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Chinese Revolutionary Alliance victory

Abdication
Abdication
of Puyi Fall of the Qing dynasty End of Imperial China Establishment of the Republic of China Destabilization of China

Belligerents

 Qing dynasty Provisional Government of the Republic of China Hubei
Hubei
Military Government of the Republic of China Tongmenghui Gelaohui Tiandihui Various other revolutionary groups and forces Regional officials and warlords

Commanders and leaders

Empress Dowager Longyu Prince-Regent Zaifeng Prime Minister Yuan Shikai Feng Guozhang Ma Anliang Duan Qirui Yang Zengxin Ma Qi Various other nobles of the Qing dynasty Prov. President Sun Yat-sen General Huang Xing Song Jiaoren Chen Qimei Prov. Vice President Li Yuanhong Prov. President Yuan Shikai

Strength

200,000 100,000

Casualties and losses

~170,000 ~50,000

Xinhai Revolution

"Xinhai Revolution" in Chinese characters

Chinese 辛亥革命

Literal meaning "Xinhai (stem-branch) revolution"

Transcriptions

Standard Mandarin

Hanyu Pinyin Xīnhài gémìng

Wade–Giles Hsin1-hai4 kê2-ming4

IPA [ɕín.xâi kɤ̌.mîŋ]

Yue: Cantonese

Yale Romanization Sān-hoih gaak-mihng

IPA Cantonese
Cantonese
pronunciation: [sɐ́n hɔ̀ːi kāːk mɪ̀ŋ]

Jyutping San1-hoi6 gaak3-ming6

Southern Min

Hokkien
Hokkien
POJ Sen-hāi kek-bēng

The Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
(Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnhài gémìng), also known as the Chinese Revolution
Revolution
or the Revolution
Revolution
of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China
China
(ROC). The revolution was named Xinhai (Hsin-hai) because it occurred in 1911, the year of the Xinhai (辛亥, metal pig) stem-branch in the sexagenary cycle of the Chinese calendar.[1] The revolution consisted of many revolts and uprisings. The turning point was the Wuchang uprising
Wuchang uprising
on 10 October 1911, which was the result of the mishandling of the Railway Protection Movement. The revolution ended with the abdication of the six-year-old Last Emperor, Puyi, on 12 February 1912, that marked the end of 2,000 years of imperial rule and the beginning of China's early republican era (1912–16).[2]

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The revolution arose mainly in response to the decline of the Qing state, which had proven ineffective in its efforts to modernize China and confront foreign aggression. Many underground anti-Qing groups, with the support of Chinese revolutionaries in exile, tried to overthrow the Qing. The brief civil war that ensued was ended through a political compromise between Yuan Shikai, the late Qing military strongman, and Sun Yat-sen, the leader of the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
(United League). After the Qing court transferred power to the newly founded republic, a provisional coalition government was created along with the National Assembly. However, political power of the new national government in Beijing was soon thereafter monopolized by Yuan and led to decades of political division and warlordism, including several attempts at imperial restoration. The Republic of China
China
in Taiwan
Taiwan
and the People's Republic of China
China
on the mainland both consider themselves the legitimate successors to the Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
and honor the ideals of the revolution including nationalism, republicanism, modernization of China
China
and national unity. 10 October is commemorated in Taiwan
Taiwan
as Double Ten Day, the National Day of the ROC. In mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau, the day is celebrated as the Anniversary of the Xinhai Revolution.

Contents

1 Background 2 Organization for revolution

2.1 Earliest groups 2.2 Smaller groups 2.3 Tongmenghui 2.4 Later groups 2.5 Views

3 Strata and groups

3.1 Overseas Chinese 3.2 Newly emerged intellectuals 3.3 Gentry and businessmen 3.4 Foreigners 3.5 Soldiers of the new armies

4 Uprisings and incidents

4.1 First Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising 4.2 Independence Army Uprising 4.3 Huizhou
Huizhou
Uprising 4.4 Great Ming Uprising 4.5 Ping-liu-li Uprising 4.6 Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway assassination attempt 4.7 Huanggang Uprising 4.8 Huizhou
Huizhou
Qinuhu Uprising 4.9 Anqing
Anqing
Uprising 4.10 Qinzhou
Qinzhou
Uprising 4.11 Zhennanguan Uprising 4.12 Qin-lian Uprising 4.13 Hekou Uprising 4.14 Mapaoying Uprising 4.15 Gengxu New Army
New Army
Uprising 4.16 Second Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising 4.17 Wuchang Uprising

5 Provincial Uprisings

5.1 Changsha
Changsha
restoration 5.2 Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Uprising 5.3 Jiujiang Uprising 5.4 Shanxi
Shanxi
Taiyuan
Taiyuan
Uprising 5.5 Kunming
Kunming
Double Ninth Uprising 5.6 Nanchang
Nanchang
restoration 5.7 Shanghai Armed Uprising 5.8 Guizhou
Guizhou
Uprising 5.9 Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Uprising 5.10 Jiangsu
Jiangsu
restoration 5.11 Anhui
Anhui
Uprising 5.12 Guangxi
Guangxi
Uprising 5.13 Fujian
Fujian
independence 5.14 Guangdong independence 5.15 Shandong
Shandong
independence 5.16 Ningxia
Ningxia
Uprising 5.17 Sichuan
Sichuan
independence 5.18 Nanking Uprising 5.19 Tibetan independence 5.20 Mongolian independence 5.21 Dihua and Yili Uprising 5.22 Taiwan
Taiwan
Uprising

6 Change of government

6.1 North: Qing court last transformation attempt 6.2 South: Government in Nanking 6.3 North–South Conference

7 Establishment of the Republic

7.1 Republic of China
China
declared and national flag issue 7.2 Donghuamen incident 7.3 Abdication
Abdication
of the emperor 7.4 Debate over the capital

8 Republican government in Beijing 9 Proposed Han monarchs and retention of aristocratic noble titles 10 Western views 11 Legacy

11.1 Social influence 11.2 Historical significance 11.3 Modern evaluation

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading

15.1 Primary sources 15.2 Contemporary accounts 15.3 Secondary sources

16 External links

Background[edit]

Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
(1835–1908), who personified the conservative Qing court and controlled court politics for 47 years, halted the attempt of her nephew, the Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Emperor
(1871–1908), the penultimate Qing emperor, to institute reforms in 1898.

After the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform in 1898, Guangxu's advisors Kang Youwei
Kang Youwei
(left, 1858–1927) and Liang Qichao (1873–1929) fled into exile, while Tan Sitong
Tan Sitong
(right, 1865–1898) was executed. In Canada, Kang and Liang formed the Emperor Protection Society to promote a constitutional monarchy for China. In 1900, they supported an unsuccessful uprising in central China
China
to rescue Guangxu. After the Xinhai Revolution, Liang became a Minister of Justice of the Republic of China. Kang remained a royalist and supported restoring the last Qing emperor Puyi
Puyi
in 1917.

