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Xianyang
Xianyang
(Chinese: 咸阳; pinyin: Xiányáng) is a Chinese city that was the capital of China in the Qin dynasty. It is a prefecture in modern-day Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province, on the Wei River, and is located a few kilometers upstream (west) from Xi'an. Integrated into the Xi'an metropolitan area, one of the main urban agglomerations in inland China, with more than 7.17 million inhabitants, its built-up area made of 2 urban districts (Qindu and Weicheng) was 945,420 inhabitants at the 2010 census. It has a total area of 10,213 square kilometres (3,943 sq mi).

Contents

1 History 2 Administrative divisions 3 Economy 4 Transport 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit] Xianyang
Xianyang
was among the capital city's environs during the Western Zhou dynasty, and was made the capital of the state of Qin in 350 BC during the Warring States period
Warring States period
before becoming the capital of China during the short-lived Qin dynasty.[1] Because the city lay south of the Jiuzong Mountains and north of the Wei River
Wei River
- both sunlight-rich (yang) orientations - it was named "Xianyang", meaning "fully yang".[1] Under Duke Xiao of Qin, minister Shang Yang
Shang Yang
designed Xianyang
Xianyang
in 350 BC, which was then the capital for over 140 years. It was located in the modern day Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province on the northern bank of the Wei River, on the opposite side of which Liu Bang
Liu Bang
would later build the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
capital of Chang'an
Chang'an
once he became emperor. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
eliminated all six other vassal states to establish the first centralized empire in Chinese history. Xianyang became the centre of politics, economy and culture of the Qin empire. The Emperor had a lavish mausoleum built near the capital, complete with his Terracotta Army. This and other large undertakings required enormous levels of manpower and resources, not to mention repressive measures, which eventually led to the fall of the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
and with it the original city of Xianyang.[citation needed] Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
expanded Xianyang
Xianyang
beyond the walls. Then he built replicas of the palaces of all the conquered states along the Wei River. In 220 BC, he built Xin Palace (新城, Xīnchéng) and later renamed it Apex temple (渭城) to be the earthly equivalent of the apex star (Polaris). He continued with the theme of earth as the mirror of heaven building a network of 300 palaces in the Wei valley connected by elevated roads. In 212 BC, he built the Hilltop Palace (阿房宮, Ēfánggōng). Shortly after the First Emperor's death in 210 BC revolts erupted. At the beginning of December 207 BC, then King of Qin Ziying surrendered to rebel leader Liu Bang. Liu Bang
Liu Bang
went on to capture Xianyang, but was forced to hand it over to another rebel leader, Xiang Yu, whose army greatly outnumbered Liu Bang's. Xiang Yu
Xiang Yu
then killed Ziying and burned Xianyang
Xianyang
in 206 BC,[2] thereby forever robbing humanity of some unique copies of the many "forbidden books" kept in the royal library.[citation needed] In 202 BC, after defeating Xiang Yu, Liu Bang
Liu Bang
built a new city near the old Xianyang
Xianyang
and named this new capital Chang'an. The Han-era town of Anling (安陵) was located nearby and houses some of the Han dynasty's mausoleums. From the end of the 1950s until the middle of the 1990s, archaeologists discovered and excavated a large numbers of Qin era sites in Xianyang, including palaces, workshops and tombs. Administrative divisions[edit]

Map

Qindu Yangling Weicheng Sanyuan County Jingyang County Qian County Liquan County Yongshou County Bin County Changwu County Xunyi County Chunhua County Wugong County Xingping (city)

Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2004 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)

Weicheng District 渭城区 Wèichéng Qū 400,000 272 1,471

Yangling District 杨陵区 Yánglíng Qū 140,000 94 1,489

Qindu District 秦都区 Qíndū Qū 450,000 251 1,793

Xingping
Xingping
City 兴平市 Xīngpíng Shì 560,000 496 1,129

Sanyuan County 三原县 Sānyuán Xiàn 400,000 569 703

Jingyang County 泾阳县 Jīngyáng Xiàn 500,000 792 631

Qian County 乾县 Qián Xiàn 560,000 994 563

Liquan County 礼泉县 Lǐquán Xiàn 460,000 1,017 452

Yongshou County 永寿县 Yǒngshòu Xiàn 190,000 869 219

Bin County 彬县 Bīn Xiàn 330,000 1,202 275

Changwu County 长武县 Chángwǔ Xiàn 170,000 583 292

Xunyi County 旬邑县 Xúnyì Xiàn 270,000 1,697 159

Chunhua County 淳化县 Chúnhuà Xiàn 200,000 965 207

Wugong County 武功县 Wǔgōng Xiàn 410,000 392 1,046

Chinese Bureau of Statistics lists the urban population of the city at 316,641 (1990 Census), rising to 814,625 (2000 Census), and 835,648 in 2010 Census.[3] Despite being a former national capital, the city suffers from extreme air pollution. Economy[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2012)

