WYTHENSHAWE (/ˈwɪðənʃɔː/ ; pop. 100,000) is an area of south
Manchester , England.
Cheshire , in 1931
Wythenshawe was transferred to
the City of Manchester, which had begun building a massive housing
estate there in the 1920s. With an area of approximately 11 square
miles (28 km2), at one time
Wythenshawe was the largest council
housing estate in Europe, although private home ownership in the
area has grown.
The district comprises nine areas:
Benchill , Peel Hall ,
Newall Green ,
Woodhouse Park , Moss Nook,
Northern Moor , Northenden
Sharston . The boundaries of these areas have changed
throughout the district's history, and previously known areas such as
Brownley Green and Crossacres have since been assimilated into one of
the areas listed, though many residents still refer to them by name.
* 1 History
* 2 Housing and social history
* 3 Parks
* 4 Governance
* 5 Geography
* 6 Public services
* 7 Transport
* 8 Economy
* 9 In the media
* 10 Notable people
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 12.1 Notes
* 12.2 Bibliography
* 13 External links
Wythenshawe Hall , a former stately home and local landmark in
The name of
Wythenshawe seems to come from the Old English _wiðign_
= "withy tree" and _sceaga_ = "wood" (compare dialectal word shaw ).
The three ancient townships of
Baguley , and Northen
Etchells formally became the present-day
Wythenshawe when they were
Manchester in 1931. Until then, the name had referred only
Wythenshawe Hall and its grounds.
For many centuries the Tatton family owned
Wythenshawe Hall and much
land in what is now Wythenshawe.
Manchester Corporation, which was in
desperate need of land to house the city's rapidly increasing
population, pressured Mr Tatton to part with the land in 1926. What
was once farmland was transformed into one of the largest housing
estates in Europe. Due to spending cuts the hall was temporarily
closed to the public in 2010. One proposition was that Manchester
City Council could sell the building to the National Trust . A
Friends Group was formed to support monthly open days and events at
the hall. In March 2016 the roof of the hall and an upper floor were
severely damaged by a fire, in an arson attack, with the clock tower
Immediately south of
Manchester Airport , formerly
called Ringway Airport . Before the Ringway Airport was laid out,
three farm fields between Rackhouse Road and
Wythenshawe Road in what
is now the north edge of
Wythenshawe were used as Manchester
(Wythenshawe) Aerodrome . This was the UK's first municipal airfield,
and operated between April 1929 and early 1930. A barn was converted
to act as the hangar and a farmhouse as the administration building.
Temporary fuel pumps were installed. The last recorded flight from
Wythenshawe Airport took place on 19 June 1930. Area where
Manchester Airport and
Wythenshawe are now, as around 1925
HOUSING AND SOCIAL HISTORY
Wythenshawe is Manchester's largest district, a massive housing
estate that was started in the 1920s intended as a "garden city "
where people could be rehoused away from industrial Manchester.
Benchill (not the area southwest of Gladeside Road) and some
areas in the north were built before
World War II
World War II and called the
Wythenshawe Ward of the City of Manchester. The rest was built after
the Second World War, starting in the late 1940s as wartime building
restrictions were relaxed. Parts of
Baguley were still semi-rural in
the 1960s, but now there is very little open country left.
The estate was built initially without many shops, amenities or
services, and there was very little employment directly to hand.
Northenden already had a shopping area on Palatine Road, the
earliest new shops were built in the 1930s and included parades on
Hollyhedge Road, and on
Altrincham Road in
Sharston (the latter was
demolished in 1973 to make way for the M56
Sharston bypass). However,
it took decades for some areas of
Wythenshawe to get their own
neighbourhood shops, which meant residents had to either travel or
wait until a mobile shop van visited their area. Various residents'
associations were set up to address these problems, but progress was
very slow. After the
Second World War
Second World War ,
expanded, with several further shops being built (such as Haveley
Circle, built in the early 1950s but demolished in the 1990s) and
businesses were attracted to the area with the expansion of the
Industrial Estate and, later, the Moss Nook and Roundthorn
Wythenshawe gradually acquired all the amenities
and facilities that the original planners had neglected to include
with the building of several new schools, shops, pubs and churches.
The area also got its own hospital, and
Wythenshawe Hospital grew out
of the earlier
Baguley Hospital after the
Second World War
Second World War in 1948.
The largest shopping area was built in the 1960s in the town centre,
known as the
Wythenshawe Civic Centre, which has been expanded further
since it was first built. In 1971, the
Wythenshawe Forum was opened
there, which included a library, a swimming pool, a restaurant, a bar,
and a theatre.
