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Xi'an
Xi'an
is the capital of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province, People's Republic of China. It is a sub-provincial city located in the center of the Guanzhong Plain in Northwestern China.[3] One of the oldest cities in China, Xi'an
Xi'an
is the oldest of the Four Great Ancient Capitals, having held the position under several of the most important dynasties in Chinese history,[4] including Western Zhou, Qin, Western Han, Sui, and Tang.[4] Xi'an
Xi'an
is the starting point of the Silk Road
Silk Road
and home to the Terracotta Army
Terracotta Army
of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.[5] Since the 1990s, as part of the economic revival of inland China especially for the central and northwest regions, the city of Xi'an has re-emerged as an important cultural, industrial and educational centre of the central-northwest region, with facilities for research and development, national security and China's space exploration program. Xi'an
Xi'an
currently holds sub-provincial status, administering 9 districts and 4 counties.[6] As of 2015[update] Xi'an
Xi'an
has a population of 8,705,600,[1] and the Xi'an- Xianyang
Xianyang
metropolitan area has a population of 12.9 million.[2] It is the most populous city in Northwest China, as well as one of the three most populous cities in Western China.[7] According to a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit, it was recently named as one of the 13 emerging megacities, or megalopolises, in China.[8] The report pinpoints and highlights the demographic and income trends that are shaping these cities' development.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Ancient era 2.3 Imperial era 2.4 Modern era

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 National Time Service Centre

4 Demographics 5 Administrative divisions 6 Transportation

6.1 Metro 6.2 Taxi 6.3 Rail 6.4 Expressways 6.5 Air

7 Culture

7.1 Opera 7.2 Cinema

8 Religion

8.1 Chinese traditional religion
Chinese traditional religion
and Taoism 8.2 Buddhism 8.3 Christianity 8.4 Islam

9 Economy

9.1 Industrial zones 9.2 Software
Software
and outsourcing industries 9.3 Aerospace industry 9.4 Notable businessmen

10 Education

10.1 Public 10.2 Military 10.3 Private

11 International events

11.1 World Horticultural Expo 2011

12 Tourism

12.1 Sites 12.2 Museums 12.3 National parks

13 Sports 14 Media

14.1 Television and radio 14.2 Printed media 14.3 Online media

15 International relations 16 See also 17 References

17.1 Citations 17.2 Bibliography

18 External links

Name[edit] "Xi'an" is the atonal pinyin romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of its name 西安, which means "Western Peace". (The apostrophe should be included to distinguish its pronunciation from the single syllable xian.) The name was adopted in 1369 under the early Ming dynasty. Jesuit missionaries recorded its name as "Si-ngan" or "Si-ngan-fou"[9] from its status as the seat of a prefecture (府, fǔ). This form still appears in the Latin name of the Catholic diocese of Xi'an, archidioecesis Singanensis. The name was later romanized as "Hsi-an" by Wade & Giles and as "Sianfu"[10] or "Sian"[5] by the Qing
Qing
imperial post office, both of which were common until the general adoption of pinyin. The area of present-day Xi'an
Xi'an
has been the site of several important former Chinese cities. The capital of the Western Zhou
Western Zhou
were the twin cities of Feng and Hao, known collectively as Fenghao, located on opposite banks of the Feng River at its confluence with the southern bank of the Wei in the western suburbs of present-day Xi'an.[11] The Qin capital Xianyang
Xianyang
was erected north of the Wei during the Warring States Period and was succeeded by the Western Han
Western Han
capital of Chang'an ("Perpetual Peace"), which was located south of the Wei and covered the central area of present-day Xi'an. During the Eastern Han, Chang'an
Chang'an
was also known as Xijing (西京) or the "Western Capital", relative to its position to the main capital at Luoyang. Under the Sui, its name became Daxing
Daxing
(大興, "Greatly Prosperous") in AD 581. Under the Tang, the name reverted to Chang'an
Chang'an
in 618.[5] Under the Mongolian Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
(13th & 14th centuries), it held a succession of names: Fengyuan (奉元), Anxi (安西, "Peaceful West"), and Jingzhao (京兆). The Ming name "Xi'an" was changed back to Xijing ("Western Capital", as above) between 1930 and 1943. Xi'an
Xi'an
currently does not have a widely accepted one-character abbreviation as many other Chinese cities do. Its license plates are simply marked with 陕A, based on the name of its province. History[edit] Main articles: History of Xi'an
History of Xi'an
and Chang'an Prehistory[edit]

Lantian Man
Lantian Man
at the Shaanxi
Shaanxi
History Museum

Xi'an
Xi'an
has rich and culturally significant history. The Lantian Man
Lantian Man
was discovered in 1963 in Lantian County, 50 km (31 mi) southeast of Xi'an, and dates back to at least 500,000 years before the present time. A 6,500-year-old Neolithic
Neolithic
village, Banpo, was discovered in 1953 on the eastern outskirts of the city proper, which contains the remains of several well organized Neolithic
Neolithic
settlements carbon dated to 5600–6700 years ago.[12][13][14][15] The site is now home to the Xi'an
Xi'an
Banpo
Banpo
Museum, built in 1957 to preserve the archaeological collection.[16] Ancient era[edit]

Remains of carriages and horses in Fenghao
Fenghao
during the Western Zhou (11th–8th cent. BC)

Xi'an
Xi'an
became a cultural and political centre of China
China
in the 11th century BC with the founding of the Zhou dynasty. The capital of Zhou was established in the twin settlements of Fengjing (丰京) and Haojing, together known as Fenghao, located southwest of contemporary Xi'an. The settlement was also known as Zhōngzhōu to indicate its role as the capital of the vassal states.[17] In 770 BC, the capital was moved to Luoyang
Luoyang
due to political unrest.[18] Imperial era[edit]

A map of the city walls of settlements in Xi'an
Xi'an
from the Zhou to Qing dynasties

Terracotta Army
Terracotta Army
inside the Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
Mausoleum, 3rd century BC.

Map of Chang'an
Chang'an
under the Tang (7th–10th cent.)

