XIANYANG (Chinese : 咸阳; pinyin : Xiányáng) is a Chinese city
that was the capital of China in the
Qin dynasty . It is a prefecture
Shaanxi province, on the
Wei River , and is located a
few kilometers upstream (west) from Xi\'an . Integrated into the
Xi\'an metropolitan area, one of the main urban agglomerations in
inland China, with more than 7.17 million inhabitants, its built-up
area made of 2 urban districts (Qindu and Weicheng) was 945,420
inhabitants at the 2010 census. It has a total area of 10,213 square
kilometres (3,943 sq mi).
* 1 History
* 2 Administrative divisions
* 3 Economy
* 4 Transport
* 5 References
* 6 Further reading
* 7 External links
Xianyang was among the capital city's environs during the Western
Zhou dynasty , and was made the capital of the state of Qin in 350 BC
Warring States period
Warring States period before becoming the capital of China
during the short-lived
Qin dynasty . Because the city lay south of
the Jiuzong Mountains and north of the
Wei River - both sunlight-rich
(yang ) orientations - it was named "Xianyang", meaning "fully yang".
Under Duke Xiao of Qin, minister
Shang Yang designed
Xianyang in 350
BC, which was then the capital for over 140 years. It was located in
the modern day
Shaanxi province on the northern bank of the Wei River
, on the opposite side of which
Liu Bang would later build the Han
dynasty capital of Chang\'an once he became emperor.
In 221 BC,
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang eliminated all six other vassal states to
establish the first centralized empire in Chinese history . Xianyang
became the centre of politics, economy and culture of the Qin empire.
The Emperor had a lavish mausoleum built near the capital, complete
Terracotta Army . This and other large undertakings required
enormous levies of manpower and resources, not to mention repressive
measures, which eventually led to the fall of the
Qin dynasty and with
it the original city of Xianyang.
Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang expanded
Xianyang beyond the walls. Then he built
replicas of the palaces of all the conquered states along the Wei
River. In 220 BC, he built Xin Palace (新城, Xīnchéng) and later
renamed it Apex temple (渭城) to be the earthly equivalent of the
apex star (Polaris). He continued with the theme of earth as the
mirror of heaven building a network of 300 palaces in the Wei valley
connected by elevated roads. In 212 BC, he built the Hilltop Palace
Shortly after the First Emperor's death in 210 BC revolts erupted. At
the beginning of December 207 BC, then King of Qin
to rebel leader
Liu Bang .
Liu Bang went on to capture Xianyang, but
was forced to hand it over to another rebel leader,
Xiang Yu , whose
army greatly outnumbered Liu Bang's.
Xiang Yu then killed
Xianyang in 206 BC, thereby forever robbing humanity of some
unique copies of the many "forbidden books" kept in the royal library.
In 202 BC, after defeating Xiang Yu,
Liu Bang built a new city near
Xianyang and named this new capital Chang\'an . The Han-era
town of ANLING (安陵) was located nearby and houses some of the Han
From the end of the 1950s until the middle of the 1990s,
archaeologists discovered and excavated a large numbers of Qin era
sites in Xianyang, including palaces, workshops and tombs.
QINDU YANGLING WEICHENG Sanyuan
POPULATION (2004 EST.)
Chinese Bureau of Statistics lists the urban population of the city
at 316,641 (1990 Census), rising to 814,625 (2000 Census), and 835,648
in 2010 Census. Despite being a former national capital, the city
suffers from extreme air pollution.
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China National Highway 312
China National Highway 312
Xianyang International Airport
Xianyang Qindu Railway Station
* Xi\'an Metro Line 1
* ^ A B Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian 中国古今地名大词典,
2005. (Shanghai: Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe), 2134.
* ^ Cotterell. Page 29.
* ^ http://citypopulation.de/China-UA.html
* Cotterell, Arthur. (2007). The Imperial Capitals of China - An
Inside View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. p. 304 pages.
ISBN 978-1-84595-009-5 .
Wikimedia Commons has media related to XIANYANG .
* Official website of