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Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
(Hebrew: יָד וַשֵׁם‬; literally, "a monument and a name") is Israel's official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. It is dedicated to preserving the memory of the dead; honoring Jews who fought against their Nazi
Nazi
oppressors and Gentiles who selflessly aided Jews in need; and researching the phenomenon of the Holocaust
Holocaust
in particular and genocide in general, with the aim of avoiding such events in the future. Established in 1953, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
is on the western slope of Mount Herzl, also known as the Mount of Remembrance, a height in western Jerusalem, 804 meters (2,638 ft) above sea level and adjacent to the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Forest. The memorial consists of a 180-dunam (18.0 ha; 44.5-acre) complex containing the Holocaust
Holocaust
History Museum, memorial sites such as the Children's Memorial and the Hall of Remembrance, the Museum of Holocaust
Holocaust
Art, sculptures, outdoor commemorative sites such as the Valley of the Communities, a synagogue, a research institute with archives, a library, a publishing house, and an educational center, the International School/Institute for Holocaust
Holocaust
Studies. A core goal of Yad Vashem's founders was to recognize Gentiles who, at personal risk and without a financial or evangelistic motive, chose to save their Jewish brethren from the ongoing genocide during the Holocaust. Those recognized by Israel
Israel
as Righteous Among the Nations are honored in a section of Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
known as the Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations. After the Western Wall, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
is the second-most-visited Israeli tourist site. Its curators do not charge any fee for admission, and welcome approximately one million visitors a year.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Objectives

3.1 Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Studies

4 Museum 5 Architecture 6 Hall of Names 7 Archives

7.1 Examples of photos from the Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Archive

8 Righteous Among the Nations 9 Art gallery 10 Prizes awarded by Yad Vashem 11 Awards bestowed upon Yad Vashem 12 Notable visitors

12.1 Royalty 12.2 Politicians

12.2.1 Presidents 12.2.2 Prime Ministers (Head of government) 12.2.3 International organizations

12.3 Religious figures 12.4 Others

13 See also 14 References 15 External links

Etymology[edit] The name "Yad Vashem" is taken from a verse in the Book of Isaiah: "To them I will give within my temple and its walls a memorial and a name better than sons and daughters; I will give them an everlasting name that will endure forever" (Isaiah 56:5). Naming the Holocaust
Holocaust
memorial "yad vashem" ( Biblical Hebrew
Biblical Hebrew
יָ֣ד וָשֵׁ֔ם‬ yād wā-šêm) conveys the idea of establishing a national depository for the names of Jewish victims who have no one to carry their name after death. The original verse referred to eunuchs who, although they could not have children, could still live for eternity with the Lord.[1] History[edit] The idea of establishing a memorial in the historical Jewish homeland for Jewish victims of the Nazi
Nazi
Holocaust
Holocaust
was conceived during World War II, as a response to reports of the mass murder of Jews in Nazi-occupied countries. Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
was first proposed in September 1942, at a board meeting of the Jewish National Fund, by Mordecai Shenhavi, a member of Kibbutz Mishmar Ha'emek.[1] In August 1945, the plan was discussed in greater detail at a Zionist
Zionist
meeting in London. A provisional board of Zionist
Zionist
leaders was established that included David Remez
David Remez
as chairman, Shlomo Zalman Shragai, Baruch Zuckerman, and Shenhavi. In February 1946, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
opened an office in Jerusalem and a branch office in Tel Aviv, and in June that year convened its first plenary session. In July 1947, the First Conference on Holocaust Research was held at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. However, the outbreak in May 1948 of the War of Independence brought operations to a standstill for two years. On 19 August 1953, the Knesset, Israel's Parliament, unanimously passed the Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Law, establishing the Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, the aim of which was “the commemoration in the Homeland of all those members of the Jewish people who gave their lives, or rose up and fought the Nazi
Nazi
enemy and its collaborators,” and to set up “a memorial to them, and to the communities, organizations and institutions that were destroyed because they belonged to the Jewish people.”[2]

