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Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uygur Autonomous Region[6] (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى‎; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwú’ěr Zìzhìqū) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China
China
in the northwest of the country. It is the largest Chinese administrative division and the eighth largest country subdivision in the world, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (640,000 square miles).[1] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
contains the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which is administered by China. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
borders the countries of Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan
Pakistan
and India. The rugged Karakoram, Kunlun, and Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountain ranges occupy much of Xinjiang's borders, as well as its western and southern regions. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
also borders Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Gansu
Gansu
and Qinghai. The most well-known route of the historical Silk Road
Silk Road
ran through the territory from the east to its northwestern border. In recent decades, abundant oil and mineral reserves have been found in Xinjiang, and it is currently China's largest natural gas-producing region. It is home to a number of ethnic groups, including the Uyghur, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Hui, Kyrgyz, Mongols, Han, and Russians.[7] More than a dozen autonomous prefectures and counties for minorities are in Xinjiang. Older English-language reference works often refer to the area as "Chinese Turkestan".[8] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is divided into the Dzungarian Basin
Dzungarian Basin
in the north and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in the south by a mountain range. Only about 9.7% of Xinjiang's land area is fit for human habitation.[9] With a documented history of at least 2,500 years, a succession of people and empires have vied for control over all or parts of this territory. The territory came under the rule of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in the 18th century; which was later replaced by the Republic of China government. Since 1949, it has been part of the People's Republic of China
China
following the Chinese Civil War. In 1954, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Bingtuan was set up to strengthen the border defense against the Soviet Union, and also promote the local economy. In 1955, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
was turned into an autonomous region from a province. In the last decades, a separatist conflict has plagued the region, with occasional terrorist attacks and clashes between separatist and government forces.[10][11]

Contents

1 Names 2 Description 3 History

3.1 Early history 3.2 Islamisation of Xinjiang 3.3 Mongol
Mongol
period 3.4 Qing dynasty 3.5 Republic of China 3.6 Modern China
China
(People's Republic of China)

4 Administrative divisions 5 Geography and geology

5.1 Mountain systems and basins 5.2 Geology 5.3 Center of the continent 5.4 Rivers and lakes 5.5 Time 5.6 Deserts 5.7 Major cities 5.8 Climate 5.9 Bordering regions

6 Politics

6.1 Human rights issue

7 Economy

7.1 Agriculture and fishing 7.2 Mining and minerals 7.3 Foreign trade 7.4 Economic and Technological Development Zones

8 Culture 9 Demographics

9.1 Vital statistics 9.2 Religion 9.3 Media

10 Sports 11 Transportation

11.1 Roads 11.2 Rail

12 East Turkestan
East Turkestan
independence movement 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Citations 15.2 Sources

16 Further reading 17 External links

Names[edit]

Xinjiang

"Xīnjiāng" in Chinese characters

Chinese name

Chinese 新疆

Hanyu Pinyin Xīnjiāng

Postal Sinkiang

Literal meaning "New Frontier"

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Xīnjiāng

Bopomofo ㄒㄧㄣ   ㄐㄧㄤ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Shinjiang

Wade–Giles Hsin1-chiang1

Yale Romanization Syīnjyāng

IPA [ɕín.tɕjáŋ]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing سٍكِيْا‎

Dungan Щинҗён

Hakka

Romanization Sîn-kiông

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Sān'gēung

IPA [sɐ́n.kœ́ːŋ]

Jyutping San1goeng1

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Sin-kiong

Teochew Peng'im Sing-kiang

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC Sĭng-giŏng

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region

Simplified Chinese 新疆维吾尔自治区

Traditional Chinese 新疆維吾爾自治區

Hanyu Pinyin Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū

Postal Sinkiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū

Bopomofo ㄒㄧㄣ   ㄐㄧㄤ ㄨㄟˊ   ㄨˊ   ㄦˇ ㄗˋ   ㄓˋ   ㄑㄩ

Gwoyeu Romatzyh Shinjiang Weiwueel Tzyhjyhchiu

Wade–Giles Hsin1-chiang1 Wei2-wu2-êrh3 Tzŭ4-chih4-chʻü1

Yale Romanization Syīnjyāng Wéiwúěr Dz̀jr̀chyū

IPA [ɕín.tɕjáŋ wěi.ǔ.àɚ tsɹ̩̂.ʈʂɻ̩̂.tɕʰý]

other Mandarin

Xiao'erjing

سٍكِيْا وِءُعَر ذِجِٿُوُ ‎

Dungan

Щинҗён Уйгур Зыҗычү

Wu

Romanization sin cian vi ng el zy zy chiu

Hakka

Romanization

Sîn-kiông Vì-ngâ-ngì Tshṳ-tshṳ-khî

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ

Sin-kiong Ûi-ngô͘-ní Chū-tī-khu

Teochew Peng'im

Sing-kiang Jûi-û-jéu Tsĕu-tī-khu

Eastern Min

Fuzhou BUC

Sĭng-giŏng Mì-ngù-ī Cê̤ṳ-dê-kṳ̆

Mongolian name

Mongolian Cyrillic

Синжийан Уйғур-ун өбэртэгэн жасақу орун

Mongolian script ᠰᠢᠨᠵᠢᠶᠠᠩ ᠤᠶᠢᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠭᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ

Transcriptions

SASM/GNC

Sinjiyaŋ Uyiɣur-un öbertegen jasaqu orun

Uyghur name

Uyghur

شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى

Transcriptions

Latin Yëziqi Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni

Yengi Yeziⱪ Xinjang Uyƣur Aptonom Rayoni

SASM/GNC Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni

Siril Yëziqi

Шинҗаң Уйғур Аптоном Райони

Russian name

Russian Синьцзян

Romanization Sin'czjan

Kazakh name

Kazakh شينجياڭ ۇيعۇر اۆتونوميالى رايونى Шыңжаң Ұйғыр аутономиялық ауданы S'yn'jan' Ui'g'yr Ay'tonomi'i'alyq ay'dany

Kyrgyz name

Kyrgyz شئنجاڭ ۇيعۇر اپتونوم رايونۇ Шинжаң-Уйгур автоном району Şincañ-Uyğur avtonom rayonu

Oirat name

Oirat Зуунгар Zuungar

Under the Han dynasty, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
was known as Xiyu (西域), meaning "Western Regions". Between the 2nd century BCE and 2nd century CE the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
established the Protectorate of the Western Regions
Western Regions
or Xiyu Protectorate (西域都護府) in an effort to secure the profitable routes of the Silk Road.[12] The Western Regions
Western Regions
during the Tang era were known as Qixi (磧西). Qi refers to the Gobi Desert while Xi refers to the west. The Tang Dynasty has established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West
Protectorate General to Pacify the West
or Anxi Protectorate (安西都護府) in 640 to control the region. During the Qing dynasty, the northern part of Xinjiang, Dzungaria
Dzungaria
was known as Zhunbu (準部, "Dzungar region") and the southern Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
was known as Huijiang (回疆, " Muslim
Muslim
Frontier") before both regions were merged and became the region of "Xiyu Xinjiang", later simplified as "Xinjiang". The general region of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
has been known by many names in earlier times including "Western Regions",[13] Khotan, Khotay, Chinese Tartary, High Tartary, East Chagatay (it was eastern part of Chagatai Khanate), Moghulistan
Moghulistan
("land of the Mongols"), Kashgaria, Altishahr ("the six cities" of the Tarim), Little Bokhara and Serindia (due to Indian cultural influence).[14] The current name "Xinjiang", which literally means "New Frontier" or "New Borderland", was given during the Qing dynasty. According to Chinese statesman Zuo Zongtang's report to the Emperor of Qing, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
means an "old land newly returned" (故土新歸), or the new old land. The term was also given to other similar area, for instance, present-day Jinchuan County was known as "Jinchuan Xinjiang'". In the same manner, present-day Xinjiang
Xinjiang
was known as Xiyu Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Chinese: 西域新疆; literally: "Western Regions' New Frontier") and Gansu Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Chinese: 甘肅新疆; literally: " Gansu
Gansu
Province's New Frontier", especially for present-day eastern Xinjiang).[15] The name "East Turkestan" was created by Russian sinologist Hyacinth to replace the term "Chinese Turkestan" in 1829.[a] "East Turkestan" was used traditionally to only refer to the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in the south, as modern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
area with Dzungaria
Dzungaria
being excluded. In 1955, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
province was renamed Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region. The name that was originally proposed was simply "Xinjiang Autonomous Region". Saifuddin Azizi, the first chairman of Xinjiang, registered his strong objections to the proposed name with Mao Zedong, arguing that "autonomy is not given to mountains and rivers. It is given to particular nationalities." Mao agreed and the administrative region was named " Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region" to recognize its significant ethnic Uyghur population. Description[edit]

Dzungaria
Dzungaria
(Red) and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
(Blue)

Northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Junggar Basin) (Yellow), Eastern Xinjiang- Turpan Depression ( Turpan Prefecture
Turpan Prefecture
and Hami Prefecture) (Red), and Southern Xinjiang/the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
(Blue)

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
consists of two main geographically, historically, and ethnically distinct regions with different historical names, Dzungaria north of the Tianshan Mountains and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
south of the Tianshan Mountains, before Qing China
China
unified them into one political entity called Xinjiang
Xinjiang
province in 1884. At the time of the Qing conquest in 1759, Dzungaria
Dzungaria
was inhabited by steppe dwelling, nomadic Tibetan Buddhist
Buddhist
Dzungar people, while the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
was inhabited by sedentary, oasis dwelling, Turkic speaking Muslim
Muslim
farmers, now known as the Uyghur people. They were governed separately until 1884. The native Uyghur name for the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
is Altishahr. The Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was well aware of the differences between the former Buddhist
Buddhist
Mongol
Mongol
area to the north of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
and the Turkic Muslim
Muslim
area south of the Tian Shan, and ruled them in separate administrative units at first.[16] However, Qing people began to think of both areas as part of one distinct region called Xinjiang.[17] The very concept of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
as one distinct geographic identity was created by the Qing and it was originally not the native inhabitants who viewed it that way, but rather it was the Chinese who held that point of view.[18] During the Qing rule, no sense of "regional identity" was held by ordinary Xinjiang
Xinjiang
people; rather, Xinjiang's distinct identity was given to the region by the Qing, since it had distinct geography, history and culture, while at the same time it was created by the Chinese, multicultural, settled by Han and Hui, and separated from Central Asia for over a century and a half.[19] In the late 19th century, it was still being proposed by some people that two separate parts be created out of Xinjiang, the area north of the Tianshan and the area south of the Tianshan, while it was being argued over whether to turn Xinjiang
Xinjiang
into a province.[20] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is a large, sparsely populated area, spanning over 1.6 million km2 (comparable in size to Iran), which takes up about one sixth of the country's territory. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
borders the Tibet Autonomous Region and India's Leh District
Leh District
to the south and Qinghai and Gansu
Gansu
provinces to the southeast, Mongolia
Mongolia
to the east, Russia
Russia
to the north, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India
India
to the west.

