is heavily utilized by the local populace, selling
about 150,000 tickets daily. The popularity of the commuter line has
jumped since the government reduced petrol subsidies in August 2007.
BUSES AND CARS
Yangon has a 4,456-kilometre (2,769 mi) road network of all types
(tar, concrete and dirt) in March 2011. Many of the roads are in poor
condition and not wide enough to accommodate an increasing number of
cars. The vast majority of
Yangon residents cannot afford a car and
rely on an extensive network of buses to get around. Over 300 public
and private bus lines operate about 6,300 crowded buses around the
city, carrying over 4.4 million passengers a day. All buses and 80%
of the taxis in
Yangon run on compressed natural gas (CNG), following
the 2005 government decree to save money on imported petroleum.
Highway buses to other cities depart from Dagon Ayeyar Highway Bus
Irrawaddy delta region and Aung Mingala Highway Bus
Terminal for other parts of the country. A right hand drive bus
originally from a left-hand traffic jurisdiction modified for
right-hand traffic (Left hand-drive) on
Motor transportation in
Yangon is highly expensive for most of its
citizens. As the government allows only a few thousand cars to be
imported each year in a country with over 50 million people, car
Yangon (and in Burma) are among the highest in the world. In
July 2008, the two most popular cars in Yangon, 1986/87 Nissan Sunny
Super Saloon and 1988 Toyota Corolla SE Limited, cost the equivalent
of about US$20,000 and US$29,000 respectively. A sports utility
vehicle, imported for the equivalent of around US$50,000, goes for
US$250,000. Illegally imported unregistered cars are cheaper –
typically about half the price of registered cars. Nonetheless, car
Yangon is on the rise, a sign of rising incomes for some, and
already causes much traffic congestion in highway-less Yangon's
streets. In 2011,
Yangon had about 300,000 registered motor vehicles
in addition to an unknown number of unregistered ones.
Since 1970, cars have been driven on the right side of the road in
Burma, as part of a military decree. However, as the government has
not required left hand drive (LHD) cars to accompany the right side
road rules, many cars on the road are still right hand drive (RHD)
made for driving on the left side. Japanese used cars, which make up
most of the country's imports, still arrive with RHD and are never
converted to LHD. As a result, Burmese drivers have to rely on their
passengers when passing other cars. A taxi in
Yangon city limits, it is illegal to drive trishaws ,
bicycles, and motorcycles. Since February 2010, pickup truck bus lines
have been forbidden to run in 6 townships of central Yangon, namely
Latha , Lanmadaw , Pabedan , Kyauktada , Botahtaung and Pazundaung
Townships . In May 2003, a ban on using car horns was implemented in
six townships of
Downtown Yangon to reduce noise pollution . In April
2004, the car horn ban was expanded to cover the entire city.
Yangon's four main passenger jetties, all located on or near downtown
waterfront, mainly serve local ferries across the river to Dala and
Thanlyin , and regional ferries to the
Irrawaddy delta . The 22-mile
Twante Canal was the quickest route from
Yangon to the
Irrawaddy delta until the 1990s when roads between
Yangon and the
Irrawaddy Division became usable year-round. While passenger ferries
to the delta are still used, those to
Upper Burma via the Irrawaddy
river are now limited mostly to tourist river cruises.
Sources: 1846, 1872–1941, 1950–2025
Yangon is the most populous city by far in Burma although estimates
of the size of its population vary widely. All population figures are
estimates since no official census has been conducted in Burma since
1983. A UN estimate puts the population as 4.35 million in 2010 but a
2009 U.S. State Department estimate puts it at 5.5 million. The U.S.
State Department's estimate is probably closer to the real number
since the UN number is a straight-line projection, and does not appear
to take the expansion of city limits in the past two decades into
account. The city's population grew sharply after 1948 as many people
(mainly, the indigenous Burmese) from other parts of the country moved
into the newly built satellite towns of North Okkalapa, South
Okkalapa, and Thaketa in the 1950s and East Dagon, North Dagon and
South Dagon in the 1990s. Immigrants have founded their regional
associations (such as
Yangon for networking purposes. The government's decision to
move the nation's administrative capital to
Naypyidaw has drained an
unknown number of civil servants away from Yangon.
Yangon is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. While
Indians formed the slight majority prior to World War II, today, the
majority of the population is of indigenous
Bamar (Burman) descent.