Following the Warring States period, China
China
was unified under the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) for the first time, with the capital located at Xianyang, just northwest of modern Xi'an.[19] The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
ordered the construction of the Terracotta Army and his mausoleum just to the east of Xi'an
Xi'an
almost immediately after his ascension to the throne.[20] In 202 BC, the founding emperor Liu Bang
Liu Bang
of the Han dynasty established his capital in Chang'an
Chang'an
County; his first palace, Changle Palace
Palace
(長樂宮, "Perpetual Happiness") was built across the river from the ruin of the Qin capital. This is traditionally regarded as the founding date of Chang'an. Two years later, Liu Bang
Liu Bang
built Weiyang Palace
Palace
(未央宮, "Not-Yet-Halfway Palace") north of modern Xi'an. Weiyang Palace
Weiyang Palace
was the largest palace ever built on Earth, covering 4.8 square kilometres (1,200 acres), which is 6.7 times the size of the current Forbidden City
Forbidden City
and 11 times the size of the Vatican City.[21] The original Xi'an
Xi'an
city wall was started in 194 BC and took 4 years to finish. Upon completion, the wall measured 25.7 km (15.97 mi) in length and 12 to 16 m (39.37–52.49 ft) in thickness at the base, enclosing an area of 36 km2 (13.90 sq mi). In the year 190, amidst uprisings and rebellions just prior to the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
Period, a powerful warlord named Dong Zhuo
Dong Zhuo
moved the court from Luoyang
Luoyang
to Chang'an
Chang'an
in a bid to avoid a coalition of other powerful warlords against him. Following several hundred years of unrest, the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
united China
China
again in 582. The emperor of Sui ordered a new capital to be built southeast of the Han capital, called Daxing. It consisted of three sections: the Imperial City, the palace section, and the civilian section, with a total area of 84 km2 (32 sq mi) within the city walls. At the time, it was the largest city in the world. The city was renamed Chang'an
Chang'an
by the Tang Dynasty.[22] In the mid-7th century, after returning from his pilgrimage to India, the Buddhist monk Xuanzang
Xuanzang
established a translation centre for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
scriptures. Construction of the Great Wild Goose Pagoda
Great Wild Goose Pagoda
began in 652. This pagoda was 64 m (209.97 ft) in height, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras obtained from India by Xuanzang. In 707, construction of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda
Pagoda
began. This pagoda measured 45 m (147.64 ft) tall at the time of completion, and was built to store the translations of Buddhist sutras by Yijing. The massive 1556 Shaanxi
Shaanxi
earthquake eventually damaged the tower and reduced its height to 43.4 m (142.39 ft).[23] Chang'an
Chang'an
was devastated at the end of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
in 904. Residents were forced to move to the new capital city in Luoyang. Only a small area in the city continued to be occupied thereafter. During the Ming dynasty, a new wall was constructed in 1370 and remains intact to this day. The wall measures 11.9 km (7.4 mi) in circumference, 12 m (39.37 ft) in height, and 15 to 18 m (49.21–59.06 ft) in thickness at the base; a moat was also built outside the walls. The new wall and moat would protect a much smaller city of 12 km2 (4.6 sq mi). Modern era[edit] In October 1911, during the revolution in which the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was overthrown, revolutionary forces massacred 20,000 Manchus in the process in the northeastern zone within Xi'an's city walls, wiping out the entire Manchu population in the city.[24][25] In 1936, the Xi'an Incident
Xi'an Incident
took place inside the city during the Chinese Civil War. The incident brought the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) and Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
to a truce in order to concentrate on fighting against the Japanese Invasion.[26] On May 20, 1949, the Communist-controlled People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
captured the city of Xi'an
Xi'an
from the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
force.[27] Xi'an
Xi'an
made headlines for being one of the many cities where the 2012 China
China
anti-Japanese demonstrations occurred.[28][29][30] Geography[edit] Xi'an
Xi'an
lies on the Guanzhong Plain
Guanzhong Plain
in the south-central part of Shaanxi province, on a flood plain created by the eight surrounding rivers and streams. The city has an average elevation of 400 metres (1,312 ft) above sea level and an annual precipitation of 553 mm (21.8 in). The urban area of Xi'an
Xi'an
is located at 34°16′N 108°56′E / 34.267°N 108.933°E / 34.267; 108.933. The Wei River
Wei River
provides potable water to the city. The city borders the northern foot of the Qin Mountains
Qin Mountains
(Qinling) to the south, and the banks of the Wei River
Wei River
to the north. Hua Shan, one of the five sacred Taoist mountains, is located 100 km (62 mi) away to the east of the city. Not far to the north is the Loess Plateau. At the beginning of Han dynasty, Prime Minister Zhang Liang advised the emperor Liu Bang
Liu Bang
to choose Guanzhong
Guanzhong
as the capital of the Han dynasty: ' Guanzhong
Guanzhong
Plain, which is located behind Xiao Pass and Hangu Pass, connects Long (Gansu) and Shu (Sichuan). Lands of thousand miles rich in harvest be found here, as if this place belongs to the nation of heaven.' (关中左崤函,右陇蜀,沃野千里,此所谓金城千里,天府之国也) Since then, Guanzhong
Guanzhong
is also known as the 'Nation of the Heaven'.[31] Climate[edit]

Xi'an

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    6.9     5 −4

    9.6     8 −1

    29     14 4

    43     21 10

    60     26 14

    54     31 19

    99     32 22

    71     31 21

    92     25 16

    60     20 10

    24     12 3

    5.8     6 −3

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.3     41 25

    0.4     47 30

    1.1     57 38

    1.7     70 49

    2.4     79 58

    2.1     88 67

    3.9     90 71

    2.8     87 70

    3.6     78 61

    2.4     67 50

    0.9     54 37

    0.2     44 28

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Xi'an
Xi'an
has a temperate climate that is influenced by the East Asian monsoon, classified under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
as situated on the borderline between a semi-arid climate (BSk) and humid subtropical climate (Cwa). The Wei River
Wei River
valley is characterised by hot, humid summers, cold, dry winters, and dry springs and autumns. Most of the annual precipitation is delivered from July to late October. Snow occasionally falls in winter but rarely settles for long. Dust storms often occur during March and April as the city rapidly warms up. Summer months also experience frequent but short thunderstorms. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from around the freezing mark in January to 27.0 °C (80.6 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 14.08 °C (57.3 °F). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 31 percent in December to 47 percent in August, the city receives 1,536 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −20.6 °C (−5 °F) on January 11, 1955 to 41.8 °C (107 °F) on June 21, 1998. A highest record of 42.9 °C (109 °F) was registered in another station on June 17, 2006.[32][33]

Climate data for Xi'an
Xi'an
(normals 1981–2010, extremes 1951–2013)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.0 (62.6) 24.1 (75.4) 31.3 (88.3) 34.9 (94.8) 38.6 (101.5) 41.8 (107.2) 41.0 (105.8) 40.0 (104) 38.5 (101.3) 34.1 (93.4) 24.5 (76.1) 21.6 (70.9) 41.8 (107.2)

Average high °C (°F) 5.1 (41.2) 8.9 (48) 14.4 (57.9) 21.5 (70.7) 26.6 (79.9) 31.4 (88.5) 32.4 (90.3) 30.3 (86.5) 25.6 (78.1) 19.3 (66.7) 12.4 (54.3) 6.3 (43.3) 19.5 (67.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 3.6 (38.5) 8.7 (47.7) 15.4 (59.7) 20.5 (68.9) 25.3 (77.5) 27.0 (80.6) 25.1 (77.2) 20.3 (68.5) 14.1 (57.4) 7.2 (45) 1.5 (34.7) 14.1 (57.4)

Average low °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −0.4 (31.3) 4.1 (39.4) 10.3 (50.5) 15.1 (59.2) 19.9 (67.8) 22.3 (72.1) 21.0 (69.8) 16.5 (61.7) 10.2 (50.4) 3.2 (37.8) −2.2 (28) 9.7 (49.5)

Record low °C (°F) −20.6 (−5.1) −18.7 (−1.7) −7.6 (18.3) −4 (25) 3.5 (38.3) 9.2 (48.6) 15.1 (59.2) 12.1 (53.8) 4.8 (40.6) −1.9 (28.6) −16.8 (1.8) −19.3 (−2.7) −20.6 (−5.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 6.7 (0.264) 9.8 (0.386) 27.1 (1.067) 37.5 (1.476) 54.9 (2.161) 64.5 (2.539) 97.5 (3.839) 78.6 (3.094) 94.1 (3.705) 61.7 (2.429) 21.5 (0.846) 7.3 (0.287) 561.2 (22.093)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.4 4.0 6.4 7.8 8.2 8.8 9.9 10.0 11.6 9.9 5.5 3.6 89.1

Average relative humidity (%) 65 62 64 64 65 61 68 75 77 76 73 68 68.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 88.4 96.1 116.6 142.8 169.5 179.7 181.1 168.1 121.0 98.9 92.4 81.0 1,535.6

Percent possible sunshine 32 34 33 38 40 43 44 47 34 32 32 31 37

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration,[34] all-time extreme temperature[33]

National Time Service Centre[edit] The Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Astronomical Observatory was established in 1966. In 1975, according to the Geodetic Origin Report of the People's Republic of China, 'in order to avoid bias in the mensuration as much as possible, the Geodetic Origin would be in central mainland China.' Lintong (临潼), a town near Xi'an
Xi'an
was chosen. Since 1986, Chinese Standard Time (CST) was set from NTSC. The NTSC in Lintong is 36 km (22 mi) away from Xi'an.