Transport[edit]

China National Highway 312 Xi'an
Xi'an
Xianyang
Xianyang
International Airport Xianyang
Xianyang
Qindu Railway Station Xi'an
Xi'an
Metro Line 1

References[edit]

^ a b Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典, 2005. (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe), 2134. ^ Cotterell. Page 29. ^ "China: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 

Further reading[edit]

Cotterell, Arthur. (2007). The Imperial Capitals of China - An Inside View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. p. 304 pages. ISBN 978-1-84595-009-5. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xianyang.

External links[edit]

Xianyang
Xianyang
Network Xianyang
Xianyang
Forum Official website of Xianyang
Xianyang
Government

Preceded by Luoyang Capital of China 221 BC-206 BC Succeeded by Chang'an

v t e

County-level divisions of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province

Xi'an
Xi'an
(capital)

Sub-provincial city

Xi'an

Xincheng District Lianhu District Beilin District Baqiao District Weiyang District Yanta District Yanliang District Lintong District Chang'an
Chang'an
District Gaoling District Huyi District Lantian County Zhouzhi County

Prefecture-level cities

Tongchuan

Yaozhou District Wangyi District Yintai District Yijun County

Baoji

Weibin District Jintai District Chencang District Fengxiang County Qishan County Fufeng County Mei County Long County Qianyang County Linyou County Feng County Taibai County

Xianyang

Qindu District Weicheng District Yangling District Xingping
Xingping
City Sanyuan County Jingyang County Qian County Liquan County Yongshou County Bin County Changwu County Xunyi County Chunhua County Wugong County

Weinan

Linwei District Huazhou District Huayin
Huayin
City Hancheng
Hancheng
City Tongguan County Dali County Pucheng County Chengcheng County Baishui County Heyang County Fuping County

Yan'an

Baota District Ansai District Yanchang County Yanchuan County Zichang County Zhidan County Wuqi County Ganquan County Fu County Luochuan County Yichuan County Huanglong County Huangling County

Hanzhong

Hantai District Nanzheng District Chenggu County Yang County Xixiang County Mian County Ningqiang County Lueyang County Zhenba County Liuba County Foping County

Yulin

Yuyang District Hengshan District Shenmu
Shenmu
City Fugu County Jingbian County Dingbian County Suide County Mizhi County Jia County Wubu County Qingjian County Zizhou County

Ankang

Hanbin District Hanyin County Shiquan County Ningshan County Ziyang County Langao County Pingli County Zhenping County Xunyang County Baihe County

Shangluo

Shangzhou District Luonan County Danfeng County Shangnan County Shanyang County Zhen'an County Zhashui County

v t e

Shaanxi
Shaanxi
topics

Xi'an
Xi'an
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities Guanzhong Shanbei Shannan

Education

Chang'an
Chang'an
University Fourth Military Medical University Northwest A&F University Northwest University Northwestern Polytechnical University Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Normal University Xi'an
Xi'an
Jiaotong University Xidian University

Culture

Biángbiáng noodles Cuisine Music Qinqiang
Qinqiang
opera Three Qins Xintianyou

Visitor attractions

Daqin Pagoda Banpo
Banpo
Neolithic village Zhao Mausoleum Mount Hua Mausoleum and Terracotta Army
Terracotta Army
Museum Bell Tower and Drum Tower of Xi'an Forest of Stone Steles Museum Shaanxi
Shaanxi
History Museum

Category Commons

v t e

Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
topics

History

Qin's wars of unification Qin's campaign against the Xiongnu Qin's campaign against the Yue tribes Burning of books and burying of scholars Dazexiang Uprising Battle of Julu

See also

Xianyang Epang Palace He Shi Bi Terracotta Army Twelve Metal Colossi Shuihudi Qin bamboo texts Ten Crimes of Qin The First Emperor

Coordinates: 34°21′N 108°43′E / 34.350°N 108.717°E / 34.350; 108.717

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159520

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