Large communities of Indians/
South Asian Burmese and the Chinese
Burmese exist especially in the traditional downtown neighborhoods. A
large number of Rakhine and Karen also live in the city.
Burmese is the principal language of the city. English is by far the
preferred second language of the educated class. In recent years,
however, the prospect of overseas job opportunities has enticed some
to study other languages: Mandarin Chinese is most popular, followed
by Japanese, and French.
The primary religions practiced in
Buddhism , Christianity
Hinduism , and
Shwedagon Pagoda is a famous religious
landmark in the city.
Yangon is the country's hub for the movie, music, advertising,
newspaper and book publishing industries. All media is heavily
regulated by the military government. Television broadcasting is off
limits to the private sector. All media content must first be approved
by the government's media censor board, Press Scrutiny and
Registration Division .
Most television channels in the country are broadcast from Yangon. TV
Myawaddy TV are the two main channels, providing
Burmese-language programming in news and entertainment. Other special
interest channels are MWD-1 and MWD-2,
MRTV-3 , the English-language
channel that targets overseas audiences via satellite and via
MRTV-4 and Channel 7 are with a focus on non-formal
education programs and movies, and Movie 5, a pay-TV channel
specializing in broadcasting foreign movies.
Yangon has three radio stations.
Myanmar Radio National Service is
the national radio service and broadcasts mostly in Burmese (and in
English during specific times.) Pop culture oriented
Yangon City FM
Mandalay City FM radio stations specialize in Burmese and English
pop music, entertainment programs, live celebrity interviews, etc. New
radio channels such as Shwe FM and Pyinsawaddy FM can also be tuned
with the city area.
Nearly all print media and industries are based out of Yangon. All
three national newspapers – two
Burmese language dailies Myanma Alin
(မြန်မာ့အလင်း) and Kyemon
(ကြေးမုံ), and the English language The New Light of
Myanmar — are published by the government. Semi-governmental The
Myanmar Times weekly, published in Burmese and in English, is mainly
geared for Yangon's expatriate community. Over twenty special interest
journals and magazines covering sports, fashion, finance, crime,
literature (but never politics) vie for the readership of the general
Access to foreign media is extremely difficult. Satellite television
in Yangon, and in Burma, is very expensive as the government imposes
an annual registration fee of one million kyats. Certain foreign
newspapers and periodicals such as the International Herald Tribune
Straits Times can be found only in a few (mostly downtown)
bookstores. Internet access in Yangon, which has the best
telecommunication infrastructure in the country, is slow and erratic
at best, and the Burmese government implements one of the world's most
restrictive regimes of Internet control. International text messaging
and voice messaging was permitted only in August 2008.
Common facilities taken for granted elsewhere are luxury prized items
Yangon and Burma. The price of a
GSM mobile phone was about K1.1
million in August 2008. In 2007, the country of 55 million had only
775,000 phone lines (including 275,000 mobile phones), and 400,000
computers. Even in Yangon, which has the best infrastructure, the
estimated telephone penetration rate was only 6% at the end of 2004,
and the official waiting time for a telephone line was 3.6 years.
Most people cannot afford a computer and have to use the city's
numerous Internet cafes to access a heavily restricted Internet, and a
heavily censored local intranet. According to official statistics, in
July 2010, the country had over 400,000 Internet users, with the vast
majority hailing from just two cities,
Yangon and Mandalay. Although
Internet access was available in 42 cities across the country, the
number of users outside the two main cities was just over 10,000.
Karaweik at night time, at
Kandawgyi Lake , which is one of
a few major recreational parks in Yangon.
Yangon's property market is the most expensive in the country and
beyond the reach of most Yangonites. Most rent outside the centre and
few can afford to rent such apartments. (In 2008, rents for a typical
650-to-750-square-foot (60 to 70 m2) apartments in the centre and
vicinity range between K70,000 and K150,000 and those for high end
condos between K200,000 and K500,000.)
Most men of all ages (and some women) spend their time at ubiquitous
tea-shops, found in any corner or street of the city. Watching
European football (mostly English
Premier League with occasional La
Serie A , Bundesliga ) matches while sipping tea is a popular
pastime among many Yangonites. The average person stays close to his
or her residential neighbourhood. The well-to-do tend to visit
shopping malls and parks on weekends. Some leave the city on weekends
for Chaungtha and
Ngwesaung beach resorts in
Ayeyarwady Division .