Valley of the Destroyed Communities

On 29 July 1954, the cornerstone for the Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
building was laid on a hill in western Jerusalem, to be known as the Mount of Remembrance (Hebrew: Har HaZikaron‎); the organization had already begun projects to collect the names of individuals killed in the Holocaust; acquire Holocaust
Holocaust
documentation and personal testimonies of survivors for the Archives and Library; and develop research and publications. The memorial and museum opened to the public in 1957.[3][4] The location of Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
on the western side of Mount Herzl, an area devoid of weighty historical associations, was chosen to convey a symbolic message of "rebirth" after destruction, distinct from the Chamber of the Holocaust, founded in 1948 on Mount Zion.[5][6] Thus, the latter museum, whose walls are lined with plaques memorializing over 2,000 Jewish communities destroyed during the Holocaust,[7][8] portrays the Holocaust
Holocaust
as a continuation of the "death and destruction" that plagued Jewish communities throughout Jewish history.[9] On 15 March 2005, a new Museum complex four times larger than the old one opened at Yad Vashem. It included the Holocaust
Holocaust
History Museum with a new Hall of Names, a Museum of Holocaust
Holocaust
Art, an Exhibitions Pavilion, a Learning Center and a Visual Center.[10][11] The new Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
museum was designed by Israeli-Canadian
Israeli-Canadian
architect Moshe Safdie, replacing the previous 30-year-old exhibition.[12] It was the culmination of a $100 million decade-long expansion project.[13]

Buchenwald
Buchenwald
concentration camp, April 16, 1945, after liberation. Eli Wiesel, later Vice Chairman of Yad Vashem, is in the 2nd row from the bottom, 7th from the left, next to the bunk post.[14]

In November 2008, Rabbi Yisrael Meir Lau
Yisrael Meir Lau
was appointed Chairman of Yad Vashem's Council, replacing Tommy Lapid.[15] The Vice Chairmen of the Council are Yitzhak Arad
Yitzhak Arad
and Moshe Kantor. Elie Wiesel
Elie Wiesel
was Vice Chairman of the Council until his death on July 2, 2016.[16] The Chairman of the Directorate is (since 1993) Avner Shalev, who replaced Yitzhak Arad, who had served in this position for 21 years. The Director General is Dorit Novak. The Head of the International Institute for Holocaust
Holocaust
Research and Incumbent is John Najmann. The Chair for Holocaust
Holocaust
Studies is Prof. Dan Michman. The Chief Historian is Prof. Dina Porat. The Academic Advisor is Prof. Yehuda Bauer.[16] The Members of the Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Directorate are Yossi Ahimeir, Daniel Atar, Michal Cohen, Matityahu Drobles, Abraham Duvdevani, Prof. Boleslaw (Bolek) Goldman, Vera H. Golovensky, Moshe Ha-Elion, Adv. Shlomit Kasirer, Yossi Katribas, Yehiel Leket, Baruch Shub, Dalit Stauber, Dr. Zehava Tanne, Adv. Shoshana Weinshall, and Dudi Zilbershlag.[16] Objectives[edit]

The Eternal Flame

The aims of Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
are education, research and documentation, and commemoration.[17] Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
organizes professional development courses for educators both in Israel
Israel
and throughout the world; develops age-appropriate study programs, curricula, and educational materials for Israeli and foreign schools in order to teach students of all ages about the Holocaust; holds exhibitions about the Holocaust; collects the names of Holocaust
Holocaust
victims;[18] collects photos, documents, and personal artifacts; and collects Pages of Testimony memorializing victims of the Holocaust.[19] Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
seeks to preserve the memory and names of the six million Jews murdered during the Holocaust, and the numerous Jewish communities destroyed during that time. It holds ceremonies of remembrance and commemoration; supports Holocaust
Holocaust
research projects; develops and coordinates symposia, workshops, and international conferences; and publishes research, memoirs, documents, albums, and diaries related to the Holocaust.[20] Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
also honors non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust. The International School/Institute for Holocaust
Holocaust
Studies at Yad Vashem, founded in 1993, offers guides and seminars for students, teachers, and educators, and develops pedagogic tools for use in the classroom.[21] Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
trains 10,000 domestic and foreign teachers every year.[22] The organization operates a web site in several languages, including German, Hebrew, Farsi, and Arabic. In 2013 Yad Vashem launched an online campaign in Arabic, promoting Yad Vashem's website. The campaign reached over 2.4 million Arabic speakers from around the globe, and the traffic to Yad Vashem's website was tripled.[23] The institution's policy is that the Holocaust
Holocaust
"cannot be compared to any other event". In 2009 Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
fired a docent for comparing the trauma Jews suffered in the Holocaust
Holocaust
to the trauma Palestinians suffered during Israel's War of Independence, including the Deir Yassin massacre.[24] Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Studies[edit] Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Studies is a peer-reviewed semi-annual scholarly journal on the Holocaust. Published since 1957, it appears in both English and Hebrew editions.[25] Museum[edit]