Physical map showing the separation of Dzungaria
Dzungaria
and the Tarim Basin (Taklamakan) by the Tien Shan Mountains

The east-west chain of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
separate Dzungaria
Dzungaria
in the north from the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in the south. Dzungaria
Dzungaria
is a dry steppe and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
contains the massive Taklamakan Desert, surrounded by oases. In the east is the Turpan
Turpan
Depression. In the west, the Tian Shan split, forming the Ili River
Ili River
valley. History[edit] Main article: History of Xinjiang Further information: Western Regions, Kingdom of Khotan, Shule Kingdom, Shanshan, Saka, Tocharians, and Sogdia Early history[edit]

The Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the Han Empire, ca. AD 1

According to J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair, the Chinese describe the existence of "white people with long hair" or the Bai people in the Shan Hai Jing, who lived beyond their northwestern border. The well preserved Tarim mummies
Tarim mummies
with Caucasoid
Caucasoid
features, often with reddish or blond hair, today displayed at the Ürümqi
Ürümqi
Museum and dated to the 2nd millennium BC, have been found in the same area of the Tarim Basin. Various nomadic tribes, such as the Yuezhi, Saka, and Wusun
Wusun
were probably part of the migration of Indo-European speakers who were settled in eastern Central Asia (possibly as far as Gansu) at that time. The Ordos culture in northern China
China
east of the Yuezhi, is another example, yet skeletal remains from the Ordos culture found have been predominantly Mongoloid. By the time the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
under Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) wrestled the Western Regions
Western Regions
of the Tarim Basin away from its previous overlords, the Xiongnu, it was inhabited by various peoples, such as Indo-European Tocharians
Tocharians
in Turfan
Turfan
and Kucha
Kucha
and Indo-Iranian Saka
Saka
peoples centered around Kashgar
Kashgar
and Khotan.[21] Nomadic cultures such as the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
(Rouzhi) are documented in the area of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
where the first known reference to the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
was made in 645 BC by the Chinese Guan Zhong in his work Guanzi (管子, Guanzi Essays: 73: 78: 80: 81). He described the Yúshì 禺氏 (or Niúshì 牛氏), as a people from the north-west who supplied jade to the Chinese from the nearby mountains (also known as Yushi) in Gansu.[22] The supply of jade[23] from the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
from ancient times is well documented archaeologically: "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had a strong attachment to jade. All of the jade items excavated from the tomb of Fuhao of the Shang dynasty, more than 750 pieces, were from Khotan
Khotan
in modern Xinjiang. As early as the mid-first millennium BC, the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China."[24]

The Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in the 3rd century

Traversed by the Northern Silk Road,[25] the Tarim and Dzungaria regions were known as the Western Regions. It was inhabited by various peoples, including Indo-European Tocharians
Tocharians
in Turfan
Turfan
and Kucha
Kucha
and Indo-Iranian Saka
Saka
peoples centered around Kashgar
Kashgar
and Khotan.[26] At the beginning of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(206 BC–AD 220), the region was subservient to the Xiongnu, a powerful nomadic people based in modern Mongolia. In the 2nd century BC, the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
made preparations for war against Xiongnu
Xiongnu
when Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
dispatched the explorer Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
to explore the mysterious kingdoms to the west and to form an alliance with the Yuezhi
Yuezhi
people in order to combat the Xiongnu. As a result of these battles, the Chinese controlled the strategic region from the Ordos and Gansu
Gansu
corridor to Lop Nor. They succeeded in separating the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
from the Qiang peoples to the south, and also gained direct access to the Western Regions. Han China
China
sent Zhang Qian as an envoy to the states in the region, beginning several decades of struggle between the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
and Han China
China
over dominance of the region, eventually ending in Chinese success. In 60 BC Han China established the Protectorate of the Western Regions
Western Regions
(西域都護府) at Wulei (烏壘, near modern Luntai) to oversee the entire region as far west as the Pamir Mountains, which would remain under the influence and suzerainty of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
with some interruptions. For instance, it fell out of their control during the civil war against Wang Mang
Wang Mang
(r. AD 9–23). It was brought back under Han control in AD 91 due to the efforts of the general Ban Chao. The Western Jin dynasty succumbed to successive waves of invasions by nomads from the north at the beginning of the 4th century. The short-lived kingdoms that ruled northwestern China
China
one after the other, including Former Liang, Former Qin, Later Liang, and Western Liáng, all attempted to maintain the protectorate, with varying degrees of success. After the final reunification of northern China under the Northern Wei
Northern Wei
empire, its protectorate controlled what is now the southeastern region of Xinjiang. Local states such as Shule, Yutian, Guizi
Guizi
and Qiemo
Qiemo
controlled the western region, while the central region around Turpan
Turpan
was controlled by Gaochang, remnants of a state (Northern Liang) that once ruled part of what is now Gansu province in northwestern China.

A Sogdian man on a Bactrian camel, sancai ceramic statuette, Tang dynasty

During the Tang dynasty, a series of expeditions were conducted against the Western Turkic Khaganate, and their vassals, the oasis states of southern Xinjiang.[27] Campaigns against the oasis states began under Emperor Taizong with the annexation of Gaochang
Gaochang
in 640.[28] The nearby kingdom of Karasahr
Karasahr
was captured by the Tang in 644 and the kingdom of Kucha
Kucha
was conquered in 649.[29] The Tang Dynasty then established the Protectorate General to Pacify the West (安西都護府) or Anxi Protectorate in 640 to control the region. During the devastating Anshi Rebellion, which nearly led to the destruction of the Tang dynasty, Tibet invaded the Tang on a wide front, from Xinjiang
Xinjiang
to Yunnan. It occupied the Tang capital of Chang'an in 763 for 16 days, and took control of southern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
by the end of the century. At the same time, the Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
took control of northern Xinjiang, as well as much of the rest of Central Asia, including Mongolia. As both Tibet and the Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
declined in the mid-9th century, the Kara-Khanid Khanate, which was a confederation of Turkic tribes such as the Karluks, Chigils and Yaghmas,[30] took control of western Xinjiang
Xinjiang
in the 10th century and the 11th century. Meanwhile, after the Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
in Mongolia
Mongolia
had been smashed by the Kirghiz in 840, branches of the Uyghurs
Uyghurs
established themselves in Qocha (Karakhoja) and Beshbalik, near the modern cities of Turfan
Turfan
and Urumchi. This Uyghur state remained in eastern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
until the 13th century, though it was subject to foreign overlords during that time. The Kara-Khanids converted to Islam. The Uyghur state in eastern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
remained Manichaean, but later converted to Buddhism. In 1132, remnants of the Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
from Manchuria
Manchuria
entered Xinjiang, fleeing the rebellion of their neighbors, the Jurchens. They established a new empire, the Qara Khitai, which ruled over both the Kara-Khanid-held and Uyghur-held parts of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
for the next century. Although Khitan and Chinese were the primary languages of administration, the empire also administered in Persian and Uyghur.[31] Islamisation of Xinjiang[edit] Main article: Islamicisation
Islamicisation
of Xinjiang

Part of a series on: Islam
Islam
in China

History of Islam
Islam
in China

By dynasty

Tang Song Yuan Ming Qing

Rebellions and revolts

Panthay Rebellion
Panthay Rebellion
(1856–73) First Dungan revolt (1862–77) Second Dungan revolt (1895–96) Afaqi Khoja revolts

Post-dynastic China

1911–present

Major figures

Haji Noor Hu Dahai Hui
Hui
Liangyu Hu Songshan Liu Zhi Ma Anliang Ma Bufang Ma Buqing Ma Fuxiang Ma Gui Ma Hualong Ma Laichi Ma Mingxin Ma Qixi Ma Yize Yeheidie'erding Yusuf Ma Dexin Wang Daiyu Zheng He

Culture

Cuisine (Uyghur) Han Kitab Mosques Sini Uyghur Arabic Xiao'erjing

Islamic Association of China

Cities Regions

Hong Kong Kashgar Linxia Macau Ningxia Xinjiang Xunhua

Groups

Hui Uyghurs Kazakhs Dongxiangs Kyrgyz Salar Bonans Tajiks Uzbeks Tatars Utsul Tibetans

Islam in China
Islam in China
portal

v t e

The historical area of what is modern day Xinjiang
Xinjiang
consisted of the distinct areas of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
and Dzungaria, and was originally populated by Indo-European Tocharian and Iranic Saka
Saka
peoples who practiced the Buddhist
Buddhist
religion. The Turfan
Turfan
and Tarim Basins were populated by speakers of Tocharian languages,[32] with "Europoid" mummies found in the region.[33] The area was subjected to Islamicisation
Islamicisation
at the hands of Turkic Muslims. The cultural change was carried out in the 9th and 10th centuries by two different Turkic Kingdoms, the Buddhist
Buddhist
Uyghur Kingdom of Qocho
Kingdom of Qocho
and the Muslim
Muslim
Karluk Kara-Khanid Khanate. Halfway in the 10th century the Saka
Saka
Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan
Kingdom of Khotan
came under attack by the Turkic Muslim
Muslim
Karakhanid ruler Musa, and in what proved to be a pivotal moment in the Islamicisation
Islamicisation
of the Tarim Basin, the Karakhanid leader Yusuf Qadir Khan conquered Khotan
Khotan
around 1006.[34] Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs
Uyghurs
as physically Mongoloid, giving as an example the images in Bezeklik
Bezeklik
at temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons, until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original eastern Iranian inhabitants.[35] The modern Uyghurs are now a mixed ethnic group of East Asian Mongoloid
Mongoloid
and Europoid Caucasian populations.[36][37][38] Mongol
Mongol
period[edit] See also: Mongol
Mongol
Empire, Yuan dynasty, Chagatai Khanate, Moghulistan, Kara Del, Yarkent Khanate, and Dzungar Khanate

