Wort (/ˈwɜːrt/) is the liquid extracted from the mashing process
during the brewing of beer or whisky.
Wort contains the sugars that
will be fermented by the brewing yeast to produce alcohol.
The first step in wort production is to make malt from dried, sprouted
barley. The malt is then run through a roller mill and cracked. This
cracked grain is then mashed, that is, mixed with hot water and
steeped, a slow heating process that enables enzymes to convert the
starch in the malt into sugars. At set intervals, most notably when
the mixture has reached temperatures of 45, 62 and 73 °C (113,
144 and 163 °F), the heating is briefly halted. The
temperature of the mixture is usually increased to 78 °C
(172 °F) for mashout.
Lautering is the next step, which means
the sugar-extracted grist or solids remaining in the mash are
separated from the liquid wort. In homebrewing, the malt-making and
mashing steps can be skipped by adding malt extract to water.
The mixture is then boiled to sanitize the wort and, in the case of
most beer production, to extract the bittering, flavor and aroma from
hops. In beer making, the wort is known as "sweet wort" until the hops
have been added, after which it is called "hopped or bitter wort". The
addition of hops is generally done in three parts at set times. The
bittering hops, added first, are boiled in the wort for approximately
one hour to one and a half hours. This long boil extracts resins,
which provides the bittering. Then, the flavoring hops are added,
typically 15 minutes from the end of the boil. The finishing hops are
added last, toward the end of or after the boil. This extracts the
oils, which provide flavor and aroma but evaporate quickly. In
general, hops provide the most flavoring when boiled for approximately
15 minutes, and the most aroma when not boiled at all.
At the end of boiling, the hot wort is quickly cooled (in homebrewing,
often using an immersion chiller) to a temperature favorable to the
yeast. Once sufficiently cooled, the yeast is added, or "pitched", to
begin the fermentation process.
The adjunct grains that can be added to the mash include wheat, corn,
rye, and rice. Adjunct grains may first need gelatinization and
cooling. They are used to create varietal beers such as wheat beer
and oatmeal stout, to create grain whisky, or to lighten the body (and
cut costs) as in commercial, mass-produced pale lagers.
^ "Abdijbieren. Geestrijk erfgoed" by Jef Van den Steen
^ Nachel, Marty (2008).
Homebrewing for dummies. New York: Wiley.
p. 47. ISBN 0-470-23062-2. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
Basically, all you need to do is add malt extract to water and boil
it. I may be oversimplifying the process just a tad ...
^ Papazian, Charlie (1998). Zymurgy for the homebrewer and beer lover:
the best articles and advice from America's #1 home brewing magazine.
New York: Avon books. ISBN 0-380-79399-7. Retrieved Mar