The WORLD WIDE WEB CONSORTIUM (W3C) is the main international
standards organization for the
World Wide Web
Founded and currently led by
Tim Berners-Lee , the consortium is
made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the
purpose of working together in the development of standards for the
World Wide Web
The W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web.
* 1 History
* 2 Specification maturation
* 2.1 Working draft (WD) * 2.2 Candidate recommendation (CR) * 2.3 Proposed recommendation (PR) * 2.4 W3C recommendation (REC) * 2.5 Later revisions * 2.6 Certification
* 3 Administration * 4 Membership * 5 Criticism * 6 Standards * 7 References * 8 External links
World Wide Web
The organization tries to foster compatibility and agreement among
industry members in the adoption of new standards defined by the W3C.
Incompatible versions of
It was originally intended that
In October 2012, W3C convened a community of major web players and
publishers to establish a
In January 2013,
Sometimes, when a specification becomes too large, it is split into independent modules which can mature at their own pace. Subsequent editions of a module or specification are known as levels and are denoted by the first integer in the title (e.g. CSS3 = Level 3). Subsequent revisions on each level are denoted by an integer following a decimal point (e.g. CSS2.1 = Revision 1).
The W3C standard formation process is defined within the W3C process document, outlining four maturity levels through which each new standard or recommendation must progress.
WORKING DRAFT (WD)
After enough content has been gathered from 'editor drafts' and discussion, it may be published as a working draft (WD) for review by the community. A WD document is the first form of a standard that is publicly available. Commentary by virtually anyone is accepted, though no promises are made with regard to action on any particular element commented upon.
At this stage, the standard document may have significant differences from its final form. As such, anyone who implements WD standards should be ready to significantly modify their implementations as the standard matures.
CANDIDATE RECOMMENDATION (CR)
A candidate recommendation is a version of a standard that is more mature than the WD. At this point, the group responsible for the standard is satisfied that the standard meets its goal. The purpose of the CR is to elicit aid from the development community as to how implementable the standard is.
The standard document may change further, but at this point, significant features are mostly decided. The design of those features can still change due to feedback from implementors.
PROPOSED RECOMMENDATION (PR)
A proposed recommendation is the version of a standard that has passed the prior two levels. The users of the standard provide input. At this stage, the document is submitted to the W3C Advisory Council for final approval.
While this step is important, it rarely causes any significant changes to a standard as it passes to the next phase.
Both candidates and proposals may enter "last call" to signal that any further feedback must be provided.
W3C RECOMMENDATION (REC)
This is the most mature stage of development. At this point, the standard has undergone extensive review and testing, under both theoretical and practical conditions. The standard is now endorsed by the W3C, indicating its readiness for deployment to the public, and encouraging more widespread support among implementors and authors.
Recommendations can sometimes be implemented incorrectly, partially, or not at all, but many standards define two or more levels of conformance that developers must follow if they wish to label their product as W3C-compliant.
A recommendation may be updated or extended by separately-published, non-technical errata or editor drafts until sufficient substantial edits accumulate for producing a new edition or level of the recommendation. Additionally, the W3C publishes various kinds of informative notes which are to be used as references.
Unlike the ISOC and other international standards bodies, the W3C does not have a certification program. The W3C has decided, for now, that it is not suitable to start such a program, owing to the risk of creating more drawbacks for the community than benefits.
The W3C has a staff team of 70–80 worldwide as of 2015 . W3C is
run by a management team which allocates resources and designs
strategy, led by CEO Jeffrey Jaffe (as of March 2010), former CTO of
Membership requirements are transparent except for one requirement: An application for membership must be reviewed and approved by the W3C. Many guidelines and requirements are stated in detail, but there is no final guideline about the process or standards by which membership might be finally approved or denied.
The cost of membership is given on a sliding scale, depending on the character of the organization applying and the country in which it is located. Countries are categorized by the World Bank's most recent grouping by GNI ("Gross National Income") per capita.
In 2012 and 2013, the W3C started considering adding DRM-specific Encrypted Media Extensions (EME) to HTML5, which was criticised as being against the openness, interoperability, and vendor neutrality that distinguished websites built using only W3C standards from those requiring proprietary plug-ins like Flash.
W3C/IETF standards (over
* ^ "W3C Invites Chinese Web Developers, Industry, Academia to
Assume Greater Role in Global Web Innovation". W3.org. 2013-01-20.
* ^ A B C "
World Wide Web