After suffering its first defeat to the West in the First Opium War
First Opium War
in 1842, the Qing court struggled to contain foreign intrusions into China. Efforts to adjust and reform the traditional methods of governance were constrained by a deeply conservative court culture that did not want to give away too much authority to reform. Following defeat in the Second Opium War
Second Opium War
in 1860, the Qing tried to modernize by adopting certain Western technologies through the Self-Strengthening Movement from 1861.[3] In the wars against the Taiping (1851–64), Nian (1851–68), the Muslims of Yunnan
Yunnan
(1856–68) and the Northwest (1862–77), the traditional imperial troops proved themselves incompetent and the court came to rely on local armies.[4] In 1895, China
China
suffered another defeat during the First Sino-Japanese War.[5] This demonstrated that traditional Chinese feudal society also needed to be modernized if the technological and commercial advancements were to succeed. In 1898 the Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Emperor
was guided by reformers like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao
Liang Qichao
for a drastic reform in education, military and economy under the Hundred Days' Reform.[5] The reform was a failure, as it was ended prematurely by a conservative coup led by Empress Dowager Cixi.[6] The Guangxu Emperor, who had always been a puppet dependent on Cixi, was put under house arrest in June 1898.[4] Reformers Kang and Liang would be exiled. While in Canada, in June 1899, they tried to form the Emperor Protection Society in an attempt to restore the emperor.[4] Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
mainly controlled the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
from this point on. The Boxer Rebellion
Rebellion
prompted another foreign invasion of Beijing in 1900 and the imposition of unequal treaty terms, which carved away territories, created extraterritorial concessions and gave away trade privileges. Under internal and external pressure, the Qing court began to adopt some of the reforms. The Qing managed to maintain its monopoly on political power by suppressing, often with great brutality, all domestic rebellions. Dissidents could operate only in secret societies and underground organizations, in foreign concessions or in exile overseas.

History of the Republic of China
China
(ROC)

1912–1949 Mainland rule

Xinhai Revolution Provisional Gov't Beiyang Government Northern Expedition Shanghai massacre Chinese Civil War Nationalist Government Second Sino-Japanese War Nanking Massacre

Constitutional government

1945–present Taiwan

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Taiwan
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Vietnam
War Second Taiwan
Taiwan
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Taiwan
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v t e

Organization for revolution[edit] Earliest groups[edit] There were many revolutionaries and groups that wanted to overthrow the Qing government to re-establish Han led government. The earliest revolutionary organizations were founded outside of China, such as Yeung Ku-wan's Furen Literary Society, created in Hong Kong in 1890. There were 15 members, including Tse Tsan-tai, who did political satire such as "The Situation in the Far East", one of the first ever Chinese manhua, and who later became one of the core founders of the South China
China
Morning Post.[7]

Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
in London

Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui (Revive China
China
Society) was established in Honolulu
Honolulu
in 1894 with the main purpose of raising funds for revolutions.[8] The two organizations were merged in 1894.[9] Smaller groups[edit] The Huaxinghui
Huaxinghui
( China
China
Revival Society) was founded in 1904 with notables like Huang Xing, Zhang Shizhao, Chen Tianhua
Chen Tianhua
and Song Jiaoren, along with 100 others. Their motto was "Take one province by force, and inspire the other provinces to rise up".[10] The Guangfuhui (Restoration Society) was also founded in 1904, in Shanghai with Cai Yuanpei. Other notable members include Zhang Binglin and Tao Chengzhang.[11] Despite professing the anti-Qing cause, the Guangfuhui was highly critical of Sun Yat-sen.[12] One of the most famous female revolutionaries was Qiu Jin, who fought for women's rights and was also from Guangfuhui.[12] There were also many other minor revolutionary organizations, such as Lizhi Xuehui (勵志學會) in Jiangsu, Gongqianghui (公強會) in Sichuan, Yiwenhui (益聞會) and Hanzudulihui (漢族獨立會) in Fujian, Yizhishe (易知社) in Jiangxi, Yuewanghui (岳王會) in Anhui
Anhui
and Qunzhihui (群智會/群智社) in Guangzhou.[13] There were also criminal organizations that were anti-Manchu, including the Green Gang and Hongmen
Hongmen
Zhigongtang (致公堂).[14] Sun Yat-sen himself came in contact with the Hongmen, also known as Tiandihui
Tiandihui
(Heaven and Earth society).[15][16] Gelaohui (Elder Brother society) was another group, with Zhu De, Wu Yuzhang, Liu Zhidan (劉志丹) and He Long. This is the revolutionary group that would eventually develop a strong link with the later Communist Party.

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
with his Tongmenghui

Tongmenghui[edit] Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
successfully united the Revive China
China
Society, Huaxinghui and Guangfuhui in the summer of 1905, thereby establishing the unified Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
(United League) in August 1905 in Tokyo.[17] While it started in Tokyo, it had loose organizations distributed across and outside the country. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was the leader of this unified group. Other revolutionaries who worked with the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
include Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin. When the Tongmenhui was established, more than 90% of the Tongmenhui members were between 17–26 years of age.[18] Some of the work in the era includes manhua publications, such as the Journal of Current Pictorial.[19] Later groups[edit] In February 1906 Rizhihui (日知會) also had many revolutionaries, including Sun Wu (孫武), Zhang Nanxian (張難先), He Jiwei and Feng Mumin.[20][21] A nucleus of attendees of this conference evolved into the Tongmenhui's establishment in Hubei. In July 1907 several members of Tongmenhui in Tokyo advocated a revolution in the area of the Yangtze River. Liu Quiyi (劉揆一), Jiao Dafeng (焦達峰), Zhang Boxiang (張伯祥) and Sun Wu (孫武) established Gongjinhui (Progressive Association) (共進會).[22][23] In January 1911, the revolutionary group Zhengwu Xueshe (振武學社) was renamed as Wenxueshe (Literary society) (文學社).[24] Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) was chosen as the leader.[25] These two organizations would play a big role in the Wuchang Uprising. Many young revolutionaries adopted the radical programs of the anarchists. In Tokyo Liu Shipei
Liu Shipei
proposed the overthrow of the Manchus and a return to Chinese classical values. In Paris Li Shizhen, Wu Zhihui and Zhang Renjie
Zhang Renjie
agreed with Sun on the necessity of revolution and joined the Tongmenghui, but argued that a political replacement of one government with another government would not be progress; revolution in family, gender and social values would remove the need for government and coercion. Zhang Ji was among the anarchists who defended assassination and terrorism as a means toward revolution, but others insisted that only education was justifiable. Important anarchists included Cai Yuanpei, Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
and Zhang Renjie, who gave Sun major financial help. Many of these anarchists would later assume high positions in the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT).[26] Views[edit] Main article: Anti-Qing sentiment Many revolutionaries promoted anti-Qing/anti-Manchu sentiments and revived memories of conflict between the ethnic minority Manchu and the ethnic majority Han Chinese
Han Chinese
from the late Ming dynasty (1368–1644). Leading intellectuals were influenced by books that had survived from the last years of the Ming dynasty, the last dynasty of Han Chinese. In 1904, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
announced that his organization's goal was "to expel the Tatar barbarians, to revive Zhonghua, to establish a Republic, and to distribute land equally among the people." (驅除韃虜, 恢復中華, 創立民國, 平均地權).[17] Many of the underground groups promoted the ideas of "Resist Qing and restore Ming" (反清復明) that had been around since the days of the Taiping Rebellion.[27] Others, such as Zhang Binglin, supported straight-up lines like "slay the manchus" and concepts like "Anti-Manchuism" (興漢滅胡 / 排滿主義).[28] Strata and groups[edit] The Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
was supported by many groups, including students and intellectuals who returned from abroad, as well as participants of the revolutionary organizations, overseas Chinese, soldiers of the new army, local gentry, farmers and others. Overseas Chinese[edit] Main article: Chinese revolutionary activities in Malaya Assistance from overseas Chinese was important in the Xinhai Revolution. In 1894, the first year of the Revive China
China
Society, the first meeting ever held by the group was held in the home of Ho Fon, an overseas Chinese who was the leader of the first Chinese Church of Christ.[29] Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
supported and actively participated in the funding of revolutionary activities, especially the Southeast Asia Chinese of Malaya (Singapore and Malaysia).[30] Many of these groups were reorganized by Sun, who was referred to as the "father of the Chinese revolution".[30] Newly emerged intellectuals[edit] In 1906, after the abolition of the imperial examinations, the Qing government established many new schools and encouraged students to study abroad. Many young people attended the new schools or went abroad to study in places like Japan.[31] A new class of intellectuals emerged from those students, who contributed immensely to the Xinhai Revolution. Besides Sun Yat-sen, key figures in the revolution, such as Huang Xing, Song Jiaoren, Hu Hanmin, Liao Zhongkai, Zhu Zhixin and Wang Jingwei, were all Chinese students in Japan. Some were young students like Zou Rong, known for writing the book Revolutionary Army, in which he talked about the extermination of the Manchus for the 260 years of oppression, sorrow, cruelty and tyranny and turning the sons and grandsons of Yellow Emperor into George Washingtons.[32] Before 1908, revolutionaries focused on coordinating these organizations in preparation for uprisings that these organizations would launch; hence, these groups would provide most of the manpower needed for the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. After the Xinhai Revolution, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
recalled the days of recruiting support for the revolution and said, "The literati were deeply into the search for honors and profits, so they were regarded as having only secondary importance. By contrast, organizations like Sanhehui were able to sow widely the ideas of resisting the Qing and restoring the Ming."[33] Gentry and businessmen[edit]

