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Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
(/ˈwɪðənʃɔː/; pop. 110,000)[citation needed] is an area of south Manchester, England. Historically in Cheshire,[1] in 1931 Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
was transferred to the City of Manchester, which had begun building a massive housing estate there in the 1920s. With an area of approximately 11 square miles (28 km2), at one time Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
was the largest council housing estate in Europe,[2][3] although private home ownership in the area has grown. Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
comprises nine areas: Baguley, Benchill, Peel Hall, Newall Green, Woodhouse Park, Moss Nook, Northern Moor, Northenden, and Sharston.[4] The boundaries of these areas have changed throughout history, and previously known areas such as Brownley Green and Crossacres have since been assimilated into one of the areas listed, though many residents still refer to them by name.

Contents

1 History 2 Housing and social history 3 Parks 4 Governance 5 Geography 6 Public services 7 Transport 8 Economy 9 In the media 10 Notable people 11 See also 12 References

12.1 Notes 12.2 Bibliography

13 External links

History[edit]

Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Hall, a former stately home and local landmark in Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Park

The name of Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
seems to come from the Old English wiðign = "withy tree" and sceaga = "wood" (compare dialectal word shaw). The three ancient townships of Northenden, Baguley, and Northen Etchells formally became the present-day Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
when they were merged with Manchester
Manchester
in 1931. Until then, the name had referred only to Wythenshawe Hall
Wythenshawe Hall
and its grounds.[5] For many centuries the Tatton family owned Wythenshawe Hall
Wythenshawe Hall
and much land in what is now Wythenshawe. Manchester
Manchester
Corporation, which was in desperate need of land to house the city's rapidly increasing population, pressured Mr Tatton to part with the land in 1926. What was once farmland was transformed into one of the largest housing estates in Europe. Due to spending cuts the hall was temporarily closed to the public in 2010.[6] One proposition was that Manchester City Council could sell the building to the National Trust.[7] A Friends Group was formed to support monthly open days and events at the hall.[8] In March 2016 the roof of the hall and an upper floor were severely damaged by a fire, in an arson attack, with the clock tower also damaged.[9][10] Immediately south of Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
is Manchester
Manchester
Airport, formerly called Ringway Airport. Before the Ringway Airport was laid out, three farm fields between Rackhouse Road and Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Road in Northern Moor, in what is now the north edge of Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
were used as Manchester
Manchester
(Wythenshawe) Aerodrome. This was the UK's first municipal airfield, and operated between April 1929 and early 1930. A barn was converted to act as the hangar and a farmhouse as the administration building. Temporary fuel pumps were installed.[11] The last recorded flight from Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Airport took place on 19 June 1930.

Area where Manchester
Manchester
Airport and Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
are now, as around 1925