National Time Service Centre (NTSC), the Chinese Academy of Sciences is an institute which is mainly engaged in the service and research on time and frequency. NTSC takes charge of generating and maintaining the national standard time scale, disseminating the time and frequency signals. The autonomous standard time scales of universal time and atomic time and the dissemination techniques with LF radio and HF radio were established successively during the 1970s and 1980s, which meet all the requirements for different applications on the whole, such as the scientific researches, national economy, etc.[35]

Demographics[edit]

Muslim Quarter in Xi'an

As of 2015[update] Xi'an
Xi'an
has a population of 8.7 million.[1] Compared to the census data from 2000, the population has increased by 656,700 persons from 7.41 million.[36] The population is 51.66 percent male and 48.34 percent female.[36] Among its districts, Yanta has the largest population, with 1.08 million inhabitants.[36] The encompassing Xi'an- Xianyang
Xianyang
metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD
OECD
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 12.9 million,[2] and locally as 13,569,700,[37][failed verification] of which 5,740,000 is urban.[38] The majority of Xi'an
Xi'an
residents are Han Chinese, who make up 99.1 percent of the city's total population. There are around 81,500 people belonging to ethnic minorities living in Xi'an, including 50,000 Hui people.[citation needed] During World War II, Xi'an
Xi'an
became a destination for many refugees from other provinces of China, especially neighboring Henan
Henan
Province. Because Xi'an
Xi'an
was far inland, the invading Japanese army only managed a few aerial assaults on the city. As a result, Xi'an
Xi'an
suffered minimal destruction. After 1949, the national government tried to balance the development in different regions of China, and relocated a number of factories and universities from other cities to Xi'an. Modern Xi'an Jiaotong University was relocated from its original campus in Shanghai.

Breakdown of Xi'an
Xi'an
population by district and county

Division Permanent residents[39] Hukou residents[40]

Total Percentage Population density (persons/km2)

Xi'an
Xi'an
City 8,467,837 100 838.66 7,827,260

Xincheng District 589,739 6.96 19,574.51 503,641

Beilin District 614,710 7.26 26,298.54 732,494

Lianhu District 698,513 8.25 18,226.61 640,911

Baqiao District 595,124 7.03 1,833.97 508,535

Weiyang District 806,811 9.53 3,051.39 516,968

Yanta District 1,178,529 13.92 7,782.38 793,103

Yanliang District 278,604 3.29 1,139.26 252,449

Lintong District 655,874 7.75 716.04 697,586

Chang'an
Chang'an
District 1,083,285 12.79 681.94 980,803

Gaoling District 333,477 3.94 1,169.98 294,507

Huyi District 556,377 6.57 434.87 597,071

Lantian County 514,026 6.07 256.25 643,605

Zhouzhi County 562,768 6.65 191.08 665,587

Administrative divisions[edit] The sub-provincial city of Xi'an
Xi'an
has direct jurisdiction over 11 districts and 2 counties:

Map

1 2 3 Baqiao Weiyang Yanta Yanliang Lintong Chang'an Lantian County Zhouzhi County Huyi Gaoling 1. Xincheng 2. Beilin 3. Lianhu

Division code[41] English Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[42] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[43]

Subdistricts Towns Residential communities Villages

610100 Xi'an 西安市 Xī'ān Shì 10,096.81 Weiyang District 710000 113 55 766 2984

610102 Xincheng District 新城区 Xīnchéng Qū 30.13 Xiyi Road Subdistrict (西一路街道) 710000 9

105

610103 Beilin District 碑林区 Bēilín Qū 23.37 Zhangjiacun Subdistrict (张家村街道) 710000 8

100

610104 Lianhu District 莲湖区 Liánhú Qū 38.32 Beiyuanmen Subdistrict (北院门街道) 710000 9

127 5

610111 Baqiao District 灞桥区 Bàqiáo Qū 324.50 Fangzhicheng Subdistrict (纺织城街道) 710000 9

40 223

610112 Weiyang District 未央区 Wèiyāng Qū 264.41 Zhangjiabao Subdistrict (张家堡街道) 710000 12

114 147

610113 Yanta District 雁塔区 Yàntǎ Qū 151.44 Xiaozhai Road Subdistrict (小寨路街道) 710000 8

123 84

610114 Yanliang District 阎良区 Yánliáng Qū 244.55 Fenghuang Road Subdistrict (凤凰路街道) 710089 5 2 23 80

610115 Lintong District 临潼区 Líntóng Qū 915.97 Lishan Subdistrict (骊山街道) 710600 23

36 284

610116 Chang'an
Chang'an
District 长安区 Cháng'ān Qū 1,588.53 Weiqu Subdistrict (韦曲街道) 710100 25

47 659

610117 Gaoling District 高陵区 Gāolíng Qū 285.03 Luyuan Subdistrict (鹿苑街道) 710200 3 3 8 88

610125 Huyi District 鄠邑区 Hùyì Qū 1,279.42 Ganting Subdistrict (甘亭街道) 710300 1 13 21 518

610122 Lantian County 蓝田县 Lántián Xiàn 2,005.95 Languan Subdistrict (蓝关街道) 710500 1 18 8 520

610124 Zhouzhi County 周至县 Zhōuzhì Xiàn 2,945.20 Erqu Subdistrict (二曲街道) 710400 1 19 14 376

Transportation[edit]

