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608,000 (Bergisches Dreieck)

 • Metro

11,300,000 (Rhein-Ruhr)

Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)

Postal codes 42001-42399

Dialling codes 0202

Vehicle registration W

Website wuppertal.de

The Schwebebahn floating tram in Wuppertal-Barmen

Sankt Laurentius church in Wuppertal

The Schwebebahn in Wuppertal-Elberfeld

Concert Hall (Stadthalle) Wuppertal

Engels House (Historisches Zentrum)

Wuppertal-Beyenburg

Wuppertal
Wuppertal
University

Wuppertal
Wuppertal
(German pronunciation: [ˈvʊpɐtaːl] ( listen)) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in and around the Wupper valley, east of Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
and south of the Ruhr. With a population of approximately 350,000, it is the largest city in the Bergisches Land. Wuppertal
Wuppertal
is known for its steep slopes, its woods and parks, and its suspension railway, the Wuppertal
Wuppertal
Schwebebahn. It is the greenest city of Germany, with two-thirds green space of the total municipal area. From any part of the city, it is only a ten-minute walk to one of the public parks or woodland paths. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Wupper
Wupper
valley was one of the largest industrial regions of continental Europe. The increasing demand for coal from the textile mills and blacksmith shops encouraged the expansion of the nearby Ruhrgebiet. Wuppertal
Wuppertal
still is a major industrial centre, being home to industries such as textiles, metallurgy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics, automobiles, rubber, vehicles and printing equipment. Aspirin
Aspirin
originates from Wuppertal, patented in 1897 by Bayer, as is the Vorwerk-Kobold vacuum cleaner.[2][3] The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy and the European Institute for International Economic Relations are located in the city.[4]

Contents

1 History 2 Main sights 3 Wuppertal
Wuppertal
in the arts 4 Notable people from Wuppertal 5 Sports

5.1 Association football 5.2 Team handball 5.3 Volleyball 5.4 Basketball 5.5 Roller hockey

6 Education 7 Transport

7.1 Railways

8 Controversy 9 International relations

9.1 Twin towns — sister cities

10 Photo gallery 11 Notes and references 12 External links

History[edit] Wuppertal
Wuppertal
in its present borders was formed in 1929 by merging the industrial cities of Barmen
Barmen
and Elberfeld
Elberfeld
with the communities Vohwinkel, Ronsdorf, Cronenberg, Langerfeld and Beyenburg. The initial name Barmen- Elberfeld
Elberfeld
was changed in a 1930 referendum to Wuppertal (“ Wupper
Wupper
Valley”). The new city was administered as part of the Prussian Rhine Province. Uniquely for Germany, it is a "linear city", owing to the steep hillsides along the river Wupper. Its highest hill is the Lichtscheid, which is 351 metres above sea level. The dominant urban centres Elberfeld
Elberfeld
(historic commercial centre) and Barmen
Barmen
(more industrial) have formed a continuous urbanized area since 1850. During the succeeding decades, “Wupper-Town” became the dominant industrial agglomeration of northwestern Germany. During the 20th century, this conurbation had been surpassed by Cologne, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
and the Ruhr area, all with a more favourable topography. From July 5, 1933 to January 19, 1934, the Kemna concentration camp was established in Wuppertal. It was one of the early Nazi concentration camps, created by the Third Reich
Third Reich
to incarcerate their political opponents after the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
first gained power in 1933. The camp was established in a former factory on the Wupper
Wupper
in the Kemna neighborhood of the Barmen
Barmen
part of Wuppertal. Wuppertal
Wuppertal
is famous as an important place of resistance in Germany. The Barmen Declaration or the Theological Declaration of Barmen
Barmen
was a document adopted by Christians in Nazi Germany
Germany
who opposed the Deutsche Christen philosophy. In the opinion of the delegates to the Synod that met in Wuppertal- Barmen
Barmen
in May, 1934, the German Christians
German Christians
had corrupted church government by making it subservient to the state and had introduced Nazi ideology into the German Protestant churches that contradicted the Christian gospel. During World War II, about 40% of buildings in the city were destroyed by Allied bombing, as were many other German cities and industrial centres. However, a large number of historic sites have been preserved, such as:

Ölberg, literally “Oil mountain”, Germany’s largest original working class district, is protected as a historic monument. The name came about during the 1920s as the district continued using oil lamps while the surrounding bourgeois residential quarters were electrified. In traditional use, the name "Ölberg" refers to the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. Brill is one of Germany’s largest districts of Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
villas, i.e. middle class mansions built by industrial entrepreneurs during the second half of the 19th century.

The US 78th Infantry Division captured Wuppertal
Wuppertal
against scant resistance on 16 April 1945.[5] Wuppertal
Wuppertal
became a part of the British Zone of Occupation, and subsequently part of the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia in West Germany. Main sights[edit] In total, Wuppertal
Wuppertal
possesses over 4,500 buildings classified as national monuments, most exemplifying styles such as Neoclassicism, Eclecticism, Historicism, Art Nouveau/ Jugendstil
Jugendstil
and Bauhaus. Main sights include:

Schwebebahn or floating tram. One of the city’s greatest attractions is the globally unique suspended monorail Wuppertaler Schwebebahn, which was established in 1901. The tracks are 8 m (26.25 ft) above the streets and 12 m (39.37 ft) above the Wupper. In 1950, a young elephant named Tuffi
Tuffi
was forced to ride the Wuppertal Schwebebahn (monorail), as a promotion for the Althoff Circus. The swinging tram upset the elephant, and she trumpeted, charged, and plummeted 40 feet into the river below. Tuffi
Tuffi
suffered minor injuries; she lived until 1989. In 1999, the Schwebebahn had its thus far only fatal accident. Wuppertaler Schwebebahn Kaiserwagen A guided tour of the suspension railway in a special tram. Wuppertal
Wuppertal
Opera (Opernhaus Wuppertal). Concerthall Stadthalle , a fine piece of turn-of-the-century architecture with outstanding acoustics. Home of the Wuppertal Symphony Orchestra (Sinfonieorchester Wuppertal) (Stadthalle). Wuppertal
Wuppertal
Dance Theatre (Tanztheater Wuppertal), a world-famous centre of modern dance founded by the choreographer Pina Bausch. Engels' house (Engels-Haus), 18th century-architecturally typical of the region, it houses a permanent display of materials associated with the co-founder of modern Communism, Friedrich Engels. Wuppertal
Wuppertal
Zoo, a large, nicely landscaped zoo. Botanischer Garten Wuppertal, a municipal botanical garden. Arboretum
Arboretum
Burgholz, an extensive arboretum. Von der Heydt Museum
Von der Heydt Museum
is an important art gallery with works from the 17th century to the present time. The first of Picasso’s works that ever appeared in public was displayed here. Skulpturenpark Waldfrieden, a sculpture park with exhibition hall, founded by sculptor Tony Cragg.

Wuppertal
Wuppertal
in the arts[edit]

In the 1974 Wim Wenders
Wim Wenders
movie Alice in the Cities, the main characters visit Wuppertal. The play Die Wupper
Wupper
by Else Lasker-Schüler
Else Lasker-Schüler
is set in Elberfeld. The 2000 movie The Princess and the Warrior, by Tom Tykwer, was filmed in Wuppertal. The 2001 movie No Regrets (Nichts Bereuen), by Benjamin Quabeck, was filmed in Wuppertal. In the 2011 movie Pina, several of the dance sequences take place in and around Wuppertal. In several sequences, the elevated tram is used as a setting, as well as a backdrop.

Notable people from Wuppertal[edit] See also: Category:People from Wuppertal.

