YANAM (French: YANAON) is a town in the Indian union territory of
* 1 Statistics
* 1.1 Geography * 1.2 Soil * 1.3 Irrigation * 1.4 Climate * 1.5 Temperature * 1.6 Demographics * 1.7 Revenue villages * 1.8 Literacy rate
* 2 Colonial history
* 2.1 Commercial era, before 1742 * 2.2 Political era, after 1742 * 2.3 First British occupation * 2.4 Second British occupation * 2.5 Third British occupation
* 3 Local administration in the colonial era
* 3.1 1840 decree * 3.2 1871 decree * 3.3 1872 decree * 3.4 1878 decree * 3.5 1946 decree
* 4 Municipal administration in the colonial era
* 4.1 French Metropolitan decree * 4.2 Structure of the municipality * 4.3 Election results of 1948
* 5 Revenue administration in the colonial era
* 6 Cession of
* 7 Aftermath of liberation
* 7.1 De facto transfer
* 7.2 Treaty of cession
* 8 French nationality
* 9.1 Colonial era * 9.2 After independence
* 10 Famous people in the colonial
* 11 Present situation of administration
* 11.1 Local administration * 11.2 Legislative administration
* 12 Culture * 13 Official languages
* 14 Tourism
* 14.1 Important temples nearer to
* 15 Festivals
* 15.1 Śrī Rājarājeśwara Kalyāṇōtsavālu * 15.2 Venkanna Babu Kalyāṇōtsavālu * 15.3 Catholic Festival * 15.4 Fête de Pondichéry * 15.5 Brahmotsavam
* 16 Places of worship
* 16.1 Sivalayam * 16.2 Venkanna Babu Temple * 16.3 Grand Mosque * 16.4 Catholic church
* 17 Sports * 18 See also * 19 References * 20 External links
The district lies in the delta of the
Yanam's soil is alluvium consisting of sand clay and gravel . It is greyish black and clayey in composition. A few thin layers of sandy clay or sand , not exceeding 0.3-metre in thickness, are intercalated with the clay soil. The river sands on the bank of Gauthami, Godavari consist of quartz , felspar and muscovite mica . A few grains of monazite are also found in the black streaks. There are no minerals of economic value in the region.
Sri Potti Sreeramulu
After merger, irrigation was provided to about 5.6 km² of dry land
on the eastern side of the Coringa River by constructing an irrigation
canal, the Adivipolam Channel, from the tail end of Tallarevu South
Canal and the starting point of the Neelapalli Channel on the right
side. The work was undertaken by the
Yanam's climate is characterised by high humidity (over 70% in the day and 60% in the evenings throughout the year), an oppressive summer season (with humidity of 68 to 80%), and plentiful rainfall. It enjoys the benefits of both the Southwest and Northeast monsoons. Average annual rainfall is 1226 mm.
Similarly, pre-monsoon thunder-showers may also bring relief on some days. With the onset of the monsoon in June the temperature falls rapidly, and usually remains steady until September. In this season the mean maximum temperature is around 32 °C, and night temperatures fall rapidly until December or January, when day temperatures are around 27 °C, and night temperatures around 19 °C. At times the minimum temperature may drop to 14 °C. December and January are the coolest months.
YEAR POP. ±%
1843 4,000 —
1882 4,536 +13.4%
1884 4,552 +0.4%
1885 4,266 −6.3%
1900 5,005 +17.3%
1901 4,681 −6.5%
1911 4,727 +1.0%
1926 4,995 +5.7%
1931 5,249 +5.1%
1936 5,220 −0.6%
1941 5,711 +9.4%
1948 5,853 +2.5%
1971 8,291 +41.7%
1981 11,631 +40.3%
1991 20,297 +74.5%
2001 25,511 +25.7%
2011 31,500 +23.5%
2014 35,000 +11.1%
* 1843 – 4,000 * 1882 – 4,536 * 1884 – 4,552 * 1885 – 4,266 * 1900 - 5,005 * 1901 – 4,681 * 1911 – 4,727 * 1926 – 4,995 * 1931 – 5,249 * 1936 – 5,220 * 1941 – 5,711 * 1948 – 5,853 * 1971 – 8,291 * 1981 – 11,631 * 1991 – 20,297 * 2001 - 25,511 * 2011 - 31,500 * 2014 - 35,000
Apart from the town of
Colonial Yanaon Main article: Yanaon (Inde française)
Yanaon was a Dutch colony prior to French takeover in the 1720s. 'Neelikundilu' (indigo wells) are still found in the west of Yanam. The Dutch built a fort, which they used to store their currency, minted in nearby Neelapalli. The location of the fort is today referred to by locals as 'saali kota' (in Telugu Saalivandru; lit, "shawl-hut") because, after the demise of the Dutch, the building was reputedly taken over by cloth weavers.
