Xenu (/ˈziːnuː/), also called Xemu, was, according to
Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard, the dictator of the "Galactic
Confederacy" who 75 million years ago brought billions of his
Earth (then known as "Teegeeack") in DC-8-like spacecraft,
stacked them around volcanoes, and killed them with hydrogen bombs.
Scientology scriptures hold that the thetans (immortal
spirits) of these aliens adhere to humans, causing spiritual
These events are known within
Scientology as "Incident II", and the
traumatic memories associated with them as "The Wall of Fire" or "R6
implant". The narrative of
Xenu is part of Scientologist teachings
about extraterrestrial civilizations and alien interventions in
earthly events, collectively described as "space opera" by Hubbard.
Hubbard detailed the story in Operating
Thetan level III (OT III) in
1967, warning that the "R6 implant" (past trauma) was "calculated
to kill (by pneumonia, etc.) anyone who attempts to solve
Within the Church of Scientology, the
Xenu story is part of the
church's secret "Advanced Technology", considered a sacred and
esoteric teaching, which is normally only revealed to members who
have completed a lengthy sequence of courses costing large amounts of
money. The church avoids mention of
Xenu in public statements and
has gone to considerable effort to maintain the story's
confidentiality, including legal action on the grounds of copyright
and trade secrecy. Officials of the Church of
deny or try to hide the
Xenu story. Despite this, much
Xenu has leaked to the public via court documents, copies
of Hubbard's notes, and the Internet. In commentary on the impact
Xenu text, academic scholars have discussed and analyzed the
writings by Hubbard and their place within
Scientology within the
contexts of science fiction, UFO religions, Gnosticism
and creation myths.
3 Origins of the story
4 Influence of
OT III on Scientology
6 Church of Scientology's position
7 Leaking of the story
8 In popular culture
10 See also
13 External links
A DC-8 aircraft in 2004. Hubbard described Xenu's spacecraft as
looking exactly like DC-8s without "fans" (meaning the jet engines, or
The story of
Xenu is covered in OT III, part of Scientology's secret
"Advanced Technology" doctrines taught only to advanced members who
have undergone many hours of auditing and reached the state of Clear
followed by Operating
Thetan levels 1 and 2. It is described in
more detail in the accompanying confidential "Assists" lecture of
October 3, 1968, and is dramatized in
Revolt in the Stars (a
screen-story – in the form of a novel – written by L. Ron Hubbard
Hubbard wrote that
Xenu was the ruler of a Galactic Confederacy 75
million years ago, which consisted of 26 stars and 76 planets
including Earth, which was then known as "Teegeeack". The
planets were overpopulated, containing an average population of 178
billion. The Galactic Confederacy's civilization was
comparable to our own, with aliens "walking around in clothes which
looked very remarkably like the clothes they wear this very minute"
and using cars, trains and boats looking exactly the same as those
"circa 1950, 1960" on Earth.
Xenu was about to be deposed from power, so he devised a plot to
eliminate the excess population from his dominions. With the
assistance of psychiatrists, he gathered billions of his
citizens under the pretense of income tax inspections, then paralyzed
them and froze them in a mixture of alcohol and glycol to capture
their souls. The kidnapped populace was loaded into spacecraft for
transport to the site of extermination, the planet of Teegeeack
(Earth). The appearance of these spacecraft would later be
subconsciously expressed in the design of the Douglas DC-8, the only
difference being that "the DC8 had fans, propellers on it and the
space plane didn't". When they had reached Teegeeack, the
paralyzed citizens were unloaded around the bases of volcanoes across
the planet. Hydrogen bombs were then lowered into the volcanoes
and detonated simultaneously, killing all but a few aliens. Hubbard
described the scene in his film script, Revolt in the Stars:
Simultaneously, the planted charges erupted. Atomic blasts ballooned
from the craters of Loa, Vesuvius, Shasta, Washington, Fujiyama, Etna,
and many, many others. Arching higher and higher, up and outwards,
towering clouds mushroomed, shot through with flashes of flame, waste
and fission. Great winds raced tumultuously across the face of Earth,
spreading tales of destruction ...
— L. Ron Hubbard, Revolt in the Stars
The now-disembodied victims' souls, which Hubbard called thetans, were
blown into the air by the blast. They were captured by Xenu's forces
using an "electronic ribbon" ("which also was a type of standing
wave") and sucked into "vacuum zones" around the world. The hundreds
of billions of captured thetans were taken to a type of cinema,
where they were forced to watch a "three-D, super colossal motion
picture" for thirty-six days. This implanted what Hubbard termed
"various misleading data"' (collectively termed the R6 implant) into
the memories of the hapless thetans, "which has to do with God, the
Devil, space opera, etcetera". This included all world religions;
Hubbard specifically attributed Roman Catholicism and the image of the
Crucifixion to the influence of Xenu. The two "implant stations" cited
by Hubbard were said to have been located on Hawaii and
Las Palmas in
the Canary Islands.
In addition to implanting new beliefs in the thetans, the images
deprived them of their sense of personal identity. When the thetans
left the projection areas, they started to cluster together in groups
of a few thousand, having lost the ability to differentiate between
each other. Each cluster of thetans gathered into one of the few
remaining bodies that survived the explosion. These became what are
known as body thetans, which are said to be still clinging to and
adversely affecting everyone except Scientologists who have performed
the necessary steps to remove them.
A government faction known as the Loyal Officers finally overthrew
Xenu and his renegades, and locked him away in "an electronic mountain
trap" from which he has not escaped. Although the location
Xenu is sometimes said to be the
Pyrenees on Earth, this is
actually the location Hubbard gave elsewhere for an ancient "Martian
report station". Teegeeack was subsequently abandoned by the
Galactic Confederacy and remains a pariah "prison planet" to this day,
although it has suffered repeatedly from incursions by alien "Invader
Forces" since that time.
In 1988, the cost of learning these secrets from the Church of
Scientology was £3,830, or US$6,500. This is in addition to
the cost of the prior courses which are necessary to be eligible for
OT III, which is often well over US$100,000 (roughly £60,000).