Xi'an
Xi'an
Metro

Yongningmen Metro Station

Xi'an
Xi'an
Railway Station

Xi'an
Xi'an
North Railway Station

Bell Tower Underpass

Xi'an
Xi'an
Xianyang
Xianyang
International Airport

Xi'an
Xi'an
has many areas that are easily accessible on foot. In many commercial, residential, educational zones in the city, especially in the shopping and entertainment districts around the Bell Tower, underpasses and overpasses have been built for the safety and convenience of pedestrians. Electric bikes are popular[citation needed] among students and offer easy transportation in and around the city for many residents. A bicycle-sharing network started operating in 2013 and today has 52,000 bikes, used by over 200,000 people per day.[44] Taxi services are numerous, but many citizens of Xi'an
Xi'an
still commute to work using the city's 270 official municipal bus routes serviced by a fleet of over 7,800 buses, with an average system-wide ridership of over 4 million people per day.[44] The bus network is complemented by a rapidlly expanding subway system that carries over 1.5 million commuters per day.[44] There are more than 2 million registered automobiles[45] in Xi'an; the growing number of personal automobiles also means traffic jams are a common urban issue. Metro[edit] Main article: Xi'an
Xi'an
Metro Line 2, running through the city from north (North Railway Station) to south (Weiqu Nan), was the first line opened to the public on September 16, 2011.[46] Operations began on September 28, 2011.[46][47] This line is 19.9 kilometres (12.4 miles) long with 17 stations.[48] Line 1 opened on September 15, 2013. As a west-east railway, its 19 stations connect Houweizhai and Fangzhicheng. Line 3 runs from northeast (Baoshuiqu) to southwest (Yuhuazhai) and opened on November 8, 2016. Six lines are planned to be finished around 2020. When completed, the system will span 251.8 km (156.5 mi); it will mainly service the urban and suburban districts of Xi'an
Xi'an
municipality and part of nearby Xianyang
Xianyang
City.[49] The subway system covers some of the most famous attractions, such as Banpo
Banpo
Museum ( Banpo
Banpo
Station, Line 1), Bell and Drum Tower (Line 2), City Wall
City Wall
(Line 2) and Shaanxi
Shaanxi
History Museum, etc.[50] On December 30, 2008, a fire accident occurred that was extinguished within an hour and all workers evacuated safely. Sixty-six hours later, on January 2, another fire occurred at another station on Line 2.[51] Taxi[edit] Taxis in Xi'an
Xi'an
are predominantly BYD Auto
BYD Auto
made in Xi'an. Most, if not all, taxis in Xi'an
Xi'an
run on compressed natural gas. For the taxis' fare, during the 06:00-23:00,¥9/2 kilometres (1.2 miles) for the fare fall and ¥2.3/Km later, at night ¥10 for the fare fall and ¥2.7/Km later. Rail[edit] There are 6 passenger transport railway stations in Xi'an. Xi'an Railway Station, located just north of Xi'an
Xi'an
walled city, is one of the eight major national railway stations, and the main railway transportation hub of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province. The new Xi'an
Xi'an
North Railway Station, situated a few miles to the north, is the station for the high-speed trains of the Zhengzhou– Xi'an
Xi'an
High-Speed Railway. With 34 platforms, it is the largest railway station in Northwest China.[52] Construction of the station began on September 19, 2008.[53] The station was opened on January 11, 2011.[52] As of May 2012, Xi'an North Station is served only by the fast (G-series and D-series) trains running on the Zhengzhou– Xi'an
Xi'an
High-Speed Railway; one of them continues south to Hankou.[54] The city's other stations include Xi'an
Xi'an
West, Xi'an
Xi'an
East, Xi'an
Xi'an
South, Sanmincun, and Fangzhicheng railway stations. Xi'an Railway Station
Xi'an Railway Station
covers 597,000 square metres (6,430,000 square feet), has 5 passenger platforms, and 24 tracks. It provides 112 services to 80 000 people daily. Among the destinations served by direct trains from Xi'an
Xi'an
are Beijing, Zhengzhou, Lanzhou, Baoji, and Mount Hua. China
China
Railway High-speed 2 now run an express services from Xi'an
Xi'an
to Baoji
Baoji
and Xi'an
Xi'an
to Zhengzhou; with a total running time to Baoji
Baoji
of under 90 minutes, and 2 hours to Zhengzhou. The Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway
Zhengzhou–Xi'an High-Speed Railway
also serves Xi'an. Construction work began on September 25, 2005, the railway opened for service on February 6, 2010.[55][56][57] The railway has made air service between Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
and Xi'an
Xi'an
uncompetitive. All passenger flights between the two cities were suspended within 48 days of start of regular high-speed rail service.[58] Expressways[edit] Xi'an
Xi'an
currently has three ring road systems, the Second Ring road and the Third Ring road which encircle the city. These ring roads are similar to freeways, except where there are traffic signals on the Second Ring road. As a tourist city, Xi'an
Xi'an
has built expressways to Lintong, Tongchuan and Baoji, with well-maintained roads to famous scenic spots in suburban counties and to the north slope of the Qin Mountains. Since its construction in September 2007, the Xi'an– Hanzhong
Hanzhong
Expressway connects Hanzhong
Hanzhong
and Xi'an
Xi'an
through the Qinling.

China
China
National Highway 210 China
China
National Highway 211 China
China
National Highway 312

Air[edit] Xi'an
Xi'an
Xianyang
Xianyang
International Airport (airport code: XIY) is the major airport serving the city and it is the largest airport in the northwestern part of China. It is 41 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Xi'an
Xi'an
city centre, and 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) northeast of the centre of Xianyang.[59] China
China
Eastern Airlines, Hainan
Hainan
Airlines and China
China
Southern Airlines are the main airlines using the airport. Terminal 3 and the second runway were opened on May 3, 2012.[60] International Routes: There are direct flights from Xi'an
Xi'an
to many major cities in Asia, including Bangkok, Busan, Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Osaka, Sapporo, Singapore and Seoul and Taipei. First direct route between Xi'an
Xi'an
and Europe was launched by Finnair on June 14, 2013. There are 3 three frequencies per week via Helsinki hub to many major cities in Europe during the summer season. United Airlines begun non-stop service to San Francisco since May 2016. Germany's Fraport, the operator of Frankfurt Airport, has paid 490 million yuan to obtain a 24.5 percent stake in the Xianyang
Xianyang
International Airport, offering opportunities to upgrade and expand the facility.

Figures along the Airport Express highway leading to Xi'an
Xi'an
Xianyang International Airport

On June 6, 1994, China
China
Northwest Airlines Flight 2303 broke up in mid-air and crashed near Xi'an, en route to Guangzhou
Guangzhou
from Xian.[61][62] A maintenance error was responsible. All 160 people on board died. As of 2016[update], it remains the deadliest airplane crash ever to occur in mainland China.[63]

Culture[edit]

A typical Chinese pavilion located in Xi'an

Traditional Chinese musical performances at Xi'an

Yangrou Paomo, a well-known Xi'an
Xi'an
dish

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The culture of Xi'an
Xi'an
descends from one of the world's earliest civilizations. The Guanzhong
Guanzhong
Ren (simplified Chinese: 关中人; traditional Chinese: 關中人; pinyin: Guānzhōng rén) culture is considered the cultural antecedent of Xi'anese; their features are satirized as the "Ten Strangenesses of Guanzhong
Guanzhong
Ren" (simplified Chinese: 关中十大怪; traditional Chinese: 關中十大怪; pinyin: Guānzhōng shí dà guài). Xi'an
Xi'an
is also known for the "Eight Great Sights of Chang'an" (simplified Chinese: 长安八景; traditional Chinese: 長安八景; pinyin: Cháng'ān bājǐng), a collection of scenic areas in the region. Much like Beijing
Beijing
1798 and Shanghai
Shanghai
1933, Xi'an
Xi'an
has an art district called Textile Town (Chinese: 纺织城; pinyin: Fǎngzhī chéng). The district is not an actual town but derives its name from the many textile factories built there since the 1950s.[64] Today it is no longer a centre for the textile industry but a new art factory with 4 workshops in total. Since March 2007, more than 40 artists have taken a part in these workshops.[citation needed] Xi'an
Xi'an
is home to contemporary Chinese stars such as Xu Wei,[65] Zhang Chu and Zheng Jun. The ancient folk genre Xi'an guyue
Xi'an guyue
is named for Xi'an. Paomo yangrou (flat bread soaked in lamb soup; simplified Chinese: 羊肉泡馍; traditional Chinese: 羊肉泡饃; pinyin: Yángròu pàomó) [66] is well known Xi'anese dish. Opera[edit] Qinqiang
Qinqiang
(Voice of Qin) is the oldest and most extensive of the four major types of Chinese opera.[67] Also called "random pluck" (Chinese: 乱弹; pinyin: Luàntán), Qinqiang
Qinqiang
is the main type of drama in Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province.[68] As the earliest ancestor of Beijing
Beijing
Opera, Yu Opera, Chuan Opera and Hebei
Hebei
Opera, Qinqiang
Qinqiang
has developed its own system of unique vocal music, spoken parts, facial makeup, posture, role, category and acting. It can be traced to Xi Qinqiang
Qinqiang
(Chinese: 西秦腔; pinyin: Xi qínqiāng; literally: "Voice of West Qin") in Qin dynasty, and blossomed until Qing
Qing
dynasty, with direct influences on many branches of Chinese Opera.[69] Cinema[edit] Zhang Yimou
Zhang Yimou
and Gu Changwei are directors from Xi'an. Zhang Yimou
Zhang Yimou
is also the only city in China
China
to win the Golden Bear
Golden Bear
(Berlin Film Festival) twice. The first film is Red Sorghum and the second one is Tuya's Marriage. They are produced by Xi'an
Xi'an
Filmmaking Factory (now called Xi'an
Xi'an
Qujiang Filmmaking Group) and Xi'an
Xi'an
Filmmaking Company, respectively. Religion[edit] Chinese traditional religion
Chinese traditional religion
and Taoism[edit]

A pavilion of the City God Temple
City God Temple
of Xian.