Hindu temple procession cart
Yangon is also home to many pagoda festivals (paya pwe), held during
dry-season months (November – March). The most famous of all, the
Shwedagon Pagoda Festival in March, attracts thousands of pilgrims
from around the country.
Yangon\'s museums are the domain of tourists and rarely visited by
Most of Yangon's larger hotels offer some kind of nightlife
entertainment, geared towards tourists and the well-to-do Burmese.
Some hotels offer traditional Burmese performing arts shows complete
with a traditional Burmese orchestra. The pub scene in larger hotels
is more or less the same as elsewhere in Asia. Other options include
karaoke bars and pub restaurants in
Due to the problems of high inflation, the lack of high denomination
notes, and the fact that many of the population do not have access to
checks, or credit or debit cards, it is common to see citizens
carrying a considerable amount of cash. (The highest denomination of
Burmese currency kyat is 10 000 (~US$10.)) Credit cards are only
rarely used in the city, chiefly in the more lavish hotels. Credit
cards are also accepted in the major supermarket and convenience store
As the city has the best sporting facilities in the country, most
national-level annual sporting tournaments such as track and field,
football, volleyball, tennis and swimming are held in Yangon. The
Aung San Stadium and the 32,000-seat
Thuwunna Stadium are
the main venues for the highly popular annual State and Division
football tournament. Until April 2009, the now defunct
League , consisted of 16 Yangon-based clubs, played all its matches
Yangon stadiums, and attracted little interest from the general
public or commercial success despite the enormous popularity of
football in Burma. Most Yangonites prefer watching European football
on satellite TV. Teams such as Manchester United, Liverpool, Chelsea,
Real Madrid, Barcelona, Bayern Munich and Manchester City are among
the favorite European teams among the Yangonites. It remains to be
seen whether the
Myanmar National League , the country's first
professional football league, and its Yangon-based club
FC will attract a sufficient following in the country's most important
Yangon is also home to annual the
Myanmar Open golf tournament, and
Myanmar Open tennis tournament. The city hosted the 1961 and 1969
South East Asian Games . During colonial times, cricket was played
mostly by British officials in the city.
First-class cricket was
played in the city in January 1927 when the touring Marylebone Cricket
Club played Burma and the Rangoon Gymkhana . Two grounds were used to
host these matches, the
BAA Ground and the Gymkhana Ground . These
matches mark the only time Burma and Rangoon Gymkhana have appeared in
first-class cricket, and the only time first-class cricket has been
played in Burma. After independence cricket all but died out in the
Yangon has a growing population of skateboarders, as documented in
the films Altered Focus: Burma and
Youth of Yangon . German non-profit
Make Life Skate Life has received permission from the
Yangon City Development Committee to construct a concrete skatepark at
Thakin Mya park in downtown, and plans to complete the park in
Cargo ships on the shores of
Yangon River, just offshore of
Downtown Yangon. A street market in
Downtown Yangon selling
Yangon is the country's main centre for trade, industry, real estate,
media, entertainment and tourism. The city represents about one fifth
of the national economy . According to official statistics for FY
2010–2011, the size of the economy of
Yangon Region was 8.93
trillion kyats, or 23% of the national GDP. Teashop on Pavement
The city is Lower Burma's main trading hub for all kinds of
merchandise – from basic food stuffs to used cars although commerce
continues to be hampered by the city's severely underdeveloped banking
industry and communication infrastructure.
Bayinnaung Market is the
largest wholesale centre in the country for rice, beans and pulses ,
and other agricultural commodities. Much of the country's legal
imports and exports go through
Thilawa Port , the largest and busiest
port in Burma. There is also a great deal of informal trade,
especially in street markets that exist alongside street platforms of
Downtown Yangon's townships. However, on 17 June 2011, the YCDC
announced that street vendors, who had previously been allowed to
legally open shop at 3 pm, would be prohibited from selling on the
streets, and permitted to sell only in their townships of residence,
presumably to clean up the city's image. Since 1 December 2009,
high-density polyethylene plastic bags have been banned by city
Manufacturing accounts for a sizable share of employment. At least 14
light industrial zones ring Yangon, directly employing over 150,000
workers in 4,300 factories in early 2010. The city is the centre of
country's garment industry which exported US$292 million in 2008/9
fiscal year. More than 80 percent of factory workers in
Yangon work on
a day-to-day basis. Most are young women between 15 and 27 years of
age who come from the countryside in search of a better life. The
manufacturing sector suffers from both structural problems (e.g.
chronic power shortages) and political problems (e.g. economic
sanctions). In 2008, Yangon's 2500 factories alone needed about 120 MW
of power; yet, the entire city received only about 250 MW of the 530
MW needed. Chronic power shortages limit the factories' operating
hours between 8 am and 6 pm.