View of Yad Vashem

Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Holocaust
Holocaust
Museum

Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
opened to the public in 1957. Its exhibits focused on Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto, the uprisings in Sobibor
Sobibor
and Treblinka
Treblinka
death camps, and the struggle of survivors to reach Israel.[26] In 1993, planning began for a larger, more technologically advanced museum to replace the old one. The new building, designed by Canadian-Israeli architect Moshe Safdie, consists of a long corridor connected to 10 exhibition halls, each dedicated to a different chapter of the Holocaust. The museum combines the personal stories of 90 Holocaust
Holocaust
victims and survivors, and presents approximately 2,500 personal items including artwork and letters donated by survivors and others. The old historical displays revolving around anti-Semitism and the rise of Nazism
Nazism
have been replaced by exhibits that focus on the personal stories of Jews killed in the Holocaust. According to Avner Shalev, the museum's curator and chairman, a visit to the new museum revolves around "looking into the eyes of the individuals. There weren't six million victims, there were six million individual murders."[26] The new museum was dedicated on 15 March 2005 in the presence of leaders from 40 states and former Secretary General of the UN Kofi Annan. President of Israel
Israel
Moshe Katzav
Moshe Katzav
said that Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
serves as "an important signpost to all of humankind, a signpost that warns how short the distance is between hatred and murder, between racism and genocide".[27] According to Jonathan Kis-Lev, in recent years the Museum was visited by a growing number of Palestinians, as part of efforts of various organizations to bridge the gap between Israelis and Palestinians. "Learning about the Holocaust," Kis-Lev wrote, "helped the Palestinian members of our binational group better understand the Jewish perspective, and was a turning point in improving our relationship."[28][page needed] Architecture[edit]

Prism
Prism
skylight

The museum, designed by Moshe Safdie, is shaped like a triangular concrete prism that cuts through the landscape, illuminated by a 200 meters (656 ft)-long skylight. Visitors follow a preset route that takes them through underground galleries that branch off from the main hall.[13] Hall of Names[edit]

The Hall of Names
Hall of Names
containing Pages of Testimony commemorating the millions of Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust

The Hall of Names
Hall of Names
is a memorial to the six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust. The main hall is composed of two cones: one ten meters high, with a reciprocal well-like cone excavated into the underground rock, its base filled with water. On the upper cone is a display featuring 600 photographs of Holocaust
Holocaust
victims and fragments of Pages of Testimony. These are reflected in the water at the bottom of the lower cone, commemorating those victims whose names remain unknown. Surrounding the platform is the circular repository, housing the approximately 2.2 million Pages of Testimony collected to date, with empty spaces for those yet to be submitted. Since the 1950s, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
has collected approximately 110,000 audio, video, and written testimonies by Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors. As the survivors age, the program has expanded to visiting survivors in their homes, to tape interviews. Adjoining the hall is a study area with a computerized data bank where visitors can do online searches for the names of Holocaust
Holocaust
victims. Archives[edit] The Archive is the oldest department of Yad Vashem. Before presenting an exhibition, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
collects items. The best known of these are the historical photographs, as well as the Pages of Testimonies collected from survivors. The latter is a database of personal information about those who survived and those who perished in the Holocaust. Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
has also acquired access to the database of the International Tracing Service
International Tracing Service
of Bad Arolsen of the International Committee of the Red Cross, and these two databases complement each other for research purposes. Examples of photos from the Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Archive[edit]

Michael Redwitz (de), Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Photo Archive

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Photo Archive

Photo acquired from an East German/GDR archive (ADN)

Righteous Among the Nations[edit] Main article: Righteous Among the Nations

Righteous Among the Nations

The Holocaust Rescuers assisting Jews Righteousness Seven Laws of Noah Yad Vashem

Notable individuals

Archbishop Damaskinos Feng-Shan Ho Constantin Karadja Valdemar Langlet Carl Lutz Aristides de Sousa Mendes Giorgio Perlasca Oskar Schindler Irena Sendler Klymentiy Sheptytsky Chiune Sugihara Raoul Wallenberg Ángel Sanz Briz Major Francis Foley Corrie ten Boom

By country

Albanian Austrian Chinese Croatian Lithuanian Norwegian Polish Serbian Ukrainian

v t e

Tree, memorial honoring Irena Sendler
Irena Sendler
(Polish nurse who saved 2,500 Jews when it was forbidden during the Holocaust) in Jerusalem, Israel.