Mongol
Mongol
states, 14th–17th century: 1.Northern Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
2. Four Oirat. 3. Moghulistan
Moghulistan
4.Qara Del

After Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
unified Mongolia
Mongolia
and began his advance west, the Uyghur state in the Turpan-Urumchi area offered its allegiance to the Mongols
Mongols
in 1209, contributing taxes and troops to the Mongol
Mongol
imperial effort. In return, the Uyghur rulers retained control of their kingdom. By contrast, Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
conquered the Qara Khitai in 1218. During the era of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, the Yuan dynasty vied with the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
for rule over the area, with the latter taking control of most of this region. After the break-up of the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
into smaller khanates in the mid-14th century, the region fractured and was ruled by numerous Persianized Mongol
Mongol
Khans simultaneously, including the ones of Moghulistan
Moghulistan
(with the assistance of the local Dughlat Emirs), Uigurstan (later Turpan), and Kashgaria. These leaders engaged in wars with each other and the Timurids of Transoxania
Transoxania
to the west and the Oirats
Oirats
to the east, the successor Chagatai regime based in Mongolia
Mongolia
and in China. In the 17th century, the Dzungars
Dzungars
established an empire over much of the region. The Mongolian Dzungar was the collective identity of several Oirat tribes that formed and maintained one of the last nomadic empires. The Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
covered the area called Dzungaria
Dzungaria
and stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China
Great Wall of China
to present-day eastern Kazakhstan, and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
to southern Siberia. Most of this area was only renamed "Xinjiang" by the Chinese after the fall of the Dzungar Empire. It existed from the early 17th century to the mid-18th century. The Turkic Muslim
Muslim
sedentary people of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
were originally ruled by the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
while the nomadic Buddhist
Buddhist
Oirat Mongol in Dzungaria
Dzungaria
ruled over the Dzungar Khanate. The Naqshbandi Sufi Khojas, descendants of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, had replaced the Chagatayid Khans as the ruling authority of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in the early 17th century. There was a struggle between two factions of Khojas, the Afaqi (White Mountain) faction and the Ishaqi (Black Mountain) faction. The Ishaqi defeated the Afaqi, which resulted in the Afaq Khoja
Afaq Khoja
inviting the 5th Dalai Lama, the leader of the Tibetans, to intervene on his behalf in 1677. The 5th Dalai Lama
5th Dalai Lama
then called upon his Dzungar Buddhist
Buddhist
followers in the Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
to act on this invitation. The Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
then conquered the Tarim Basin in 1680, setting up the Afaqi Khoja as their puppet ruler. After converting to Islam, the descendants of the previously Buddhist Uyghurs
Uyghurs
in Turfan
Turfan
failed to retain memory of their ancestral legacy and falsely believed that the "infidel Kalmuks" (Dzungars) were the ones who built Buddhist
Buddhist
monuments in their area.[39] Qing dynasty[edit] Main article: Xinjiang
Xinjiang
under Qing rule

The Battle of Oroi-Jalatu in 1756 between the Manchu
Manchu
and Oirat armies

A scene of the Qing campaign against rebels in Altishahr, 1828

The Turkic Muslims of the Turfan
Turfan
and Kumul Oases then submitted to the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
of China, and asked China
China
to free them from the Dzungars. The Qing accepted the rulers of Turfan
Turfan
and Kumul as Qing vassals. The Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
waged war against the Dzungars
Dzungars
for decades until finally defeating them and then Qing Manchu
Manchu
Bannermen carried out the Dzungar genocide, nearly wiping them from existence and depopulating Dzungaria. The Qing then freed the Afaqi Khoja leader Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khoja Jihan from their imprisonment by the Dzungars, and appointed them to rule as Qing vassals over the Tarim Basin. The Khoja brothers decided to renege on this deal and declare themselves as independent leaders of the Tarim Basin. The Qing and the Turfan leader Emin Khoja crushed their revolt and China
China
then took full control of both Dzungaria
Dzungaria
and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
by 1759. The Manchu
Manchu
Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
of China
China
gained control over eastern Xinjiang as a result of a long struggle with the Dzungars
Dzungars
that began in the 17th century. In 1755, with the help of the Oirat nobel Amursana, the Qing attacked Ghulja
Ghulja
and captured the Dzungar khan. After Amursana's request to be declared Dzungar khan went unanswered, he led a revolt against the Qing. Over the next two years, Qing armies destroyed the remnants of the Dzungar Khanate
Dzungar Khanate
and many Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and (Hui) moved into the pacified areas.[40] The native Dzungar Oirat Mongols
Mongols
suffered heavily from the brutal campaigns and a simultaneous smallpox epidemic. One writer, Wei Yuan, described the resulting desolation in what is now northern Xinjiang as: "an empty plain for several thousand li, with no Oirat yurt except those surrendered."[41] It has been estimated that 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungars
Dzungars
were destroyed by a combination of disease and warfare,[42] and it took generations for it to recover.[43] Han and Hui
Hui
merchants were initially only allowed to trade in the Tarim Basin, while Han and Hui
Hui
settlement in the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
was banned, until the Muhammad Yusuf Khoja invasion, in 1830 when the Qing rewarded the merchants for fighting off Khoja by allowing them to settle down.[44] Robert Michell noted that in 1870 there were many Chinese of all occupations living in Dzungaria
Dzungaria
and they were well settled in the area, while in Turkestan (Tarim Basin) there were only a few Chinese merchants and soldiers in several garrisons among the Muslim
Muslim
population.[45] After reconquering Xinjiang
Xinjiang
from the Tajik adventurer Yaqub Beg
Yaqub Beg
in the late 1870s, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
established Xinjiang
Xinjiang
("new frontier") as a province in 1884,[46] formally applying to it the political systems of the rest of China
China
and dropping the old names of Zhunbu (準部, Dzungar region) and Huijiang, "Muslimland."[47][48] After Xinjiang
Xinjiang
was converted into a province by the Qing, the provincialisation and reconstruction programs initiated by the Qing resulted in the Chinese government helping Uyghurs
Uyghurs
migrate from southern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
to other areas of the province, like the area between Qitai and the capital, which was formerly nearly completely inhabited by Han Chinese, and other areas like Ürümqi, Tacheng
Tacheng
(Tabarghatai), Yili, Jinghe, Kur Kara Usu, Ruoqiang, Lop Nor, and the Tarim River's lower reaches.[49] It was during Qing times that Uyghurs
Uyghurs
were settled throughout all of Xinjiang, from their original home cities in the western Tarim Basin. Republic of China[edit] See also: History of the Republic of China; Sinkiang Province, Republic of China; First East Turkestan
East Turkestan
Republic; and Second East Turkestan Republic

Governor Sheng Shicai
Sheng Shicai
ruled between 1933 and 1944

Kuomintang
Kuomintang
in Xinjiang, 1942

In 1912, the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was replaced by the Republic of China. Yuan Dahua, the last Qing governor of Xinjiang, fled. One of his subordinates, Yang Zengxin, took control of the province and acceded in name to the Republic of China
China
in March of the same year. Through Machiavellian
Machiavellian
politics and clever balancing of mixed ethnic constituencies, Yang maintained control over Xinjiang
Xinjiang
until his assassination in 1928 after the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
of the Kuomintang.[50] The Kumul Rebellion
Kumul Rebellion
and other rebellions arose against his successor Jin Shuren
Jin Shuren
in the early 1930s throughout Xinjiang, involving Uyghurs, other Turkic groups, and Hui
Hui
(Muslim) Chinese. Jin drafted White Russians
Russians
to crush the revolt. In the Kashgar
Kashgar
region on November 12, 1933, the short-lived self-proclaimed First East Turkistan Republic was declared, after some debate over whether the proposed independent state should be called "East Turkestan" or "Uyghuristan".[51][52] The region claimed by the ETR in theory encompassed Kashgar, Khotan
Khotan
and Aqsu prefectures in southwestern Xinjiang.[53] The Chinese Muslim Kuomintang
Kuomintang
36th Division (National Revolutionary Army)
36th Division (National Revolutionary Army)
destroyed the army of the First East Turkestan Republic
First East Turkestan Republic
at the Battle of Kashgar (1934), bringing the Republic to an end after the Chinese Muslims executed the two Emirs of the Republic, Abdullah Bughra
Abdullah Bughra
and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
invaded the province in the Soviet Invasion of Xinjiang. In the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
War (1937), the entire province was brought under the control of northeast Han warlord Sheng Shicai, who ruled Xinjiang
Xinjiang
for the next decade with close support from the Soviet Union, many of whose ethnic and security policies Sheng instituted in Xinjiang. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
maintained a military base in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and had several military and economic advisors deployed in the region. Sheng invited a group of Chinese Communists
Chinese Communists
to Xinjiang, including Mao Zedong's brother Mao Zemin, but in 1943, fearing a conspiracy, Sheng executed them all, including Mao Zemin. In 1944, then the President and Premier of China
China
Chiang Kai-shek, was informed of Shicai's intention of joining the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by Soviets, decided to shift him out of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
to Chongqing
Chongqing
as the Minister of Agriculture and Forest.[54] More than one decade of Sheng's era had stopped. However, a short-lived Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic was established in that year, which lasted until 1949 in what is now Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
(Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay Districts) in northern Xinjiang. Modern China
China
(People's Republic of China)[edit] See also: Incorporation of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
into the People's Republic of China
China
and Migration to Xinjiang

The Soviet-backed Second East Turkestan Republic
Second East Turkestan Republic
existed in what is now the Ili, Tarbagatay and Altay districts of Xinjiang

