The Info List - World Wide Web Consortium

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The WORLD WIDE WEB CONSORTIUM (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(abbreviated WWW or W3).

Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee , the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
. As of 26 July 2017 , the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C) has 476 members.

The W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web.


* 1 History

* 2 Specification maturation

* 2.1 Working draft (WD) * 2.2 Candidate recommendation (CR) * 2.3 Proposed recommendation (PR) * 2.4 W3C recommendation (REC) * 2.5 Later revisions * 2.6 Certification

* 3 Administration * 4 Membership * 5 Criticism * 6 Standards * 7 References * 8 External links


The World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research ( CERN
) in October, 1994. It was founded at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the European Commission
European Commission
and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA ), which had pioneered the Internet
and its predecessor ARPANET

The organization tries to foster compatibility and agreement among industry members in the adoption of new standards defined by the W3C. Incompatible versions of HTML
are offered by different vendors, causing inconsistency in how web pages are displayed. The consortium tries to get all those vendors to implement a set of core principles and components which are chosen by the consortium.

It was originally intended that CERN
host the European branch of W3C; however, CERN
wished to focus on particle physics, not information technology. In April 1995, the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (INRIA) became the European host of W3C, with Keio University
Keio University
Research Institute at SFC (KRIS) becoming the Asian host in September 1996 . Starting in 1997, W3C created regional offices around the world. As of September 2009, it had eighteen World Offices covering Australia, the Benelux countries (Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium), Brazil, China, Finland, Germany, Austria, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Morocco, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, and, as of 2016, the United Kingdom and Ireland.

In October 2012, W3C convened a community of major web players and publishers to establish a MediaWiki
wiki that seeks to document open web standards called the WebPlatform and WebPlatform Docs.

In January 2013, Beihang University
Beihang University
became the Chinese host.


Sometimes, when a specification becomes too large, it is split into independent modules which can mature at their own pace. Subsequent editions of a module or specification are known as levels and are denoted by the first integer in the title (e.g. CSS3 = Level 3). Subsequent revisions on each level are denoted by an integer following a decimal point (e.g. CSS2.1 = Revision 1).

The W3C standard formation process is defined within the W3C process document, outlining four maturity levels through which each new standard or recommendation must progress.


After enough content has been gathered from 'editor drafts' and discussion, it may be published as a working draft (WD) for review by the community. A WD document is the first form of a standard that is publicly available. Commentary by virtually anyone is accepted, though no promises are made with regard to action on any particular element commented upon.

At this stage, the standard document may have significant differences from its final form. As such, anyone who implements WD standards should be ready to significantly modify their implementations as the standard matures.


A candidate recommendation is a version of a standard that is more mature than the WD. At this point, the group responsible for the standard is satisfied that the standard meets its goal. The purpose of the CR is to elicit aid from the development community as to how implementable the standard is.

The standard document may change further, but at this point, significant features are mostly decided. The design of those features can still change due to feedback from implementors.


A proposed recommendation is the version of a standard that has passed the prior two levels. The users of the standard provide input. At this stage, the document is submitted to the W3C Advisory Council for final approval.

While this step is important, it rarely causes any significant changes to a standard as it passes to the next phase.

Both candidates and proposals may enter "last call" to signal that any further feedback must be provided.


This is the most mature stage of development. At this point, the standard has undergone extensive review and testing, under both theoretical and practical conditions. The standard is now endorsed by the W3C, indicating its readiness for deployment to the public, and encouraging more widespread support among implementors and authors.

Recommendations can sometimes be implemented incorrectly, partially, or not at all, but many standards define two or more levels of conformance that developers must follow if they wish to label their product as W3C-compliant.


A recommendation may be updated or extended by separately-published, non-technical errata or editor drafts until sufficient substantial edits accumulate for producing a new edition or level of the recommendation. Additionally, the W3C publishes various kinds of informative notes which are to be used as references.


Unlike the ISOC and other international standards bodies, the W3C does not have a certification program. The W3C has decided, for now, that it is not suitable to start such a program, owing to the risk of creating more drawbacks for the community than benefits.