Xenu and body thetans is a requirement for a Scientologist
to progress further along the Bridge to Total Freedom. Those who
do not experience the benefits of the
OT III course are expected to
take it and pay for it again.
Within Scientology, the
Xenu story is referred to as "The Wall of
Fire" or "Incident II". Hubbard attached tremendous importance
to it, saying that it constituted "the secrets of a disaster which
resulted in the decay of life as we know it in this sector of the
galaxy". The broad outlines of the story—that 75 million years
ago a great catastrophe happened in this sector of the galaxy which
caused profoundly negative effects for everyone since then—are told
to lower-level Scientologists; but the details are kept strictly
confidential, within Scientology.
OT III document describes that Hubbard entered the Wall of Fire
but emerged alive ("probably the only one ever to do so in 75,000,000
years"). He first publicly announced his "breakthrough" in Ron's
Journal 67 (RJ67), a taped lecture recorded on September 20, 1967, to
be sent to all Scientologists. According to Hubbard, his research
was achieved at the cost of a broken back, knee, and arm. OT III
contains a warning that the R6 implant is "calculated to kill (by
pneumonia etc.) anyone who attempts to solve it". Hubbard
claimed that his "tech development"—i.e. his OT materials—had
neutralized this threat, creating a safe path to redemption.
The Church of
Scientology forbade individuals from reading the OT III
Xenu cosmogony without first having taken prerequisite courses.
Scientologists warn that reading the
Xenu story without proper
authorization could cause pneumonia.
In RJ67, Hubbard then alludes to the devastating effect of Xenu's
And it is very true that a great catastrophe occurred on this planet
and in the other 75 planets which formed this [Galactic] Confederacy
75 million years ago. It has since that time been a desert, and it has
been the lot of just a handful to try to push its technology up to a
level where someone might adventure forward, penetrate the
catastrophe, and undo it. We're well on our way to making this occur.
OT III also deals with Incident I, set four quadrillion years ago.
In Incident I, the unsuspecting thetan was subjected to a loud
snapping noise followed by a flood of luminescence, then saw a chariot
followed by a trumpeting cherub. After a loud set of snaps, the thetan
was overwhelmed by darkness. It is described that these traumatic
memories alone separate thetans from their static (natural, godlike)
Hubbard uses the existence of body thetans to explain many of the
physical and mental ailments of humanity which, he says, prevent
people from achieving their highest spiritual levels.
OT III tells
the Scientologist to locate body thetans and release them from the
effects of Incidents I and II. This is accomplished in solo
auditing, where the Scientologist holds both cans of an
E-meter in one
hand and asks questions as an auditor. The Scientologist is directed
to find a cluster of body thetans, address it telepathically as a
cluster, and take first the cluster, then each individual member,
through Incident II, then Incident I if needed. Hubbard warns that
this is a painstaking procedure, and that OT levels IV to VII are
necessary to continue dealing with one's body thetans.
The Church of
Scientology has objected to the
Xenu story being used to
Scientology as science fiction fantasy (see Space opera in
Scientology doctrine). Hubbard's statements concerning the R6 implant
have been a source of contention. Critics and some
that Hubbard's statements regarding R6 prove that
is incompatible with Christianity, despite the Church's
statements to the contrary. In "Assists", Hubbard says:
Everyman is then shown to have been crucified so don't think that it's
an accident that this crucifixion, they found out that this applied.
Somebody somewhere on this planet, back about 600 BC, found some
pieces of R6, and I don't know how they found it, either by watching
madmen or something, but since that time they have used it and it
became what is known as Christianity. The man on the Cross. There was
no Christ. But the man on the cross is shown as Everyman.
Origins of the story
OT III in late 1966 and early 1967 in North Africa while
on his way to
Las Palmas to join the Enchanter, the first vessel of
Scientology fleet (the "Sea Org"). (
OT III says "In
December 1967 I knew someone had to take the plunge", but the
material was publicised well before this.) He emphasized later that OT
III was his own personal discovery.
Scientology have suggested that other factors may have been
at work. In a letter of the time to his wife Mary Sue, Hubbard
said that, in order to assist his research, he was drinking alcohol
and taking stimulants and depressants ("I'm drinking lots of rum and
popping pinks and greys"). His assistant at the time, Virginia
Downsborough, said that she had to wean him off the diet of drugs to
which he had become accustomed.
Russell Miller posits in
Bare-faced Messiah that it was important for Hubbard to be found in a
debilitated condition, so as to present
OT III as "a research
accomplishment of immense magnitude".
Elements of the
Xenu story appeared in
Scientology before OT III.
Hubbard's descriptions of extraterrestrial conflicts were put forward
as early as 1950 in his book Have You Lived Before This Life?, and
were enthusiastically endorsed by Scientologists who documented their
past lives on other planets.
OT III on Scientology
The volcano and fireball on the cover of
Dianetics refers to the Xenu
The 1968 and subsequent reprints of
Dianetics have had covers
depicting an exploding volcano, which is reportedly a reference to OT
III. In a 1968 lecture, and in instructions to his marketing
staff, Hubbard explained that these images would "key in" the
submerged memories of Incident II and impel people to buy the
A special 'Book Mission' was sent out to promote these books, now
empowered and made irresistible by the addition of these overwhelming
symbols or images. Organization staff were assured that if they simply
held up one of the books, revealing its cover, that any bookstore
owner would immediately order crateloads of them. A customs officer,
seeing any of the book covers in one's luggage, would immediately pass
one on through.
— Bent Corydon, L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman?
Since the 1980s, the volcano has also been depicted in television
commercials advertising Dianetics. Scientology's "Sea Org", an elite
group within the church that originated with Hubbard's personal staff
aboard his fleet of ships, takes many of its symbols from the story of
Xenu and OT III. It is explicitly intended to be a revival of the
"Loyal Officers" who overthrew Xenu. Its logo, a wreath with 26
leaves, represents the 26 stars of Xenu's Galactic Confederacy.