During the Ili Rebellion the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
backed Uyghur separatists to form the Second East Turkistan Republic
Second East Turkistan Republic
(2nd ETR) in Ili region while the majority of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
was under Republic of China
China
Kuomintang control.[51] The People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
entered Xinjiang
Xinjiang
in 1949 and the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
commander Tao Zhiyue surrendered the province to them.[52] Five ETR leaders who were to negotiate with the Chinese over the ETR's sovereignty died in an air crash in 1949 in Soviet airspace over the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.[55] The autonomous region of the PRC was established on October 1, 1955, replacing the province.[52] In 1955 (the first modern census in China was taken in 1953), Uyghurs
Uyghurs
were counted as 73% of Xinjiang's total population of 5.11 million.[56] Although Xinjiang
Xinjiang
as a whole is designated as a "Uyghur Autonomous Region", since 1954 more than 50% of Xinjiang's land area are designated autonomous areas for 13 native non-Uyghur groups.[57] The modern Uyghur people
Uyghur people
experienced ethnogenesis especially from 1955, when the PRC officially recognized that ethnic category – in opposition to the Han – of formerly separately self-identified oasis peoples.[58] Southern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is home to the majority of the Uyghur population (about nine million people). The majority of the Han (90%) population of Xinjiang, which is mostly urban, are in Northern Xinjiang.[59][60] This situation has been followed by an imbalance in the economic situation between the two ethnic groups, since the Northern Junghar Basin (Dzungaria) has been more developed than the Uygher south.[61] Since the china economic reform from the late 1970s has exacerbated uneven regional development, more Uyghurs
Uyghurs
have migrated to Xinjiang cities and some Hans have also migrated to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
for independent economic advancement. Increased ethnic contact and labor competition coincided with Uyghur separatist terrorism from the 1990s, such as the 1997 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bus bombings.[62] In 2000, Uyghurs
Uyghurs
comprised 45% of Xinjiang's population, but only 13% of Ürümqi's population. Despite having 9% of Xinjiang's population, Ürümqi
Ürümqi
accounts for 25% of the region's GDP, and many rural Uyghurs have been migrating to that city to seek work in the dominant light, heavy, and petrochemical industries.[63] Hans in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
are demographically older, better-educated, and work in higher-paying professions than their Uyghur cohabitants. Hans are more likely to cite business reasons for moving to Ürümqi, while some Uyghurs
Uyghurs
also cite trouble with the law back home and family reasons for their moving to Ürümqi.[64] Hans and Uyghurs
Uyghurs
are equally represented in Ürümqi's floating population that works mostly in commerce. Self-segregation
Self-segregation
within the city is widespread, in terms of residential concentration, employment relationships, and a social norm of endogamy.[65] In 2010, Uyghurs
Uyghurs
constituted a majority in the Tarim Basin, and a mere plurality in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
as a whole.[66] In recent years, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
has been a focal point of ethnic and other tensions.[67][68] Recent incidents include the 2007 Xinjiang
Xinjiang
raid,[69] a thwarted 2008 suicide bombing attempt on a China
China
Southern Airlines flight,[70] and the 2008 Xinjiang attack
2008 Xinjiang attack
which resulted in the deaths of sixteen police officers four days before the Beijing Olympics.[71][72] Culturally, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
maintains 81 public libraries and 23 museums, compared to none of each in 1949, and Xinjiang
Xinjiang
has 98 newspapers in 44 languages, up from 4 newspapers in 1952. According to official statistics, the ratios of doctors, medical workers, medical clinics, and hospital beds to people surpass the national average, and immunization rates have reached 85%.[73] Administrative divisions[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of administrative divisions of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and List of township-level divisions of Xinjiang. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is divided into thirteen prefecture-level divisions: four prefecture-level cities, six prefectures, and five autonomous prefectures (including the sub-provincial autonomous prefecture of Ili, which in turn has two of the seven prefectures within its jurisdiction) for Mongol, Kyrgyz, Kazakh and Hui
Hui
minorities. These are then divided into 13 districts, 24 county-level cities, 62 counties, and 6 autonomous counties. Eight of the county-level cities do not belong to any prefecture, and are de facto administered by the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Production and Construction Corps. Sub-level divisions of the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region is shown in the adjacent picture and described in the table below:

Administrative divisions of Xinjiang

№ Division code[74] English name Uyghur Latin Yéziqi SASM/GNC Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[75] Population 2010[76] Seat Divisions[77]

Districts Counties Aut. counties CL cities

  650000 Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni 新疆维吾尔自治区 Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū 1664900.00 21,813,334 Ürümqi 13 62 6 24

2 650100 Ürümqi ئۈرۈمچى شەھىرى Ürümchi Shehiri Ürümqi
Ürümqi
Xäĥiri 乌鲁木齐市 Wūlǔmùqí Shì 13787.90 3,110,280 Tianshan District 7 1

3 650200 Karamay قاراماي شەھىرى Qaramay Shehiri K̂aramay Xäĥiri 克拉玛依市 Kèlāmǎyī Shì 8654.08 391,008 Karamay
Karamay
District 4

6 650400 Turpan تۇرپان شەھىرى Turpan
Turpan
Shehiri Turpan
Turpan
Xäĥiri 吐鲁番市 Tǔlǔfān Shì 67562.91 622,679 Gaochang
Gaochang
District 1 2

7 650500 Hami قۇمۇل شەھىرى Qumul Shehiri K̂umul Xäĥiri 哈密市 Hāmì Shì 142094.88 572,400 Yizhou District 1

1 1

12 652300 Changji
Changji
Hui Autonomous Prefecture سانجى خۇيزۇ ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى Sanji Xuyzu Aptonom Oblasti Sanji Huyzu Aptonom Oblasti 昌吉回族自治州 Chāngjí Huízú Zìzhìzhōu 73139.75 1,428,592 Changji

4 1 2

11 652700 Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture بۆرتالا موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى Börtala Mongghul Aptonom Oblasti Börtala Mongĝul Aptonom Oblasti 博尔塔拉蒙古自治州 Bó'ěrtǎlā Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu 24934.33 443,680 Bole / Bortala

2

2

14 652800 Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture بايىنغولىن موڭغۇل ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى Bayingholin Mongghul Aptonom Oblasti Bayinĝolin Mongĝul Aptonom Oblasti 巴音郭楞蒙古自治州 Bāyīnguōlèng Měnggǔ Zìzhìzhōu 470954.25 1,278,492 Korla

7 1 1

9 652900 Aksu Prefecture ئاقسۇ ۋىلايىتى Aqsu Wilayiti Ak̂su Vilayiti 阿克苏地区 Ākèsū Dìqū 127144.91 2,370,887 Aksu

8

1

13 653000 Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture قىزىلسۇ قىرغىز ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى Qizilsu Qirghiz Aptonom Oblasti K̂izilsu K̂irĝiz Aptonom Oblasti 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州 Kèzīlèsū Kē'ěrkèzī Zìzhìzhōu 72468.08 525,599 Artux

3

1

8 653100 Kashgar
Kashgar
/ Kashi Prefecture قەشقەر ۋىلايىتى Qeshqer Wilayiti K̂äxk̂är Vilayiti 喀什地区 Kāshí Dìqū 137578.51 3,979,362 Kashgar
Kashgar
/ Kashi

10 1 1

10 653200 Hotan
Hotan
Prefecture خوتەن ۋىلايىتى Hoten Wilayiti Hotän Vilayiti 和田地区 Hétián Dìqū 249146.59 2,014,365 Hotan

7

1

1 654000 Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture ئىلى قازاق ئاپتونوم ئوبلاستى Ili Qazaq Aptonom Oblasti Ili K̂azak̂ Aptonom Oblasti 伊犁哈萨克自治州 Yīlí Hāsàkè Zìzhìzhōu 56381.53 * 2,482,627 * Gulja / Yining

7 * 1 * 3 *

5 654200 Tacheng Prefecture
Tacheng Prefecture
* تارباغاتاي ۋىلايىتى Tarbaghatay Wilayiti Tarbaĝatay Vilayiti 塔城地区 Tǎchéng Dìqū 94698.18 1,219,212 Tacheng

4 1 2

4 654300 Altay Prefecture
Altay Prefecture
* ئالتاي ۋىلايىتى Altay Wilayiti Altay Vilayiti 阿勒泰地区 Ālètài Dìqū 117699.01 526,980 Altay

6

1

15 659001 Shihezi
Shihezi
** شىخەنزە شەھىرى Shixenze Shehiri Xihänzä Xäĥiri 石河子市 Shíhézǐ Shì 456.84 635,582 Hongshan Subdistrict

1

18 659002 Aral ** ئارال شەھىرى Aral Shehiri Aral Xäĥiri 阿拉尔市 Ālā'ěr Shì 5266.00 166,205 Jinyinchuan Road Subdistrict

1

17 659003 Tumxuk
Tumxuk
** تۇمشۇق شەھىرى Tumshuq Shehiri Tumxuk̂ Xäĥiri 图木舒克市 Túmùshūkè Shì 1927.00 147,465 Qiganquele Subdistrict

1

16 659004 Wujiaqu
Wujiaqu
** ۋۇجياچۈ شەھىرى Wujyachü Shehiri Vujyaqü Xäĥiri 五家渠市 Wǔjiāqú Shì 740.00 72,613 Renmin Road Subdistrict

1

19 659005 Beitun ** بەيتۈن شەھىرى Beatün Shehiri Bäatün Xäĥiri 北屯市 Běitún Shì 910.50 76,300 Beitun Town

1

20 659006 Tiemenguan ** باشئەگىم شەھىرى Bashegym Shehiri Baxägym Xäĥiri 铁门关市 Tiĕménguān Shì 590.27 50,000 Chengqu Subdistrict

1

21 659007 Shuanghe
Shuanghe
** قوشئۆگۈز شەھىرى Qoshögüz Shehiri K̂oxögüz Xäĥiri 双河市 Shuānghé Shì 742.18 53,800 Tasierhai Town

1

22 659008 Kokdala
Kokdala
** كۆكدالا شەھىرى Kökdala Shehiri Kökdala Xäĥiri 可克达拉市 Kěkèdálā Shì 979.71 75,000 Kokdala
Kokdala
Town

1

23 659009 Kunyu ** قۇرۇمقاش شەھىرى Qurumqash Shehiri Kurumkax Xäĥiri 昆玉市 Kūnyù Shì 687.13 47,500 Kunyu Town

1

  Sub-provincial prefecture * – Altay Prefecture
Altay Prefecture
or Tacheng Prefecture
Tacheng Prefecture
are subordinate to Ili Prefecture. / The population or area figures do not include Altay Prefecture or Tacheng Prefecture
Tacheng Prefecture
which are subordinate to Ili Prefecture. ** – Directly administered county-level divisions by the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps

Geography and geology[edit]

Close to Karakoram
Karakoram
Highway in Xinjiang.