Prince Qing with some royal cabinet members

The strength of the gentry in local politics had become apparent. From December 1908, the Qing government created some apparatus to allow the gentry and businessmen to participate in politics. These middle-class people were originally supporters of constitutionalism. However, they became disenchanted when the Qing government created a cabinet with Prince Qing as prime minister.[34] By early 1911, an experimental cabinet had thirteen members, nine of whom were Manchus selected from the imperial family.[35] Foreigners[edit] Besides Chinese and overseas Chinese, some of the supporters and participants of the Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
were foreigners; among them, the Japanese were the most active group. Some Japanese even became members of Tongmenghui. Miyazaki Touten
Miyazaki Touten
was the closest Japanese supporter; others included Heiyama Shu and Ryōhei Uchida. Homer Lea, an American, who became Sun Yat-sen's closest foreign advisor in 1910, supported Sun Yat-sen's military ambitions.[36] British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern also took part in the revolution.[37] Some foreigners, such as English explorer Arthur de Carle Sowerby, led expeditions to rescue foreign missionaries in 1911 and 1912.[38]

Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
(1859–1916)

Yuan rose to power in north China
China
and built the Beiyang Army.

Soldiers of the new armies[edit] The New Army
New Army
was formed in 1901 after the defeat of the Qings in the First Sino-Japanese War.[31] They were launched by a decree from eight provinces.[31] New Army
New Army
troops were by far the best trained and equipped.[31] The recruits were of a higher quality than the old army and received regular promotions.[31] Beginning in 1908, the revolutionaries began to shift their call to the new armies. Sun Yat-sen and the revolutionaries infiltrated the New Army.[39] Uprisings and incidents[edit] The central focus of the uprisings were mostly connected with the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
and Sun Yat-sen, including subgroups. Some uprisings involved groups that never merged with the Tongmenghui. Sun Yat-sen may have participated in 8–10 uprisings; all uprisings prior to the failed Wuchang Uprising.

Flag of the First Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising

First Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising[edit] In the spring of 1895, the Revive China
China
Society, which was based in Hong Kong, planned the First Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising (廣州起義). Lu Haodong was tasked with designing the revolutionaries' Blue Sky with a White Sun flag.[30] On 26 October 1895, Yeung Ku-wan
Yeung Ku-wan
and Sun Yat-sen led Zheng Shiliang and Lu Haodong
Lu Haodong
to Guangzhou, preparing to capture Guangzhou
Guangzhou
in one strike. However, the details of their plans were leaked to the Qing government.[40] The government began to arrest revolutionaries, including Lu Haodong, who was later executed.[40] The first Guangzhou
Guangzhou
uprising was a failure. Under pressure from the Qing government, the government of Hong Kong forbade these two men to enter the territory for five years. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
went into exile, promoting the Chinese revolution and raising funds in Japan, the United States, Canada and Britain. In 1901, following the Huizhou
Huizhou
uprising, Yeung Ku-wan was assassinated by Qing agents in Hong Kong.[41] After his death, his family protected his identity by not putting his name on his tomb, just a number: 6348.[41] Independence Army Uprising[edit] In 1901, after the Boxer Rebellion
Rebellion
started, Tang Caichang (唐才常) and Tan Sitong
Tan Sitong
of the previous Foot Emancipation Society
Foot Emancipation Society
organised the Independence Army. The Independence Army Uprising (自立軍起義) was planned to occur on 23 August 1900.[42] Their goal was to overthrow Empress Dowager Cixi
Empress Dowager Cixi
to establish a constitutional monarchy under the Guangxu Emperor. Their plot was discovered by the governor general of Hunan
Hunan
and Hubei. About twenty conspirators were arrested and executed.[42] Huizhou
Huizhou
Uprising[edit] On 8 October 1900, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
ordered the launch of the Huizhou Uprising (惠州起義).[43] The revolutionary army was led by Zheng Shiliang and initially included 20,000 men, who fought for half a month. However, after the Japanese Prime Minister prohibited Sun Yat-sen from carrying out revolutionary activities on Taiwan, Zheng Shiliang had no choice but to order the army to disperse. This uprising therefore also failed. British soldier Rowland J. Mulkern participated in this uprising.[37]

Zhang Zhidong

Li Hongzhang

Two important Qing figures at the time

Great Ming Uprising[edit] A very short uprising occurred from 25 to 28 January 1903, to establish a "Great Ming Heavenly kingdom" (大明順天國).[44] This involved Tse Tsan-tai, Li Jitang (李紀堂), Liang Muguang (梁慕光) and Hong Quanfu (洪全福), who formerly took part in the Jintian uprising during the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
era.[45] Ping-liu-li Uprising[edit] Ma Fuyi (馬福益) and Huaxinghui
Huaxinghui
was involved in an uprising in the three areas of Pingxiang, Liuyang
Liuyang
and Liling, called "Ping-liu-li Uprising", (萍瀏醴起義) in 1905.[46] The uprising recruited miners as early as 1903 to rise against the Qing ruling class. After the uprising failed, Ma Fuyi was executed.[46] Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway assassination attempt[edit] Wu Yue (吳樾) of Guangfuhui carried out an assassination attempt at the Beijing Zhengyangmen East Railway station (正陽門車站) in an attack on five Qing officials on 24 September 1905.[12][47] Huanggang Uprising[edit] The Huanggang Uprising (黃岡起義) was launched on 22 May 1907, in Chaozhou.[48] The Revolutionary party, along with Xu Xueqiu (許雪秋), Chen Yongpo (陳湧波) and Yu Tongshi (余通實), launched the uprising and captured Huanggang city.[48] Other Japanese that followed include (萱野長知) and (池亨吉).[48] After the uprising began, the Qing government quickly and forcefully suppressed it. Around 200 revolutionaries were killed.[49] Huizhou
Huizhou
Qinuhu Uprising[edit] In the same year, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
sent more revolutionaries to Huizhou
Huizhou
to launch the " Huizhou
Huizhou
Qinuhu Uprising" (惠州七女湖起義).[50] On 2 June, Deng Zhiyu (鄧子瑜) and Chen Chuan (陳純) gathered some followers, and together, they seized Qing arms in the lake, 20 km (12 mi) from Huizhou.[51] They killed several Qing soldiers and attacked Taiwei (泰尾) on 5 June.[51] The Qing army fled in disorder, and the revolutionaries exploited the opportunity, capturing several towns. They defeated the Qing army once again in Bazhiyie. Many organizations voiced their support after the uprising, and the number of revolutionary forces increased to two hundred men at its height. The uprising, however, ultimately failed. Anqing
Anqing
Uprising[edit]