Janusz Korczak
Janusz Korczak
and the children, memorial

Memorial to the Jewish children murdered by the Nazis

One of Yad Vashem's tasks is to honor non-Jews who risked their lives, liberty, or positions to save Jews during the Holocaust. To this end, a special independent Commission, headed by a retired Supreme Court Justice, was established. The commission members, including historians, public figures, lawyers, and Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors, examine and evaluate each case according to a well-defined set of criteria and regulations. The Righteous receive a certificate of honor and a medal, and their names are commemorated in the Garden of the Righteous Among the Nations,[29] on the Mount of Remembrance, Yad Vashem. This is an ongoing project that will continue for as long as there are valid requests, substantiated by testimonies or documentation. 555 individuals were recognized during 2011, and as of 2011[update], more than 24,300 individuals have been recognized as Righteous Among the Nations.[citation needed] Art gallery[edit] Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
houses the world's largest collection of artwork produced by Jews and other victims of Nazi
Nazi
occupation in 1933–1945. The Yad Vashem Art Department supervises a 10,000-piece collection, adding 300 pieces a year, most of them donated by survivors' families or discovered in attics.[30] Included in the collection are works by Alexander Bogen, Alice Lok Cahana, Samuel Bak, and Felix Nussbaum. Prizes awarded by Yad Vashem[edit] Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
awards the following book prizes:

Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Prize for Children's Holocaust
Holocaust
Literature Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
International Book Prize for Holocaust
Holocaust
Research, established in 2011 in memory of Abraham Meir Schwartzbaum, Holocaust survivor, and his family who was murdered in the Holocaust. It is awarded annually in recognition of high scholarly research and writing on the Holocaust.[31] Sussman Prize for Paintings of the Shoah. The annual Buchman Foundation Memorial Prize, for writers and scholars for Holocaust-related works. Recipients include:[32]

2007: Hanoch Bartov, for Beyond the Horizon, Across the Street 2007: Shlomo Aharonson, for Hitler, the Allies and the Jews Earlier: Aharon Appelfeld, Alona Frankel
Alona Frankel
(2005),[33] Ida Fink, Dina Porat, Lizzie Doron, Amir Gottfreund, and Itamar Levin.

Awards bestowed upon Yad Vashem[edit]

In 1973, the Pinkas HaKehillot
Pinkas HaKehillot
(Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities) project of Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
was awarded the Israel
Israel
Prize, for its special contribution to society and the State.[34] In 2003, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
was awarded the Israel
Israel
Prize, for lifetime achievement and its special contribution to society and the State.[35][36] In September 2007, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
received the Prince of Asturias
Asturias
Award for Concord.[37] The Prince of Asturias
Asturias
Awards is presented in 8 categories. The Award for Concord is bestowed upon the person, persons, or institution whose work has made an exemplary and outstanding contribution to mutual understanding and peaceful coexistence among men, to the struggle against injustice or ignorance, to the defense of freedom, or whose work has widened the horizons of knowledge or has been outstanding in protecting and preserving mankind's heritage. On 25 October 2007, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Chairman Avner Shalev
Avner Shalev
was honored with the Légion d’honneur for his "extraordinary work on behalf of Holocaust
Holocaust
remembrance worldwide." French President Nicolas Sarkozy personally presented Shalev with the award in a special ceremony at the Elysee Palace. In 2011, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
Chairman Avner Shalev
Avner Shalev
received the City of Jerusalem’s Patron of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Award in recognition of his public activities focused in Israel's capital and on its behalf.[38]

Notable visitors[edit] Royalty[edit]

Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands
Netherlands
(1995) Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark
Denmark
(2013)[39]

Politicians[edit] Presidents[edit]