Construction is a major source of employment. The construction
industry has been negatively affected by the move of state apparatus
and civil servants to Naypyidaw, new regulations introduced in August
2009 requiring builders to provide at least 12 parking spaces in every
new high-rise building, and the general poor business climate. As of
January 2010, the number of new high-rise building starts approved in
2009–2010 was only 334, compared to 582 in 2008–2009.
Tourism represents a major source of foreign currency for the city
although by south-east Asian standards the number of foreign visitors
Yangon has always been quite low—about 250,000 before the Saffron
Revolution in September 2007. The number of visitors dipped even
further following the
Saffron Revolution and
Cyclone Nargis . The
recent improvement in the country's political climate has attracted an
increasing number of businessmen and tourists. Between 300,000 and
400,000 visitors that went through
Yangon International in 2011.
However, after years of underinvestment, Yangon's modest hotel
infrastructure—only 3000 of the total 8000 hotel rooms in
"suitable for tourists"—is already bursting at seams, and will need
to be expanded to handle additional visitors. As part of an urban
development strategy, a hotel zone has been planned in Yangon's
outskirts, encompassing government- and military-owned land in
Hlegu and Htaukkyant Townships .
List of universities and colleges in Yangon
University of Medicine 1
Yangon educational facilities has a very high number of qualified
teachers but the state spending on education is among the lowest of
the world. Around 2007 estimate by the London-based International
Institute for Strategic Studies puts the spending for education at
0.5% of the national budget. The disparity in educational
opportunities and achievement between rich and poor schools is quite
stark even within the city. With little or no state support
forthcoming, schools have to rely on forced "donations" and various
fees from parents for nearly everything – school maintenance to
teachers' salaries, forcing many poor students to drop out.
While many students in poor districts fail to reach high school , a
Yangon high schools in wealthier districts such as Dagon 1
, Sanchaung 2 , Kamayut 2 , Bahan 2 , Latha 2 , and TTC provide the
majority of students admitted to the most selective universities in
the country, highlighting the extreme shallowness of talent pool in
the country. The wealthy bypass the state education system
altogether, sending their children to private English language
instruction schools such as YIEC or more widely known as ISM , or
Singapore or Australia) for university education.
In 2014, international schools in
Yangon cost at least US$8,000 a
There are over 20 universities and colleges in the city. While Yangon
University remains the best known (its main campus is a part of
popular Burmese culture e.g. literature, music, film, etc.), the
nation's oldest university is now mostly a graduate school, deprived
of undergraduate studies. Following the 1988 nationwide uprising, the
military government has repeatedly closed universities, and has
dispersed most of undergraduate student population to new universities
in the suburbs such as
Dagon University , the University of East
Yangon and the
University of West Yangon . Nonetheless many of the
country's most selective universities are still in Yangon. Students
from around the country still have to come to study in
Yangon as some
subjects are offered only at its universities. The University of
Medicine 1 , University of Medicine 2 ,
University , University of Computer Studies and
University are the most selective in the country.
List of hospitals in Yangon
Yangon General Hospital
The general state of health care in
Yangon is poor. According to a
2007 estimate, the military government spends 0.4% of the national
budget on health care, and 40% to 60% on defense. By the government's
own figures, it spends 849 kyats (US$0.85) per person. Although
health care is nominally free, in reality, patients have to pay for
medicine and treatment, even in public clinics and hospitals. Public
hospitals including the flagship
Yangon General Hospital lack many of
the basic facilities and equipment.
Wealthier Yangonites still have access to country's best medical
facilities and internationally qualified doctors. Only
Mandalay have any sizable number of doctors left as many Burmese
doctors have emigrated. The well-to-do go to private clinics or
hospitals like Pun Hlaing International Hospital and Bahosi Medical
Medical malpractice is widespread, even in private clinics and
hospitals that serve the well-to-do. In 2009 and 2010, a spate of
high-profile deaths brought out the severity of the problem, even for
the relatively well off Yangonites. The wealthy do not rely on
domestic hospitals and travel abroad, usually
The following are healthcare facilities in
Yangon in 2010–2011.