A statue to honor revolutionary Qiu Jin

On 6 July 1907, Xu Xilin
Xu Xilin
of Guangfuhui led an uprising in Anqing, Anhui, which became known as the Anqing
Anqing
Uprising (安慶起義).[24] Xu Xilin
Xu Xilin
at the time was the police commissioner as well as the supervisor of the police academy. He led an uprising that was to assassinate the provincial governor of Anhui, En Ming (恩銘).[52] They were defeated after four hours of fighting. Xu was captured, and En Ming's bodyguards cut out his heart and liver and ate them.[52] His cousin Qiu Jin
Qiu Jin
was executed a few days later.[52] Qinzhou
Qinzhou
Uprising[edit] From August to September 1907, the Qinzhou
Qinzhou
Uprising occurred (欽州防城起義).,[53] to protest against heavy taxation from the government. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
sent Wang Heshun (王和順) there to assist the revolutionary army and captured the county in September.[54] After that, they attempted to besiege and capture Qinzhou, but they were unsuccessful. They eventually retreated to the area of Shiwandashan, while Wang Heshun returned to Vietnam. Zhennanguan Uprising[edit] On 1 December 1907, the Zhennanguan Uprising (鎮南關起事) took place at Zhennanguan, a pass on the Chinese-Vietnamese border. Sun Yat-sen sent Huang Mintang (黃明堂) to monitor the pass, which was guarded by a fort.[54] With the assistance of supporters among the fort's defenders, the revolutionaries captured the cannon tower in Zhennanguan. Sun Yat-sen, Huang Xing
Huang Xing
and Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
personally went to the tower to command the battle.[55] The Qing government sent troops led by Long Jiguang
Long Jiguang
and Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting
to counterattack, and the revolutionaries were forced to retreat into the mountainous areas. After the failure of this uprising, Sun was forced to move to Singapore due to anti-Sun sentiments within the revolutionary groups.[56] He would not return to the mainland until after the Wuchang Uprising. Qin-lian Uprising[edit] On 27 March 1908, Huang Xing
Huang Xing
launched a raid, later known as the Qin-lian Uprising (欽廉上思起義), from a base in Vietnam
Vietnam
and attacked the cities of Qinzhou
Qinzhou
and Lianzhou
Lianzhou
in Guangdong. The struggle continued for fourteen days but was forced to terminate after the revolutionaries ran out of supplies.[57] Hekou Uprising[edit] In April 1908, another uprising was launched in Yunnan, Hekou, called the Hekou Uprising (雲南河口起義). Huang Mingtang (黃明堂) led two hundred men from Vietnam
Vietnam
and attacked Hekou on 30 April. Other revolutionaries who participated include Wang Heshun (王和順) and Guan Renfu (關仁甫). They were outnumbered and defeated by government troops, however, and the uprising failed.[58] Mapaoying Uprising[edit] On 19 November 1908, the Mapaoying Uprising (馬炮營起義) was launched by revolutionary group Yuewanghui (岳王會) member Xiong Chenggei (熊成基) at Anhui.[59] Yuewanghui, at this time, was a subset of Tongmenghui. This uprising also failed. Gengxu New Army
New Army
Uprising[edit] In February 1910, the Gengxu New Army
New Army
Uprising (庚戌新軍起義), also known as the Guangzhou
Guangzhou
New Army
New Army
Uprising (廣州新軍起義), took place.[60] This involved a conflict between the citizens and local police against the New Army. After revolutionary leader Ni Yingdian was killed by Qing forces, the remaining revolutionaries were quickly defeated, causing the uprising to fail. Second Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising[edit] Main article: Second Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Uprising

The memorial for the 72 martyrs

On 27 April 1911, an uprising occurred in Guangzhou, known as the Second Guangzhou Uprising
Second Guangzhou Uprising
(辛亥廣州起義) or Yellow Flower Mound Revolt (黃花岡之役). It ended in disaster, as 86 bodies were found (only 72 could be identified).[61] The 72 revolutionaries were remembered as martyrs.[61] Revolutionary Lin Juemin
Lin Juemin
(林覺民) was one of the 72. On the eve of battle, he wrote the legendary "A Letter to My Wife" (與妻訣別書), later to be considered as a masterpiece in Chinese literature.[62] Wuchang Uprising[edit]

The Iron blood 18-star flag

Paths of the uprising

Main articles: Wuchang Uprising
Wuchang Uprising
and Battle of Yangxia The Literary Society (文學社) and the Progressive Association (共進會) were revolutionary organizations involved in the uprising that mainly began with a Railway Protection Movement
Railway Protection Movement
protest.[23] In the late summer, some Hubei
Hubei
New Army
New Army
units were ordered to neighboring Sichuan
Sichuan
to quell the Railway Protection Movement, a mass protest against the Qing government's seizure and handover of local railway development ventures to foreign powers.[63] Banner officers like Duanfang, the railroad superintendent,[64] and Zhao Erfeng
Zhao Erfeng
led the New Army against the Railway Protection Movement. The New Army
New Army
units of Hubei
Hubei
had originally been the Hubei
Hubei
Army, which had been trained by Qing official Zhang Zhidong.[2] On 24 September, the Literary Society and Progressive Association convened a conference in Wuchang, along with sixty representatives from local New Army units. During the conference, they established a headquarters for the uprising. The leaders of the two organizations, Jiang Yiwu (蔣翊武) and Sun Wu (孫武), were elected as commander and chief of staff. Initially, the date of the uprising was to be 6 October 1911.[65] It was postponed to a later date due to insufficient preparations. Revolutionaries intent on overthrowing the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
had built bombs, and on 9 October, one accidentally exploded.[65] Sun Yat-sen himself had no direct part in the uprising and was traveling in the United States at the time in an effort to recruit more support from among overseas Chinese. The Qing Viceroy of Huguang, Rui Cheng (瑞澂), tried to track down and arrest the revolutionaries.[66] Squad leader Xiong Bingkun (熊秉坤) and others decided not to delay the uprising any longer and launched the revolt on 10 October 1911, at 7 pm.[66] The revolt was a success; the entire city of Wuchang was captured by the revolutionaries on the morning of 11 October. That evening, they established a tactical headquarters and announced the establishment of the "Military Government of Hubei
Hubei
of Republic of China".[66] The conference chose Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong
as the governor of the temporary government.[66] Qing officers like the bannermen Duanfang and Zhao Erfeng
Zhao Erfeng
were killed by the revolutionary forces. Provincial Uprisings[edit]