The Consortium
is jointly administered by the MIT
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL, located in Stata Center ) in the USA, the European Research Consortium
for Informatics and Mathematics (ERCIM) (in Sophia Antipolis
Sophia Antipolis
, France), Keio University (in Japan) and Beihang University
Beihang University
(in China). The W3C also has World Offices in sixteen regions around the world. The W3C Offices work with their regional web communities to promote W3C technologies in local languages, broaden the W3C's geographical base and encourage international participation in W3C Activities.

The W3C has a staff team of 70–80 worldwide as of 2015 . W3C is run by a management team which allocates resources and designs strategy, led by CEO Jeffrey Jaffe (as of March 2010), former CTO of Novell
. It also includes an advisory board which supports in strategy and legal matters and helps resolve conflicts. The majority of standardization work is done by external experts in the W3C's various working groups.


The Consortium
is governed by its membership. The list of members is available to the public. Members include businesses, nonprofit organizations, universities, governmental entities, and individuals.

Membership requirements are transparent except for one requirement: An application for membership must be reviewed and approved by the W3C. Many guidelines and requirements are stated in detail, but there is no final guideline about the process or standards by which membership might be finally approved or denied.

The cost of membership is given on a sliding scale, depending on the character of the organization applying and the country in which it is located. Countries are categorized by the World Bank's most recent grouping by GNI ("Gross National Income") per capita.


In 2012 and 2013, the W3C started considering adding DRM-specific Encrypted Media Extensions (EME) to HTML5, which was criticised as being against the openness, interoperability, and vendor neutrality that distinguished websites built using only W3C standards from those requiring proprietary plug-ins like Flash.


W3C/IETF standards (over Internet
protocol suite ):

* XHTML+Voice * XML
Events * XML
Information Set * XML
Schema * XPath
* XQuery * XSL-FO * XSLT * WCAG * WSDL * XForms


* ^ "W3C Invites Chinese Web Developers, Industry, Academia to Assume Greater Role in Global Web Innovation". W3.org. 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2013-11-30. * ^ A B C " World Wide Web
World Wide Web
– current Members". World Wide Web Consortium. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2017. * ^ A B W3C (September 2009). " World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(W3C) About the Consortium". Retrieved 8 September 2009. * ^ "Press Release: Keio University
Keio University
joins MIT
and INRIA in hosting W3C". www.w3.org. Retrieved 2017-07-13. * ^ Jacobs, Ian (June 2009). "W3C Offices". Retrieved 14 September 2009. * ^ A B C D E F G H I J K " World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Development Process". W3.org. 2005-04-12. Retrieved 2012-04-03. * ^ "W3C Contact". W3.org. 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2012-04-03. * ^ "Facts About W3C". W3C. Retrieved 7 November 2015. * ^ "W3C people list". W3.org. Retrieved 2012-04-03. * ^ "W3C pulls former Novell
CTO for CEO spot". Itworld.com. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2012-04-03. * ^ "The World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium: Building a Better Internet". Mays Digital. Retrieved 7 November 2015. * ^ W3C (2010). "Membership FAQ – W3C". Retrieved 7 August 2010. * ^ Jacobs, Ian (2008). "Join W3C". Retrieved 14 September 2008. * ^ W3C Membership Fee Calculator * ^ "World Bank Country Classification". Web.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 July 2010. * ^ Cory Doctorow
Cory Doctorow
(2013-03-12). "What I wish Tim Berners-Lee understood about DRM". Technology blog at guardian.co.uk . Archived from the original on 2013-04-06. Retrieved 2013-03-20. * ^ Glyn Moody (2013-02-13). "BBC Attacks the Open Web, GNU/Linux in Danger". Open Enterprise blog at ComputerworldUK.com . Archived from the original on 2013-04-06. Retrieved 2013-03-20. * ^ Scott Gilbertson (2013-02-12). "DRM for the Web? Say It Ain’t So". Webmonkey . Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 2013-04-06. Retrieved 2013-03-21. * ^ "Tell W3C: We don\'t want the Hollyweb". Defective by Design . Free Software Foundation
Free Software Foundation
. March 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-04-06. Retrieved 2013-03-25. * ^ Danny O'Brien (October 2013). "Lowering Your Standards: DRM and the Future of the W3C". Electronic Frontier Foundation
Electronic Frontier Foundation
. Retrieved 2013-10-03. * ^ Groth, Paul; Moreau, Luc (April 30, 2013). "PROV-Overview: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents". World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium. Retrieved April 8, 2016.