The most influential religions in Xi'an
Xi'an
are the Chinese traditional religion and Taoist schools, represented by many major and minor temples. Among these there are a City God Temple, completely reconstructed in the 2010s, and a Temple of Confucius. Buddhism[edit]

Chinese Buddhist nuns and laywomen at a temple in Xi'an.

Buddhism
Buddhism
has a large presence in the city, with temples of the Chinese and Tibetan schools. Christianity[edit] See also: Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Xi'an The first recorded Christian missionary in China
China
was Alopen, a Syriac-speaker, who arrived in Xi'an
Xi'an
(then known as Chang'an) in 635 along the Silk Road. The Nestorian
Nestorian
Stele, now located in Xi'an's Beilin Museum, is a Tang Chinese stele erected in 781 that documents the 150 years of early Christianity in China
China
following Alopen.[70] It is a 279-centimetre-tall (110-inch) limestone block with text in both Chinese and Syriac describing the existence of Christian communities in several cities in northern China. The Daqin Pagoda, a Buddhist pagoda in Zhouzhi County
Zhouzhi County
of Xi'an, has been suggested to have originally been a Nestorian
Nestorian
Christian church from the Tang Dynasty.[71] In Xi'an
Xi'an
there was formerly a Baptist mission from England. The Baptist missionaries ran a hospital.[72] In 1892, Arthur Gostick Shorrock[73] and Moir Duncan[74] founded the Sianfu Mission, in present-day Xi'an.[75][76][77] Islam[edit] Xi'an
Xi'an
was the first city in China
China
to be introduced to Islam. Emperor Gaozong of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
officially allowed the practice of Islam in AD 651. Xi'an
Xi'an
has a large Muslim community, the significant majority are from the Hui group, there are an estimated 50,000 Hui Muslims in Xi’an.[78] There are seven mosques in Xi'an, the best known being the Great Mosque.[79] Economy[edit]

Erhuan Road of Xi'an

As part of the China
China
Western Development policy, Xi’an became a major target for accelerated attention. From 1997 to 2006, the industrial output value of Xi’an’s service industry increased at an annual average rate of 13.74 percent, compared to traditional service industries of 0.74 percent, representing a growth from US$8.113 billion to US$25.85 billion.[80] Xi'an
Xi'an
is the largest economy of the Shaanxi
Shaanxi
province, with a GDP of 324.1 billion Yuan in 2010. On average this value increases by 14.5 percent annually, and accounts for approximately 41.8 percent of Shaanxi's total GDP.[80][81] At least fifty-eight countries have established over 2,560 enterprises in Xian, including nineteen of the Fortune 500 enterprises. These include ABB Group, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Toshiba, Fujitsu, Coca-Cola, and Boeing.[82] Important industries include equipment manufacturing, tourism, and service outsourcing.[83] The manufacturing industry had an annual output of RMB 36.5 billion, accounting for 44.5 percent of the city's total.[81] Furthermore, as one of China's four ancient capitals,[84] Xi'an's many cultural sites, including the Terracotta Army, the City Wall
City Wall
of Xi'an, and the Famen Temple, make tourism an important industry as well. In 2010, 52 million domestic tourists visited Xi'an, earning a total income of RMB 40.52 billion. On average, revenue increases by 36.4 percent per year, and foreign-exchange earnings (530 million in 2009) increase by around 35.8 percent.[81] Xi'an
Xi'an
is also one of the first service outsourcing cities in China, with over 800 corporations in the industry. The city's output value from this sector exceeded RMB 23 billion in 2008. Employment in the sector doubled from 1997–2006, from a base of 60,000, and computer consulting also doubled from 16,000 to 32,000.[80] As a result of the importance of the software-outsourcing industry, the city planned construction of a Software
Software
New Town, which is scheduled to be completed in 2015 with 30 billion RMB investment.[81] Other major export goods include lighting equipment and automobile parts, while its major import goods are mechanical and electrical products. Internationally, Xi'an's largest trade partner is the United States.[81] Xi'an
Xi'an
is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Chongqing. Industrial zones[edit]

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Xi'an
Xi'an
Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone

Major industrial zones in Xi'an
Xi'an
include:

Xi'an
Xi'an
Economic and Technological Development Zone Xi'an
Xi'an
Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone

a daily average of 3.7 technology enterprises established in Xi'an Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone in the year of 2005, from XINHUANET.com Jul 28, 2005[85] Xi'an
Xi'an
Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone has more than 16,000 enterprises which ranked second place in all the 88 hi-tech ZONES in China, achieved a total revenue of 522.223 billion yuan. It is worth mentioning that 13 enterprise's annual income is over a hundred billion yuan, 19 enterprise's annual income more than 50 billion, more than 265 enterprise earns over billion yuan each year, Listed companies at home and abroad have accumulated 50, of which the domestic A-share market issued 21 of them, accounting for more than 60% of the province; 4 GEM listed companies, ranking first in the Midwest high-tech zones. Software
Software
and outsourcing industries[edit] The growing economy of Xi'an
Xi'an
supports the development of a software industry, and the city is a pioneer in software industry in China. The Xi'an
Xi'an
Software
Software
Park within the Xi'an
Xi'an
Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone (XDZ) has attracted over 1,085 corporations and 106,000 employees as of 2012.[86] A Silicon.com article describes Xi'an: "But Xi'an
Xi'an
is selling on its own merits—with a large pool of cheap human resources from the 100 universities in the area, it hoovers up around 3,000 computer graduates every year, each earning approximately $120 a month—half the wages for the equivalent job in Beijing."[87][88] Aerospace industry[edit]

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In November 2006, Xi'an
Xi'an
and the China
China
Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation jointly set up Xi'an
Xi'an
Aerospace Science and Technology Industrial Base. From its establishment, the base has focused on the development of the civil space industry, including equipment manufacturing, software and service outsourcing, new materials and solar photovoltaics. Apart from the core area, the base will cover Xi'an
Xi'an
and the Guanzhong area and the expansion zone will reach other parts of Northwest China and Southwest China. It is expected that by 2012 the total industry output can reach 2.8 billion us dollars with about 10 to 20 brand products with intellectual property rights and 5 to 8 products with global competitiveness. In 2008, after the launch of the initial aerospace centre in Shanghai, the PRC is constructing another civil aerospace centre in the Shaanxi province. The State Development and Reform Commission approved the planning of Xi'an
Xi'an
National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base on December 26, 2007. The National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base of Xi'an, set to cover 23 km2 (8.9 sq mi), will focus on developing satellites, new materials, energies, IT and other technologies for civil applications. Notable businessmen[edit] Zhang Chaoyang (张朝阳), the CEO of SOHU (Nasdaq), born and raised in Xi'an, is a prominent leader in the Chinese Internet industry. Liu Chuanzhi, the founder and president of Lenovo
Lenovo
Group Limited, completed his tertiary degree from Xidian University
Xidian University
in the 1960s. Education[edit] Further information: List of universities in China Public[edit]