According to an official
Scientology dictionary, "the
Sea Org symbol,
adopted and used as the symbol of a Galactic Confederacy far back in
the history of this sector, derives much of its power and authority
from that association".
In the Advanced Orgs in
Edinburgh and Los Angeles,
were at one time ordered to wear all-white uniforms with silver boots,
to mimic Xenu's Galactic Patrol as depicted on the cover of Dianetics:
The Evolution of a Science. This was reportedly done on the basis of
Hubbard's declaration in his Flag Order 652 that mankind would accept
regulation from that group which had last betrayed it—hence the
imitation of Xenu's henchmen. In Los Angeles, a nightwatch was ordered
to watch for returning spaceships.
The manuscript of
OT III contains the only known example of Xenu's
name in Hubbard's handwriting.
The name has been spelled both as
Xenu and Xemu. The Class VIII
course material includes a three-page text, handwritten by Hubbard,
headed "Data", in which the
Xenu story is given in detail. Hubbard's
indistinct handwriting makes either spelling possible,
particularly as the use of the name on the first page of
OT III is the
only known example of the name in his handwriting. In the "Assists"
lecture, Hubbard speaks of "Xenu, ahhh, could be spelled X-E-M-U" and
clearly says "Xemu" several times on the recording. The treatment
of Revolt in the Stars—which is typewritten—uses Xenu
It is speculated that the name derives from Xemnu, an extraterrestrial
comic book villain who first appeared in the story "I Was a Slave of
the Living Hulk!" in Journey into Mystery #62 (November 1960). He was
Stan Lee and Jack Kirby.
Xemnu is a giant, hairy
intergalactic criminal who escaped a prison planet, traveled to Earth,
and hypnotized the entire human population. Upon Xemnu's defeat by
electrician Joe Harper,
Xemnu is imprisoned in a state of continual
electric shock in orbit around the sun, and humanity is left with no
memory of Xemnu's existence.
Church of Scientology's position
In its public statements, the Church of
Scientology has been reluctant
to allow any mention of Xenu. A passing mention by a trial judge in
1997 prompted the Church's lawyers to have the ruling sealed, although
this was reversed. In the relatively few instances in which it has
Scientology has stated the story's true meaning can
only be understood after years of study. They complain of critics
using it to paint the religion as a science-fiction fantasy.
Senior members of the Church of
Scientology have several times
publicly denied or minimized the importance of the
Xenu story, but
others have affirmed its existence. In 1995,
Scientology lawyer Earl
Cooley hinted at the importance of
Scientology doctrine by
stating that "thousands of articles are written about Coca-Cola, and
they don't print the formula for Coca-Cola".
Scientology has many
graduated levels through which one can progress. Many who remain at
lower levels in the church are unaware of much of the
Xenu story which
is first revealed on Operating
Thetan level three, or "OT
III". Because the information imparted to members is to be
kept secret from others who have not attained that level, the member
must publicly deny its existence when asked.
OT III recipients must
sign an agreement promising never to reveal its contents before they
are given the manila envelope containing the
It is knowledge so dangerous, members are told, that anyone learning
this material before he is ready could become afflicted with
Religious Technology Center
Religious Technology Center director Warren McShane testified in a
1995 court case that the Church of
Scientology receives a significant
amount of its revenue from fixed donations paid by Scientologists to
study the OT materials. McShane said that Hubbard's work "may seem
weird" to those that have not yet completed the prior levels of
coursework in Scientology. McShane said the story had never been
secret, although maintaining there were nevertheless trade secrets
contained in OT III. McShane discussed the details of the story at
some length and specifically attributed the authorship of the story to
When John Carmichael, the president of the Church of
New York, was asked about the
Xenu story, he said, as reported in the
September 9, 2007, edition of The Daily Telegraph: "That's not what we
believe". When asked directly about the
Xenu story by Ted Koppel
on ABC's Nightline,
David Miscavige said that he
was taking things Hubbard said out of context. However, in a 2006
interview with Rolling Stone, Mike Rinder, the director of the
church's Office of
Special Affairs, said that "It is not a story, it
is an auditing level", when asked about the validity of the Xenu
BBC Panorama programme that aired on May 14, 2007, senior
Scientologist Tommy Davis interrupted when celebrity members were
asked about Xenu, saying: "None of us know what you're talking about.
It's loony. It's weird." In March 2009, Davis was interviewed by
investigative journalist Nathan Baca for
KESQ-TV and was again asked
OT III texts. Davis told Baca "I'm familiar with the
material", and called it "the confidential scriptures of the
Church". In an interview on
ABC News Nightline, October 23,
2009, Davis walked off the set when
Martin Bashir asked him about
Xenu. He told Bashir, "Martin, I am not going to discuss the
disgusting perversions of
Scientology beliefs that can be found now
commonly on the internet and be put in the position of talking about
things, talking about things that are so fundamentally offensive to
Scientologists to discuss. ... It is in violation of my religious
beliefs to talk about them." When Bashir repeated a question about
Xenu, Davis pulled off his microphone and left the set.
In November 2009 the Church of Scientology's representative in New
Zealand, Mike Ferris, was asked in a radio interview about Xenu.
The radio host asked, "So what you're saying is,
Xenu is a part of the
religion, but something that you don't want to talk about". Ferris
responded, "Sure". Ferris acknowledged that
Xenu "is part of the
esoterica of Scientology".
Leaking of the story
Despite the Church of Scientology's efforts to keep the story secret,
details have been leaked over the years.
OT III was first revealed in
Robert Kaufman's 1972 book Inside Scientology, in which Kaufman
detailed his own experiences of OT III. It was later described in
a 1981 Clearwater Sun article, and came to greater public fame in
a 1985 court case brought against
Scientology by Lawrence Wollersheim.