Friedrich Bayer
Bayer
1863

Friedrich Engels

Helmut Thielicke
Helmut Thielicke
in 1973

Else Lasker-Schüler
Else Lasker-Schüler
1875

Pina Bausch, one of the most significant choreographers of our time. Born in Solingen, died in Wuppertal, she brought international fame to the Wuppertal
Wuppertal
Dance Theater. Friedrich Bayer, (1825–1880), founder of the Friedrich Bayer
Bayer
paint factory, later Bayer
Bayer
AG. Greta Bösel (1908–1947), German concentration camp guard executed for war crimes Arno Breker, (1900–1991), German sculptor. Peter Brötzmann, (born 1941), free jazz musician. Rudolf Carnap, (1891–1970), philosopher of science. Udo Dirkschneider, singer of heavy-metal band Accept and U.D.O. George Dreyfus, bassoonist, composer. Hermann Ebbinghaus, psychologist who studied memory. Friedrich Engels, (1820–1895), philosopher, historian, coauthor of The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(with Karl Marx). Kurt Franz
Kurt Franz
(1914–1998), German Nazi SS commandant of Treblinka extermination camp Christoph Maria Herbst, (born 1966), German actor and comedian. Carolina Hermann, (born 1988), figure skater Felix Hoffmann, (1868–1946), German scientist born in Ludwigsburg, inventor of Aspirin
Aspirin
while working in Wuppertal
Wuppertal
at Bayer. Werner Hoyer, (born 1951), politician (FDP), President of the European Investment Bank. Linda Kisabaka, (born 1969), middle distance runner. Hans Knappertsbusch, (1888–1965), orchestra conductor. Peter Kowald, (1944–2002), free jazz musician. Hans Peter Luhn, (1896–1964), computer scientist. Else Lasker-Schüler, (1869–1945), expressionist poet. Harald Leipnitz, (1926-2000), actor. Kurt Franz, (1914–1998), former SS Officer, major perpetrator of genocide during the Holocaust. Born in Düsseldorf, died in Wuppertal. Ulrich Leyendecker, composer. Reimar Lüst, astrophysicist. Steffen Möller, satirist, and actor in Poland. Sylkie Monoff, international singer-songwriter. Tyron Montgomery, Oscar-winning movie director. Simone Osygus, swimmer. Siegfried Palm, cellist, director of Hochschule für Musik Köln, Intendant of Deutsche Oper Berlin. Julius Plücker, physicist. Kolja Pusch, (born 1993), football player Johannes Rau, (1931–2006), German politician (SPD), former Federal President of Germany. Hans Reichel, (1949–2011), German composer, recording artist, and inventor of the Daxophone. Emil Rittershaus
Emil Rittershaus
(1834 – 1897), German poet. Alice Schwarzer, (born 1942), one of the leaders of the German second wave feminism. Hans Singer, economist. Ilse Steppat, actress. Rita Süssmuth, former President of the German Parliament. Horst Tappert, (1923–2008), German actor. Helmut Thielicke, theologian. Bettina Tietjen, (born 1960), television presenter. Tom Tykwer, (born 1965), movie director (Run Lola, Run, The Princess and the Warrior), cofounder of syndicate X-Filme. Günter Wand, (1912–2002), composer and orchestra conductor. Henrik Freischlader, (born 1982), blues guitarist, singer, songwriter, producer. Wolf Hoffmann, (born 1959), metal guitarist, initiator of the musical band Accept. Armin T. Wegner
Armin T. Wegner
(1886-1978), soldier, medic, human rights activist