Uprising map during the Xinhai Revolution

After the success of the Wuchang Uprising, many other protests occurred throughout the country for various reasons. Some of the uprisings declared restoration (光復) of the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
rule. Other uprisings were a step toward independence, and some were protests or rebellions against the local authorities.[citation needed] Regardless the reason for the uprising the outcome was that all provinces in the country renounced the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
and joined the ROC. Changsha
Changsha
restoration[edit] Main article: Battle of Changsha
Changsha
(1911) On 22 October 1911, the Hunan
Hunan
Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
were led by Jiao Dafeng (焦達嶧) and Chen Zuoxin (陳作新).[67] They headed an armed group, consisting partly of revolutionaries from Hongjiang
Hongjiang
and partly of defecting New Army
New Army
units, in a campaign to extend the uprising into Changsha.[67] They captured the city and killed the local Imperial general. Then they announced the establishment of the Hunan
Hunan
Military Government of the Republic of China
China
and announced their opposition to the Qing Empire.[67] Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Uprising[edit] On the same day, Shaanxi's Tongmenghui, led by Jing Dingcheng (景定成) and Qian ding (錢鼎) as well as Jing Wumu (井勿幕) and others including Gelaohui, launched an uprising and captured Xi'an after two days of struggle.[68] The Muslim general Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang
led more than twenty battalions of Hui Muslim troops to defend the Qing imperials and attacked Shaanxi, held by revolutionary Zhang Fenghui (張鳳翽).[69] The attack was successful, but after news arrived that Puyi
Puyi
was about to abdicate, Ma agreed to join the new Republic.[69] The revolutionaries established the "Qinlong Fuhan Military Government" and elected Zhang Fenghui, a member of the Yuanrizhi Society (原日知會), as new governor.[68] Xi'an
Xi'an
Manchu city (滿城) finally fell on 24 October, after a massacre of 20,000 Manchus in living there.[70][71] Many of its Manchu defenders committed suicide, including Qing general Wenrui (文瑞), who threw himself down a well.[70] Jiujiang Uprising[edit] On 23 October, Lin Sen, Jiang Qun (蔣群), Cai Hui (蔡蕙) and other members of the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
in the province of Jiangxi
Jiangxi
plotted a revolt of New Army
New Army
units.[67][72] After they achieved victory, they announced their independence. The Jiujiang Military Government was then established.[72] Shanxi
Shanxi
Taiyuan
Taiyuan
Uprising[edit] On 29 October, Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
of the New Army
New Army
led an uprising in Taiyuan, the capital city of the province of Shanxi, along with Yao Yijie (姚以價), Huang Guoliang (黃國梁), Wen Shouquan (溫壽泉), Li Chenglin (李成林), Zhang Shuzhi (張樹幟) and Qiao Xi (喬煦).[72][73] They managed to kill the Qing Governor of Shanxi, Lu Zhongqi (陸鍾琦).[74] They then announced the establishment of Shanxi
Shanxi
Military Government with Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
as the military governor.[68] Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
would later become one of the warlords that plagued China
China
during what was known as "the warlord era". Kunming
Kunming
Double Ninth Uprising[edit] On 30 October, Li Genyuan (李根源) of the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
in Yunnan joined with Cai E, Luo Peijin (羅佩金), Tang Jiyao, and other officers of the New Army
New Army
to launch the Double Ninth Uprising (重九起義).[75] They captured Kunming
Kunming
the next day and established the Yunnan
Yunnan
Military Government, electing Cai E
Cai E
as the military governor.[72] Nanchang
Nanchang
restoration[edit] On 31 October, the Nanchang
Nanchang
branch of the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
led New Army units in a successful uprising. They established the Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Military Government.[67] Li Liejun
Li Liejun
was elected as the military governor.[72] Li declared Jiangxi
Jiangxi
as independent and launched an expedition against Qing official Yuan Shikai.[62] Shanghai Armed Uprising[edit]

Chen Qimei, military governor of Shanghai

On 3 November, Shanghai's Tongmenghui, Guangfuhui and merchants led by Chen Qimei
Chen Qimei
(陳其美), Li Pingsu (李平書), Zhang Chengyou (張承槱), Li Yingshi (李英石), Li Xiehe (李燮和) and Song Jiaoren organized an armed rebellion in Shanghai.[72] They received the support of local police officers.[72] The rebels captured the Jiangnan Workshop on the 4th and captured Shanghai soon after. On 8 November, they established the Shanghai Military Government and elected Chen Qimei
Chen Qimei
as the military governor.[72] He would eventually become one of the founders of the ROC four big families, along with some of the most well-known families of the era.[76] Guizhou
Guizhou
Uprising[edit] On 4 November, Zhang Bailin (張百麟) of the revolutionary party in Guizhou
Guizhou
led an uprising along with New Army
New Army
units and students from the military academy. They immediately captured Guiyang
Guiyang
and established the Great Han Guizhou
Guizhou
Military Government, electing Yang Jincheng (楊藎誠) and Zhao Dequan (趙德全) as the chief and vice governor.[77] Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Uprising[edit] Also on 4 November, revolutionaries in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
urged the New Army units in Hangzhou
Hangzhou
to launch an uprising.[72] Zhu Rui (朱瑞), Wu Siyu (吳思豫), Lu Gongwang (吕公望) and others of the New Army captured the military supplies workshop.[72] Other units, led by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and Yin Zhirei (尹銳志), captured most of the government offices.[72] Eventually, Hangzhou
Hangzhou
was under the control of the revolutionaries, and the constitutionist Tang Shouqian (湯壽潛) was elected as the military governor.[72] Jiangsu
Jiangsu
restoration[edit] On 5 November, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
constitutionists and gentry urged Qing governor Cheng Dequan (程德全) to announce independence and established the Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Revolutionary Military Government with Cheng himself as the governor.[72][78] Unlike some of the other cities, anti-Manchu violence began after the restoration on 7 November in Zhenjiang.[79] Qing general Zaimu (載穆) agreed to surrender, but because of a misunderstanding, the revolutionaries were unaware that their safety was guaranteed.[79] The Manchu quarters were ransacked, and an unknown number of Manchus were killed.[79] Zaimu, feeling betrayed, committed suicide.[79] This is regarded as the Zhenjiang
Zhenjiang
Uprising (鎮江起義).[80][81] Anhui
Anhui
Uprising[edit] Members of Anhui's Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
also launched an uprising on that day and laid siege to the provincial capital. The constitutionists persuaded Zhu Jiabao (朱家寶), the Qing Governor of Anhui, to announce independence.[82] Guangxi
Guangxi
Uprising[edit] On 7 November, the Guangxi
Guangxi
politics department decided to secede from the Qing government, announcing Guangxi's independence. Qing Governor Shen Bingkun (沈秉堃) was allowed to remain governor, but Lu Rongting would soon become the new governor.[54] Lu Rongting
Lu Rongting
would later rise to prominence during the "warlord era" as one of the warlords, and his bandits controlled Guangxi
Guangxi
for more than a decade.[83] Under the leadership of Huang Shaohong, the Muslim law student Bai Chongxi
Bai Chongxi
enlisted in a Dare to Die unit to fight as a revolutionary.[84] Fujian
Fujian
independence[edit]

One of the old Guangfuhui addressing in Lianjiang County, Fujian

In November, members of Fujian's branch of the Tongmenghui, along with Sun Daoren (孫道仁) of the New Army, launched an uprising against the Qing army.[85][86] The Qing viceroy, Song Shou (松壽), committed suicide.[87] On 11 November, the entire Fujian
Fujian
province declared independence.[85] The Fujian
Fujian
Military Government was established, and Sun Daoren was elected as the military governor.[85] Guangdong independence[edit] Near the end of October, Chen Jiongming, Deng Keng (鄧鏗), Peng Reihai (彭瑞海) and other members of Guangdong's Tongmenghui organized local militias to launch the uprising in Huazhou, Nanhai, Sunde and Sanshui in Guangdong Province.[68][88] On 8 November, after being persuaded by Hu Hanmin, General Li Zhun (李準) and Long Jiguang (龍濟光) of the Guangdong Navy agreed to support the revolution.[68] The Qing viceroy of Liangguang, Zhang Mingqi (張鳴岐), was forced to discuss with the local representatives a proposal for Guangdong's independence.[68] They decided to announce it the next day. Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
then captured Huizhou. On 9 November, Guangdong announced its independence and established a military government.[89] They elected Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
and Chen Jiongming
Chen Jiongming
as the chief and vice governor.[90] Qiu Fengjia
Qiu Fengjia
is known to have helped make the independence declaration more peaceful.[89] It was unknown at the time if representatives from the European colonies of Hong Kong and Macau would be ceded to the new government.[clarification needed] Shandong
Shandong
independence[edit] On 13 November, persuaded by revolutionary Din Weifen (丁惟汾) and several other officers of the New Army, the Qing governor of Shandong, Sun Baoqi, agreed to secede from the Qing government and announced Shandong's independence.[68] Ningxia
Ningxia
Uprising[edit] On 17 November, Ningxia
Ningxia
the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
launched the Ningxia
Ningxia
Uprising (寧夏會黨起義). The revolutionaries sent Yu Youren
Yu Youren
to Zhangjiachuan to meet Dungan Sufi
Sufi
master Ma Yuanzhang to persuade him not to support the Qing. However, Ma did not want to endanger his relationship with the Qings. He sent the eastern Gansu
Gansu
Muslim militia under the command of one of his sons to help Ma Qi
Ma Qi
crush the Ningxia Gelaohui.[91][92] The Ningxia
Ningxia
Revolutionary Military Government was established on 23 November.[68] Some of the revolutionaries involved included Huang Yue (黃鉞) and Xiang Shen (向燊), who gathered New Army forces at Qinzhou
Qinzhou
(秦州).[93][94] Sichuan
Sichuan
independence[edit] On 21 November, Guang'an
Guang'an
organized the Great Han Shu northern Military Government.[68][95] On 22 November, Chengdu
Chengdu
and Sichuan
Sichuan
began to declare independence. By the 27th, the Great Han Sichuan
Sichuan
Military Government was established, headed by revolutionary Pu Dianzun (蒲殿俊).[68] Qing official Duan Fang (端方) would also be killed.[68] Nanking Uprising[edit]