From the 1990s to the 2000s, the houses that were built and owned by
the council were transferred to the control of local housing
associations , such as
Willow Park in east
Wythenshawe and Parkway
Green in west Wythenshawe. These two associations merged in 2013 to
Wythenshawe Community Housing Group which is now responsible
for around 14,000 homes in Wythenshawe.
In 2007 _
The New York Times _ described the housing estates in
Wythenshawe as representing an "extreme pocket of social deprivation
Most of the farm buildings in the
Wythenshawe area were demolished
when the estate was built. Some of them (e.g. Hollyhedge Farm, Floats
Hall) were left among the houses but suffered from vandalism and had
to be demolished later. Some of the present housing estates were named
after former farms.
Peel Hall Farm (which had a moat ) survived for over 20 years as its
occupant lived on the proceeds of selling his land, but soon after he
left, the property was vandalised and had to be demolished.
Newall Green Farm survived on the edge of the
Newall Green housing
estate area, and was still occupied and run as a farm until the early
21st century when its last occupant died, after which it was abandoned
and fenced off. The buildings are listed . In 2006 a firm bought
Newall Green Farm's buildings from
Manchester Corporation. On 21 June
2014 vandals set fire to
Newall Green Farm, and its roof was
destroyed; though there are plans to turn the buildings into a care
home for adults with learning disabilities , and a working farm and a
Newall Green Primary School is the only school in Europe which is
built inside the park.
Wythenshawe has 12 parks and 18 woodland areas including Wythenshawe
Park, which was designated a
Local Nature Reserve
Local Nature Reserve in 2011. It covers
over 270 acres (110 ha) of green space and is home to Manchester's
only community farm,
Wythenshawe community farm . At the centre of the
park is the historic
Wythenshawe Hall with its Civil War and Tatton
heritage. The park also has riding stables, a horticulture centre,
children's play area, athletics track, football pitches, tennis
courts, bowls and golfing facilities.
Other parks include Hollyhedge Park, Peel Hall Park, Painswick Park
Baguley Park. Northenden's Riverside Park is the first new park to
be established in the city in the 21st century.
The district is under the authority of
Manchester City Council .
Wythenshawe was a parliamentary constituency created in
1950 and represented by
Alf Morris of the Labour Party between 1964
and 1997. Before the 1997 election, the boundaries were redrawn and
part of the neighbouring area of Sale included in the seat. The
constituency is now called
Wythenshawe and Sale East . In the same
Alf Morris stepped down and was replaced by
Paul Goggins . It is
still considered a safe Labour seat, with Labour securing over 50% of
the vote (and more than twice as many votes as its nearest rival) in
the 1997, 2001 and 2005 elections . Labour kept the seat in the 2010
elections, though their share of the vote was decreased to 44.1%. In
early 2014, following the death of Paul Goggins, a by-election was
held . Labour candidate
Mike Kane (a former
until 2008) won the seat with 55.3% of the vote, though voter turnout
was low (28%).
At the time of the 2001 UK Census ,
Wythenshawe was divided into six
local government wards :
Woodhouse Park and Brooklands (the latter being an area divided with
the neighbouring borough of
Trafford ). Each ward was represented by
three local councillors, giving
Wythenshawe 21 of the 99 seats on
Manchester City Council. Following a review by the Boundary Committee
England published in 2003, the ward of
Benchill was abolished, and
its former territory was divided between the wards of Northenden,
Sharston, and Woodhouse Park.
Wythenshawe typically returns all Labour councillors in local
elections, although in the 2008 elections the Liberal Democrats gained
a seat in
Northenden and a second seat (in the same area) in the 2010
elections . Labour regained these seats in the 2012 and 2014 elections
Wythenshawe is 8 miles (13 km) south of the city centre and is the
southernmost district of Manchester. It is surrounded by some of the
most affluent areas in the UK.
Altrincham and Hale lie to the
south-west, Sale to the north-west and Cheadle to the east. Manchester
Airport , the third largest in the UK, is immediately to the south.
SHADOW MOSS is an area south of Ringway Road in the southeast corner
of Wythenshawe. On this old map of
Wythenshawe it is roughly the
rectangular area between three country lanes with HEYHEAD at its
northwest corner. On modern maps, its north edge is the southern
branch of Ringway Road. It was partly in
Northen Etchells township and
Styal parish. For many centuries it was a peat bog which was
dug for peat fuel, locally called "turf"; local manorial law said that
after digging peat the top living plant layer had to be lodged back to
let more peat form afterwards. Each man's allocated part of the Moss
was called his "moss room".
In the 19th century, manorial control was lost over what people used
their moss rooms for, and an 1839 tithe map of
Northen Etchells shows
Northen Etchells's part of Shadow Moss as about 2/3 arable , about 1/3
meadow , one field as pasture , and one field as "uncultivated moors".