The church failed to have the documents sealed and attempted to
keep the case file checked out by a reader at all times, but the story
was summarized in the Los Angeles Times and detailed in William
Poundstone's Bigger Secrets (1986) from information presented in the
Wollersheim case. In 1987, a book by
L. Ron Hubbard
L. Ron Hubbard Jr., L. Ron
Hubbard: Messiah or Madman? quoted the first page of
OT III and
summarized the rest of its content.
Xenu as depicted by Panorama
Since then, news media have mentioned
Xenu in coverage of Scientology
or its celebrity proponents such as Tom Cruise. In 1987,
the BBC's investigative news series Panorama aired a report titled
"The Road to Total Freedom?" which featured an outline of the OT III
story in cartoon form.
On December 24, 1994, the
Xenu story was published on the Internet for
the first time in a posting to the
alt.religion.scientology, through an anonymous remailer. This led
to an online battle between Church of
Scientology lawyers and
detractors. Older versions of OT levels I to VII were brought as
exhibits attached to a declaration by
Steven Fishman on April 9, 1993,
as part of Church of
Scientology International v. Fishman and Geertz.
The text of this declaration and its exhibits, collectively known as
the Fishman Affidavit, were posted to the Internet newsgroup
alt.religion.scientology in August 1995 by Arnie Lerma and on the
World Wide Web
World Wide Web by David S. Touretzky. This was a subject of great
controversy and legal battles for several years. There was a copyright
raid on Lerma's house (leading to massive mirroring of the
documents) and a suit against Dutch writer Karin Spaink—the
Church bringing suit on copyright violation grounds for reproducing
the source material, and also claiming rewordings would reveal a trade
The Church of Scientology's attempts to keep
Xenu under wraps have
been cited in court findings against it. In September 2003, a Dutch
court, in a ruling in the case against Karin Spaink, stated that one
objective in keeping OT II and
OT III secret was to wield power over
members of the Church of
Scientology and prevent discussion about its
teachings and practices:
Despite his claims that premature revelation of the
OT III story was
L. Ron Hubbard
L. Ron Hubbard wrote a screenplay version under the title
Revolt in the Stars in the 1970s. This revealed that
Xenu had been
assisted by beings named Chi ("the Galactic Minister of Police") and
Chu ("the Executive President of the Galactic Interplanetary
Bank"). It has not been officially published, although the
treatment was circulated around Hollywood in the early 1980s.
Unofficial copies of the screenplay circulate on the
On March 10, 2001, a user posted the text of OT3 to the online
community Slashdot. The site owners took down the comment after the
Scientology issued a legal notice under the Digital
Copyright Act. Critics of the Church of Scientology
have used public protests to spread the
Xenu secret. This has
included creating web sites with "xenu" in the domain name,
and displaying the name
Xenu on banners, and protest signs.
In popular culture
Xenu as depicted in South Park
Versions of the
Xenu story have appeared in both television shows and
stage productions. The
Off-Broadway satirical musical A Very Merry
Scientology Pageant, first staged in 2003 and
winner of an
Obie Award in 2004, featured children in alien costumes
telling the story of Xenu.
Xenu story was again satirized in a November 2005 episode of the
Comedy Central animated television series
South Park titled "Trapped
in the Closet". The Emmy-nominated episode, which also lampooned
Tom Cruise and
John Travolta as closeted homosexuals,
Xenu as a vaguely humanoid alien with tentacles for arms, in
a sequence that had the words "This Is What Scientologists Actually
Believe" superimposed on screen. The episode became the subject of
controversy when musician Isaac Hayes, the voice of the character
"Chef" and a Scientologist, quit the show in March 2006, just prior to
the episode's first scheduled re-screening, citing South Park's
"inappropriate ridicule" of his religion. Hayes' statement did not
mention the episode in particular, but expressed his view that the
show's habit of parodying religion was part of a "growing
insensitivity toward personal spiritual beliefs" in the media that was
also reflected in the Muhammad cartoons controversy: "There is a place
in this world for satire, but there is a time when satire ends and
intolerance and bigotry towards religious beliefs of others
begins." Responding to Hayes' statement,
South Park co-creator
Matt Stone said his resignation had "nothing to do with intolerance
and bigotry and everything to do with the fact that
Isaac Hayes is a
Scientologist and that we recently featured
Scientology in an episode
of South Park ... In 10 years and over 150 episodes of South
Park, Isaac never had a problem with the show making fun of
Mormons and Jews. He got a sudden case of
religious sensitivity when it was his religion featured on the show.
Of course we will release Isaac from his contract and we wish him
Comedy Central cancelled the repeat at short notice,
choosing instead to screen two episodes featuring Hayes. A spokesman
said that "in light of the events of earlier this week, we wanted to
give Chef an appropriate tribute by airing two episodes he is most
known for." It did eventually rebroadcast the episode on July 19,
2006. Stone and
South Park co-creator
Trey Parker felt that
Comedy Central's owners
Viacom had cancelled the repeat because of the
upcoming release of the
Tom Cruise film Mission: Impossible III by
Viacom company: "I only know what we were told,
that people involved with MI3 wanted the episode off the air and that
Comedy Central had to do it. I don't know why else it would
have been pulled."
Writing in the book
Scientology published by Oxford University Press,
Mikael Rothstein observes that, "To my knowledge no real
analysis of Scientology's
Xenu myth has appeared in scholarly
publications. The most sober and enlightening text about the
is probably the article on (English version) and, even if
brief, Andreas Grünschloss's piece on
Scientology in Lewis (2000:
266–268)." Rothstein places the
Xenu text by L. Ron Hubbard
within the context of a creation myth within the Scientology
methodology, and characterizes it as "one of Scientology's more
important religious narratives, the text that apparently constitutes
the basic (sometimes implicit) mythology of the movement, the Xenu
myth, which is basically a story of the origin of man on
Earth and the
human condition." Rothstein describes the phenomenon within a
belief system inspired by science fiction, and notes that the "myth
about Xenu, ... in the shape of a science fiction-inspired
anthropogony, explains the basic Scientological claims about the human
Andreas Grünschloß analyzes the
Xenu text in The Oxford Handbook of
New Religious Movements, within the context of a discussion on UFO
religions. He characterizes the text as "Scientology's secret
mythology (contained especially in the
OT III teachings)".