1911 battle at Ta-ping gate, Nanking. Painting by T. Miyano.

On 8 November, supported by the Tongmenghui, Xu Shaozhen (徐紹楨) of the New Army
New Army
announced an uprising in Molin Pass (秣陵關), 30 km (19 mi) away from Nanking City.[68] Xu Shaozhen, Chen Qimei and other generals decided to form a united army under Xu to strike Nanking together. On 11 November, the united army headquarters was established in Zhenjiang. Between 24 November and 1 December, under the command of Xu Shaozhen, the united army captured Wulongshan (烏龍山), Mufushan (幕府山), Yuhuatai (雨花臺), Tianbao City (天保城) and many other strongholds of the Qing army.[68] On 2 December, Nanking City was captured by the revolutionaries after the Battle of Nanking.[68] On 3 December, revolutionary Su Liangbi led troops in a massacre of a large number of Manchus (the exact number is not known).[96] He was shortly afterward arrested, and his troops disbanded.[96] Tibetan independence[edit] Main articles: Xinhai Lhasa Turmoil
Xinhai Lhasa Turmoil
and Tibet (1912–51) In 1905, the Qing sent Zhao Erfeng
Zhao Erfeng
to Tibet to retaliate against rebellions.[97] By 1908, Zhao was appointed imperial resident in Lhasa.[97] Zhao was beheaded in December 1911 by pro-Republican forces.[98] The bulk of the area that was historically known as Kham was now claimed to be the Xikang
Xikang
Administrative District, created by the Republican revolutionaries.[99] By the end of 1912, the last Manchu troops were forced out of Tibet through India. Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama, returned to Tibet in January 1913 from Sikkim, where he had been residing.[100] When the new ROC government apologised for the actions of the Qing and offered to restore the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
to his former position, he replied that he was not interested in Chinese ranks, that Tibet had never been subordinated to China, that Tibet was an independent country, and that he was assuming the spiritual and political leadership of Tibet.[100] Because of this, many have read this reply as a formal declaration of independence. The Chinese side ignored the response, and Tibet had thirty years free of interference from China.[100] Mongolian independence[edit] Main articles: Mongolian Revolution
Revolution
of 1911 and Outer Mongolia (1911–19) At the end of 1911, the Mongols
Mongols
took action with an armed revolt against the Manchu authorities but were unsuccessful in the attempt.[101] An independence movement took place that was not limited to just North (outer) Mongolia but was a pan-Mongolian phenomenon.[101] On 29 December 1911, Bogd Khan
Bogd Khan
became the leader of the Mongol empire. Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
became a contested terrain between Khan and the Republic.[102] In general, Russia supported the Independence of Outer Mongolia (including Tannu Uriankhai) during the time of the Xinhai Revolution.[103] Tibet and Mongolia then recognized each other in a treaty. Dihua and Yili Uprising[edit] Main article: Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
in Xinjiang In Xinjiang
Xinjiang
on 28 December, Liu Xianzun (劉先俊) and the revolutionaries started the Dihua Uprising (迪化起義).[104] This was led by more than 100 members of Geilaohui.[105] This uprising failed. On 7 January 1912, the Yili Uprising (伊犁起義) with Feng Temin (馮特民) began.[104][105] Qing governor Yuan Dahua (袁大化) fled and handed over his resignation to Yang Zengxin, because he could not handle fighting the revolutionaries.[106] In the morning of 8 January, a new Yili government was established for the revolutionaries,[105] but the revolutionaries would be defeated at Jinghe in January and February.[106][107] Eventually because of the abdication to come, Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
recognized Yang Zengxin's rule, appointed him Governor of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and had the province join the Republic.[106] Eleven more former Qing officials would be assassinated in Zhenxi, Karashahr, Aksu, Kucha, Luntai and Kashgar
Kashgar
in April and May 1912.[106] The revolutionaries printed new multi-lingual media.[108] Taiwan
Taiwan
Uprising[edit] In 1911 as part of the Xinhai Revolution, Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
sent Luo Fu-xing (羅福星) to the island of Taiwan
Taiwan
to free it from being occupied by the Japanese.[109] The goal was to bring Taiwan
Taiwan
island back to the Chinese Republic by having the Taiwan
Taiwan
Uprising (台灣起義).[110] Luo was caught and killed on 3 March 1914.[111] What was left was known as the "Miaoli incident", (苗栗事件) where more than 1,000 Taiwanese were executed by the Japanese police.[112] Luo's sacrifice is commemorated in Miaoli.[111] Change of government[edit]

Seal for the provisional government president of Republic of China

North: Qing court last transformation attempt[edit] On 1 November 1911, the Qing government appointed Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
as the prime minister of the imperial cabinet, replacing Prince Qing.[113] On 3 November, after a proposition by Cen Chunxuan
Cen Chunxuan
from the Constitutional Monarchy
Monarchy
Movement (立憲運動), in 1903, the Qing court passed the Nineteen Articles (憲法重大信條十九條), which turned the Qing from an autocratic system with the emperor having unlimited power to a constitutional monarchy.[114][115] On 9 November, Huang Xing
Huang Xing
even cabled Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
and invited him to join the Republic.[116] The court changes were too late, and the emperor was about to have to step down. South: Government in Nanking[edit] Main article: Provisional Government of the Republic of China
China
(1912) On 28 November 1911, Wuchang and Hanyang had fallen back to the Qing army. So for safety, the revolutionaries convened their first conference at the British concession in Hankou
Hankou
on 30 November.[117] By 2 December, the revolutionary forces were able to capture Nanking in the uprising; the revolutionaries decided to make it the site of the new provisional government.[118] At the time, Beijing was still the Qing capital. North–South Conference[edit]

Tang Shaoyi, left. Edward Selby Little, middle. Wu Tingfang, right.