The region was presented to the French General the Marquis de Bussy
by the Vizianagaram King as a token of gratitude for the help rendered
by Bussy in his fight against the rulers of
Bobbili . There remains a
street named after Bussy in Yanam. French
COMMERCIAL ERA, BEFORE 1742
The book The botanic garden of
The area was given up in 1727, after commercial operations proved unsuccessful, but was seized again by Governor-General Dupleix in 1731. A firman from Haji Hassan Khan , Nawab of Masulipatam , authorised the French Representative Fouquet, then chief of the Company at Masulipatam , to set up a loge (small business concession). Nawab Roustoum khan granted a Paravana dated 1735 for French commerce in Yanam.
POLITICAL ERA, AFTER 1742
Yanoan was re-established in 1742, during the reign of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah , at which time political motives began to overshadow commercial development. The annual rent was waived by a document in 1743, and in 1747 the French administrator, Monsieur Sinfray , induced Mir Ahmad Ali Khan, Nawab of Arcot , to grant the French all rights to the lands situated around their quarters at Yanam.
In December 1753, a Paravana of
Salabat Jang conceded to Bussy the
Northern Circars .
Salabat Jang was indebted to the French East India
Company for his elevation to the throne, which had been confirmed by
the Mughal emperor. The agreement made between the French and Salabat
Jang in Aurangabad bears the signature of Said Loukshur, Minister of
FIRST BRITISH OCCUPATION
Another important event in the history was the war between the French
and the British fought at Chandurthi in 1758 in which the French were
Salabat Jang made a treaty with the British and gave the
Northern Circars under a firman to the British. After 1760 the French
lost hold in South
A document dated 15 May 1765 showed that the villages of
SECOND BRITISH OCCUPATION
Between 1778 and 1783,
THIRD BRITISH OCCUPATION
Once again French lost control over
LOCAL ADMINISTRATION IN THE COLONIAL ERA
Venkanna Babu Ratham,
Local administration was started in Yanaon by a royal decree
(Ordonnance Royale) dated 23 July 1840 during
According to a decree dated 1 February 1871, one person can be sent as a député to the Chamber of Deputies .
Another pivotal incident in local administration was the decree of
1872. It was dated 13 June 1872 and was issued during Third Republic .
According to that decree Conseils locaux (Local councils) were created
at each colony. The elected member was called as Conseiller local
(Local councillor). Conseil local de Yanaon had a strength of 4 local
councillors. The term of office was 6 years with one half of
membership renewed every 3 years. Ferry Road,
According to a decree dated 24 February 1878, one person can be sent
as a sénateur to
Sénat (French Senate).
By the decree of 1946, French
Notable assembly representatives from
MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION IN THE COLONIAL ERA
FRENCH METROPOLITAN DECREE
A French Metropolitan decree, dated 12 March 1880 adopted a six-year
term of office for mayors (Maire), municipal councillors (Conseil
municipaux) and commune panchayats (communes ). Thus French
Then a total of 10 communes were formed in which Yanaon became one commune with a strength of 12 Municipal Councillors (conseillers municipaux). The first elections were held on 30 May 1880.
STRUCTURE OF THE MUNICIPALITY
La Mairie (
ELECTION RESULTS OF 1948
Elections held on 24 October 1948 and 18 October 1954 are most crucial in the history of French India. In June 1948 the French and Indian Governments came to an agreement as to how the future of the French Settlements should be determined.