Grünschloß points out that L. Ron Hubbard, "also wrote a science
fiction story called Revolt in the Stars, where he displays this
otherwise arcane story about the ancient ruler
Xenu in the form of an
ordinary science fiction novel". Grünschloß posits, "because of
the connections between several motifs in Hubbard's novels and
Scientology teachings, one might perceive
Scientology as one
of the rare instances where science fiction (or fantasy literature
generally) is related to the successful formation of a new spiritual
movement." Comparing the fusion between the two genres of
Hubbard's science fiction writing and
Scientology creation myth,
Grünschloß writes, "Although the science fiction novels are of a
different genre than other 'techno-logical' disclosures of Hubbard,
they are highly appreciated by participants, and Hubbard's literary
output in this realm (including the latest movie, Battlefield Earth)
is also well promoted by the organization." Writing in the book
UFO Religions edited by Christopher Partridge, Grünschloß observes,
"the enthusiasm for ufology and science fiction was cultivated in the
formative phase of Scientology. Indeed, even the highly arcane story
of the intergalactic ruler Xenu ... is related by Hubbard in the
style of a simple science fiction novel".
Several authors have pointed out structural similarities between the
Xenu story and the mythology of gnosticism. James A. Herrick, writing
Xenu text in The Making of the New Spirituality: The Eclipse
of the Western Religious Tradition, notes that "Hubbard's gnostic
leanings are evident in his account of human origins ... In
Hubbard, ideas first expressed in science fiction are seamlessly
transformed into a worldwide religion with affinities to
gnosticism." Mary Farrell Bednarowski, writing in America's
Alternative Religions, similarly states that the outline of the Xenu
mythology is "not totally unfamiliar to the historian acquainted with
ancient gnosticism", noting that many other religious traditions have
the practice of reserving certain texts to high-level initiates.
Nevertheless, she writes, the
Xenu story arouses suspicion in the
Scientology and adds fuel to "the claims that Hubbard's
system is the product of his creativity as a science fiction writer
rather than a theologian."
Authors Michael McDowell and Nathan Robert Brown discuss
misconceptions about the
Xenu text in their book World Religions at
Your Fingertips, and observe, "Probably the most controversial,
misunderstood, and frequently misrepresented part of the Scientology
religion has to do with a
Scientology myth commonly referred to as the
Legend of Xenu. While this story has now been undoubtedly proven a
part of the religion (despite the fact that church representatives
often deny its existence), the story's true role in
often misrepresented by its critics as proof that they 'believe in
alien parasites.' While the story may indeed seem odd, this is simply
not the case." The authors write that "The story is actually meant
to be a working myth, illustrating the
Scientology belief that humans
were at one time spiritual beings, existing on infinite levels of
intergalactic and interdimensional realities. At some point, the
beings that we once were became trapped in physical reality (where we
remain to this day). This is supposed to be the underlying message of
Xenu story, not that humans are "possessed by aliens".
McDowell and Brown conclude that these inappropriate misconceptions
Xenu text have had a negative impact, "Such harsh statements
are the reason many Scientologists now become passionately offended at
even the mention of
Xenu by nonmembers."
Free speech lawyer
Mike Godwin analyzes actions by the Scientology
organization to protect and keep secret the
Xenu text, within a
discussion in his book
Cyber Rights about the application of trade
secret law on the Internet. Godwin explains, "trade secret law
protects the information itself, not merely its particular expression.
Trade secret law, unlike copyright, can protect ideas and facts
directly." He puts forth the question, "But did the material
really qualify as 'trade secrets'? Among the material the church has
been trying to suppress is what might be called a 'genesis myth of
Scientology': a story about a galactic despot named
Xenu who decided
75 million years ago to kill a bunch of people by chaining them to
volcanoes and dropping nuclear bombs on them." Godwin asks, "Does
a 'church' normally have 'competitors' in the trade secret sense? If
the Catholics got hold of the full facts about Xenu, does this mean
they'll get more market share?" He comments on the ability of the
Scientology organization to utilize such laws in order to contain its
secret texts, "It seems likely, given what we know about the case now,
that even a combination of copyright and trade secret law wouldn't
accomplish what the church would like to accomplish: the total
suppression of any dissemination of church documents or
doctrines." The author concludes, "But the fact that the church
was unlikely to gain any complete legal victories in its cases didn't
mean that they wouldn't litigate. It's indisputable that the mere
threat of litigation, or the costs of actual litigation, may
accomplish what the legal theories alone do not: the effective
silencing of many critics of the church."
^ a b c Lewis, James R. (2004). The Oxford Handbook of New Religious
Movements. Oxford University Press. pp. 360, 427, 458.
^ Sappell, Joel; Robert W. Welkos (June 24, 1990). "Defining the
Theology: The religion abounds in galactic tales". Los Angeles Times.
p. 11A. Archived from the original on June 25, 2009. Retrieved
January 21, 2009.
^ Hargrove, Mary (Tribune Managing Editor/Projects) (March 10, 1992).
"Church battles critics – Mental treatment clashes with
regulators, psychiatrists". Tulsa World. World Publishing Co.
^ a b c As 109, or thousands of millions in Long Scale
^ a b c d e f g h Partridge 2003, pp. 263–264
^ a b Scott, Michael Dennis (2004). Internet And Technology Law Desk
Reference. Aspen Publishers. p. 109.
^ a b c d e f g h Savino & Jones 2007, p. 55
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Lamont 1986, pp. 49–50
^ a b Corydon & Hubbard, Jr. 1987, p. 364
^ a b c d Koff, Stephen (December 23, 1988). "Xemu's cruel response to
overpopulated world". St. Petersburg Times. p. 10A.
^ a b c d e Rothstein, Mikael (2009). "'His name was Xenu. He used
renegades ...': Aspects of Scientology's Founding Myth". In
Lewis, James R.