Sports[edit] Association football[edit] In football, Wuppertal's most popular club is Wuppertaler SV
Wuppertaler SV
who currently play in the Regionalliga West, the fourth tier of the German football league system. Playing their home games at the city's Stadion am Zoo, the club, which enjoyed its last season in a nationwide division during the 2009–10 season, looks back on a rich and eventful history since its establishment as the result of a 1954 merger between the two main Wuppertal
Wuppertal
clubs SSV 04 Wuppertal
Wuppertal
and TSG Vohwinkel 80. The club spent a total of seven seasons in the top flight of German football, three of which in the Bundesliga, which they were promoted to during 1972. In their first season in the nationwide first division, the club reached a remarkable fourth place and qualified for the UEFA Cup for the first and only time in its history. After a first-round defeat by Polish side Ruch Chorzów
Ruch Chorzów
and another two widely unsuccessful Bundesliga
Bundesliga
campaigns, the club disappeared from the top flight again, though, and has yet to return. During 2004, the club merged with local rivals SV Borussia Wuppertal to form Wuppertaler SV
Wuppertaler SV
Borussia, though the name change remained the only visible attribute of the merger with the club's colours and crest remaining unaltered. The additional "Borussia" was scrapped again during 2013 due to fans' demand amidst a change of leadership which was brought about to lead the club through necessary insolvency proceedings which have been completed as of September 2014. Another noteworthy Wuppertal
Wuppertal
football club is Cronenberger SC from the district of Cronenberg. Their greatest success to date is reaching the 1952 German amateur football championship final which they lost 5–2 against VfR Schwenningen. Today, they play one tier below WSV in the Oberliga Nordrhein. Famous players include Günter Pröpper who scored 39 of WSV's 136 Bundesliga
Bundesliga
goals and West Germany
Germany
international Horst Szymaniak, as well as Cronenberg's Herbert Jäger who represented Germany
Germany
at the 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
in Helsinki
Helsinki
during his stay with the club. Team handball[edit] In handball, Wuppertal's most successful team is Bergischer HC, playing in the top-tier Handball- Bundesliga
Bundesliga
which they were promoted to for the second time during 2013, reaching 15th place during the 2013–14 campaign and therefore staying among the top scorers for a second consecutive season. BHC originates from a 2006 cooperation between the management, squad and main sponsor of LTV Wuppertal
Wuppertal
and rivals SG Solingen
Solingen
from the nearby city of the same name. The club advertises itself as a representative of the entire Bergisches Land region. The team plays its home games at both Wuppertal's Uni-Halle (3,200 seats) and Solingen's Klingenhalle (2,600 seats). Wuppertal's past most successful club are the aforementioned LTV Wuppertal. LTV spent most of their seasons in the second and third tiers, before they merged with Wuppertaler SV's handball section in 1996 to form HSG LTV/WSV Wuppertal. The handball combination was promoted to the Bundesliga
Bundesliga
after its inaugural season, finishing 8th before dissolving again in 1998. However, the mere departure of Wuppertaler SV
Wuppertaler SV
still allowed LTV Wuppertal, whose professional team were renamed HC Wuppertal, to play another three seasons in the Bundesliga
Bundesliga
before returning to the 2nd division and re-introducing its old name. After the establishment of BHC in 2006, LTV lost its financial base and was relegated several times, currently playing in the fifth-tier Verbandsliga. Volleyball[edit] In volleyball, SV Bayer
Bayer
Wuppertal
Wuppertal
was one of Germany's leading men's teams for many years during the 1990s and 2000s. The team was part of the well-known mass-sports club originating in Leverkusen
Leverkusen
and was promoted to the Bundesliga
Bundesliga
in 1978. Reacting to low attendances, the eponymous Bayer
Bayer
AG decided to relocate the volleyball team to Wuppertal
Wuppertal
in 1992, where there also was a Bayer-funded club. After the move, the club won various titles, including the German championship in 1994 and 1997 and the German Cup in 1995. In addition to that, they finished runners-up to Greek side Olympiacos S.C.
Olympiacos S.C.
in the 1995-96 European Cup Winners' Cup, losing the final in five sets. After the wide-reaching retreat of Bayer
Bayer
AG from less popular professional sport during 2008, the club acquired the name Wuppertal Titans and later A!B!C Titans Berg. Land. However, the loss of their main sponsor eventually resulted in the team having to terminate during 2012. Presently, they once more play by the name of Bayer Wuppertal
Wuppertal
in the third-tier Regionalliga, unable to promote with their current financial set-up. Basketball[edit] Perhaps one of the most successful Wuppertal
Wuppertal
sports clubs was the women's basketball team of Barmer TV (known as BTV Wuppertal
Wuppertal
between 1994 and 2000, BTV Gold-Zack Wuppertal
Wuppertal
between 2000 and 2002 and Wuppertal Wings
Wuppertal Wings
internationally). An 11-time German champion and 12-time German Cup winner, they won a remarkable ten consecutive doubles between 1993 and 2002. During 1996, they even won the European Cup as the first and so far only German side, beating Italy's SFT Como in the final. A year later, they narrowly missed out on back-to-back trebles, losing to French side CJM Bourges in the newly christened EuroLeague's final. In 2002, the club withdrew from the Bundesliga
Bundesliga
due to financial troubles, their then-main sponsor Gold-Zack Werke filing for insolvency a year later. After a decade-long stay in amateur divisions, Barmer TV returned to the second-tier 2nd Bundesliga
Bundesliga
North in 2014. Wuppertal
Wuppertal
co-hosted the 1998 FIBA World Championship for Women
1998 FIBA World Championship for Women
as one of seven host cities. Roller hockey[edit] In roller hockey (also known as rink hockey), Wuppertal
Wuppertal
club RSC Cronenberg are one of the most successful German teams, having won the German championship and the German Cup in both men's and women's competitions. In total, the men won 13 German championships and nine cups, the women ten championships and nine cups. Both teams play their home games at Alfred-Henckels-Halle. Wuppertal
Wuppertal
hosted several international tournaments, including the World Championship in 1997 (men) and 2004 (women) and the European Championship in 1992, 2010 (men) and 2011 (women). Education[edit] Four institutions of higher education are in Wuppertal.