Municipal elections were held in Pondicherry ,
* YANAM – 12
* SOCIALISTS – 03 * INDEPENDENTS – 09
REVENUE ADMINISTRATION IN THE COLONIAL ERA
See also: French Indian Rupee French 1 Rupee, 1938
After the French took over the establishment from the British (1816), they brought forward legislation to regulate the system of farming and to improve the status of cultivation. An Ordonnance Royale issued on 25 October 1826 legislated that lands were perpetually farmed out to Europeans or their descendants. The farmer with the help of the ecrivain (Village Administrative Officer) had to draw up every year a contract called patta stating the extent of lands cultivated by the ryot and taxes due on such land. The pattas were then registered in the Bureau du Domaine.
The ordinance of 25 October 1826 was repealed by the ordinance of 7 June 1828 to regulate the ownership of lands and collection of land tax. This is the basic and primordial law to which one has to refer even now for matters relating to the origin of land ownership. The ordinance put forth a fourfold classification of the lands and provided for the payment of tax directly to the domaine but did not envisage any major deviation from the old principle that gave the king the exclusive right over the land. Hence, the Commission d'Agriculture et de commerce constituted in the year 1848 recommended a remission of tax and conferment of ownership rights to cultivators. An arrete was issued on 19 February 1853 to give a general remission of tax.
The Arrete of 6 November 1889 laid down the conditions for establishment of a Bureau du cadastre in the offices of Services des contributions to deal with administrative aspects of survey work. The land records prepared during the French regime were plan parcellaire, tableau synoptique, matrice cadastrale, etc.
CESSION OF YANAM
Main article: Coup d\'État de Yanaon
Établissement français de Yanaon
1815–1 November 1954 Succeeded by
Établissement français de Yanaon
(de jure )
1815–16 August 1962 Succeeded by
AFTERMATH OF LIBERATION
Dadala was also appointed as Acting
DE FACTO TRANSFER
The Prime Minister,
Jawaharlal Nehru , visited
TREATY OF CESSION
A treaty of cession was signed by the two countries on 28 May 1956.
The de jure transfer was delayed until the end of the
Algerian War .
The treaty was ratified by the
French parliament in May 1962. On 16
August 1962 (De Jure Day)
According to TRAITé DE CESSION dated 1956, the four former French
colonies were assured of maintaining their special administrative
status. That is why
The ARTICLE II of TRAITé DE CESSION states that,
* The Establishments will keep the benefit of the special administrative status in force prior to 1 November 1954. Any constitutional changes in this status which may be made subsequently shall be made after ascertaining the wishes of the people.
DE JURE TRANSFER
Treaty of cession was signed by the two countries in May 1956 was
ratified by the
French parliament in May 1962. On 16 August 1962 India
and France exchanged the instruments of ratification under which
France ceded to
MERGER IN PUDUCHERRY U.T
DATE OF EVENTS
Inde française COLONY LIBERATION DE FACTO TRANSFER TREATY OF CESSION DE JURE TRANSFER MERGER
Pondichéry – 1 November 1954 28 May 1956 16 August 1963 1 July 1963
Chandernagor – 26 June 1949 28 February 1951 9 June 1952 1 October 1954
Karikal – 1 November 1954 28 May 1956 16 August 1963 1 July 1963
Mahé 16 June 1954 1 November 1954 28 May 1956 16 August 1963 1 July 1963
YANAON 13 JUNE 1954 1 NOVEMBER 1954 28 MAY 1956 16 AUGUST 1963 1 JULY 1963
See also: French nationality law
After the liberation the French government offered citizenship to the
people living in colonies of French
COURT HOUSE (PALAIS DE JUSTICE)
The Court building is situated in an ancient white monument building
of French architecture. It is called the Palais de justice (COURT
HOUSE ) and located at Thiagaraja Street,
Subsequently while this area came under the French on the reorganisation of French domain in 1725 the same court has been converted as French Court under French Law as a Judicial Court. Both civil and criminal cases tried there.