Scientology (James R. Lewis book). Oxford University
Press, USA. pp. 365, 367, 371. ISBN 0-19-533149-4.
^ a b Sappell, Joel; Robert W. Welkos (June 24, 1990). "The
Scientology Story". Los Angeles Times: A36:1. Archived from the
original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
^ Frankel, Alison (March 1996). "Making Law, Making Enemies". American
^ a b c d Urban, Hugh B. (June 2006). "Fair Game: Secrecy, Security,
and the Church of
Scientology in Cold War America". Journal of the
American Academy of Religion. Oxford University Press. 74 (2):
356–389. doi:10.1093/jaarel/lfj084. ISSN 1477-4585.
^ Jordison, Sam (2005). The Joy of Sects. Robson. p. 193.
^ a b Partridge 2003, pp. 187–188
^ a b c d e f g Grünschloß, Andreas (2004). "Waiting for the "Big
Beam," UFO Religions and "UFOlogical" Themes in New Religious
Movements". In James R. Lewis. The Oxford Handbook of New Religious
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press US. pp. 427–8.
^ a b James A. Herrick (December 2004). The Making of the New
Spirituality: The Eclipse of the Western Religious Tradition.
InterVarsity Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-8308-3279-8.
Retrieved January 24, 2011.
^ a b c Mary Farrell Bednarowski (1995). "The Church of Scientology:
Lightning Rod for Cultural Boundary Conflicts". In Timothy Miller.
America's Alternative Religions. SUNY Press. p. 389.
ISBN 978-0-7914-2398-1. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
^ a b c d e
ABC News (November 18, 2006). "
Scientology Leader Gave ABC
First-Ever Interview – ABC Interview Transcript". Nightline.
ABC. Retrieved August 2, 2008.
Operation Clambake (October 3, 1968). ""Assists" Lecture. October 3,
1968. No. 10 of the confidential Class VIII series of lecture".
Hubbard Audio Collection. xenu.net. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
^ a b Reece 2007, pp. 182–186
^ a b c d
L. Ron Hubbard
L. Ron Hubbard "Class VIII Course, Lecture No. 10, Assists"
October 3, 1968; taped lecture
^ A billion in Short Scale is a thousand million in Long Scale.
^ a b c d e f Corydon & Hubbard, Jr. 1987, pp. 364–367
^ a b Penycate, John (April 30, 1987). "The 'extended sting operation'
of Scientology". The Listener.
BBC Enterprises. 117 (3009): 14, 16.
ISSN 0024-4392. Archived from the original on September 9,
^ Rolph, C. H. (1973). Believe What You Like: What happened between
the Scientologists and the National Association for Mental Health.
London: Andre Deutsch Limited. ISBN 0-233-96375-8. Chapter 3: The
^ Evans, Christopher Riche (1973). Cults of Unreason. Harrap.
p. 38. ISBN 0-245-51870-3. I. The Science Fiction Religion,
Chapter: Lives Past, Lives Remembered.
^ Frederiksen, Tom Thygesen (2007). Scientology – en koncern af
aliens. Dialogcentret. p. 16. ISBN 87-88527-30-1.
^ Connolly, Maeve (April 17, 2006). "Cruise and Co bring sci-fi
religion to the masses Silent births, vehement opposition to
psychiatry and a belief that
Earth is a 'prison planet' inhabited by
people kidnapped from outer space set
Scientology apart from other
religions, Maeve Connolly discovers". The Irish News. The Irish News,
Ltd. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved December
^ Ricks, Mike; Sarah Gorman (May 12, 1988). "The 'Hard Sell' Cult".
The East Grinstead Courier. pp. 1–2, 5–7. Archived from the
original on November 7, 2017.
^ Atack 1990, p. 382
^ a b Miller 1988, p. 266
^ a b c Browne, Michael (1998). "Should Germany Stop Worrying and Love
the Octopus? Freedom of Religion and the Church of
Germany and the United States". Indiana International &
Comparative Law Review. Indiana University: Trustees of Indiana
University. 9 Ind. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 155.
^ Allen, Mike (August 20, 1995). "Internet Gospel: Scientology's
Expensive Wisdom Now Comes Free". The New York Times. The New York
^ Four thousand billion in Long Scale.
^ a b Doward, Jamie (May 16, 2004). "Lure of the celebrity sect:
During an exclusive tour of Scientology's Celebrity Centre, Jamie
Doward quizzed personnel about the church's teachings". The Observer.
UK: Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
^ Veenker, Jody (September 4, 2000). "Why
Christians Object to
Scientology: Craig Branch of the Apologetics Resource Center notes
Clear differences". Christianity Today. Christianity Today
International. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
^ Branch, Craig (1996). "Hubbard's Religion". The Watchman Expositor.
Watchman Fellowship ministry. 13 (2). Retrieved December 3,
Scientology and Other Practices". Church of
Michigan. 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2009.
Retrieved December 3, 2008.
Scientology does not conflict with other
religions or other religious practices.
^ Corydon & Hubbard, Jr. 1987, pp. 58–59, 332–333
^ Atack 1990, p. 171
^ Miller 1988, p. 290
^ Davis, Matt (August 7, 2008). "Selling Scientology: A Former
Scientologist Marketing Guru Turns Against the Church". Portland
Mercury. Retrieved October 31, 2008.
^ Corydon & Hubbard, Jr. 1987, p. 361
^ Hubbard, "Ron's
Talk to Pubs Org World Wide", tape of April 1968
^ Hubbard, Lafayette Ronald; LRH Personal Secretary Office (1976).
Modern Management Technology Defined: Hubbard Dictionary of
Administration and Management. Church of
Scientology of California.
p. 467. ISBN 0-88404-040-2.
^ Atack 1990, p. 190
^ a b Lamont 1986, p. 51
^ Hubbard, L. Ron (1977). Revolt in the Stars. United States Copyright
Office; Registration number: DU0000105973.
^ Lewis, James R. (January 10, 2017). "Handbook of Scientology".
