WROXETER /ˈrɒksɪtər/ is a village in
Shropshire , England. It
forms part of the civil parish of
Wroxeter and Uppington and is
located besides the
River Severn , about 5 miles (8.0 km) south-east
Shrewsbury . It is at the site of the Roman city of Viroconium
Cornoviorum , which was the fourth largest civitas capital in Roman
* 1 History
* 2 St Andrew\'s
* 3 Literary reference
* 4 Sport
* 5 References
* 6 Further reading
* 7 External links
The city was first mentioned in
Ptolemy 's 2nd century Geography as
one of the cities of the Cornovii tribe, along side
Wroxeter is on the site of the Roman city of VIROCONIUM CORNOVIORUM,
which was the 4th-largest tribal capital (civitas ) in
Roman Britain .
Viroconium of the Cornovians "—preserves a native
Brittonic name that has been reconstructed as *UIROCONION (" of
*Uirokū"), where *Uiro-ku (lit. "man"-"wolf") is believed to have
been a masculine given name meaning "werewolf ". The original site
of the Cornovian capital (also thought to have been named *Uiroconion)
was a hillfort on the Wrekin . The ruins of
Viroconium 's public
Viroconium was established about AD 58 as a fortified
camp (castra ) for the
Legio XIV Gemina during their invasion of Wales
. The main section of the
Roman road runs across
Dover ) and Wroxeter. The 14th Legion
was later replaced by the
Legio XX Valeria Victrix , which was
subsequently relocated to
Chester . Around the year 88, the military
abandoned the fortress and it was taken over by the Cornovians'
civilian settlement. It prospered over the next century, with many
public buildings, including thermae and a colonnaded forum . At its
peak, it is thought to have been the 4th-largest settlement in Roman
Britain , with a population of more than 15 000. The Roman city was
rediscovered in 1859 when workmen began excavating the baths complex.
A replica Roman villa was constructed in 2010 for a Channel 4
television programme called Rome Wasn't Built in a Day and was opened
to the public on 19 February 2011.
Roman withdrawal from Britain
Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the
Cornovians seem to have divided into
Pengwern and Powys . The minor
Magonsæte sub-kingdom also emerged in the area in the interlude
between Powysian and Mercian rule.
Viroconium may have served as the
early post-Roman capital of Powys prior to its removal to Mathrafal
sometime before 717, following famine and plague in the area. The city
has been variously identified with the CAIR URNARC and CAIR GURICON
which appeared in the 9th-century History of the Britons ’s list of
the 28 cities of Britain .
N.J. Higham proposes that
Wroxeter became the eponymous capital of an
early sub-Roman kingdom known as the Wrocensaete , which he asserts
was the successor territorial unit to Cornovia. The literal meaning of
Wrocensaete is 'those dwelling at Wrocen', which Higham interprets as
Wroxeter. It may refer quite specifically to the royal court itself,
in the first instance, and only by extension to the territory
administered from the court.
At the centre of
Wroxeter village is Saint Andrew\'s parish church ,
some of which is built from re-used Roman masonry. The oldest visible
section of the church is the Anglo-Saxon part of the north wall which
is built of Roman monumental stone blocks. The chancel and the lower
part of the tower are Norman . The gatepiers to the churchyard are a
pair of Roman columns and the font in the church was made by hollowing
out the capital of a Roman column. Later additions to the church
incorporate remains of an Anglo-Saxon preaching cross and carvings
salvaged from nearby
Haughmond Abbey following the Dissolution of the
The west window, bearing figures of St Andrew and St George, designed
by the workshops of William Morris -webkit-column-width: 30em;
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* ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2012). Noms de lieux celtiques de l'europe
ancienne. Arles: Editions Errance. p. 273. ISBN 978-2-87772-483-8 .
* ^ Wodtko, Dagmar (2000). Wörterbuch der keltiberischen
Inschriften: Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum, Band V.1.
Reichert-Verlag. p. 452. ISBN 978-3-89500-136-9 .
* ^ Frere, S. S. Britannia: a History of Roman Britain. London:
Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., 1987. ISBN 0-7102-1215-1 .
* ^ English Heritage:
Wroxeter Roman City
* ^ Barker, P., Bird, H., Corbishley, M., Pretty, K., White, R.
(1997) The Baths Basilica
Wroxeter Excavations: 1966–90. English
* ^ Chadderton, J., Webster, G. (2002) The Legionary Fortress at
Wroxeter: Excavations by Graham Webster, 1955–85. English Heritage
* ^ Ellis, P (2000) The Roman Baths and Macellum at Wroxeter
Excavations 1955–85. English Heritage
* ^ English Heritage has recently published a series of monographs
on the excavations at
Wroxeter from the 1950s to 1990s These are
available through the Archaeology Data Service.
* ^ BBC News Reconstructed Roman villa unveiled at Wroxeter
* ^ Newman, John Henry text-transform: lowercase;">AD 830. (in
Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
* ^ Higham, Nick J. (1993). The Origins of Cheshire. Manchester
University Press. pp. 68–77. ISBN 0-7190-3160-5 .
* ^ Pevsner, Nicholas, Shropshire, 1958, p. 327
* ^ Aston & Bond, 1976, page 53
* ^ Francis, Peter (2013).
Shropshire War Memorials, Sites of
Remembrance. YouCaxton Publications. pp. 124–125. ISBN
* ^ Archbishops' Council (2010). "
Eaton Constantine S.Mary, Eaton
Constantine". A Church Near You. Church of
England . Retrieved 30
* ^ A. E. Housman, A
Shropshire Lad , poem XXXI, 1896
* ^ Bernard Cornwell,
Death of Kings , Part Two – 'Angels', 2012
* Aston, Michael; Bond, James (1976). The Landscape of Towns.
Archaeology in the Field Series. London:
J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd. pp.
45–48, 51–54. ISBN 0-460-04194-0 .