Xi'an
Xi'an
Jiaotong University

Xi'an Jiaotong University
Xi'an Jiaotong University
(西安交通大学) Northwestern Polytechnical University
Northwestern Polytechnical University
(西北工业大学) Xidian University
Xidian University
(西安电子科技大学) Chang'an
Chang'an
University (长安大学) Northwest University(西北大学) Northwest University of Political Science and Law (西北政法大学) Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Pre-school Normal University (陕西学前师范学院) Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Normal University (陕西师范大学) Xi'an
Xi'an
Academy of Fine Arts (西安美术学院) Xi'an Conservatory of Music
Xi'an Conservatory of Music
(西安音乐学院) Xi'an
Xi'an
Institute of Post & Telecommunications (西安邮电大学) Xi'an International Studies University
Xi'an International Studies University
(西安外国语大学) Xi'an
Xi'an
Physical Education Institute (西安体育学院) Xi'an
Xi'an
Polytechnic University(西安理工大学) Xi'an
Xi'an
Petroleum University(西安石油大学) Xi'an
Xi'an
Technological University (西安工业大学) Xi'an
Xi'an
University of Architecture and Technology(西安建筑科技大学) Xi'an
Xi'an
University of Arts and Science(Xi‘an University) (西安文理学院) Xi'an
Xi'an
University of Finance and Economics (西安财经学院) Xi'an
Xi'an
University of Science and Technology(西安科技大学) Xi'an
Xi'an
University of Technology (西安理工大学)

Military[edit]

Air Force Engineering University (空军工程大学) The Fourth Military Medical University(第四军医大学) PLA Rocket Force University of Engineering (解放军火箭军工程大学) (PLA) Xi'an
Xi'an
Telecommunication College (西安通信学院)

Private[edit]

Xi'an
Xi'an
Innovation College of Yan'an
Yan'an
University (延安大学西安创新学院) Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Institute of International Commerce (陕西国际学院) Xi'an
Xi'an
Eurasia University (西安欧亚学院) Xi'an
Xi'an
Fanyi University (西安翻译学院) Xi'an
Xi'an
International University (西安外事学院) Xi'an
Xi'an
Peihua University (西安培华学院) Xi'an
Xi'an
Siyuan University (西安思源学院)

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed. See also: List of universities in China International events[edit] World Horticultural Expo 2011[edit] Xi’an was chosen to host the 2011 World Horticultural Exposition by the Association of International Producers of Horticulture (AIPH) at its 59th congress, held in Brighton, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on September 4, 2007. The 2011 World Horti-Expo was held from April 28 to October 28, 2011. The exhibition was located in a new district of the city, Chanba district, and was expected to bring some 10 million visitors to Xi’an.[89] Tourism[edit]

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda

Bell Tower

Drum Tower

Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
city wall

The Great Mosque of Xi'an

Reconstructed Danfeng Gate in Daming Palace
Daming Palace
National Heritage Park

Shaanxi
Shaanxi
History Museum

Pit in underground museum of Han Yang Ling, Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Han Emperor Jingdi

Mount Taibai National Forest Park

Grand Metro Park Hotel Xi'an

The number of travelers is often greater during Summer (May–August), although the most pleasant season for visiting Xi'an
Xi'an
is Autumn.[citation needed] Sites[edit] Because of the city's many historical monuments and a plethora of ancient ruins and tombs in the vicinity,[5] tourism has been an important component of the local economy, and the Xi'an
Xi'an
region is one of the most popular tourist destinations in China.[5] The city has many important historical sites, and some are ongoing archaeological projects, such as the Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
and his Terracotta Army. There are several burial mounds, tombs of the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
kings located in the city.[4] Xi'an
Xi'an
also contains some 800 royal mausoleums and tombs from the Han dynasty,[90] with some of them yielding hundreds of sculpted clay soldiers, and remains of sacrificial temples from the Han era.[90] The city has numerous Tang dynasty pagodas and is noted for its history museum and its stele forest, which is housed in an 11th-century Confucian temple containing large stone tablets from various dynasties.[90] Some of the most well-known sites in Xi'an
Xi'an
are:

The city is surrounded by a well-preserved city wall which was re-constructed in the 14th century during the early Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and was based on the inner imperial palace of Tang dynasty. The Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Qin Shi Huang
Qin Shi Huang
and his Terracotta Army
Terracotta Army
are located 40 km (25 mi) to the east of the city centre, in the city's suburbs. The Bell Tower and Drum Tower, both are located at the city's central axis. The city's Muslim Quarter, which is home to the Great Mosque of Xi'an. The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
Giant Wild Goose Pagoda
and Small Wild Goose Pagoda
Pagoda
are both spectacular towers and both are well over 1,000 years old and have survived great earthquakes. The former is next to a large square with the largest fountain in Asia which projects water high into the air, rising and falling in time to music during one of the daily performances (usually at noon and soon after sunset). They protected Buddhist writings in the past. The Stele Forest
Stele Forest
is famous for its numerous historic inscriptions and stoneworks The Famen Temple
Famen Temple
and its towering pagoda located 120 kilometres (75 miles) west of Xi'an Xi Ming Temple Wolong Temple at Kaitong lane Xingjiao Temple
Xingjiao Temple
at Shaolin Yuan (where Xuanzang's Tomb lies) Jianfu Temple Blue Dragon Temple Wangji Temple The Banpo
Banpo
Neolithic
Neolithic
village is located on the outskirt of the city proper The Shaanxi
Shaanxi
History Museum has a large collection of artifacts both modern and ancient. Mount Zhongnan (终南山) Mount Li Huaqing Hot Springs, at the foot of Mt. Li, have a history of 6,000 years, the adjacent Huaqing Palace
Palace
has a history of 3,000 years. Ranked among the Hundred Famous Gardens in China, it also has the status as a National Cultural Relic Protection Unit and a National Key Scenic Area. Daming Palace
Daming Palace
National Heritage Park, site of the former royal residence of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
emperors

Museums[edit]

Terracotta Army
Terracotta Army
Museum Shaanxi
Shaanxi
History Museum Stele
Stele
Forest Xi'an
Xi'an
Museum (located next to the Small Wild Goose Pagoda). On October 20, 2006, international council of monuments sites (ICOMOS) international protection centre (IICC) was formally established here.

National parks[edit]

Mount Cuihua National Geological Park (翠华山国家地质公园) Chanba National Wetland Park (浐灞国家湿地公园) Daming Palace
Daming Palace
National Heritage Park Mount Li
Mount Li
National Forest Park Mount Wangshun National Forest Park (王顺山国家森林公园) Mount Zhongnan National Forest Park Hei He National Forest Park (黑河国家森林公园) Louguantai National Forest Park (楼观台国家森林公园) Taiping National Forest Park (太平国家森林公园) Zhuque National Forest Park (朱雀国家森林公园)

Sports[edit] Cuju
Cuju
is a very old football game:

It was improved during the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907). First of all, the feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball with a two-layered hull. Also, two different types of goalposts emerged: One was made by setting up posts with a net between them and the other consisted of just one goal post in the middle of the field. Chang'an was filled with cuju football fields, in the backyards of large mansions, and some were even established in the grounds of the palaces. The level of female cuju teams also improved. Records indicate that once a 17-year-old girl beat a team of army soldiers. Cuju
Cuju
football became popular among the scholars and intellectuals, and if a courtier lacked skill in the game, he could pardon himself by acting as a scorekeeper.