# OF PUBLIC HOSPITALS
# OF PRIVATE HOSPITALS
Shwe Dagon Pagoda Interior View of Tooth Relic Pagoda
Chauk Htat Gyi Pagoda St Mary's Cathedral at the corner of
Bo Aung Kyaw Road
Chaukhtatgyi Buddha Temple
* Kyauktawgyi Buddha Temple
Kaba Aye Pagoda
Kaba Aye Pagoda
Maha Wizaya Pagoda
Ye Le Pagoda
* Allied War Memorial
Bogyoke Market (Scott's Market)
Hlawga National Park
Inya Lake (formerly Lake Victoria)
Kandawgyi Lake (formerly Royal Lake)
Kandawmin Garden Mausolea
Maha Bandula Park
* Martyrs\' Mausoleum
* People\'s Square and Park
* St Mary\'s Cathedral
* Sain Lane So Pyae Garden
Yangon Zoological Gardens (
MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES
* National Museum of
Myanmar Gems Museum
Bogyoke Aung San Museum
Yangon Drugs Elimination Museum
CONCERT HALLS AND THEATRES
Yangon National Theatre
Myanmar Convention Centre
Yangon is a member of the
Asian Network of Major Cities 21 .
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
Yangon is twinned with:
Yangzhou , Jiangsu,
Kunming , Yunnan,
Nanning , Guangxi,
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City ,
South Korea (2013)
* ^ Census Report. The 2014
Myanmar Population and Housing Census.
2. Naypyitaw: Ministry of Immigration and Population. May 2015. p. 31.
* ^ A B C D "Third Regional EST Forum: Presentation of Myanmar"
(PDF). Singapore: Ministry of Transport, Myanmar. 17–19 March 2008.
* ^ "Burma\'s new capital stages parade".
BBC News. 27 March 2006.
Retrieved 3 August 2006.
* ^ A B Martin, Steven (30 March 2004). "Burma maintains bygone
BBC News. Retrieved 22 May 2006.
* ^ "As
Myanmar Modernizes, Architectural Gems Are Endangered".
National Public Radio. June 4, 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
* ^ De Thabrew, W. Vivian (11 March 2014). Buddhist Monuments And
Myanmar And Thailand. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781491896228 .
Retrieved 8 April 2017.
* ^ "Rapid migration and lack of cheap housing fuels
Myanmar Now. 2016-02-27. Retrieved 8 April 2017.
* ^ Founded during the reign of King Pontarika, per Charles James
Forbes Smith-Forbes (1882). Legendary History of Burma and Arakan. The
Government Press. p. 20. ; the king's reign was 1028 to 1043 per
Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10
March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. p. 368.
* ^ A B C Kyaw Kyaw (2006). Frauke Krass; Hartmut Gaese; Mi Mi Kyi,
eds. Megacity yangon: transformation processes and modern
developments. Berlin: Lit Verlag. pp. 333–334. ISBN 3-8258-0042-3 .
* ^ "
BBC NEWS Asia-Pacific Burma maintains bygone buildings".
news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
* ^ "Moulmein, first British capital of Myanmar, back on the
tourist map". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
* ^ A B "
Yangon Summary Review and Analysis". Bookrags.com. 17
October 2005. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
* ^ A B Falconer, John; et al. (2001). Burmese Design &
Architecture. Hong Kong: Periplus. ISBN 962-593-882-6 .
* ^ A B C D Tin Maung Maung Than (1993). Indian Communities in
south-east Asia - Some Aspects of Indians in Rangoon. Institute of
south-east Asian Studies. pp. 585–587. ISBN 9789812304186 .
* ^ Who, What, Why? (26 September 2007). "Should it be Burma or
BBC News. Retrieved 17 April 2010. CS1 maint: Multiple
names: authors list (link )
* ^ "Background Note: Burma". Bureau of East Asian and Pacific
Affairs, US Department of State. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
* ^ Edward Blair (1 May 2006). "Beyond Rangoon". The Irrawaddy.
* ^ "
Special Report". 4 November 2001.
* ^ Zaw Htet. "Pioneering FMI City \'the best in Yangon\'". The
* ^ "Yangon-
Thanlyin Bridge". Retrieved 7 September 2008.
* ^ Kyi Kyi Hla (1 February 2001). "Ngamoeyeik Bridge".
