YAN (Chinese : 燕; pinyin : Yān;
The history of Yan began in the
* 1 History
* 1.1 Post-Qin interregnum
* 2 Rulers * 3 Yan in astronomy * 4 Culture and society * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
In the 11th century BC, Yan's capital was based in what is now
Liulihe Township ,
In the 3rd century BCE, the
Yan stretched from the
To the south, the bordering states of Zhao and Qi were Yan's main rivals. The mountainous border in the west between Zhao and Yan became the area in which their armies often clashed. Despite this, the war between Zhao and Yan usually dragged on into a stalemate, requiring the help of other kingdoms to conclude.
In the late 4th century, General Qin Kai invaded and defeated
Gojoseon , thus conquering the
The strongest opposition came from the Qi, one of the strongest states in China. A succession crisis started in Yan in 325 BCE when king Zikuai symbolically resigned his trone in favor of his minister Zizhi to prove his humility; the minister took advantage and seized power . While this crisis happened, in 314 BCE Qi invaded and in a little over several months practically conquered the country. However, due to the misconduct of Qi troops during the conquest of Yan a revolt eventually drove them away and the borders of Yan were restored. Yan's new king, King Zhao of Yan then plotted with the states of Zhao, Qin , Han and Wei for a joint expedition against Qi. Led by the brilliant tactician Yue Yi , it was highly successful and within a year most of Qi's seventy walled cities had fallen, with the exception of Zimu and Lu. However, with the death of King Zhao and the expulsion of Yue Yi to Zhao by the new king, King Wei of Yan, General Tian Shan managed to recapture all of the cities from the 5 kingdoms.
Despite the wars, Yan survived through the Warring States period. In
227 BCE, with Qin troops on the border after the collapse of Zhao,
Crown Prince Dan sent an assassin named
Surprised and enraged by such a bold act, the king of Qin called on Wang Jian to destroy Yan. Crushing the bulk of the Yan army at the frozen Yi River , Ji fell the following year and the ruler, King Xi, fled to the Liaodong Peninsula.
In 222 BCE, Liaodong fell as well, and Yan was totally conquered by
Qin. Yan was the third last state to fall, and with its destruction
the fates of the remaining two kingdoms were sealed. In 221 BCE, Qin
conquered all of China, ending the
Warring States period
In 207 BCE, the
Zang Tu submitted Yan to the
Lu Wan became the new King of Yan and reigned there for most of Liu
Bang's life until he failed to meet a summons to the Imperial Court
due to illness. He fled to the
* Marquis Hui of Yan (燕惠侯) * Marquis Li of Yan (燕釐侯) * Marquis Qing of Yan (燕頃侯) * Marquis Ai of Yan (燕哀侯) * Marquis Zheng of Yan (燕鄭侯) * Marquis Mu of Yan (燕穆侯) * Marquis Xuan of Yan (燕宣侯) * Marquis Huan of Yan (燕桓侯) * Duke Zhuang of Yan (燕莊公) * Duke Xiang of Yan (燕襄公) * Duke Huan of Yan (燕桓公) * Duke Xuan of Yan (燕宣公) * Duke Zhao of Yan (燕昭公) * Duke Wu of Yan (燕武公) * Duke Wen of Yan (燕文公) * Duke Yi of Yan (燕懿公) * Duke Hui of Yan (燕惠公) * Duke Dao of Yan (燕悼公) * Duke Gong of Yan (燕共公) * Duke Ping of Yan (燕平公) * Duke Jian of Yan (燕簡公) * Duke Xiao of Yan (燕孝公) * Duke Cheng of Yan (燕成公) * Duke Min of Yan (燕閔公) * Duke Jian of Yan (燕簡公) * Duke Huan of Yan (燕桓公) * Duke Wen of Yan (燕文公) * King Yi of Yan (燕易王) * King Kuai of Yan (燕王噲) * King Zhao of Yan (燕昭王) * King Hui of Yan (燕惠王) * King Wucheng of Yan (燕武成王) ruled 271–258 BCE * King Xiao of Yan (燕孝王) ruled 257–255 BCE: son of King Wucheng * King Xi of Yan (燕王喜) (姬喜 Ji Xi) ruled 255–222 BCE: last king of the Yan state
YAN IN ASTRONOMY
Main article: Chinese constellations
Yan is represented by the star
Zeta Capricorni in the "Twelve States"
asterism , part of the lunar mansion "Girl " in the "
CULTURE AND SOCIETY
Before Qin unified China, each state had its own customs and culture.
According to the
One of these texts was The Book of Master Wu, written in response to a query by Marquis Wu of Wei on how to cope with the other states. Wu Qi , the author of the work, declared that the government and nature of the people were reflective of the terrain they live in. Of Yan, he said:
Yan's defensive formations are solid but lack flexibility.
The Yan are a sincere and straightforward people. They act prudently, love courage and esteem righteousness while rarely employing deception. Thus they excel in defensive positions, but are immobile and inflexible. To defeat them, immediately apply pressure with small attacks and retreat rapidly. When they turn to face our attacks, we should keep a distance. Attack the rear as well where and when they least expect it. When they withdraw to face another threat, chase them. This will confuse their generals and create anxiety in their ranks. If we avoid conflict against their strong points and use our armored chariots to set ambushes, we can capture their generals and insure victory.
* ^ Wang Jijie (September 1, 2005).
燕国明刀分期研究及相关问题探讨 . BEIJING MUNICIPAL
CULTURAL OFFICE (IN CHINESE). RETRIEVED JULY 26, 2011.
* ^ "The History of Yanshan". Yanshan Central Information Office
* Han Dynasty-Political, Social, Cultural, Historical Analysis of China
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