Tianchi lake.

Black Irtysh
Irtysh
river in Burqin County
Burqin County
is a famous spot for sightseeing.

Flaming Mountains.

Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
and Muztagh Ata.

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is the largest political subdivision of China
China
— it accounts for more than one sixth of China's total territory and a quarter of its boundary length. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is mostly covered with uninhabitable deserts and dry grasslands, with dotted oases at the foot of Tian Shan, Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains
and Altai Mountains. The inhabitable oasis accounts for 9.7% of Xinjiang's total area by 2015.[9] Mountain systems and basins[edit] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is split by the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountain range (تەڭرى تاغ, Тәңри Тағ, Tengri Tagh), which divides it into two large basins: the Dzungarian Basin
Dzungarian Basin
in the north, and the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
in the south. A small V-shaped wedge between these two major basins, limited by the Tian Shan's main range in the south and the Borohoro Mountains in the north, is the basin of the Ili River, which flows into Kazakhstan's Lake Balkhash; an even smaller wedge farther north is the Emin Valley. Other major mountain ranges of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
include the Pamir Mountains and Karakoram
Karakoram
in the southwest, the Kunlun Mountains
Kunlun Mountains
in the south (along the border with Tibet), and the Altai Mountains
Altai Mountains
in the northeast (shared with Mongolia). The region's highest point is the mountain K2, 8611 metres above sea level, in the Karakoram
Karakoram
Mountains on the border with Pakistan. Much of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
is dominated by the Taklamakan Desert. North of it is the Turpan
Turpan
Depression, which contains the lowest point in Xinjiang, and in the entire PRC, at 155 metres below sea level. The Dzungarian Basin
Dzungarian Basin
is slightly cooler, and receives somewhat more precipitation, than the Tarim Basin. Nonetheless, it, too, has a large Gurbantünggüt Desert
Gurbantünggüt Desert
(also known as Dzoosotoyn Elisen) in its center. The Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountain range marks the Xinjiang- Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
border at the Torugart Pass
Torugart Pass
(3752 m). The Karakorum highway
Karakorum highway
(KKH) links Islamabad, Pakistan
Pakistan
with Kashgar
Kashgar
over the Khunjerab Pass. Geology[edit] Most of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is young geologically, having been formed from the collision of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, forming the Tian Shan, Kunlun Shan, and Pamir mountain ranges. Consequently, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is a major earthquake zone. Older geological formations occur principally in the far north, where the Junggar Block is geologically part of Kazakhstan, and in the east, which is part of the North China Craton. Center of the continent[edit] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
has within its borders, in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert, the location in Eurasia
Eurasia
that is furthest from the sea in any direction (a continental pole of inaccessibility): 46°16.8′N 86°40.2′E / 46.2800°N 86.6700°E / 46.2800; 86.6700 (Eurasian pole of inaccessibility). It is at least 1,645 miles (2,647 km) (straight-line distance) from any coastline. In 1992, local geographers determined another point within Xinjiang – 43°40′52″N 87°19′52″E / 43.68111°N 87.33111°E / 43.68111; 87.33111 in the southwestern suburbs of Ürümqi, Ürümqi
Ürümqi
County – to be the "center point of Asia". A monument to this effect was then erected there and the site has become a local tourist attraction.[78] Rivers and lakes[edit] Due to the hot summer and low precipitation, most of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is endorheic, i.e. its rivers either disappear in the desert, or terminate in salt lakes (within Xinjiang
Xinjiang
itself, or in the neighboring Kazakhstan), instead of flowing toward an ocean. The only exception is the northernmost part of the region, where the Irtysh
Irtysh
River, originating in the Altai Mountains, flows (via Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia) toward the Arctic Ocean. Even then, a significant part of this river's waters is now artificially diverted, via the Irtysh–Karamay– Ürümqi
Ürümqi
Canal, to the drier areas of southern Dzungarian Basin. Elsewhere, most of Xinjiang's rivers are comparatively short streams fed by the snows of the several ranges of the Tian Shan. Once they enter the populated areas in the mountains' foothills, their waters are extensively used for irrigation, so that the river often disappears in the desert instead of reaching the lake to whose basin it nominally belongs. This is the case even with the main river of the Tarim Basin, the Tarim, which has been dammed at a number of locations along its course, and whose waters have been completely diverted before they can reach the Lop Lake. In the Dzungarian basin, a similar situation occurs with most rivers that historically flowed into Lake Manas. Some of the salt lakes, having lost much of their fresh water inflow, are now extensively use for the production of mineral salts (used e.g., in the manufacturing of potassium fertilizers); this includes the Lop Lake
Lop Lake
and the Manas Lake. Time[edit] Main articles: Xinjiang Time
Xinjiang Time
and Time in China
China
§ Xinjiang Officially, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is on the same time zone as the rest of China, Beijing
Beijing
Time (UTC+8). However, being roughly two time zones west of the capital, some residents, local organization and local government follow another time standard known as Xinjiang Time
Xinjiang Time
(UTC+6).[79] The division follows ethnic lines, with Han tending to use Beijing
Beijing
Time and Uyghurs
Uyghurs
tending to use Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Time; this is seen as a form of resistance to the central government.[80] But regardless of preference in which time standard, most businesses and schools open and close two hours later than their equivalents in other regions of China.[81] Deserts[edit] Deserts include:

Gurbantünggüt Desert, also known as Dzoosotoyn Elisen Taklamakan Desert Kumtag Desert, east of Taklamakan

Major cities[edit] Due to the water situation, most of Xinjiang's population lives within fairly narrow belts that are stretched along the foothills of the region's mountain ranges, where irrigated agriculture can be practised. It is in these belts where most of the region's cities are found.

Largest cities and towns of Xinjiang

Ürümqi Turpan Kashgar Karamay Ghulja Shihezi Hotan Atush Aksu Korla

Climate[edit] Generally, a semi-arid or desert climate (Köppen BSk or BWk, respectively) prevails in Xinjiang. The entire region is marked by great seasonal differences in temperature and cold winters. During the summer, the Turpan Depression usually records the hottest temperatures nationwide,[82] with air temperatures easily exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). In the far north, and at the highest mountain elevations, however, winter temperatures regularly drop below −20 °C (−4 °F). Continuous permafrost is typically found in the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
starting at the elevation of about 3,500–3,700 m above sea level. Discontinuous alpine permafrost usually occurs down to 2,700–3,300 m, but in certain locations, due to the peculiarity of the aspect and the microclimate, it can be found at elevations as low as 2,000 m.[83] Bordering regions[edit]

See the "Geographic location" template below.

Politics[edit] Further information: List of current Chinese provincial leaders

Secretaries of the CPC Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Committee

1949–1952 Wang Zhen (王震) 1952–1967 Wang Enmao (王恩茂) 1970–1972 Long Shujin (龙书金) 1972–1978 Saifuddin Azizi
Saifuddin Azizi
(赛福鼎•艾则孜,سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى) 1978–1981 Wang Feng (汪锋) 1981–1985 Wang Enmao (王恩茂) 1985–1994 Song Hanliang (宋汉良) 1994–2010 Wang Lequan
Wang Lequan
(王乐泉) 2010–2016 Zhang Chunxian (张春贤) 2016–present Chen Quanguo (陈全国)

Chairmen of the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Government

Nur Bekri, Chairman of the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Government between 2007 and 2015

1955–1967 Saifuddin Azizi
Saifuddin Azizi
(赛福鼎•艾则孜,سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى) 1968–1972 Long Shujin (龙书金) 1972–1978 Saifuddin Azizi
Saifuddin Azizi
(赛福鼎•艾则孜,سەيپىدىن ئەزىزى) 1978–1979 Wang Feng (汪锋) 1979–1985 Ismail Amat (司马义•艾买提, ئىسمائىل ئەھمەد) 1985–1993 Tömür Dawamat (铁木尔•达瓦买提, تۆمۈر داۋامەت) 1993–2003 Abdul'ahat Abdulrixit (阿不来提•阿不都热西提, ئابلەت ئابدۇرىشىت) 2003–2007 Ismail Tiliwaldi (司马义•铁力瓦尔地, ئىسمائىل تىلىۋالدى) 2007–2015 Nur Bekri
Nur Bekri
(努尔•白克力, نۇر بەكرى) 2015–present Shohrat Zakir (雪克来提·扎克尔, شۆھرەت زاكىر)

Human rights issue[edit] Main article: Human rights in China See also: Law of the People's Republic of China Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
has documented the denial of due legal process and fair trials and failure to hold genuinely open trials as mandated by law e.g. to suspects arrested following ethnic violence in the city of Ürümqi's 2009 riots.[84] Economy[edit]

The distribution map of Xinjiang's GDP per person (2011)

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
is a major industrial center within Xinjiang.