BRILL. Retrieved December 11, 2017 – via Google Books.
^ Abanes, Richard (July 1, 2009). "Religions of the Stars: What
Hollywood Believes and How It Affects You". Baker Books. Retrieved
December 11, 2017 – via Google Books.
^ Prendergast, Alan (March 6, 1997). "Nightmare on the net: A web of
intrigue surrounds the high-stakes legal brawl between FACTnet and the
Church of Scientology". Denver Westword. Village Voice Media.
Retrieved December 3, 2008.
^ Hall, Charles W. (August 31, 1995). "Court Lets Newspaper Keep
Scientology Texts". Seattle Times. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
^ a b Atack 1990, p. 31
^ a b Reitman, Janet (February 23, 2006). "Inside Scientology:
Unlocking the complex code of America's most mysterious religion".
Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved
December 3, 2008.
^ a b Brill, Ann; Ashley Packard (December 1997). "Silencing
Scientology's critics on the Internet: a mission impossible?".
Communications and the Law. 19 (4): 1–23.
^ O'Connor, Mike (August 28, 1998). "Re: Ron's Journal 67" (TXT).
alt.religion.scientology. David Touretzky.
email@example.com. Retrieved December
3, 2008. (testimony under oath by Warren McShane of the Church
Scientology in RTC v. FactNet, Civil Action No. 95B2143, United
States Courthouse, Denver, Colorado, September 11, 1995)
^ Oppenheimer, Mark (September 9, 2007). "Friends, thetans,
countrymen". The Daily Telegraph. UK: Telegraph Media Group Limited.
Retrieved December 3, 2008.
^ Sweeney, John (May 14, 2007). "
Scientology and Me". Panorama.
^ a b Baca, Nathan (March 12, 2009). "
Scientology Official Addresses
Works of L. Ron Hubbard". KESQ-TV. kesq.com.
^ a b Inside Scientology,
ABC News Nightline, October 23, 2009.
^ a b Brittenden, Pat; Petra Bagust (November 29, 2009).
"Scientology". Newstalk ZB. The Radio Network.
Scientology wants NZ to 'ease up' on it, The
New Zealand Herald,
February 7, 2013
^ Kaufman 1972, Part III
^ Leiby, Richard (August 30, 1981). "Sect courses resemble science
fiction". Clearwater Sun. 68 (118).
^ Sappell, Joel; Robert W. Welkos (November 5, 1985). "Scientologists
Block Access To Secret Documents: 1,500 crowd into courthouse to
protect materials on fundamental beliefs". Los Angeles Times.
^ Poundstone, William (1986). Bigger Secrets: More Than 125 Things
They Prayed You'd Never Find Out. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 58–63.
^ Langan, Sean (September 4, 1995). "Warning: Prince
destroy the Net". The Independent. UK. Retrieved February 17,
^ Braund, Alison (July 7, 1995). "Inside the Cult". The Big Story
(ITV). Carlton Television.
^ Adams, Stephen (May 14, 2007). "Scientology – a brief
history". The Daily Telegraph. UK: Telegraph Media Group Limited.
Retrieved December 3, 2008.
^ "Scientology – The Road to Total Freedom?". Panorama. April
^ Lippard, Jim (1995). "
Scientology v. the Internet: Free Speech &
Copyright Infringement on the Information Super-Highway". The Skeptic.
The Skeptics Society. 3 (3): 35–41. Retrieved November 29,
^ Grossman, Wendy (August 17, 1995). "Scientologists Fight On". The
Guardian. UK. p. 2.
^ Brown, Andrew (May 2, 1996). "Let's All Beam Up To Heaven". The
Independent. UK. p. 17. The group responded with a campaign of
raids and seizures around the US, claiming that these documents were
copyrighted trade secrets. Each time one of the dissidents was raided,
sympathisers copied the documents more widely.
^ The Court of Justice at The Hague (September 4, 2003). "LJN: AI5638,
Gerechtshof 's-Gravenhage, 99/1040". de Rechtspraak (in Dutch).
zoeken.rechtspraak.nl. p. Section 8.4. Retrieved December 1,
2008. Uit de hiervoor onder 8.3 vermelde teksten blijkt dat
Scientology c.s. met hun leer en organisatie de verwerping van
democratische waarden niet schuwen. Uit die teksten volgt tevens dat
met de geheimhouding van OT II en
OT III mede wordt beoogd macht uit
te oefenen over leden van de Scientology-organisatie en discussie over
de leer en praktijken van de Scientology-organisatie te
^ Atack 1990, p. 245
^ Leiby, Richard (November 28, 1999). "John Travolta's Alien Notion:
He Plays a Strange Creature In a New Sci-Fi Film, but That's Not the
Only Curious Thing About This Project". The Washington Post. The
Washington Post Company. Retrieved June 3, 2008.
^ Lewis, James R. (editor) (2004). The Oxford Handbook of New
Religious Movements. Introduction by J. Gordon Melton. Oxford
University Press. pp. 427, 541. ISBN 0-19-514986-6. CS1
maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
^ Lewis, James R. (editor) (November 2003). The Encyclopedic
Sourcebook of UFO Religions. Prometheus Books. p. 42.
ISBN 1-57392-964-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
^ Partridge, Christopher;
J. Gordon Melton
J. Gordon Melton (May 6, 2004). New
Religions: A Guide: New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative
Spiritualities. Oxford University Press. p. 374.
^ McCullagh, Declan (March 17, 2001). "
Xenu Do, But Not on Slashdot".
Wired. CondéNet, Inc. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
^ Malda, Rob (March 16, 2001). "Scientologists Force Comment Off
Slashdot". Slashdot. slashdot.org. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
^ a b Ramadge, Andrew (February 10, 2008). "
Scientology protests begin
in Australia". NEWS.com.au. Herald and Weekly Times.