* ^ Burmese Human Rights Yearbook, 2007,
* ^ Ye Lwin (14 July 2008). "Long road back for industrial
* ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007).
"Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification"
(PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. ISSN 1027-5606 . doi
:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
* ^ "World Weather Information Service – Yangon". World
Meteorological Organization . Retrieved 8 May 2012.
* ^ "Burma (Myanmar) - Rangun" (in Spanish). Centro de
Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
* ^ Cappelen, John; Jensen, Jens. "
Myanmar - Rangoon" (PDF).
Climate Data for Selected Stations (1931-1960) (in Danish). Danish
Meteorological Institute. p. 189. Archived from the original (PDF) on
27 April 2013. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
* ^ May Thanda Win (16 July 2006). "The Future of Yangon". The
* ^ Zin Nwe Myint (2006). Frauke Krass; Hartmut Gaese; Mi Mi Kyi,
eds. Megacity yangon: transformation processes and modern
developments. Berlin: Lit Verlag. p. 264. ISBN 3-8258-0042-3 .
* ^ Tom Wright (23 January 2009). "Asia\'s Lost Treasure Trove".
WSJ Weekend Journal.
* ^ Htar Htar Khin (15 December 2008). "Demand for downtown\'s
golden oldies still strong". The
Myanmar Times. Archived from the
original on 14 February 2012.
* ^ Kennedy, Phoebe (20 February 2011). "Colonial past could be the
saving of Rangoon". The Independent. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
* ^ A B Robinson, Gwen (9 March 2012). "
Myanmar pushes to save
colonial buildings". Financial Times. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
* ^ "City living: condos vs apartments". The
Myanmar Times. 1
* ^ Yi Yi Htwe (10 March 2008). "Lift regulation changed". The
* ^ "Kandawgyi Garden". Retrieved 21 December 2006.
* ^ "History of Zoological Gardens (Yangon)". Archived from the
original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2008.
* ^ "Nation\'s Capital Yangon". Retrieved 9 October 2008.
* ^ "Yangon". Asian Network of Major Cities 21. Archived from the
original on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 13 August 2006.
* ^ "MR to link
Mandalay and Bhamo". New Light of Myanmar. 22
* ^ A B Yeni (30 January 2008). "The Railway Bazaar". The
* ^ A B C "Discussion on a 30-Year Development Plan for Yangon".
Weekly Eleven (in Burmese). Eleven Media Group. 18 December 2011.
* ^ Yan Naing Hein. "First private bus line in
* ^ Wai Moe (14 October 2008). "Rangoon Commuters Afraid of Gas
Explosions". The Irrawaddy.
* ^ "Getting Around Yangon". Myanmar's Net. Retrieved 14 October
* ^ A B "Burmese Economy Is an Obstacle to Aid". The New York
Times. 29 May 2008.
* ^ Thomas Kean (2 June 2008). "Clash of the titans on streets of
* ^ "Burma Makes Road Switch". The New York Times. 7 December 1970.
Retrieved 22 May 2010.
* ^ Nay Nwe Moe Aung (24 February 2010). "Authorities ban light
truck buses in downtown areas".
Myanmar Times. Retrieved 18 August
* ^ A B Shwe Yinn Mar Oo (10 December 2007). "Vehicle horn
Myanmar Times. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
* ^ "
Yangon – Getting there and around". Lonely Planet. Retrieved
26 July 2009.
* ^ A B "United Nations World Urbanization Prospects, 2007
revision". United Nations. Archived from the original on 23 December
2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
* ^ "Background note: Burma". US Department of State. Retrieved 6
* ^ Kyaw Soe Linn & Phyo Wai Kyaw (14 May 2007). "Language training
centres open doors to new worlds". The
* ^ A B Yeni (1 March 2008). "Burma: The Censored Land". The
* ^ Kyaw Hsu Mon (3 August 2008). "Digital television take-up
slower than expected". The
* ^ A B "Internet Filtering in Burma in 2005: A Country Study". 1
October 2005. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
* ^ A B Min Lwin (21 August 2008). "International Text Messaging
Approved in Burma". The Irrawaddy.
* ^ A B Central Statistical Organization (6 November 2007). "ICT
Statistics Collection and Analysis" (PDF). The Government of the Union
Myanmar Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development.
* ^ "Mobile phones in
Myanmar increase to over 200,000 in 2007". 3
April 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
* ^ "
Myanmar (Burma) – Telecoms, Mobile & Internet". Dublin:
Research and Markets. 19 July 2010.