University of Wuppertal
University of Wuppertal
(Bergische Universität Wuppertal) FOM University of Applied Sciences Cologne
Cologne
University of Music, section Wuppertal College of Theology, Wuppertal/Bethel (Theologische Zentrum Wuppertal)

The privately financed Junior Uni is an in Germany
Germany
uniquely initiative to educate youth from the age of 4 to 18 years in science outside the school program.[6] Transport[edit] Railways[edit] Wuppertal
Wuppertal
is well connected to the rail network. The town lies on the Cologne– Hagen
Hagen
and the Düsseldorf– Hagen
Hagen
railway lines, and is a stop for long-distance traffic. The central station is located in the district of Elberfeld. Regionalbahn
Regionalbahn
trains and some Regional-Express trains also stop at Oberbarmen, Barmen, Ronsdorf and Vohwinkel. There are also S-Bahn stations in Langerfeld, Unterbarmen, Steinbeck, Zoologischer Garten and Sonnborn. The rail services that operate on the mainline through the valley are the RE 4 (Wupper-Express), RE 7 (Rhein-Münsterland-Express), RE 13 (Maas-Wupper-Express), RB 48 (Rhein- Wupper
Wupper
Bahn) and four Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn services: the S 7, S 8, S 9 and S 68 (peak hours only). Every 30 minutes, it is served by a long-distance (Intercity-Express, InterCity, EuroCity or City Night Line) service in each direction. With the exception of the line from Wuppertal
Wuppertal
to Solingen
Solingen
(operated as the S 7) and the Prince William Railway to Essen
Essen
(now S-Bahn line S 9), all of the branch lines connecting to main line in the city of Wuppertal
Wuppertal
are now closed. This includes, among others, the Düsseldorf-Derendorf–Dortmund Süd railway
Düsseldorf-Derendorf–Dortmund Süd railway
(the Wuppertaler Nordbahn), the Burgholz Railway, the Wuppertal-Wichlinghausen–Hattingen railway, the Wupper
Wupper
Valley Railway and the Corkscrew Railway. Thus, there were once 31 stations in the Wuppertal
Wuppertal
area, including nine stations on the mainline. Nowadays only ten are serviced any more. There is also the Wuppertal
Wuppertal
Suspension Railway Controversy[edit] In July, 2014, three Germans of Palestinian descent tried to burn down the Wuppertal
Wuppertal
synagogue with molotov cocktails. A year later, a court found them guilty of attempted arson, but decided the crime was not motivated by anti-Semitism, and sentenced the men to 200 hours of community service.[7] The court said the three men wanted to draw “attention to the Gaza conflict” with Israel. In January, 2017, a regional appeals court upheld the decision, calling the arson attempt a justified expression of criticism of Israel’s policies.[8] International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Twin towns — sister cities[edit] Wuppertal
Wuppertal
is twinned with:

Beersheba, Israel Berlin-Tempelhof-Schöneberg, Germany Košice, Slovakia
Slovakia
(since 1980)[9]

Legnica, Poland Matagalpa, Nicaragua Saint-Étienne, France

Schwerin, Germany Yekaterinburg, Russia South Tyneside, United Kingdom

Photo gallery[edit]

Typical steep street in Wuppertal

Sculpturepark Waldfrieden - Tony Cragg
Tony Cragg
Points of View (2008)

View of Burgholz woods with typical Bergisches farmerhouse

Panoramic view of the Ölberg quarter in Wuppertal

City Hall Wuppertal-Barmen

The theatre - Das Wuppertaler Schauspielhaus

The swimming arena "Schwimmoper"

Elisenturm

Zoo Wuppertal

Special
Special
tours with the historical 'Kaiserwagen'

World's largest 'one day flea market'

Botanic garden and view over the city

The public park 'Hardt' in the center

The Schwebebahn near the Friedrich-Ebert-Straße

The river Wupper
Wupper
in the woods of Wuppertal

View from the Kiesberg woods

Notes and references[edit]

^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016.  ^ Marvin Brendel. "110 Jahre Aspirin" (in German). GeschichtsPuls. Retrieved 2011-05-22.  ^ "Official website Vorwerk - Kobold vacuum cleaners". Retrieved 2011-05-22.  ^ "Official website European Institute for International Economic Relations". Retrieved 2013-03-02.  ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II
World War II
Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946, Stackpole Books (Revised Edition 2006), p. 147 ^ "Official website Junior Uni Wuppertal
Wuppertal
- Bergisches Land" (in German). Retrieved 2013-03-14.  ^ Benjamin Weinthal (February 7, 2015). "The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post".  ^ "The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post". January 13, 2017.  ^ "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Retrieved 2013-07-27. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wuppertal.

(in German) Wuppertal
Wuppertal
official website (in English) Wuppertal
Wuppertal
official website (in German) (in English) Wuppertal, Information Photos Wuppertal
Wuppertal
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website of the University of Wuppertal

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Bottrop Dortmund Duisburg Düsseldorf Essen Gelsenkirchen Hagen Hamm Herne Köln (Cologne) Krefeld Leverkusen Mönchengladbach Mülheim Münster Oberhausen Remscheid Solingen Wuppertal

Rural districts

Aachen Borken Coesfeld Düren Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis Euskirchen Gütersloh Heinsberg Herford Hochsauerlandkreis Höxter Kleve (Cleves) Lippe Märkischer Kreis Mettmann Minden-Lübbecke Oberbergischer Kreis Olpe Paderborn Recklinghausen Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis Rhein-Erft-Kreis Rhein-Kreis Neuss Rhein-Sieg-Kreis Siegen-Wittgenstein Soest Steinfurt Unna Viersen Warendorf Wesel

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155144514 GND: 4067084-3 BNF:

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