On 18 December, the North–South Conference (南北議和) was held in Shanghai to discuss the north and south issues.[119] Yuan Shikai selected Tang Shaoyi
Tang Shaoyi
as his representative.[119] Tang left Beijing for Wuhan to negotiate with the revolutionaries.[119] The revolutionaries chose Wu Tingfang.[119] With the intervention of six foreign powers, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Russia, Japan, and France, Tang Shaoyi
Tang Shaoyi
and Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang
began to negotiate a settlement at the British concession.[120] Foreign businessman Edward Selby Little (李德立) acted as the negotiator and facilitated the peace agreement.[121] They agreed that Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
would force the Qing emperor to abdicate in exchange for the southern provinces' support of Yuan as the president of the Republic. After considering the possibility that the new republic might be defeated in a civil war or by foreign invasion, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
agreed to Yuan's proposal to unify China
China
under Yuan Shikai's Beijing government. Further decisions were made to let the emperor rule over his little court in the New Summer Palace. He would be treated as a ruler of a separate country and have expenses of several million taels in silver.[122] Establishment of the Republic[edit]

Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
in 1912 at one of the historic crossroads with the Five Races Under One Union flag and the Blue Sky with a White Sun
Blue Sky with a White Sun
flag

Republic of China
China
declared and national flag issue[edit] On 29 December 1911, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was elected as the first provisional president.[123] 1 January 1912, was set as the first day of the First Year of the ROC.[124] On 3 January, the representatives recommended Li Yuanhong as the provisional vice president.[125] During and after the Xinhai Revolution, many groups that participated wanted their own pennant as the national flag. During the Wuchang Uprising, the military units of Wuchang wanted the nine-star flag with Taijitu.[126] Others in competition included Lu Haodong's Blue Sky with a White Sun flag. Huang Xing
Huang Xing
favored a flag bearing the mythical "well-field" system of village agriculture. In the end, the assembly compromised: the national flag would be the banner of Five Races Under One Union.[126] The Five Races Under One Union
Five Races Under One Union
flag with horizontal stripes represented the five major nationalities of the republic.[127] The red represented Han, the yellow represented Manchus, the blue for Mongols, the white for Muslims, and the black for Tibetans.[126][127] Despite the general target of the uprisings to be the Manchus, Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
and Huang Xing
Huang Xing
unanimously advocated racial integration to be carried out from the mainland to the frontiers.[128] Donghuamen incident[edit] On 16 January, while returning to his residence, Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
was ambushed in a bomb attack organized by the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
in Donghuamen (東華門), Tientsin, Beijing.[129] A total of eighteen revolutionaries were involved. About ten of the guards died, but Yuan himself was not seriously injured.[129] He sent a message to the revolutionaries the next day pledging his loyalty and asking them not to organize any more assassination attempts against him.

Imperial edict for abdication

Abdication
Abdication
of the emperor[edit] Main article: Puyi
Puyi
§ Abdication Zhang Jian drafted an abdication proposal that was approved by the Provisional Senate. On 20 January, Wu Tingfang
Wu Tingfang
of the Nanking Provisional government officially delivered the imperial edict of abdication to Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
for the abdication of Puyi.[115] On 22 January, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
announced that he would resign the presidency in favor of Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
if the latter supported the emperor's abdication.[130] Yuan then pressured Empress Dowager Longyu
Empress Dowager Longyu
with the threat that the lives of the imperial family would not be spared if abdication did not come before the revolutionaries reached Beijing, but if they agree to abdicate, the provisional government would honor the terms proposed by the imperial family. On 3 February, Empress Dowager Longyu
Empress Dowager Longyu
gave Yuan full permission to negotiate the abdication terms of the Qing emperor. Yuan then drew up his own version and forwarded it to the revolutionaries on 3 February.[115] His version consisted of three sections instead of two.[115] On 12 February 1912, after being pressured by Yuan and other ministers, Puyi
Puyi
(age six) and Empress Dowager Longyu
Empress Dowager Longyu
accepted Yuan's terms of abdication.[124] Debate over the capital[edit] See also: History of Beijing As a condition for ceding leadership to Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen insisted that the provisional government remain in Nanjing. On 14 February, the Provisional Senate initially voted 20–5 in favor of making Beijing the capital over Nanjing, with two votes going for Wuhan and one for Tianjin.[131] The Senate majority wanted to secure the peace agreement by taking power in Beijing.[131] Zhang Jian and others reasoned that having the capital in Beijing would check against Manchu restoration and Mongol secession. But Sun and Huang Xing
Huang Xing
argued in favor of Nanjing to balance against Yuan's power base in the north.[131] Li Yuanhong
Li Yuanhong
presented Wuhan as a compromise.[132] The next day, the Provisional Senate voted again, this time, 19-6 in favor of Nanjing with two votes for Wuhan.[131] Sun sent a delegation led by Cai Yuanpei
Cai Yuanpei
and Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
to persuade Yuan to move to Nanjing.[133] Yuan welcomed the delegation and agreed to accompany the delegates back to the south.[134] Then on the evening of 29 February, riots and fires broke out all over the city.[134] They were allegedly started by disobedient troops of Cao Kun, a loyal officer of Yuan.[134] The disorder gave Yuan the pretext to stay in the north to guard against unrest. On 10 March, Yuan was inaugurated in Beijing as the provisional president of the Republic of China.[135] On 5 April, the Provisional Senate in Nanjing voted to make Beijing the capital of the Republic and convened in Beijing at the end of the month. Republican government in Beijing[edit] Main article: Beiyang Government

Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
sworn as the Provisional president in Beijing

On 10 March 1912, Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
was sworn as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China
China
in Beijing.[136] The government based in Beijing, called the Beiyang Government, was not internationally recognized as the legitimate government of the Republic of China
China
until 1928, so the period from 1912 until 1928 was known simply as the "Beiyang Period". The first National Assembly election took place according to the Provisional Constitution. While in Beijing, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
was formed on 25 August 1912.[137] The KMT held the majority of seats after the election. Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
was elected as premier. However, Song was assassinated in Shanghai on 20 March 1913, under the secret order of Yuan Shikai.[138] Proposed Han monarchs and retention of aristocratic noble titles[edit] Some advocated that a Han be installed as Emperor, either the descendant of Confucius, who was the Duke Yansheng,[139][140][141][142][143] or the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
Imperial family descendant, the Marquis of Extended Grace.[144][145] The Duke Yansheng was proposed for replacing the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
as Emperor by Liang Qichao.[146] The Han hereditary aristocratic nobility like the Duke Yansheng, Marquis of Extended Grace, and the title of the Wujing Boshi (changed to "Dacheng Zhisheng Xianshi Nanzong Fengsi Guan" 大成至聖先師南宗奉祀官) and the titles held by the descendants of Mencius, Zengzi, and Yan Hui
Yan Hui
were retained by the new Republic of China
China
and the title holders continued to receive their pensions. Western views[edit] The American Christian Rev. Dr. George F. Pentecost spoke out against western imperialism, saying:

As for the Chinese, I have the highest opinion not only of the Chinese character, but of the Chinese fitness for self-government. I think they are eminently fitted to make a republic successful. China, for instance, is infinitely better fitted than is Russia for development along republican lines. In fact, China
China
has always been practically a republic. It has had its dynasties of rulers, but the political unit of China
China
has always been the village. The village people have always had their influence upon the Government. What is more, the average Chinaman is intelligent.[147]