* ^ Wai-Yan Phyo Oo & Saw Pyayzon (30 July 2010). "State of
Internet Usage in Myanmar". Bi-Weekly Eleven (in Burmese). Yangon. 3
* ^ Aye Sabae Phyu (14 July 2008). "Rentals brisk in lead up to
* ^ Claudio Marana & Nin Cheun (17 June 2012). "
10,000-kyat note confirmed". Bank Note News.
* ^ Zaw Htet (1 August 2005). "
Myanmar edges towards pro football".
* ^ BAA Ground, CricketArchive.com Retrieved on 8 October 2011
* ^ Gymkhana Ground, CricketArchive.com Retrieved on 8 October
* ^ Make Life Skate Life: Pushing
* ^ Kyaw Hsu Mon & Yadana Htun (7 November 2011). "
govt facing K22b budget black hole". The
* ^ Zaw Htet & May Thanda Win (4 September 2006). "Market reforms
lead to Bayintnaung boom". The
* ^ Nay Nwe Moe Aung; Moh Moh Thaw (20 June 2011). "Vendors belong
in markets, says YCDC".
Myanmar Times. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
* ^ Myo Myo (9 November 2009). "Mayor reiterates bag ban". Myanmar
Times. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
* ^ "Industrial Zones". Ministry of Industry 2, Myanmar. Retrieved
25 December 2008.
* ^ Wai-Yan Phyo Oo (19 February 2010). "
Yangon Division Industrial
Zones". Bi-Weekly Eleven (in Burmese). 2 (48).
* ^ Ba Kaung (10 February 2010). "Rangoon Workers End Strike". The
* ^ Ye Lwin (26 May 2008). "Hlaing Tharyar IZ rebuilding underway".
* ^ "
Myanmar needs more gas to generate electricity for Yangon". 3
* ^ Ye Lwin (26 March 2007). "Industrial zones to run at night".
* ^ Zaw Htet (3 September 2007). "Property market continues to
* ^ Htar Htar Khin (February 2010). "High-rise building slowing
Myanmar Times. 26 (9).
* ^ Weekly Eleven Journal (27 November 2008). "Tourism decline in
Burma in 2008". Burma Digest. Archived from the original on 9 May
* ^ Colin Hinshelwood (9 February 2012). "Rangoon Hotels Struggle
to Meet Tourist Demand". The Irrawaddy.
* ^ "New hotel zones planned near Yangon". Weekly Eleven. 14
October 2012. Archived from the original on 22 November 2012.
Retrieved 22 October 2012.
* ^ "HRDU Yearbook 2006 Chapter 9: Rights to Education and Health".
Human Rights Documentation Unit. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
* ^ A B "Are \'Smart\' Sanctions Making Burmese Dumber?". The
Irrawaddy. 16 July 2010.
* ^ Yee May Aung (10 September 2008). "Educationalists concerned by
Burmese literacy rate". DVB. Archived from the original on 14
* ^ "
Yangon Division Produces More Distinction Winners". Bi-Weekly
Eleven News (in Burmese). Yangon: Weekly Eleven Media. 28 June 2010.
* ^ Aye Thawda Thit (28 March 2008). "
Myanmar students choosing
Singapore unis". The
* ^ Sandra Davie (13 October 2008). "\'I see no future for my two
sons in Myanmar.\'". Straits Times. Singapore.
* ^ Minh Zaw (28 March 2008). "HR key to development". The Myanmar
* ^ A B Arkar Moe (8 January 2010). "Another Medical Malpractice
Death in Rangoon". The Irrawaddy.
* ^ Thein Win Nyo (11 June 2007). "Medical tourism gives patients
* ^ Nwe Nwe Aye & Wai Phyo Myint (30 May 2005). "Yunnan keen to
boost economic, trade ties". The
Myanmar Times .
* ^ "
Yangon Become Sister Cities". City Government of
Nanning. 18 July 2009.
* ^ http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v6/newsindex.php?id=652059
* ^ Busan, Yangon,
Myanmar Become Sister Cities (2013-01-22).
Myanmar Become Sister Cities". Haps Magazine.
Retrieved 2016-08-03. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )
* ^ Business (2012-11-10). "Yangon,
Turin to establish connectivity
as sister cities".
Myanmar Update. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
See also: Bibliography of the history of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to YANGON .
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
article RANGOON .
Yangon travel guide from