Later, the fertile lowland peat soil led to the area being much used
for market gardening , with large areas under greenhouses . Of the
people who worked there, many lived in Heyhead.
As of around 1970, HEYHEAD was a small settlement at the south end of
Woodhouse Lane and the nearby part of Ringway Road. It comprised
several terrace houses , a small shop, two or more old cottages, a
chapel , and the Ringway Haulage Company.
Manchester Airport 's ground
level car parking has been displaced from other areas and car parks
have been formed to the north and south of the runways and under the
approach path. The Heyhead area has been progressively replaced by
level car parks, and by 2011 all of Heyhead's buildings had vanished
(see History of
Manchester Airport#Expansion ).
Some greenhouses remain at the far east of the Shadow Moss area as of
June 2012, but are used by private car parking operators (not
associated with the airport company) and not for growing any crop. The
last market gardener there, who grew tomatoes, closed his business in
2011 due to competition from highly mechanized enormous greenhouse
Wythenshawe is policed by the South
Manchester Division of Greater
Manchester Police . Wythenshawe's fire and rescue services are the
responsibility of the
Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service , and
are based at a fire station on Brownley Road.
M56 motorway , constructed in the 1970s as a continuation of the
A5103 road (Princess Parkway), bisects east and west Wythenshawe. A
bypass connecting it to the nearby
M60 motorway was built through
Sharston and opened in 1974.
The nearest railway station to
Wythenshawe was located adjacent to
Longley Lane at the edge of
Sharston on the
Cheshire Lines Railway
Stockport to Liverpool . Named _
Northenden for Wythenshawe_,
Northenden railway station was closed on 30 November 1964.
Wythenshawe did not then have a public railway service for several
decades, with the nearest stations being located in the neighbouring
Heald Green and
Altrincham . A station at Manchester
Airport was opened in 1993.
The Airport Line branch of the
Manchester Metrolink tram service
includes twelve stops throughout Wythenshawe. The line opened on 3
November 2014, a year ahead of schedule. In addition to the building
of the new Metrolink lines and stations, a new public transport hub
was built in
Wythenshawe Town Centre which opened in June 2015 and
includes a new bus station and tram stop.
The Civic Centre in Wythenshawe. The Park Court multi-storey
flats at the far end were demolished in 2007, replaced by new retail
and office buildings.
Approximately 43,000 people work in Wythenshawe. There are four areas
of industrial activity (estates) - Moss Nook, Ringway (Airport Cargo
Centre ), Roundthorn and Sharston. It is home to
Wythenshawe Hospital which are two of the largest employers
in the area. Many National and International companies have premises
or main offices in Wythenshawe, including Timpson Ltd ,
Virgin Media ,
Vodafone and F. Duerr
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* ^ "All About Wythenshawe". _
Manchester Evening News_. Retrieved
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* ^ Deakin, Derick. "History of the Estate". _Wythit_. Retrieved 30
* ^ "
Manchester City Council -
Wythenshawe Strategic Regeneration
Framework". Manchester.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
* ^ Deakin 1989 , pp. 1–2
* ^ "
Wythenshawe Park: The Hall".
* ^ Linton, Deborah (1 June 2011). "Budget crisis could lead
Manchester council to give away Heaton Hall and
Manchester Evening News_. M.E.N. Media.
* ^ "Friends of Wythenshaw Hall". Friends of Wythenshaw Hall.
Retrieved 10 November 2013.
* ^ "Fire destroys roof of historic
Wythenshawe Hall in
BBC News . 15 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
* ^ "Fire at
Wythenshawe Hall in
Manchester was \'arson\'". 16
March 2016 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
* ^ Scholefield 2004 , pp. 222–223
* ^ Lyall, Sarah (10 March 2007). "How the Young Poor Measure
Poverty in Britain: Drink, Drugs and Their Time in Jail". _The New
York Times _.
* ^ _
Manchester Evening News _, page 21, 27 June 2014
* ^ "
Wythenshawe Park". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England.
Missing or empty url= (help ); access-date= requires url= (help )
* ^ "Draft recommendations on the future electoral arrangements for
Manchester" (PDF). The Electoral Commission. February 2003. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
* ^ Wythenshawe, A History of the townships of
Northenden , Northen
Baguley , Volume 1: 10 1926, edited by W.H.Shercliff,
ISBN 0-85972-008-X , published by
Northenden Civic Society 1974
* ^ W.H.Shercliff, 1974, page 3
* ^ Butt, p.173
* ^ Britton, Paul (13 October 2014). "New Metrolink line to