After independence, the court was converted as an Indian Court as a
Judicial Magistrate Court,
After bifurcation of the judiciary, the court came under a separate
Judicial Department of Government of
FAMOUS PEOPLE IN THE COLONIAL YANAM
First Laurel Poet of Andhra , Chellapilla Venkata Kavi (1870–1950), One of the duo of the famous Tirupati Venkata Kavulu lived here. There were poets such as the late Villa Reddi Naidu, V. Venkataswami Naidu. Some important politicians include Kanakala Tatayya Naidou and Md. Abdul Razzaq.
Samatam Krouschnaya lived in
A prominent leader who was instrumental in the merger of
Another prominent leader who was also key player in the merger of
In early 20th century, Bezawada Bapa Naidou was Mayor of Yanam. He was murdered in Pondicherry . French Administrator Albert Vollerin, his family and Maire Madimchetty in the 1950s
One of Bapa Naidou's councillors in the "Conseil Local de Yanaon " was Diwan Bouloussou Soubramaniam Sastroulou (Former Conseiller local de Yanaon). He was prominent personality and loyal follower of Bapa Naidou. Bouloussou had been one of "Les jurys de Yanaon" and he worked as Diwan for "Manyam Zamindar" before being elected as Councilor.
Bezawada charan Naidou's bitter opponent The Grand Old Man of Yanam, Kamichetty Venugopala Rao Naidou had been active in politics in French Yanaon. After the death of Bapa Naidou, he became Mayor of Yanam (Maire de Yanaon).
Venugopala Rao Naidou's son, Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naidu (former MLA and Speaker, Puducherry) dominated Yanam politics after its independence for almost four decades. He was elected as MLA more than five times and been speaker for Puducherry.
PRESENT SITUATION OF ADMINISTRATION
See also: Pondicherry Municipal Council
Following the introduction of the Pondicherry Municipalities Act,
1973, four municipalities came into existence in Pondicherry ,
Yanam Municipality is composed of 10 municipal wards,
* Mettakur * Ambedkar Nagar * Vishnalayam * Pillaraya * Giriumpeta * Farampeta * Pydikondala * Pedapudi * Aghraharam * Kanakalapeta
As the people aspired for a popular government, the Indian Parliament
enacted the Government of Union Territories Act, 1963 that came into
force on 1 July 1963, and the pattern of government prevailing in the
rest of the country was introduced in this territory. Under Article
239 of the
The present MLA of
The official languages of
* TAMIL is an official language of
* FRENCH is also an official language of
* The French language shall remain the official language of the Establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise.
IMPORTANT TEMPLES NEARER TO YANAM
Lord Satyanarayana Swamy's Temple is located in
Annavaram . It is
around 80 km from
'Lord Shiva' here goes by the name of 'Bheemeswara Swamy'. The height
of the Lingam is around 14 ft (4 m) and it is one of the oldest
temples in India. There is one more temple called Manikyamabika Devi
Temple in the campus of this Temple. It is one of the Ashtadasa Pithas
in India. It is famous as it has the Sakthi Chakra and Goddess
Parvathi is sitting on this Chakra. It is around 16 km from Yanam.
There are buses from
Main article: Pithapuram
Padagaya Temple is one of the oldest temples in India. It is also called Dakshina Kasi. Here, Lord Shiva is in the form of a rooster. The footprints (padas) of the Gaya Rakshas can be seen. The Shiva manifestation is called "Kukkuteswara Swamy" and the Parvathi manifestation is called "Raja Rajeswari". The Nandi (Shiva's Bull) in front of the Shiva Lingam is famous.
There is a Durga Temple in the temple complex, which is also one of
the AshtaDasa Pithas of Goddess Durga . The Pitham of the Goddess gave
rise to the name "Puruhuthika Devi" and the town is called as
"Pithapuram". There is also one more temple of Shri Dattatreya Swamy
in this Temple Complex. It is famous becsause Dattatreya's next
incarnation is Sripada Vallabha Swamy who was born in Pithapuram.