Housing and social history[edit] Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
is Manchester's largest district, a massive housing estate that was started in the 1920s intended as a "garden city" where people could be rehoused away from industrial Manchester. Part of Benchill (not the area southwest of Gladeside Road) and some areas in the north were built before World War II
World War II
and called the Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Ward of the City of Manchester. The rest was built after the Second World War, starting in the late 1940s as wartime building restrictions were relaxed. Parts of Baguley
Baguley
were still semi-rural in the 1960s, but now there is very little open country left. The estate was built initially without many shops, amenities or services, and there was very little employment directly to hand. Although Northenden
Northenden
already had a shopping area on Palatine Road, the earliest new shops were built in the 1930s and included parades on Hollyhedge Road, and on Altrincham
Altrincham
Road in Sharston
Sharston
(the latter was demolished in 1973 to make way for the M56 Sharston
Sharston
bypass). However, it took decades for some areas of Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
to get their own neighbourhood shops, which meant residents had to travel or visit a mobile shop van when it visited their area. Various residents' associations were set up to address those problems, but progress was very slow. After the Second World War, Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
eventually expanded, with several further shops being built (such as Haveley Circle, built in the early 1950s but demolished in the 1990s) and businesses were attracted to the area with the expansion of the Sharston
Sharston
Industrial Estate and, later, the Moss Nook and Roundthorn industrial complexes. Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
gradually acquired all the amenities and facilities that the original planners had neglected to include with the building of several new schools, shops, pubs and churches. The area also got its own hospital, and Wythenshawe Hospital
Wythenshawe Hospital
grew out of the earlier Baguley Hospital in 1948. The largest shopping area was built in the 1960s in the town centre, known as the Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Civic Centre, which has been expanded further since it was first built. In 1971, the Wythenshawe Forum was opened there, which included a library, a swimming pool, a restaurant, a bar and a theatre. From the 1990s to the 2000s, the houses that were built and owned by the council were transferred to the control of local housing associations, such as Willow
Willow
Park in east Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
and Parkway Green in west Wythenshawe. Both associations merged in 2013 to form the Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Community Housing Group which is now responsible for around 14,000 homes in Wythenshawe. In 2007 The New York Times
The New York Times
described the housing estates in Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
as representing an "extreme pocket of social deprivation and alienation."[12] Most of the farm buildings in the Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
area were demolished when the estate was built. Some of them, like Hollyhedge Farm and Floats Hall, were left among the houses but suffered from vandalism and had to be demolished later. Some of the present housing estates were named after former farms. Peel Hall Farm (which had a moat) survived for over 20 years [clarification needed] as its occupant lived on the proceeds of selling his land, but soon after he left, the property was vandalised and had to be demolished. Newall Green
Newall Green
Farm survived on the edge of the Newall Green
Newall Green
housing estate area and was still occupied and run as a farm until the early 21st century when its last occupant died, when it was abandoned and fenced off. The buildings are listed. In 2006, a firm bought Newall Green Farm's buildings from Manchester
Manchester
Corporation. On 21 June 2014, vandals set fire to Newall Green
Newall Green
Farm, and its roof was destroyed, but there are plans to turn the buildings into a care home for adults with learning disabilities, a working farm and a horse-riding centre.[13] Parks[edit] Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
has 12 parks and 18 woodland areas including Wythenshawe Park, which was designated a Local Nature Reserve in 2011.[14] It covers over 270 acres (110 ha) of green space and is home to Manchester's only community farm, Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
community farm. At the centre of the park is the historic Wythenshawe Hall
Wythenshawe Hall
with its Civil War and Tatton heritage. The park also has riding stables, a horticulture centre, children's play area, athletics track, football pitches, tennis courts, bowls and golfing facilities. Other parks include Hollyhedge Park, Peel Hall Park, Painswick Park and Baguley
Baguley
Park. Northenden's Riverside Park is the first new park to be established in the city in the 21st century. Governance[edit] The district is under the authority of Manchester
Manchester
City Council. Manchester
Manchester
Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
was a parliamentary constituency created in 1950 and represented by Alf Morris
Alf Morris
of the Labour Party between 1964 and 1997. Before the 1997 election, the boundaries were redrawn and part of the neighbouring area of Sale included in the seat. The constituency is now called Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
and Sale East. In the same year, Alf Morris
Alf Morris