Wind farm
Wind farm
in Xinjiang

Sunday market in Khotan

Play media

Uyghur blacksmiths in Yengisar

Traditionally an agricultural region, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
also has large deposits of minerals and oil. Xinjiang's nominal GDP was approximately 932.4 billion RMB (US$140 billion) as of 2015 with an average annual increase of 10.4% for the past four years,[85] due to exploration of the regions abundant reserves of coal, crude oil, and natural gas and the China
China
Western Development policy introduced by the State Council to boost economic development in Western China.[86] Its per capita GDP for 2009 was 19,798 RMB (2,898 USD), with a growth rate of 1.7%.[86] Southern Xinjiang, with 95% non-Han population, has an average per capita income half that of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
as a whole.[87] In July 2010, China Daily
China Daily
reported that:

Local governments in China's 19 provinces and municipalities, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangdong, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and Liaoning, are engaged in the commitment of "pairing assistance" support projects in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
to promote the development of agriculture, industry, technology, education and health services in the region.[88]

Agriculture and fishing[edit] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
has long been a major area of irrigated agriculture. By 2015, the agricultural land area of the region is 631 thousand km2 or 63.1 million ha, of which 6.1 million ha is arable land.[89] In 2016, the total cultivated land rose to 6.2 million ha, with the crop production reaching 15.1 million tons.[90] Traditionally, wheat was the main staple crop of the region; maize was grown as well; millet was found in the south, while only a few areas (in particular, Aksu) grew rice.[91] By the late 19th century, cotton became an important crop in several oases, notably Khotan, Yarkand, and Turpan.[91] Sericulture
Sericulture
is also practiced.[92] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is nationally known for its fruits and produce, including grapes, melons, pears, walnuts. Particularly famous are Hami melons and Turpan
Turpan
raisins. The main livestock of the region have traditionally been sheep. Much of the region's pasture land is in its northern part, where more precipitation is available,[93] but there are mountain pastures throughout the region. Due to the lack of access to the ocean, and limited amount of inland water, Xinjiang's fish resources are somewhat limited. Nonetheless, there is a significant amount of fishing in Lake Ulungur
Lake Ulungur
and Lake Bosten and in the Irtysh
Irtysh
River. A large number of fish ponds have been constructed since the 1970s, their total surface exceeding 10,000 hectares by the 1990s. In 2000, the total of 58,835 tons of fish was produced in Xinjiang, 85% of which came from aquaculture.[94] In the past, the Lop Lake
Lop Lake
was known for its fisheries, and the area residents, for their fishing culture; now, due to the diversion of the waters of the Tarim River, the lake has dried out. Mining and minerals[edit] In the late 19th century the region was noted for producing salt, soda, borax, gold, jade and coal.[95] The oil and gas extraction industry in Aksu and Karamay
Karamay
is booming, with the West–East Gas Pipeline connecting to Shanghai. The oil and petrochemical sector account for 60% of Xinjiang's local economy.[96] Containing over a fifth of China's coal, natural gas and oil resources, Xinjiang
Xinjiang
has the highest concentration of fossil fuel reserves of any region in the country.[97] Foreign trade[edit] Xinjiang's exports amounted to 19.3 billion USD, while imports turned out to be 2.9 billion USD in 2008. Most of the overall import/export volume in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
was directed to and from Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
through Ala Pass. China's first border free trade zone (Horgos Free Trade Zone) was located at the Xinjiang- Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
border city of Horgos.[98] Horgos is the largest "land port" in China's western region and it has easy access to the Central Asian market. Xinjiang
Xinjiang
also opened its second border trade market to Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
in March 2006, the Jeminay Border Trade Zone.[99] Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit] See also: List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP
List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP
per capita

Bole Border Economic Cooperation Area[100] Shihezi
Shihezi
Border Economic Cooperation Area[101] Tacheng
Tacheng
Border Economic Cooperation Area[102]

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
Diwopu International Airport

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
Economic & Technological Development Zone is northwest of Ürümqi. It was approved in 1994 by the State Council as a national level economic and technological development zones. It is 1.5 km (0.93 mi) from the Ürümqi
Ürümqi
International Airport, 2 km (1.2 mi) from the North Railway Station, and 10 km (6.2 mi) from the city center. Wu Chang Expressway and 312 National Road passes through the zone. The development has unique resources and geographical advantages. Xinjiang's vast land, rich in resources, borders eight countries. As the leading economic zone, it brings together the resources of Xinjiang's industrial development, capital, technology, information, personnel and other factors of production.[103] Ürümqi
Ürümqi
Export Processing Zone is in Urumuqi Economic and Technology Development Zone. It was established in 2007 as a state-level export processing zone.[104] Ürümqi
Ürümqi
New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1992, and it is the only high-tech development zone in Xinjiang, China. There are more than 3470 enterprises in the zone, of which 23 are Fortune 500 companies. It has a planned area of 9.8 km2 (3.8 sq mi), and it is divided into four zones. There are plans to expand the zone.[105] Yining
Yining
Border Economic Cooperation Area[106]

Culture[edit] See also: Major national historical and cultural sites (Xinjiang) Demographics[edit] Main article: Migration to Xinjiang

Distribution of ethnic Uyghers in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region

The languages of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region

Three Uyghur girls at a Sunday market in the oasis city Khotan

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1912[107] 2,098,000 —    

1928[108] 2,552,000 +21.6%

1936–37[109] 4,360,000 +70.8%

1947[110] 4,047,000 −7.2%

1954[111] 4,873,608 +20.4%

1964[112] 7,270,067 +49.2%

1982[113] 13,081,681 +79.9%

1990[114] 15,155,778 +15.9%

2000[115] 18,459,511 +21.8%

2010[116] 21,813,334 +18.2%

The earliest Tarim mummies, dated to 1800 BC, are of a Caucasoid physical type.[117] East Asian migrants arrived in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
about 3,000 years ago, while the Uygher peoples arrived after the collapse of the Orkon Uygher Kingdom, based in modern-day Mongolia, around the year 842.[118][119] Muslim
Muslim
Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
include Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Tatars and the Kazakhs; Muslim
Muslim
Iranian peoples
Iranian peoples
include Pamiris
Pamiris
and the Sarikolis/Wakhis (often conflated as Pamiris); and Muslim
Muslim
Sino-Tibetan peoples such as the Hui. Other PRC ethnic groups in the region include Hans, Mongols
Mongols
(Oirats, Daurs, Dongxiangs), Russians, Xibes, and Manchus. Around 70,000 Russian immigrants were living in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
in 1945.[120] The Han Chinese
Han Chinese
of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
arrived at different times, from different directions and social backgrounds: They are descendants of criminals and officials who had been exiled from China
China
proper during the second half of the eighteenth and first half of the 19th centuries; descendants of families of military and civil officers from Hunan, Yunnan, Gansu
Gansu
and Manchuria; descendants of merchants from Shanxi, Tianjin, Hubei
Hubei
and Hunan
Hunan
and descendants of peasants who started immigrating into the region in 1776.[121] Some Uygher scholars claim descent from both the Turkic Uyghers and the pre-Turkic Tocharians
Tocharians
(or Tokharians, whose language was Indo-European), and relatively fair-skin, hair and eyes, as well as other so-called 'Caucasoid' physical traits, are not uncommon among them. In general Uyghurs
Uyghurs
resemble those peoples who live around them in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Pakistan. In 2002, there were 9,632,600 males (growth rate of 1.0%) and 9,419,300 females (growth rate of 2.2%). The population overall growth rate was 1.09%, with 1.63% of birth rate and 0.54% mortality rate. The Qing began a process of settling Han, Hui, and Uyghur settlers into Northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Dzungaria) starting in the 18th century. At the start of the 19th century, 40 years after the Qing reconquest, there were around 155,000 Han and Hui
Hui
Chinese in northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and somewhat more than twice that number of Uyghurs
Uyghurs
in southern Xinjiang.[122] A census of Xinjiang under Qing rule
Xinjiang under Qing rule
in the early 19th century tabulated ethnic shares of the population as 30% Han and 60% Turkic, while it dramatically shifted to 6% Han and 75% Uyghur in the 1953 census. However, a situation similar to the Qing era-demographics with a large number of Han had been restored by 2000 with 40.57% Han and 45.21% Uyghur.[123] Professor Stanley W. Toops noted that today's demographic situation is similar to that of the early Qing period in Xinjiang.[124] Before 1831, only a few hundred Chinese merchants lived in southern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
oases (Tarim Basin) and only a few Uyghurs
Uyghurs
lived in northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Dzungaria).[125] After 1831 the Qing permitted and encouraged Han Chinese
Han Chinese
migration into the Tarim basin in southern Xinjiang, although with very little success, and stationed permanent troops on the land there as well.[126] Political killings and expulsions of non Uyghur populations in the uprisings of the 1860s[126] and 1930s saw them experience a sharp decline as a percentage of the total population[127] though they rose once again in the periods of stability following 1880 (which saw Xinjiang
Xinjiang
increase its population from 1.2 million)[128][129] and 1949. From a low of 7% in 1953, the Han began to return to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
between then and 1964, where they comprised 33% of the population (54% Uyghur), similarly to Qing times. A decade later, at the beginning of the Chinese economic reform in 1978, the demographic balance was 46% Uyghur and 40% Han;[123] this has not changed drastically until the last census in 2000, with the Uyghur population reduced to 42%.[130] Military personnel are not counted and national minorities are undercounted in the Chinese census, as in most censuses.[131] While some of the shift has been attributed to an increased Han presence,[132] Uyghurs
Uyghurs
have also emigrated to other parts of China, where their numbers have increased steadily. Uyghur independence activists express concern over the Han population changing the Uyghur character of the region, though the Han and Hui
Hui
Chinese mostly live in northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Dzungaria, and are separated from areas of historical Uyghur dominance south of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains (southwestern Xinjiang), where Uyghurs
Uyghurs
account for about 90% of the population.[133] In general, Uyghurs
Uyghurs
are the majority in southwestern Xinjiang, including the prefectures of Kashgar, Khotan, Kizilsu, and Aksu (about 80% of Xinjiang's Uyghurs
Uyghurs
live in those four prefectures), as well as Turpan
Turpan
prefecture in eastern Xinjiang. Han are the majority in eastern and northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Dzungaria), including the cities of Ürümqi, Karamay, Shihezi
Shihezi
and the prefectures of Changjyi, Bortala, Bayin'gholin, Ili (especially the cities of Kuitun), and Kumul. Kazakhs
Kazakhs
are mostly concentrated in Ili prefecture in northern Xinjiang. Kazakhs
Kazakhs
are the majority in the northernmost part of Xinjiang.