Professional sports teams in Xi'an
Xi'an
include:

Chinese Pingpong Association Super League

Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Galaxy (陕西银河)

Former Professional sports teams in Xi'an:

Chinese Jia-A League

Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Guoli F.C. (陕西国力)

Team dissolved in 2005

Chinese Football Association Super League

Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Renhe Commercial Chanba F.C. (陕西人和商业浐灞)

Team moved to Guizhou
Guizhou
for the 2012 Chinese Super League
2012 Chinese Super League
season.

Chinese Basketball Association

Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Dongsheng (陕西东盛)

Team moved to Foshan
Foshan
and renamed themselves Foshan
Foshan
Dralions in 2010.

Xi'an
Xi'an
is also the Chinese Boxing training base for the national team. Media[edit] Television and radio[edit]

China
China
Central Television's channel 1 through 12 is broadcast nationwide. Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Television (SXTV) provincial station, broadcasts on eight channels as well as a satellite channel for other provinces. Xi'an
Xi'an
Television (XATV) municipal station, has six channels for specialized programming. Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Radio broadcasts music, news. Xi'an
Xi'an
Music Radio: FM 93.1, broadcasts music, news and talkshows. Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Music Radio: Fm 98.8, broadcasts music, news and talkshows.

Printed media[edit]

Chinese Business View (华商报) is a popular daily newspaper. Xi'an
Xi'an
Evening News ( Xi'an
Xi'an
Wanbao) (西安晚报), with a history of more than 50 years, is one of the oldest newspapers. Sanqin Daily (三秦都市报) covers the news of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province. Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Daily (陕西日报) covers the news of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province and Xi'an.

Online media[edit]

Xianease is a popular online and print magazine in Xi'an.

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China Xi'an's twin towns and sister cities are:

Nara, Kansai, Japan
Japan
(1974) Kyoto, Kansai, Japan
Japan
(1974)[91] Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom(1985)[92][93] Pau, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Aquitaine, France
France
(1986) Kansas City, Missouri, United States
United States
(1989) Esfahan, Iran
Iran
(1989) Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Germany
(1991)[94] Lahore, Pakistan
Pakistan
(1992) Funabashi, Chiba, Japan
Japan
(1994) Gyeongju, South Korea
South Korea
(1994)

Iaşi, Romania
Romania
(1994) Dnipro, Ukraine
Ukraine
(1995) Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey
(1996) Kathmandu, Nepal
Nepal
(1996) Brasília, Brazil
Brazil
(1997) Cairo, Egypt
Egypt
(1997) Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Canada
(2001) Córdoba, Argentina
Argentina
(2006) Pompei, Italy
Italy
(2007) Athens, Greece

Kalamata, Greece
Greece
(2009) Birmingham, England, United Kingdom Cusco, Peru Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Australia
(2015) Gyumri, Armenia
Armenia
(2013) Taupo, New Zealand Groningen, The Netherlands
Netherlands
(2011) Bury St Edmunds, England, United Kingdom George Town, Penang, Malaysia
Malaysia
(2014)[95]

See also[edit]

Historical capitals of China Chang'an

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c "西安市2015年国民经济和社会发展统计公报". www.xatj.gov.cn/. Archived from the original on 4 June 2016. Retrieved 2016-05-12.  ^ a b c OECD
OECD
Urban Policy Reviews: China
China
2015, OECD
OECD
READ edition. OECD iLibrary. OECD. 18 April 2015. p. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN 9789264230033. ISSN 2306-9341. Linked from the OECD
OECD
here ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17.  ^ a b c "Xi'an". Encarta. 1993-2008. September 3, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28.  ^ a b c d e "Xi'an". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-09-03.  ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Archived from the original on 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-05-28.  ^ "最新中国城市人口数量排名(根据2010年第六次人口普查)". www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-27.  ^ Supersized cities: China’s 13 megalopolises ^ Du Halde (1736), pp. 220–1; Du Halde (1741), pp. 227–8. ^ Stanford (1917), p. 13 & Index, p. 11. ^ 《中国古今地名大词典》 [Zhōngguó Gǔjīn Dìmíng Dàcídiǎn, The Big Dictionary of Old and Current Chinese Placenames], Shanghai: Shanghai
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Xi'an
Evening News (西安晚报). May 25, 2011. Retrieved 2014-07-03.  ^ People's Republic of China
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County-level Division Population Statistics (《中华人民共和国全国分县市人口统计资料2010》). ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码 Archived index at the Wayback Machine. ^ 《贵阳统计年鉴2011》 ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2011》 ^ a b c "-中国公交信息网". www.bus-info.cn. Retrieved 2017-07-03.  ^ 小雪, 翟 (2014-07-04). "西安机动车数量突破200万辆". 西安晚报.  ^ a b 西安地铁二号线开通 西安迈入"地铁时代" [Xi'an Metro line brings Xi'an
Xi'an
into the "metro era"]. China
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National Radio (in Chinese). Beijing. September 16, 2006.  ^ " Xi'an
Xi'an
Subway Line 2 to begin trial runs on September 28". Global Times. June 29, 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-10-16.  ^ "市政府召开西安地铁开通试运营新闻发布会". 2011-09-16. Archived from the original on 2011-11-14. Retrieved 2012-10-03.  ^ "Xian: the Building of Subway to Start This Year". Travel China Guide. September 14, 2006. Archived from the original on 2014-01-03.  ^ " Xi'an
Xi'an
Transportation" ChinaTour.Net Accessed 2014-12-4 ^ "Subway Collapse Kills Two in Xi'an". CRIENGLISH.com. China
China
Radio International. August 3, 2009.  ^ a b "Growth to continue". Railway Gazette International. DVV Media UK. March 3, 2011.  ^ Tang Ru (September 20, 2008). 郑西客运专线西安北站将建成大型综合交通枢纽中心 [ Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
to Xi'an: Xi'an
Xi'an
North Passenger Station will be a large-scale transport hub]. China
China
Railway Network (in Chinese). www.railcn.net Corporation.  ^ 西安北列车时刻表 Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. - Xi'an
Xi'an
North train schedule ^ Zhengzhou- Xi'an
Xi'an
high-speed train starts operation. China
China
Daily. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved 2010-02-06]. ^ High-speed rail linking central, western China
China
starts operation. iStockAnalyst. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved 2010-02-06]. ^ High-speed train debuts in W. China. CCTV. February 6, 2010 [Retrieved 2010-02-06]. ^ China
China
express train forces airlines to stop flights. 2010-03-26 [Retrieved 2010-03-28]. Reuters. ^ "陕西年鉴1992" [ Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Yearbook 1992]. Archived from the original on 2014-05-29.  ^ Xian
Xian
Airport opens new terminal building with strong focus on retail growth ^ News report from the New York Times. ^ News report from the Kingston Gleaner. NewspaperArchive.com ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network ^ http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/583711.shtml ^ Xu Wei to rock fans in grand concert. Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Daily. 2005-07-05 [Retrieved 2014-05-28]. China
China
Daily. ^ "陕西小吃-羊肉泡馍". News.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 2014-05-28.  ^ " China
China
promove programas diversificados durante o Festival da Primavera". China
China
Radio International. February 8, 2008. Retrieved 2010-11-17.  (English) ^ "Chinese opera The First Emperor transmitted live into theaters worldwide". People's Daily. January 14, 2007. Retrieved 2010-11-17.  ^ Yuet Chau, Adam (2006). Miraculous response: doing popular religion in contemporary China. Stanford University Press. p. 53. Retrieved 2010-11-17.  ^ Hill, Henry, ed (1988). Light from the East: A Symposium on the Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian Churches. Toronto, Canada. pp. 108–109 ^ Martin Palmer, The Jesus Sutras: Rediscovering the Lost Religion of Taoist Christianity, ISBN 0-7499-2250-8, 2001 ^ Fleming, Peter (1936) News from Tartary. London: Jonathan Cape; pp. 46–48 ^ Shorrock, Arthur Gostick (1926). Shensi in Sunshine and Shade. Shanghai: Presbyterian Mission Press.  ^ "Duncan Papers (Mundus Gateway to missionary collections in the United Kingdom)". Angus Library, Regents Park College.  ^ Burt, Ernest Whitby (1925). Fifty Years in China: The Story of the Baptist Mission in Shantung, Shansi, and Shensi, 1875-1925. London: The Carey Press.  ^ Glover, Richard (1914). Herbert Stanley Jenkins, medical missionary, Shensi, China: with some notices of the work of the Baptist Missionary Society in that country (1914). London: Carey Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-524-07100-4.  ^ Duncan, Moir Black (1900). The missionary mail to faithful friends and candid critics (the substance of letters written from Shên His). London: Elliot Stock.  ^ 中国七大中心城市人口资源大调查 "Population survey of the seven central cities of China", Zhang Zhizhong, National Family Planning Commission ^ Mosques in Xian
Xian
from www.muslim2china.com ^ a b c Walcott, Susan (April 17, 2010). "Xi'an's Maturing Economy". Retrieved 2013-06-01.  ^ a b c d e " Xi'an
Xi'an
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Shaanxi
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Xi'an
software park". www.xdz.com. Retrieved 2018-02-10.  ^ People's Daily ^ Bureau of Commerce of Xi'an
Xi'an
Municipal Government Archived October 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ " Xi'an
Xi'an
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Bibliography[edit]