stepped down and was replaced by Paul Goggins. It is still considered a safe Labour seat, with Labour securing over 50% of the vote (and more than twice as many votes as its nearest rival) in the 1997, 2001 and 2005 elections. Labour kept the seat in the 2010 elections, though their share of the vote was decreased to 44.1%. In early 2014, following the death of Paul Goggins, a by-election was held. Labour candidate Mike Kane
Mike Kane
(a former Northenden
Northenden
councillor until 2008) won the seat with 55.3% of the vote, though voter turnout was low (28%). The 2017 general election saw the largest vote share for Labour in the history of both the current and former Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
seat with 62.2% of the vote and a 15,000 majority. At the time of the 2001 UK Census, Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
was divided into six local government wards: Baguley, Benchill, Northenden, Sharston, Woodhouse Park
Woodhouse Park
and Brooklands (the latter being an area divided with the neighbouring borough of Trafford). Each ward was represented by three local councillors, giving Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
21 of the 99 seats on Manchester
Manchester
City Council. Following a review by the Boundary Committee for England
England
published in 2003, the ward of Benchill was abolished, and its former territory was divided between the wards of Northenden, Sharston, and Woodhouse Park.[15] Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
typically returns all Labour councillors in local elections, although in the 2008 elections the Liberal Democrats gained a seat in Northenden
Northenden
and a second seat (in the same area) in the 2010 elections. Labour regained these seats in the 2012 and 2014 elections. Geography[edit] Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
is 8 miles (13 km) south of the city centre and is the southernmost district of Manchester. It is surrounded by some of the most affluent areas in the UK. Altrincham
Altrincham
and Hale lie to the south-west, Sale to the north-west and Cheadle to the east. Manchester Airport, the third largest in the UK, is immediately to the south. Shadow Moss is an area south of Ringway Road in the southeast corner of Wythenshawe. On this old map of Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
it is roughly the rectangular area between three country lanes with Heyhead at its northwest corner.[16] On modern maps, its north edge is the southern branch of Ringway Road. It was partly in Northen Etchells
Northen Etchells
township and partly in Styal
Styal
parish. For many centuries it was a peat bog which was dug for peat fuel, locally called "turf"; local manorial law said that after digging peat the top living plant layer had to be lodged back to let more peat form afterwards. Each man's allocated part of the Moss was called his "moss room". In the 19th century, manorial control was lost over what people used their moss rooms for, and an 1839 tithe map of Northen Etchells
Northen Etchells
shows Northen Etchells's part of Shadow Moss as about 2/3 arable, about 1/3 meadow, one field as pasture, and one field as "uncultivated moors".[17] Later, the fertile lowland peat soil led to the area being much used for market gardening, with large areas under greenhouses. Of the people who worked there, many lived in Heyhead. As of around 1970, Heyhead was a small settlement at the south end of Woodhouse Lane and the nearby part of Ringway Road. It comprised several terrace houses, a small shop, two or more old cottages, a chapel, and the Ringway Haulage Company. Manchester
Manchester
Airport's ground level car parking has been displaced from other areas and car parks have been formed to the north and south of the runways and under the approach path. The Heyhead area has been progressively replaced by level car parks, and by 2011 all of Heyhead's buildings had vanished (see History of Manchester
Manchester
Airport#Expansion). Some greenhouses remain at the far east of the Shadow Moss area as of June 2012, but are used by private car parking operators (not associated with the airport company) and not for growing any crop. The last market gardener there, who grew tomatoes, closed his business in 2011 due to competition from highly mechanized enormous greenhouse establishments elsewhere. Public services[edit] Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
is policed by the South Manchester
Manchester
Division of Greater Manchester
Manchester
Police. Wythenshawe's fire and rescue services are the responsibility of the Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
Fire and Rescue Service, and are based at a fire station on Brownley Road. Transport[edit] The M56 motorway, constructed in the 1970s as a continuation of the A5103 road
A5103 road
(Princess Parkway), bisects east and west Wythenshawe. A bypass connecting it to the nearby M60 motorway
M60 motorway
was built through Sharston
Sharston
and opened in 1974. The nearest railway station to Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
was located adjacent to Longley Lane at the edge of Sharston
Sharston
on the Cheshire
Cheshire
Lines Railway from Stockport
Stockport
to Liverpool. Named Northenden
Northenden
for Wythenshawe, Northenden
Northenden
railway station was closed on 30 November 1964.[18] Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
did not then have a public railway service for several decades, with the nearest stations being located in the neighbouring areas of Gatley, Heald Green
Heald Green
and Altrincham. A station at Manchester Airport was opened in 1993. The Airport Line branch of the Manchester
Manchester
Metrolink tram service includes twelve stops throughout Wythenshawe. The line opened on 3 November 2014, a year ahead of schedule.[19] In addition to the building of the new Metrolink lines and stations, a new public transport hub was built in Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Town Centre which opened in June 2015 and includes a new bus station and tram stop. Economy[edit]