^ McCullagh, Declan (March 21, 2002). "Google Yanks Anti-Church
Sites". Wired News. CondéNet, Inc. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
^ Dawson, Lorne L.;
Douglas E. Cowan (January 1, 2004). Religion
Online. Routledge (UK). pp. 172, 261–262.
^ Staff (December 22, 1998). "When buses become billboards". St.
Petersburg Times. sptimes.com. Retrieved December 1, 2008.
^ Rooney, David (December 10, 2006). "Theatre Review: A Very Merry
Scientology Pageant". Variety. Retrieved
November 22, 2008.
^ a b Robert Arp (2007).
South Park and philosophy: you know, I
learned something today. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 137–138.
ISBN 978-1-4051-6160-2. Retrieved January 23, 2011.
^ a b Carlson, Erin (March 21, 2006). "Rumble in 'South Park'".
Concord Monitor. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011.
Retrieved January 22, 2011.
^ Leslie Stratyner; James R. Keller (February 2009). The deep end of
South Park: critical essays on television's shocking cartoon series.
McFarland. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7864-4307-9. Retrieved January
^ Reuters (March 14, 2006). "
Isaac Hayes quits South Park". The Age.
Retrieved January 24, 2011.
^ Booth, Robert, and agencies (March 14, 2006). "
Isaac Hayes leaves
South Park". The Guardian. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
South Park "Trapped in the Closet" Episode to Air Again".
tv.ign.com. July 12, 2006. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
^ Mark I. Pinsky (June 2007). The gospel according to the Simpsons:
bigger and possibly even better! edition with a new afterword
exploring South park, Family guy, and other animated TV shows.
Westminster John Knox Press. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-664-23160-6.
Retrieved January 24, 2011.
^ a b c McDowell, PhD, Michael; Nathan Robert Brown (2009). World
Religions at Your Fingertips. Alpha. p. 271.
^ a b c d e f Godwin, Mike (2003). Cyber Rights: Defending Free Speech
in the Digital Age. MIT Press. pp. 217–218.
Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky: Scientology, Dianetics, and L.
Ron Hubbard Exposed. New York: Carol Publishing Group.
ISBN 0-8184-0499-X. OCLC 20934706.
Corydon, Bent; Hubbard, Jr., L. Ron (1987). L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah Or
Madman?. New Jersey: Lyle Stuart. ISBN 0-8184-0444-2.
Kaufman, Robert (1972). Inside Scientology: How I Joined Scientology
and Became Superhuman. New York: Olympia Press.
ISBN 0-7004-0110-5. OCLC 533305.
Lamont, Stewart (1986). Religion Inc.: The Church of Scientology.
London: Harrap. ISBN 0-245-54334-1. OCLC 23079677.
Miller, Russell (1988). Bare-faced Messiah: The True Story of L. Ron
Hubbard. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 1-55013-027-7.
Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2003). UFO Religions. Routledge.
ISBN 0-415-26324-7. OCLC 51342721.
Reece, Gregory L. (2007). UFO Religion: Inside Flying Saucer Cults and
Culture. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-451-5.
Savino, John, PhD; Jones, Marie D. (2007). Supervolcano: The
Catastrophic Event That Changed the Course of Human History. Career
Press. ISBN 1-56414-953-6. OCLC 123539673.
Find more aboutXenuat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Listen to this article (info/dl)
This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Xenu"
dated 2011-11-13, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the
article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
OT III Released" in online edition of What is Scientology
OT III Scholarship Page (David S. Touretzky; includes page scans,
commentary, audio files)
Revolt In The Stars summary (Grady Ward)
Xenu Leaflet (Roland Rashleigh-Berry)
The Fishman Affidavit:
OT III (extracts and synopsis by Karin Spaink)
A Scientific scrutiny of
OT III (Peter Forde, June 1996) Claims about
Xenu evaluated against scientific geology
Research essay describing OT 3 as a drug induced hallucination posted
to alt.religion.scientology on March 29, 1996 by Prignillius
"The History Of Xenu, As Explained By
L. Ron Hubbard
L. Ron Hubbard In 8 Minutes"
(Gawker.com) Extract from the "Assists" lecture of October 3, 1968
Scientology and Christianity Examined
Testimony under oath (pp274–275) from
Robert Vaughn Young in RTC v.
FactNet, Civil Action No. 95B2143, United States Courthouse, Denver,
Colorado, September 11, 1995
Doctrine of Exchange
Emotional tone scale
Jesus in Scientology
History of Dianetics
Alaska Mental Health Enabling Act
Scientology editing on
Death of Lisa McPherson
Death of Elli Perkins
Death of Kaja Ballo
The Fishman Affidavit
List of Guardian's Office operations
Operation Snow White
Scientology and Me
Scientology as a business
The Secrets of Scientology
Tax status in the US
"The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power"
"We Stand Tall"
Arenz, Röder and Dagmar v. Germany
Scientology of California v. Armstrong
Scientology International v. Fishman and Geertz
Scientology International v. Time Warner, Inc., et al.
Scientology Moscow v. Russia
Scientology v. Sweden
Hernandez v. Commissioner
Hill v. Church of
Scientology of Toronto
Religious Technology Center
Religious Technology Center v. Netcom On-Line Communication Services,
R. v. Church of
Scientology of Toronto
United States v. Hubbard
X. and Church of
Scientology v. Sweden
Church of Scientology
Church of Spiritual Technology
Hubbard Association of Scientologists International
International Association of Scientologists
L. Ron Hubbard
L. Ron Hubbard House
Religious Technology Center
Scientology Missions International
Status by country
L. Ron Hubbard
Mary Sue Hubbard
Ali's Smile: Naked Scientology
Being Tom Cruise
Scientology and the Aftermath
"A Token of My Extreme"
A Very Merry Unauthorized Children's
Association for Better Living and Education
List of members
Citizens Commission on Human Rights
Concerned Businessmen's Association of America
Cult Awareness Network
Moxon & Kobrin
New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project
Oxford Capacity Analysis
Safe Environment Fund
Second Chance Program
The Way to Happiness
World Institute of
Youth for Human Rights International