Legacy[edit] Social influence[edit] After the revolution, there was a huge outpouring of anti-Manchu sentiment through China, but particularly in Beijing where thousands died in anti-Manchu violence as Imperial restrictions on Han residency and behavior within the city crumbled as Manchu Imperial power crumbled.[148] Anti-Manchu sentiment is recorded in books like A Short History of Slaves (奴才小史) and The Biographies of Avaricious Officials and Corrupt Personnel (貪官污吏傳) by Laoli (老吏).[149][150] During the abdication of the last emperor, Empress Dowager Longyu, Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
and Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
both tried to adopt the concept of "Manchu and Han as one family" (滿漢一家).[149] People started exploring and debating with themselves on the root cause of their national weakness. This new search of identity was the New Culture Movement.[151] Manchu culture and language, on the contrary, has become virtually extinct by 2007.[152] Unlike revolutions in the West, the Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
did not restructure society. The participants of the Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
were mostly military personnel, old-type bureaucrats, and local gentries. These people still held regional power after the Xinhai Revolution. Some became warlords. There were no major improvements in the standard of living. Writer Lu Xun
Lu Xun
commented in 1921 during the publishing of The True Story of Ah Q, ten years after the Xinhai Revolution, that basically nothing changed except "the Manchus have left the kitchen".[153] The economic problems were not addressed until the governance of Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
in Taiwan
Taiwan
and Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
on the mainland.[154] The Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
mainly got rid of feudalism (fengjian) from Late Imperial China. In the usual view of historians, there are two restorations of feudal power after the revolution: the first was Yuan Shikai; the second was Zhang Xun.[155] Both were unsuccessful, but the "feudal remnants" returned to China
China
with the Cultural Revolution
Revolution
in a concept called guanxi, where people relied not on feudal relationships, but personal relationships, for survival.[156] While guanxi is helpful in Taiwan, on the mainland, guanxi is necessary to get anything done.[157] Historical significance[edit] The Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the Qing government and two thousand years of monarchy.[2] Throughout Chinese history, old dynasties had always been replaced by new dynasties. The Xinhai Revolution, however, was the first to overthrow a monarchy completely and attempt to establish a republic to spread democratic ideas throughout China. Though in 1911 at the provisional government welcome ceremony, Sun Yat-sen said, "The revolution is not yet successful, the comrades still need to strive for the future." (革命尚未成功,同志仍需努力).[158] Since the 1920s, the two dominant parties–the KMT and PRC–see the Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
quite differently.[159] Both sides recognize Sun Yat-sen as the Father of the Nation, but in Taiwan, they mean "Father of the Republic of China".[159] On the mainland, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
was seen as the man who helped bring down the Qing, a pre-condition for the Communist state founded in 1949.[159] The PRC views Sun's work as the first step towards the real revolution in 1949, when the communists set up a truly independent state that expelled foreigners and built a military and industrial power.[159] The father of New China
China
is seen as Mao Zedong.[159] In 1954, Liu Shaoqi
Liu Shaoqi
was quoted as saying that the "Xinhai Revolution
Revolution
inserted the concept of a republic into common people".[160][161] Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
pointed out that the "Xinhai Revolution overthrew the Qing rule, ended 2000 years of monarchy, and liberated the mind of people to a great extent, and opened up the path for the development of future revolution. This is a great victory."[162] Modern evaluation[edit]

Commemorative coin, minted in Taiwan
Taiwan
in 2011

A change in the belief that the revolution had been a generally positive change began in the late 1980s and 1990s, but Zhang Shizhao was quoted as arguing that "When talking about the Xinhai Revolution, the theorist these days tends to overemphasize. The word 'success' was way overused."[163] The success of the democracy gained from the revolution can vary depending on one's view. Even after the death of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
in 1925, for sixty years, the KMT controlled all five branches of the government; none were independent.[154] Yan Jiaqi, founder of the Federation for a Democratic China, has said that Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
is to be credited as founding China's first republic in 1912, and the second republic is the people of Taiwan
Taiwan
and the political parties there now democratizing the region.[155] Meanwhile, the ideals of democracy are far from realised on the mainland. For example, former Chinese premier Wen Jiabao
Wen Jiabao
once said in a speech that without real democracy, there is no guarantee of economic and political rights; but he led a 2011 crackdown against the peaceful Chinese jasmine protests.[164] Liu Xiaobo, a pro-democracy activist who received the global 2010 Nobel Peace Prize, died in prison.[165] Others, such as Qin Yongmin (秦永敏) of the Democracy Party of China, who was only released from prison after twelve years, do not praise the Xinhai Revolution.[166][167] Qin Yongmin said the revolution only replaced one dictator with another, that Mao Zedong was not an emperor, but he is worse than the emperor.[166][167][168] See also[edit]

China
China
portal

1911 (film) German Revolution
Revolution
of 1918–19 Military of the Republic of China National Revolutionary Army Russian Revolution
Revolution
(1917) Taishō period Timeline of Late Anti-Qing Rebellions

Notes[edit]

^ a: Many of the Qing soldiers with Han background turned to support the revolution during the uprisings, so the actual casualties are hard to trace. ^ b: Clipping from Min Bao (People's Papers). Originally the publishing of Hua Xin Hui and named China
China
of the Twentieth Century, it was renamed after the establishment of Tongmenhui.

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Wu Xinghan (Chinese: 吳醒漢), Three Day Journal of Wuchang Uprising (Chinese: 武昌起義三日記).

Contemporary accounts[edit]

Dingle, Edwin J. (1912). China's Revolution: 1911–1912. A Historical and Political Record of the Civil War. Shanghai, China: Commercial Press.  Kent, P. H. B. (1912). The Passing of the Manchus. London: E. Arnold. 

Secondary sources[edit]

English

Esherick, Joseph W. (1976). Reform and revolution in China: the 1911 revolution in Hunan
Hunan
and Hubei. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03084-2.  Shinkichi, / edited Eto; Schiffrin, Harold Z. (1994). China's republican revolution. [Tokyo]: University of Tokyo Press. ISBN 4-13-027030-3.  Fung, Edmund S. K. (1980). The military dimension of the Chinese revolution: The New Army
New Army
and its role in the revolution of 1911. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. ISBN 0-7748-0129-8.  Goldstein, Melvyn C. (1991). A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951: The Demise of the Lamaist state. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-07590-0.  Ma, L. Eve Armentrout (1990). Revolutionaries, monarchists, and Chinatowns: Chinese politics in the Americas and the 1911 revolution. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1239-5.  Rankin, Mary Backus (1986). Elite activism and political transformation in China: Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province, 1865–1911. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1321-9.  Wright, Mary Clabaugh (1978). China
China
in revolution: the first phase 1900–1913 (4. printing. ed.). New Haven [u.a.]: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-01460-0.  Hsieh, Winston (1975). Chinese historiography on the Revolution
Revolution
of 1911: a critical survey and a selected bibliography. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University. ISBN 0-8179-3341-7.  Young, Ernest P. (1977). The Presidency of Yuan Shih-K'ai: Liberalism and Dictatorship
Dictatorship
in Early Republican China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, Michigan Studies on China.  Kaplan, Lawrence M. (2010). Homer Lea: American Soldier of Fortune. Lexington.: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2616-6. 

Chinese

Tang (唐), Degang (德剛) (1998). The Late 50 years of Qing: Yuan Shikai, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
and Xinhai Revolution. Taipei: Yuanliu (遠流). ISBN 957-32-3513-7.  Tang (唐), Degang (德剛) (2002). 袁氏當國 [The Rule of Yuan Shikai]. Taipei: Yuanliu (遠流). ISBN 957-32-4680-5.  Zhang (張), Yufa (玉法) (1998). 中華民國史稿 [The History of the Republic of China]. Taipei: Lianjin (聯經). ISBN 957-08-1826-3.  Lin (林), Yusheng (毓生) (1983). <五四時代的激烈反傳統思想與中國自由主義的前途> 收入"思想與人物" [The Anti-tradition Trends of May Forth Era and the Future of Libertarianism in China
China
included in "Personage and their thoughts"]. Taipei: Lianjin (聯經). ISBN 957-08-0384-3.  Zhou (周), Weimin (伟民); Tang (唐), Linlin (玲玲) (2002). 中国和马来西亚文化交流史 [The History of Cultural Interactions of China
China
and Malaysia]. Haikou: Hainan (海南). ISBN 7-5443-0682-8.  Li (李), Zehou (澤厚); Liu (劉), Zhaifu (再復) (1999). 告別革命-二十世紀中國對談錄 [A Farewell to the Revolutions: Records of Discussions in 20th century China]. Taipei: Maitian (麥田). ISBN 957-708-735-3. 

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