The Civic Centre in Wythenshawe. The Park Court multi-storey flats at the far end were demolished in 2007, replaced by new retail and office buildings.

Approximately 43,000 people work in Wythenshawe. There are four areas of industrial activity (estates) - Moss Nook, Ringway (Airport Cargo Centre), Roundthorn and Sharston. It is home to Manchester
Manchester
Airport and UHSM Wythenshawe Hospital
Wythenshawe Hospital
which are two of the largest employers in the area. Many National and International companies have premises or main offices in Wythenshawe, including Timpson Ltd, HellermannTyton, Virgin Media, Vodafone
Vodafone
and F. Duerr & Sons. In 1934, George Hamer Scholes built the Wylex Works to produce electrical accessories.[20] The company was later acquired by Electrium (now under Siemens ownership). Several greenfield and greyfield sites have been opened up to developers and there are several new housing developments within the area. The town centre (known as the Civic Centre) was originally built in the 1960s. It expanded over the years and was renovated between 1999 and 2002 to include new stores and other new features, when the city council relinquished ownership and transferred it to St. Modwen Properties. The main shopping area now includes gates that are locked at night to prevent the vandalism that was seen in previous years. The Forum centre, which opened in 1971, houses a library, leisure centre, swimming pool, cafe and other amenities, has also been renovated in a more modern style. For thirty years it also housed the Forum Theatre, but this closed in 2002 and a health clinic and an adult education facility now occupy its space. In 2007, Asda
Asda
opened a new superstore on the site of the old Co-operative store (originally built by Woolco in the mid-1970s, which also features a multi-storey car park). A walkway going between the multi-storey car park and the large supermarket building now features a wall mosaic depicting various aspects of the town. After the demolition of two 1960s blocks of multi-storey flats in 2007, new buildings were constructed on the site including a new Wilko shop, office premises, and a local authority services hub that provides a new frontage for the town centre from its north-facing aspect. In the media[edit] Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
is the outdoor filming location for the Channel 4 series Shameless, which shows various shots of the local tower-blocks, housing estates and other architecture unique to this area. Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
also housed the outdoor sets for the show, which were built on private property. Production moved from West Gorton
Gorton
(in East Manchester) in early 2007, following disruption to filming caused by local youths.[21] In 2009, Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York (former wife of Prince Andrew) went to Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
to make a television documentary for ITV1 entitled The Duchess On The Estate.[22] In it, she visited the Northern Moor area of Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
to meet locals and discuss their way of life, and to open a new local community centre.[23] Both before and after its transmission, the documentary was widely criticised for being a self-serving publicity stunt by Ferguson, and she was also criticised for her patronising attitude towards the local people.[24][25] Notable people[edit]

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Harry H. Corbett
Harry H. Corbett
best known for his co-starring role in the popular and long-running BBC Television sitcom Steptoe and Son, attended Ross Place and Benchill Primary Schools and Sharston
Sharston
Secondary School in Wythenshawe. In 1972, English musician Johnny Marr, who was nine years old at the time, and his family moved to Wythenshawe, where he attended a local school. The boxer Tyson Fury
Tyson Fury
was born and raised in Wythenshawe.[26] The singer Jason Orange
Jason Orange
from Take That
Take That
lived in Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
as a child.[27] Caroline Aherne comedienne and actress grew up in Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
from the age of 2 Coronation Street
Coronation Street
actor Simon Gregson was born in Wythenshawe. Alf Wood Manchester
Manchester
City, Shrewsbury Town, Milwall, Middlesbrough, Hull City, Walsall and Stafford Rangers footballer lived in Newall Green and attended Oldwood Junior School. Manchester
Manchester
United footballer Marcus Rashford
Marcus Rashford
was born in Wythenshawe. Duncan Hallas, Trotskyist leader, grew up in Wythenshawe.[28] Ex- Manchester
Manchester
United footballer Ravel Morrison
Ravel Morrison
was born in Wythenshawe. Paul Stewart lived in Northern Moor, Wythenshawe. He played football for Blackpool, Manchester
Manchester
City, Tottenham, Liverpool and England. The actor John Bradley-West
John Bradley-West
grew up and attended school in Wythenshawe. Paul Young lead singer of Mike and the Mechanics
Mike and the Mechanics
Sad Café was born in the Benchill area of Wythenshawe. See also[edit]