People from all over India, especially from the West and North of
ŚRī RāJARāJEśWARA KALYāṇōTSAVāLU
Main article: Yanam Śrī Rājarājeśwara Kalyāṇōtsavam
Śrī Rājarājeśwara Kalyāṇōtsavām at
VENKANNA BABU KALYāṇōTSAVāLU
The Kalyāṇōtsavam Festival is celebrated in the month of
Phālguṇa (February/March) every year by the people of Yanam. The
festival commences on Phālguṇa Śuddha Pāḍyami with Lord
Venkanna Babu's Kalyāṇam. On that day he will be made bridegroom
and then a procession on streets with chariots each day occurs and
Ponnavōhanam, Ratha Yātra (Rathōtsavam) and Chakratīrtham are the
important events of the festival. Vāhana Samprōkshaṇa (ritual
cleansing of the chariot) will be done by priests everyday for each
Vāhanam used for procession. During the festival days, 150,000
devotees come to
The Ratham was built in 1950 by the then Committee under then
Assemblée Répresentative, Kanakala Tatayya Naidou. The Ratham's
weight is around 15 tonnes. It was partially damaged to the heavy
cyclonic storm in November 1996 but was renovated in 1998. The Ratham
was carried throughout the town in the early days. After the
electrification work, the Ratham's route has been limited from Chinna
Center to the Kotha Bus Stand. It is carried by devotees singing
slogans and bhajans. The Government of
Every year in March, a Catholic Festival is celebrated. Devotees come and worship Mother Mary . Devotees are not only Christians but also Muslims, Hindus and from other religions.
FêTE DE PONDICHéRY
Fête de Pondichéry is a three-day annual cultural festival conducted by the Department of Art and Culture of the government of Puducherry.
It is conducted for Lord Venkanna Babu in
PLACES OF WORSHIP
Lord Śrī Rājarājeśwara Temple is at
The Kalyāṇōtsavam Festival is celebrated in the month of Māgha
(January/February) every year by the people of Yanam. The festival
commences on Māgha Śuddha Pāḍyami, Lord Śrī Rājarājeśwara
will be made bridegroom and then a procession on streets with chariots
each day occurs and Kalyāṇam, Rathōtsavam and Triśūlatīrtham
are the important events of the festival. Vāhana Samprōkshaṇa
(ritual cleansing of the chariot) will be done by priests everyday for
each Vāhanam used for procession. During the festival days, devotees
VENKANNA BABU TEMPLE
A Vishnu Temple is present in Vishnalayam street (Rue Vichenou) of
The Venkanna Babu Temple had been performing child marriages during the pre-independence days. Due to the efforts of the Social Reformer, Shri Raja Ram Mohun Roy , the SARADA ACT (PREVENTION OF CHILD MARRIAGES) was implemented by the then British government in India.
The site for the mosque was donated by the
French Government in 1848.
At that time a small mosque was constructed. Then in 1956, it was
remodelled. It was demolished in 1978 and a new mosque constructed. In
1999–2000, the mosque was expanded to become the Grand Mosque.
Around 200 persons can pray in this mosque at a time. Every year,
Ramzan , Bakrid and
Milad un Nabi functions are celebrated. The mosque
caters to the people of nearby villages like Thallarevu, Kolanka,
Sunkarapalem. which are in the adjacent state of
The monument in remembrance of the Catholic French rulers is linked with the church named St. Ann's Catholic Church. Built in the European style, the furniture and decoration articles were imported from France. The church was built in 1846 by French missionaries. The foundation stone was laid down by Father Michel Lecnam who he died on 30 April 1836 before completion of the church work. In his remembrance, a culvert was fixed in the church. The church work was completed in 1846.
YSR Indoor Stadium is an indoor stadium in the city which has hosted matches of Junior National Badminton Championships, South Zone basketball championships as well as few volleyball and basketball matches. In 2011 the Indian Volley League 's third leg matches were held there, and it became the home of the Yanam Tigers .
* Causes for Liberation of French colonies in
* ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/pca/SearchDetails.aspx?Id=707692
* ^ "Census of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to YANAM .
* Official regional website of Yanam * Future of French India, by Russel H. Fifield (Associate Professor of Political Science at University of Michigan) * Pravasandhrulu in France: identity and integration by Jonnalagadda Anuradha, France * Official website of