Du Halde, Jean-Baptiste (1736), Description Géographique, Historique, Chronologique, Politique, et Physique de l'Empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie Chinoise [A Geographical, Historical, Chronological, Political, and Physical Description of the Empire of China
China
and Chinese Tartary, The Hague: H. Scheurleer . (in French) Du Halde, Jean-Baptiste (1741), Brookes, Richard, ed., The General History of China, 3rd ed., London: J. Watts . Heng Chye Kiang (1999), Cities of Aristocrats and Bureaucrats: The Development of Medieval Chinese Cityscapes, Singapore: Singapore University Press, ISBN 9971-69-223-6 . Stanford, Edward (1917), Complete Atlas of China, 2nd ed., London: China
China
Inland Mission . Woo, J.K. (1964), "A Newly Discovered Mandible of the Sinanthropus Type: Sinanthropus Lantianensis", Scientia Sinica, Vol. 13, pp. 801–811, PMID 14170540 .

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xi'an.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Xi'an.

Xi'an
Xi'an
Government official website Xi'an
Xi'an
National Hi-tech Development Zone Xian
Xian
in history

Preceded by Yin Capital of China
China
(as Hao) 1046 BC-771 BC Succeeded by Luoyang

Preceded by Xianyang Capital of China
China
(as Chang'an) 206 BC-25 Succeeded by Luoyang

Preceded by Luoyang Capital of China
China
(as Chang'an) 190-196 Succeeded by Xuchang

Preceded by Jiankang Capital of China
China
(as Daxing) 581-618 Succeeded by itself, as Chang'an

Preceded by itself, as Daxing Capital of China
China
(as Chang'an) 618-907 Succeeded by Kaifeng

v t e

Xi'an

Districts

Lianhu Xincheng Beilin Baqiao Weiyang Yanta Yanliang Lintong Chang'an Gaoling Huyi

Counties

Lantian Zhouzhi

Landmarks

City wall Daming Palace
Daming Palace
National Heritage Park Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
and the Terracotta Army Bell Tower Chang'an
Chang'an
Flower Drum Tower Giant Wild Goose Pagoda Small Wild Goose Pagoda Stele
Stele
Forest Xingjiao Temple Banpo Qianling Mausoleum

Culture

Qinqiang

Education

Xi'an
Xi'an
Jiaotong University Xidian University Northwestern Polytechnical University Northwest University Chang'an
Chang'an
University Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Normal University Xi'an
Xi'an
University of Architecture and Technology Xi'an
Xi'an
University of Technology Xi'an
Xi'an
Shiyou University Xi'an
Xi'an
International Studies University Northwest University of Political Science and Law Xi'an
Xi'an
University of Science and Technology Xi'an
Xi'an
Institute of Post & Telecommunications Xi'an
Xi'an
University of Finance and Economics Xi'an
Xi'an
Polytechnic University Xi'an
Xi'an
Conservatory of Music Xi'an
Xi'an
Physical Education Institute Xi'an
Xi'an
Technological University Xi'an
Xi'an
Academy of Fine Arts Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Institute of Education Xi'an
Xi'an
Institute of Arts and Science

Transport

Xi'an
Xi'an
Metro Xi'an
Xi'an
Railway Station Xi'an
Xi'an
North Railway Station Xi'an
Xi'an
Xianyang
Xianyang
International Airport China
China
National Highway 210 China
China
National Highway 211 China
China
National Highway 312

v t e

County-level divisions of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
Province

Xi'an
Xi'an
(capital)

Sub-provincial city

Xi'an

Xincheng District Lianhu District Beilin District Baqiao District Weiyang District Yanta District Yanliang District Lintong District Chang'an
Chang'an
District Gaoling District Huyi District Lantian County Zhouzhi County

Prefecture-level cities

Tongchuan

Yaozhou District Wangyi District Yintai District Yijun County

Baoji

Weibin District Jintai District Chencang District Fengxiang County Qishan County Fufeng County Mei County Long County Qianyang County Linyou County Feng County Taibai County

Xianyang

Qindu District Weicheng District Yangling District Xingping
Xingping
City Sanyuan County Jingyang County Qian County Liquan County Yongshou County Bin County Changwu County Xunyi County Chunhua County Wugong County

Weinan

Linwei District Huazhou District Huayin
Huayin
City Hancheng
Hancheng
City Tongguan County Dali County Pucheng County Chengcheng County Baishui County Heyang County Fuping County

Yan'an

Baota District Ansai District Yanchang County Yanchuan County Zichang County Zhidan County Wuqi County Ganquan County Fu County Luochuan County Yichuan County Huanglong County Huangling County

Hanzhong

Hantai District Nanzheng District Chenggu County Yang County Xixiang County Mian County Ningqiang County Lueyang County Zhenba County Liuba County Foping County

Yulin

Yuyang District Hengshan District Shenmu
Shenmu
City Fugu County Jingbian County Dingbian County Suide County Mizhi County Jia County Wubu County Qingjian County Zizhou County

Ankang

Hanbin District Hanyin County Shiquan County Ningshan County Ziyang County Langao County Pingli County Zhenping County Xunyang County Baihe County

Shangluo

Shangzhou District Luonan County Danfeng County Shangnan County Shanyang County Zhen'an County Zhashui County

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244617556 LCCN: n80118482 GND: 42252

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