Ethnic groups in Xinjiang 根据2015年底人口抽查统计 [134]

Nationality Population Percentage

Uyghur 10,019,758 46.42%

Han 8,416,867 38.99%

Kazakh 1,514,814 7.02%

Hui 980,359 4.54%

Kirghiz 189,309 0.88%

Mongols Dongxiangs Daurs 179,615 0.83%

Pamiris 39,493 0.21%

Xibe 42,790 0.20%

Manchu 26,195 0.11%

Tujia 15,787 0.086%

Uzbek 16,669 0.066%

Russian 11,672 0.048%

Miao 7,006 0.038%

Tibetan 6,153 0.033%

Zhuang 5,642 0.031%

Tatar 4,883 0.024%

Salar 3,762 0.020%

Other 129,190 0.600%

Major ethnic groups in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
by region (2000 census)[b] P = Prefecture; AP = Autonomous prefecture; PLC = Prefecture-level city; DACLC = Directly administered county-level city.[135]

Uyghurs
Uyghurs
(%) Han (%) Kazakhs
Kazakhs
(%) others (%)

Xinjiang 43.6 40.6 8.3 7.5

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
PLC 11.8 75.3 3.3 9.6

Karamay
Karamay
PLC 13.8 78.1 3.7 4.5

Turpan
Turpan
Prefecture 70.0 23.3 < 0.1 6.6

Kumul Prefecture 18.4 68.9 8.8 3.9

Changji
Changji
AP + Wujiaqu
Wujiaqu
DACLC 3.9 75.1 8.0 13.0

Bortala AP 12.5 67.2 9.1 11.1

Bayin'gholin AP 32.7 57.5 < 0.1 9.7

Aksu Prefecture
Aksu Prefecture
+ Aral DACLC 71.8 26.6 0.1 1.4

Kizilsu AP 64.0 6.4 < 0.1 29.6

Kashgar
Kashgar
Prefecture + Tumushuke
Tumushuke
DACLC 89.3 9.2 < 0.1 1.5

Khotan
Khotan
Prefecture 96.4 3.3 < 0.1 0.2

Ili AP[c] 16.1 44.4 25.6 13.9

Kuitun
Kuitun
DACLC 0.5 94.6 1.8 3.1

– former Ili Prefecture 27.2 32.4 22.6 17.8

Tacheng
Tacheng
Prefecture 4.1 58.6 24.2 13.1

– Altay Prefecture 1.8 40.9 51.4 5.9

Shihezi
Shihezi
DACLC 1.2 94.5 0.6 3.7

Vital statistics[edit]

Year[136] Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)

2011 22,090,000

14.99 4.42 10.57

2012 22,330,000

15.32 4.48 10.84

2013 22,640,000

15.84 4.92 10.92

2014 22,980,000

16.44 4.97 11.47

2015 23,600,000

15.59 4.51 11.08

Religion[edit]

Religion in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(around 2010)   Islam[137] (58%)   Chinese religions, Buddhism, or not religious (41%)   Christianity[138] (1%)

The major religions in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
are Islam
Islam
among the Uyghurs
Uyghurs
and the Hui
Hui
Chinese minority, while many of the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
practice Chinese folk religions, Taoism, Confucianism
Confucianism
and Buddhism. According to a demographic analysis of the year 2010, Muslims form 58% of the province's population.[137] Christianity
Christianity
in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is the religion of 1% of the population according to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2009.[138] A majority of the Uyghur Muslims adhere to Sunni Islam
Islam
of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence or madhab. A large minority of Shias, almost exclusively of the Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili
Ismaili
(Seveners) rites are found in the higher mountains of Pamir and Tian Shan. In the western mountains (the Pamirs), almost the entire population of Pamiris, (Sarikolis and Wakhis) are Nizari
Nizari
Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia.[7] In the north, in the Tian Shan, the Kyrgyz and Kazakhs
Kazakhs
are Sunni. Afaq Khoja
Afaq Khoja
Mausoleum and Id Kah Mosque
Id Kah Mosque
in Kashgar
Kashgar
are among the most important Islamic sites in Xinjiang. Emin Minaret
Emin Minaret
is a key Islamic site, in Turfan. Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves
Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves
is a major Buddhist site.

"Heroic Gesture of the Bodhisattva", example of 6th-7th-century terracotta Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art (local populations were Buddhist) from Tumxuk, Xinjiang

Sogdian donors to the Buddha, 8th century fresco (with detail), Bezeklik, eastern Tarim Basin.

A mosque in Ürümqi

People sporting in snow by a statue of goddess Guanyin
Guanyin
in Wujiaqu

Temple of the Great Buddha in Midong, Ürümqi

Taoist Temple of Fortune and Longevity at the Heavenly Lake of Tianshan in Fukang, Changji
Changji
Hui
Hui
Autonomous Prefecture

The tomb of Afaq Khoja
Afaq Khoja
near Kashgar

Id Kah mosque in Kashgar, largest mosque in China

Media[edit] The Xinjiang Networking Transmission Limited operates the Urumqi People Broadcasting Station and the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
People Broadcasting Station, broadcasting in Mandarin, Uyghur, Kazakh and Mongolian. In 1995[update], there were 50 minority-language newspapers published in Xinjiang, including the Qapqal News, the world's only Xibe-language newspaper.[139] The Xinjiang Economic Daily is considered one of China's most dynamic newspapers.[140] For a time after the July 2009 riots, authorities placed restrictions on the internet and text messaging, gradually permitting access to state-controlled websites like Xinhua's,[141] until restoring Internet to the same level as the rest of China
China
on May 14, 2010.[142][143][144] As reported by the BBC News, " China
China
strictly controls media access to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
so reports are difficult to verify."[145] Sports[edit] Xinjiang
Xinjiang
is home to the Xinjiang Guanghui Flying Tigers
Xinjiang Guanghui Flying Tigers
professional basketball team of the Chinese Basketball Association, and to Xinjiang Tianshan Leopard F.C., a football team that plays in China
China
League One. The capital, Ürümqi, is home to the Xinjiang University
Xinjiang University
baseball team, an integrated Uyghur and Han group profiled in the documentary film Diamond in the Dunes. Transportation[edit] Roads[edit]

Karakorum highway

In 2008, according to the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Transportation Network Plan, the government has focused construction on State Road 314, Alar-Hotan Desert Highway, State Road 218, Qingshui River Line- Yining
Yining
Highway, and State Road 217, as well as other roads. The construction of the first expressway in the mountainous area of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
began a new stage in its construction on July 24, 2007. The 56 km (35 mi) highway linking Sayram Lake
Sayram Lake
and Guozi Valley in Northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
area had cost 2.39 billion yuan. The expressway is designed to improve the speed of national highway 312 in northern Xinjiang. The project started in August 2006 and several stages have been fully operational since March 2007. Over 3,000 construction workers have been involved. The 700 m-long Guozi Valley Cable Bridge over the expressway is now currently being constructed, with the 24 main pile foundations already completed. Highway 312 national highway Xinjiang
Xinjiang
section, connects Xinjiang
Xinjiang
with China's east coast, central and western Asia, plus some parts of Europe. It is a key factor in Xinjiang's economic development. The population it covers is around 40% of the overall in Xinjiang, who contribute half of the GDP in the area. The head of the Transport Department was quoted as saying that 24,800,000,000 RMB had been invested into Xinjiang's road network in 2010 alone and, by this time, the roads covered approximately 152,000 km.[146] Rail[edit]

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
South Railway Station

Kashgar
Kashgar
Railway Station

Lanzhou- Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Railway

Southern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Railway

Xinjiang's rail hub is Ürümqi. To the east, a conventional and a high-speed rail line runs through Turpan
Turpan
and Hami to Lanzhou
Lanzhou
in Gansu Province. A third outlet to the east connects Hami and Inner Mongolia. To the west, the Northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
runs along the northern footslopes of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
range through Changji, Shihezi, Kuytun
Kuytun
and Jinghe to the Kazakh border at Alashankou, where it links up with the Turkestan- Siberia
Siberia
Railway. Together, the Northern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and the Lanzhou- Xinjiang
Xinjiang
lines form part of the Trans-Eurasian Continental Railway, which extends from Rotterdam, on the North Sea, to Lianyungang, on the East China
China
Sea. The Second Ürümqi-Jinghe Railway provides additional rail transport capacity to Jinghe, from which the Jinghe-Yining-Horgos Railway
Jinghe-Yining-Horgos Railway
heads into the Ili River
Ili River
Valley to Yining, Huocheng, and Khorgos, a second rail border crossing with Kazakhstan. The Kuytun-Beitun Railway runs from Kuytun
Kuytun
north into the Junggar Basin
Junggar Basin
to Karamay
Karamay
and Beitun, near Altay. In the south, the Southern Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Line from Turpan
Turpan
runs southwest along the southern footslopes of the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
into the Tarim Basin, with stops at Yanqi, Korla, Kuqa, Aksu, Maralbexi (Bachu), Artux, and Kashgar. From Kashgar, the Kashgar- Hotan
Hotan
Railway, follows the southern rim of the Tarim to Hotan, with stops at Shule, Akto, Yengisar, Shache (Yarkant), Yecheng (Karghilik), Moyu (Karakax). The Ürümqi- Dzungaria
Dzungaria
Railway connects Ürümqi
Ürümqi
with coal fields in the eastern Junggar Basin. The Hami– Lop Nur
Lop Nur
Railway connects Hami with potassium salt mines in and around Lop Nur. The Golmud- Korla
Korla
Railway, under construction as of August 2016, would provide an outlet to Qinghai. Railways to Pakistan
Pakistan
and Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
have been proposed. East Turkestan
East Turkestan
independence movement[edit] Main articles: Xinjiang conflict
Xinjiang conflict
and East Turkestan
East Turkestan
independence movement

This flag (Kök Bayraq) has become a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement.