Greater Manchester
Greater Manchester
portal

Listed buildings in Manchester-M22 Listed buildings in Manchester-M23 List of large council estates in the UK

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "Wythenshawe". Vision of Britain Through Time. Retrieved 26 November 2011.  ^ "All About Wythenshawe". Manchester
Manchester
Evening News. Retrieved 30 March 2016.  ^ Deakin, Derick. "History of the Estate". Wythit. Retrieved 30 September 2006.  ^ " Manchester
Manchester
City Council - Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Strategic Regeneration Framework". Manchester.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ Deakin 1989, pp. 1–2 ^ " Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Park: The Hall". Manchester
Manchester
Council.  ^ Linton, Deborah (1 June 2011). "Budget crisis could lead Manchester council to give away Heaton Hall and Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Hall". Manchester Evening News. M.E.N. Media.  ^ "Friends of Wythenshaw Hall". Friends of Wythenshaw Hall. Retrieved 10 November 2013.  ^ "Fire destroys roof of historic Wythenshawe Hall
Wythenshawe Hall
in Manchester". BBC News. 15 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ "Fire at Wythenshawe Hall
Wythenshawe Hall
in Manchester
Manchester
was 'arson'". 16 March 2016 – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ Scholefield 2004, pp. 222–223 ^ Lyall, Sarah (10 March 2007). "How the Young Poor Measure Poverty in Britain: Drink, Drugs and Their Time in Jail". The New York Times.  ^ Manchester
Manchester
Evening News, page 21, 27 June 2014 ^ " Wythenshawe
Wythenshawe
Park". Local Nature Reserves. Natural England.  Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Draft recommendations on the future electoral arrangements for Manchester" (PDF). The Electoral Commission. February 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2008.  ^ Wythenshawe, A History of the townships of Northenden, Northen Etchells and Baguley, Volume 1: 10 1926, edited by W.H.Shercliff, ISBN 0-85972-008-X, published by Northenden
Northenden
Civic Society 1974 ^ W.H.Shercliff, 1974, page 3 ^ Butt, p.173 ^ Britton, Paul (13 October 2014). "New Metrolink line to Wythenshawe and Manchester
Manchester
Airport to open on 3 November – a year ahead of schedule". Manchester
Manchester
Evening News. Retrieved 18 October 2014.  ^ "IEEE Xplore Full-Text PDF:". Ieeexplore.ieee.org. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ Leeming, Ciara (24 October 2006). "Shameless on the move". Manchester
Manchester
Evening News. M.E.N. Media.  ^ ITV1
ITV1
(The Duchess On The Estate - press release) Archived 20 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ English, Rebecca (10 August 2009). "The Duchess On The Estate". Daily Mail. Retrieved 14 February 2014.  ^ Carter, Helen (18 August 2009). "Duchess of York's TV documentary angers Manchester
Manchester
estate". Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media.  ^ Richman, Simmy (23 August 2009). "The Duchess on the Estate, ITV1: The X Factor, ITV1". The Independent. London.  ^ "Tyson Fury: Fists of fury". The Independent. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2012.  ^ Bourne, Dianne (20 August 2013). " Take That
Take That
star Jason Orange watches brother's new theatre production - set in his house".  ^ Higgins, Jim (30 September 2002). "Obituary: Duncan Hallas" – via www.theguardian.com. 

Bibliography[edit]

Butt, R.V.J. (1995). The Directory of Railway Stations. Patrick Stephens Limited. ISBN 1-85260-508-1.  Deakin, Derick (1989). Wythenshawe: The Story of a Garden City. Phillimore & Co. ISBN 0-85033-699-6.  Scholefield, R. A. (2004). "Manchester's Early Airfields, an extended chapter in Moving Manchester". Lancashire & Cheshire
Cheshire
Antiquarian Society. ISSN 0950-4699. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wythenshawe.

Timeline of events in Wythenshawe's history 1927 air view of Wythenshawe 1927 air view of Hall Lane and Blackcarr Road area: note farm workers' cottages and farm buildings west of Baguley
Baguley
Hall, which was then called Maher's Farm and used for market gardening.

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