President Donald Trump
Donald Trump
at Yad Vashem, May 2017

François Tombalbaye
François Tombalbaye
(1965)[40] Luis Echeverría
Luis Echeverría
(1975)[41] Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977)[42] Richard von Weizsäcker
Richard von Weizsäcker
(1985)[43] Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1994)[44] Emil Constantinescu
Emil Constantinescu
(2000)[45] Stjepan Mesić
Stjepan Mesić
(2001)[46] Horst Köhler
Horst Köhler
(2005)[47] Boris Tadić
Boris Tadić
(2005)[48] Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2005)[49] Lech Kaczyński
Lech Kaczyński
(2006)[50] George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2008)[51] Nicolas Sarkozy
Nicolas Sarkozy
(2008)[52] Christian Wulff
Christian Wulff
(2010)[53] Ivo Josipović
Ivo Josipović
(2012)[54] Joachim Gauck
Joachim Gauck
(2012)[55] Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2013)[56] Tomislav Nikolic
Tomislav Nikolic
(2013)[57] Nicos Anastasiades
Nicos Anastasiades
(2013)[58] Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
Juan Manuel Santos Calderón
(2013)[59] Miloš Zeman
Miloš Zeman
(2013)[60] Goodluck Jonathan
Goodluck Jonathan
(2013)[61] Bronislaw Komorowski
Bronislaw Komorowski
(2013)[62] Otto Pérez Molina
Otto Pérez Molina
(2013)[63] Mahinda Rajapaksa
Mahinda Rajapaksa
(2014)[64] Traian Băsescu
Traian Băsescu
(2014)[65] Ollanta Humala
Ollanta Humala
(2014)[66] Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
(2015)[67] Andrzej Duda
Andrzej Duda
(2017)[68] Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
(2017)[69] Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2017) Rumen Radev
Rumen Radev
(2018)[70]

Prime Ministers (Head of government)[edit]

Bob Hawke[71] Tage Erlander[72] Dawda Jawara
Dawda Jawara
(1966)[73] Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
(1986)[74] John Major
John Major
(1990–97)[75] Konstantinos Mitsotakis
Konstantinos Mitsotakis
(1992)[76] Sergey Tereshchenko (1992)[77] Adolfas Šleževičius (1993)[78] Jean Chretien
Jean Chretien
(2000)[79] Ivo Sanader
Ivo Sanader
(2005)[80] Recep Tayyip Erdogan
Recep Tayyip Erdogan
(2005)[81] Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2006)[82] Bidzina Ivanishvili
Bidzina Ivanishvili
(2013)[83] Enrico Letta
Enrico Letta
(2013)[84] Antonis Samaras
Antonis Samaras
(2013)[85] Mark Rutte
Mark Rutte
(2013)[86] Stephen Harper
Stephen Harper
(2014)[87] Bohuslav Sobotka
Bohuslav Sobotka
(2014)[88] Aleksandar Vučić
Aleksandar Vučić
(2014)[89] Alexis Tsipras
Alexis Tsipras
(2015)[90] Edi Rama
Edi Rama
(2015)[91] Andrej Plenković
Andrej Plenković
(2017)[92] Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
(2017)[93]

International organizations[edit]

Kurt Waldheim[94]

Religious figures[edit]

14th Dalai Lama
14th Dalai Lama
(1994)[95] Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(2000)[96] Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
(2009)[97] Justin Welby
Justin Welby
(2013), Archbishop of Canterbury[98] Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2014)

Others[edit]

Marlene Dietrich, German-American actor[99]

See also[edit]

Gathering the fragments List of Israel
Israel
Prize recipients List of Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
by country The Holocaust
Holocaust
History Project Yad Vashem: Preserving the Past to Ensure the Future Major camps: Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen, Buchenwald, Dachau and Treblinka

References[edit]

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Receives Prince of Asturias
Asturias
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Yad Vashem
Chairman Avner Shalev
Avner Shalev
to Receive 2011 Patron of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Yakir Yerushalayim) Award". Yad Vashem. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ "Crown Prince of Denmark
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Tomorrow". Yad Vashem. 29 October 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.  ^ "The President of Chad
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Kurt Waldheim Archived March 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Jerusalem, Israel, 20/03/1994, The Dalai Lama visiting Yad Vashem. - Google Arts & Culture". Google.com. 1994-03-20. Retrieved 2017-03-08.  ^ "Visit of Pope John Paul II
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yad Vashem.

Official website (in English) (in Hebrew)

Coordinates: 31°46′27″N 35°10′32″E / 31.77417°N 35.17556°E /

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