Some factions in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
province advocate establishing an independent country, which has caused tension and ethnic strife in the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
province.[147][148][149] The Xinjiang
Xinjiang
conflict[150] is an ongoing[151] separatist conflict in the northwestern part of China. The separatist movement claims that the region, which they view as their homeland and refer to as "East Turkestan", is not part of China, but was invaded by China
China
in 1949 and has been under Chinese occupation since then. China
China
asserts that the region has been part of China
China
since ancient times.[152] The separatist movement is led by ethnically Uyghur Muslim
Muslim
underground organizations, most notably the East Turkestan independence movement, against the Chinese government. According to the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, the two main sources for separatism in the Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Province are religion and ethnicity. Religiously, the Uyghur peoples of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
follow Islam, while in the large cities of Han China, the primary religions practiced are Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism
Taoism
or a combination of them. The other major difference and source of friction with eastern China is ethnicity. The Uyghurs
Uyghurs
are ethnically, linguistically, and culturally Turkic, a clear distinction from the Han and other ethnicities that are the majority in the eastern regions of China. Hence, there is a noticeable voice of ethnic Uyghurs
Uyghurs
who would like to separate their region from China. Ironically, the capital of Xinjiang, Ürümqi, was originally a Han and Hui
Hui
(Tungan) city with few Uyghur people before recent Uyghur migration to the city.[153] In retaliation against separatists, China
China
has engaged in "strike hard" campaigns since 1996.[154] On June 5, 2014, China
China
sentenced nine persons to death for terrorist attacks. They were seeking to overthrow Chinese rule in Xinjiang, inspired by a global jihadi ideology.[155] See also[edit]

China
China
portal Central Asia portal

Administrative divisions of China Affirmative action in China Autonomous regions of China China
China
Cotton
Cotton
Association East Turkestan East Turkestan
East Turkestan
independence movement Islamicisation
Islamicisation
of Xinjiang List of universities and colleges in Xinjiang Western Regions Xinjiang
Xinjiang
coins Xinjiang
Xinjiang
conflict Xinjiang
Xinjiang
cuisine Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Production and Construction Corps Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Wars

Notes[edit]

^ It should be noted that Bartholemew, the Scottish cartographers, as late as 1912, were using the term "Chinese Turkestan" in their world atlas (Bellér-Hann 2007, p. 34). ^ Does not include members of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
in active service. ^ Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
is composed of Kuitun
Kuitun
DACLC, Tacheng
Tacheng
Prefecture, Aletai Prefecture, as well as former Ili Prefecture. Ili Prefecture has been disbanded and its former area is now directly administered by Ili AP.

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b "6-1 自然资源划" [6-1 Overview of natural resources] (in Chinese). Statistics Bureau of Xinjiang. Retrieved 19 December 2015.  ^ Susan M. Walcott; Corey Johnson (November 1, 2013). "Where Inner Asia Meets Outer China: The Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region of China". Eurasian Corridors of Interconnection: From the South China
China
to the Caspian Sea. Routledge. pp. 64–65.  ^ "National Data". Retrieved 6 May 2015.  ^ "China". Ethnologue.  ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-14.  ^ "The Government of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uygur Autonomous Region of China".  ^ a b BBC Regions and territories: Xinjiang ^ "Turkestan". Catholic Encyclopedia. XV. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1912. Retrieved 2008-11-26.  ^ a b The area of oasis in Xinjiang
Xinjiang
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Further reading[edit]

Côté, Isabelle. "Political mobilization of a regional minority: Han Chinese settlers in Xinjiang." Ethnic and Racial Studies. 2011. Volume 34, Issue 11. DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2010.543692. p. 1855–1873. Profile page

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xinjiang.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Xinjiang.

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Travel Information Website Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Government website(in Chinese) and an additional government site Economic profile for Xinjiang
Xinjiang
at HKTDC Britannica Xinjiang General Atlas of Xinjiang

Places adjacent to Xinjiang

East Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Almaty Provinces,  Kazakhstan  Altai Republic,  Russia  Bayan-Ölgii,  Khovd and  Govi-Altai Provinces,  Mongolia

Issyk Kul, Naryn and Osh Regions,  Kyrgyzstan Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province,  Tajikistan Badakhshan Province,  Afghanistan

Xinjiang

Gansu

 Gilgit-Baltistan,  Pakistan  Jammu and Kashmir,  India Disputed region of Aksai Chin Tibet Autonomous Region Qinghai

v t e

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
topics

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(capital)

History

Yuezhi Xiongnu Han dynasty

Protectorate of the Western Regions

Kingdom of Khotan Sixteen Kingdoms Gaochang Turkic Khaganate
Turkic Khaganate
(Western) Tang dynasty

Protectorate General to Pacify the West Four Garrisons of Anxi

Tibetan Empire Uyghur Khaganate Kingdom of Qocho Kara-Khanid Khanate

Islamicisation
Islamicisation
and Turkicisation of Xinjiang

Qara Khitai Mongol
Mongol
Empire Yuan dynasty Chagatai Khanate Moghulistan Kara Del Yarkent Khanate Dzungar Khanate

Dzungar conquest of Altishahr Dzungar–Qing War Dzungar genocide

Kumul Khanate Qing dynasty

Qing rule General of Ili Reconquest of Xinjiang

Republic of China

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Wars Ili Rebellion

People's Republic of China

PRC incorporation

Geography

Cities Tian Shan Dzungarian Basin Tarim Basin Gurbantünggüt Desert Kumtag Desert Taklimakan Desert Turpan
Turpan
Depression Karakoram
Karakoram
Mountains Altai Mountains Kunlun Shan Pamir Mountains Torugart Pass Irkeshtam Pass Karakoram
Karakoram
Pass Lanzhou– Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Railway

Education

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
University Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Agricultural University Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Medical University

Culture

Doppa Festival Music Meshrep gathering Muqam

Cuisine

Dapanji Sangza Samsa Youtazi Pamirdin Xurpa Tohax Tunurkawab Chinese Islamic cuisine

Visitor attractions

Apak Khoja and Xiang Fei Tomb Flaming Mountains Jiaohe Ruins Gaochang Grand Bazaar, Ürümqi Id Kah Mosque Karakul Lake Kizil Caves Ruins of Niya

Xinjiang
Xinjiang
conflict

1989 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
unrest Baren Township riot 1992 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bombings Ghulja
Ghulja
incident 1992 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bombings 1997 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
bus bombings Xinjiang
Xinjiang
raid 2008 Uyghur unrest 2008 Kashgar
Kashgar
attack Shaoguan incident July 2009 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
riots September 2009 Xinjiang
Xinjiang
unrest 2010 Aksu bombing 2011 Hotan
Hotan
attack 2011 Kashgar
Kashgar
attacks Pishan hostage crisis 2012 Yecheng attack Tianjin
Tianjin
Airlines Flight 7554 April 2013 Bachu unrest June 2013 Shanshan
Shanshan
riots 2013 Tiananmen Square attack 2014 Kunming attack 2014 China–Vietnam border shootout April 2014 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
attack May 2014 Ürümqi
Ürümqi
attack Assassination of Juma Tayir

People

Amursana Mingrui Jahangir Khoja Yaqub Beg Zuo Zongtang Yang Zengxin Jin Shuren Sheng Shicai Ehmetjan Qasim Wang Zhen Saifuddin Azizi Rebiya Kadeer Nur Bekri Li Zhi Wang Lequan Zhang Chunxian Ilham Tohti

Related

Uyghur people Migration to Xinjiang East Turkestan

Independence movement

World Uyghur Congress China– Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
relations China– Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
relations China– Pakistan
Pakistan
relations China–Turkey relations

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region

Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(capital)

Prefecture-level cities

Ürümqi

Tianshan District Saybagh District Xinshi District Shuimogou District Toutunhe District Dabancheng District Midong District Ürümqi
Ürümqi
County

Karamay

Karamay
Karamay
District Dushanzi District Baijiantan District Urho District

Turpan

Gaochang
Gaochang
District Toksun County Shanshan
Shanshan
County

Hami

Yizhou District Yiwu (Aratürük) County Barköl Autonomous County

Sub-provincial autonomous prefecture

Ili (Yili)

Yining
Yining
(Ghulja) City Khorgas
Khorgas
City Kuytun
Kuytun
City Yining
Yining
(Ghulja) County Huocheng
Huocheng
County Gongliu County Xinyuan County Zhaosu (Mongolküre) County Tekes County Nilka County Qapqal Autonomous County

Prefectures

Aksu

Aksu City Wensu County Xayar County Baicheng (Bay) County Awat County Kuqa County Kalpin County Xinhe County Wushi (Uqturpan) County

Kashgar (Kashi)

Kashgar
Kashgar
(Kashi) City Bachu (Maralwexi) County Zepu (Poskam) County Jiashi (Payzawat) County Yecheng (Kargilik) County Yopurga County Shule County Makit County Yengisar
Yengisar
County Shache
Shache
(Yarkant) County Shufu County Tashkurgan Autonomous County

Hotan

Hotan
Hotan
City Hotan
Hotan
County Lop County Minfeng (Niya) County Pishan (Guma) County Qira County Yutian County Moyu (Karakax) County

Tacheng1 (Tarbagatay)

Tacheng
Tacheng
(Qoqek) City Wusu
Wusu
(Usu) City Emin County Yumin County Shawan County Toli County Hoboksar Autonomous County

Altay1

Altay City Qinghe (Qinggil) County Jeminay County Fuyun (Koktokay) County Burqin County Fuhai (Burultokay) County Habahe (Kaba) County

Autonomous prefectures

Changji

Changji
Changji
City Fukang
Fukang
City Qitai County Manas County Jimsar County Hutubi County Mori Autonomous County

Bortala

Bole (Bortala) City Alashankou
Alashankou
City Jinghe (Jing) County Wenquan (Arixang) County

Bayingholin

Korla
Korla
City Hejing County Yuli (Lopnur) County Hoxud County Qiemo
Qiemo
(Qarqan) County Bohu County Luntai (Bügür) County Ruoqiang (Qarkilik) County Yanqi Autonomous County

Kizilsu

Artux
Artux
City Akqi County Wuqia (Ulugqat) County Akto
Akto
County

County-level cities directly administered by Xinjiang

Aral City Beitun City Kokdala
Kokdala
City Kunyu City Shihezi
Shihezi
City Shuanghe
Shuanghe
City Tiemenguan City Tumxuk
Tumxuk
City Wujiaqu
Wujiaqu
City

1 Tacheng
Tacheng
and Altay are prefectures within and under the administration of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.

Ethnic minority autonomous areas Dong Hui Korean Manchu Miao Mongol Tibetan Tujia Uyghur Yao Yi Zhuang Other

v t e

Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang

Autonomous regions

Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang

Municipalities

Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin

Special
Special
administrative regions

Hong Kong Macau

Other

Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 252087655 LCCN: n81018776 GND: 4077460-0 BNF: cb11941810f (d

.