The Info List - Wroxeter

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WROXETER /ˈrɒksɪtər/ is a village in Shropshire
, England. It forms part of the civil parish of Wroxeter and Uppington and is located besides the River Severn
River Severn
, about 5 miles (8.0 km) south-east of Shrewsbury
. It is at the site of the Roman city of Viroconium Cornoviorum , which was the fourth largest civitas capital in Roman Britain .


* 1 History * 2 St Andrew\'s * 3 Literary reference * 4 Sport * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links


Main article: Viroconium Cornoviorum

The city was first mentioned in Ptolemy
's 2nd century Geography as one of the cities of the Cornovii tribe, along side Chester
(Deva Victrix ).

is on the site of the Roman city of VIROCONIUM CORNOVIORUM, which was the 4th-largest tribal capital (civitas ) in Roman Britain
Roman Britain
. The name—" Viroconium of the Cornovians "—preserves a native Brittonic name that has been reconstructed as *UIROCONION (" of *Uirokū"), where *Uiro-ku (lit. "man"-"wolf") is believed to have been a masculine given name meaning "werewolf ". The original site of the Cornovian capital (also thought to have been named *Uiroconion) was a hillfort on the Wrekin . The ruins of Viroconium 's public baths at Wroxeter

The relocated Viroconium was established about AD 58 as a fortified camp (castra ) for the Legio XIV Gemina during their invasion of Wales . The main section of the Watling Street Roman road
Roman road
runs across England
between Dubris (Roman Dover
) and Wroxeter. The 14th Legion was later replaced by the Legio XX Valeria Victrix , which was subsequently relocated to Chester
. Around the year 88, the military abandoned the fortress and it was taken over by the Cornovians' civilian settlement. It prospered over the next century, with many public buildings, including thermae and a colonnaded forum . At its peak, it is thought to have been the 4th-largest settlement in Roman Britain , with a population of more than 15 000. The Roman city was rediscovered in 1859 when workmen began excavating the baths complex. A replica Roman villa was constructed in 2010 for a Channel 4 television programme called Rome Wasn't Built in a Day and was opened to the public on 19 February 2011.

Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain
Roman withdrawal from Britain
around 410, the Cornovians seem to have divided into Pengwern
and Powys . The minor Magonsæte sub-kingdom also emerged in the area in the interlude between Powysian and Mercian rule. Viroconium may have served as the early post-Roman capital of Powys prior to its removal to Mathrafal sometime before 717, following famine and plague in the area. The city has been variously identified with the CAIR URNARC and CAIR GURICON which appeared in the 9th-century History of the Britons ’s list of the 28 cities of Britain .

N.J. Higham proposes that Wroxeter
became the eponymous capital of an early sub-Roman kingdom known as the Wrocensaete , which he asserts was the successor territorial unit to Cornovia. The literal meaning of Wrocensaete is 'those dwelling at Wrocen', which Higham interprets as Wroxeter. It may refer quite specifically to the royal court itself, in the first instance, and only by extension to the territory administered from the court.


At the centre of Wroxeter
village is Saint Andrew\'s parish church , some of which is built from re-used Roman masonry. The oldest visible section of the church is the Anglo-Saxon part of the north wall which is built of Roman monumental stone blocks. The chancel and the lower part of the tower are Norman . The gatepiers to the churchyard are a pair of Roman columns and the font in the church was made by hollowing out the capital of a Roman column. Later additions to the church incorporate remains of an Anglo-Saxon preaching cross and carvings salvaged from nearby Haughmond Abbey following the Dissolution of the Monasteries .

The west window, bearing figures of St Andrew and St George, designed by the workshops of William Morris -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2012). Noms de lieux celtiques de l'europe ancienne. Arles: Editions Errance. p. 273. ISBN 978-2-87772-483-8 . * ^ Wodtko, Dagmar (2000). Wörterbuch der keltiberischen Inschriften: Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum, Band V.1. Reichert-Verlag. p. 452. ISBN 978-3-89500-136-9 . * ^ Frere, S. S. Britannia: a History of Roman Britain. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1987. ISBN 0-7102-1215-1 . * ^ English Heritage: Wroxeter
Roman City * ^ Barker, P., Bird, H., Corbishley, M., Pretty, K., White, R. (1997) The Baths Basilica Wroxeter
Excavations: 1966–90. English Heritage * ^ Chadderton, J., Webster, G. (2002) The Legionary Fortress at Wroxeter: Excavations by Graham Webster, 1955–85. English Heritage * ^ Ellis, P (2000) The Roman Baths and Macellum at Wroxeter Excavations 1955–85. English Heritage * ^ English Heritage has recently published a series of monographs on the excavations at Wroxeter
from the 1950s to 1990s These are available through the Archaeology Data Service. * ^ BBC News Reconstructed Roman villa unveiled at Wroxeter * ^ Newman, John Henry text-transform: lowercase;">AD 830. (in Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource. * ^ Higham, Nick J. (1993). The Origins of Cheshire. Manchester University Press. pp. 68–77. ISBN 0-7190-3160-5 . * ^ Pevsner, Nicholas, Shropshire, 1958, p. 327 * ^ Aston & Bond, 1976, page 53 * ^ Francis, Peter (2013). Shropshire
War Memorials, Sites of Remembrance. YouCaxton Publications. pp. 124–125. ISBN 978-1-909644-11-3 . * ^ Archbishops' Council (2010). " Eaton Constantine S.Mary, Eaton Constantine". A Church Near You. Church of England
. Retrieved 30 January 2011. * ^ A. E. Housman, A Shropshire
Lad , poem XXXI, 1896 * ^ Bernard Cornwell, Death of Kings , Part Two – 'Angels', 2012


* Aston, Michael; Bond, James (1976). The Landscape of Towns. Archaeology in the Field Series. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd. pp. 45–48, 51–54. ISBN 0-460-04194-0 .