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ERCIM, France; Keio University/SFC, Japan; Beihang University, China[1] and many other offices around the world

Region served

Worldwide

Membership

474 member organizations[2]

Director

Tim Berners-Lee

Staff

62

Website www.w3.org

The World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium
Consortium
(W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
(abbreviated WWW or W3). Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee, the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web. As of 24 September 2017[update], the World Wide Web Consortium
Consortium
(W3C) has 474 members.[3][2] The W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web.

Contents

1 History 2 Specification maturation

2.1 Working draft (WD) 2.2 Candidate recommendation (CR) 2.3 Proposed recommendation (PR) 2.4 W3C recommendation (REC) 2.5 Later revisions 2.6 Certification

3 Administration 4 Membership 5 Criticism 6 Standards 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] The World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium
Consortium
(W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) in October, 1994. It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the European Commission and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA), which had pioneered the Internet
Internet
and its predecessor ARPANET.[3] The organization tries to foster compatibility and agreement among industry members in the adoption of new standards defined by the W3C. Incompatible versions of HTML
HTML
are offered by different vendors, causing inconsistency in how web pages are displayed. The consortium tries to get all those vendors to implement a set of core principles and components which are chosen by the consortium. It was originally intended that CERN
CERN
host the European branch of W3C; however, CERN
CERN
wished to focus on particle physics, not information technology. In April 1995, the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (INRIA) became the European host of W3C, with Keio University
Keio University
Research Institute at SFC (KRIS) becoming the Asian host in September 1996.[4] Starting in 1997, W3C created regional offices around the world. As of September 2009, it had eighteen World Offices covering Australia, the Benelux countries (Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium), Brazil, China, Finland, Germany, Austria, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Morocco, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, and, as of 2016, the United Kingdom and Ireland.[5] In October 2012, W3C convened a community of major web players and publishers to establish a MediaWiki
MediaWiki
wiki that seeks to document open web standards called the WebPlatform and WebPlatform Docs. In January 2013, Beihang University
Beihang University
became the Chinese host. Specification maturation[edit] Sometimes, when a specification becomes too large, it is split into independent modules which can mature at their own pace. Subsequent editions of a module or specification are known as levels and are denoted by the first integer in the title (e.g. CSS3 = Level 3). Subsequent revisions on each level are denoted by an integer following a decimal point (e.g. CSS2.1 = Revision 1). The W3C standard formation process is defined within the W3C process document, outlining four maturity levels through which each new standard or recommendation must progress.[6] Working draft (WD)[edit] After enough content has been gathered from 'editor drafts' and discussion, it may be published as a working draft (WD) for review by the community. A WD document is the first form of a standard that is publicly available. Commentary by virtually anyone is accepted, though no promises are made with regard to action on any particular element commented upon.[6] At this stage, the standard document may have significant differences from its final form. As such, anyone who implements WD standards should be ready to significantly modify their implementations as the standard matures.[6] Candidate recommendation (CR)[edit] A candidate recommendation is a version of a standard that is more mature than the WD. At this point, the group responsible for the standard is satisfied that the standard meets its goal. The purpose of the CR is to elicit aid from the development community as to how implementable the standard is.[6] The standard document may change further, but at this point, significant features are mostly decided. The design of those features can still change due to feedback from implementors.[6] Proposed recommendation (PR)[edit] A proposed recommendation is the version of a standard that has passed the prior two levels. The users of the standard provide input. At this stage, the document is submitted to the W3C Advisory Council for final approval.[6] While this step is important, it rarely causes any significant changes to a standard as it passes to the next phase.[6] Both candidates and proposals may enter "last call" to signal that any further feedback must be provided.[citation needed] W3C recommendation (REC)[edit] This is the most mature stage of development. At this point, the standard has undergone extensive review and testing, under both theoretical and practical conditions. The standard is now endorsed by the W3C, indicating its readiness for deployment to the public, and encouraging more widespread support among implementors and authors.[6] Recommendations can sometimes be implemented incorrectly, partially, or not at all, but many standards define two or more levels of conformance that developers must follow if they wish to label their product as W3C-compliant.[6] Later revisions[edit] A recommendation may be updated or extended by separately-published, non-technical errata or editor drafts until sufficient substantial edits accumulate for producing a new edition or level of the recommendation. Additionally, the W3C publishes various kinds of informative notes which are to be used as references.[6] Certification[edit] Unlike the ISOC and other international standards bodies, the W3C does not have a certification program. The W3C has decided, for now, that it is not suitable to start such a program, owing to the risk of creating more drawbacks for the community than benefits.[6] Administration[edit] The Consortium
Consortium
is jointly administered by the MIT
MIT
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL, located in Stata Center) in the USA, the European Research Consortium
Consortium
for Informatics and Mathematics (ERCIM) (in Sophia Antipolis, France), Keio University
Keio University
(in Japan) and Beihang University
Beihang University
(in China).[7][8] The W3C also has World Offices in sixteen regions around the world. The W3C Offices work with their regional web communities to promote W3C technologies in local languages, broaden the W3C's geographical base and encourage international participation in W3C Activities.[citation needed] The W3C has a staff team of 70–80 worldwide as of 2015[update].[9] W3C is run by a management team which allocates resources and designs strategy, led by CEO Jeffrey Jaffe (as of March 2010), former CTO of Novell. It also includes an advisory board which supports in strategy and legal matters and helps resolve conflicts.[10][11] The majority of standardization work is done by external experts in the W3C's various working groups.[citation needed] Membership[edit] The Consortium
Consortium
is governed by its membership. The list of members is available to the public.[2] Members include businesses, nonprofit organizations, universities, governmental entities, and individuals.[12] Membership requirements are transparent except for one requirement: An application for membership must be reviewed and approved by the W3C. Many guidelines and requirements are stated in detail, but there is no final guideline about the process or standards by which membership might be finally approved or denied.[13] The cost of membership is given on a sliding scale, depending on the character of the organization applying and the country in which it is located.[14] Countries are categorized by the World Bank's most recent grouping by GNI ("Gross National Income") per capita.[15] Criticism[edit] In 2012 and 2013, the W3C started considering adding DRM-specific Encrypted Media Extensions (EME) to HTML5, which was criticised as being against the openness, interoperability, and vendor neutrality that distinguished websites built using only W3C standards from those requiring proprietary plug-ins like Flash.[16][17][18][19][20] On September 18, 2017, the W3C published the EME specification as a Recommendation, leading to Electronic Frontier Foundation's resignation from W3C.[21][22] Standards[edit] W3C/IETF standards (over Internet
Internet
protocol suite):

CGI CSS DOM EME GRDDL HTML MathML OWL P3P PROV[23] RDF SISR SKOS SMIL SOAP SPARQL SRGS SSML SVG VoiceXML XHTML XHTML+Voice XML XML
XML
Events XML
XML
Information Set XML
XML
Schema XPath XQuery XSL-FO XSLT WAI-ARIA WCAG WSDL XForms

References[edit]

^ "W3C Invites Chinese Web Developers, Industry, Academia to Assume Greater Role in Global Web Innovation". W3.org. 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2013-11-30.  ^ a b c " World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium
Consortium
– current Members". World Wide Web Consortium. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2018.  ^ a b W3C (September 2009). " World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium
Consortium
(W3C) About the Consortium". Retrieved 8 September 2009.  ^ "Press Release: Keio University
Keio University
joins MIT
MIT
and INRIA in hosting W3C". www.w3.org. Retrieved 2017-07-13.  ^ Jacobs, Ian (June 2009). "W3C Offices". Retrieved 14 September 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k " World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium
Consortium
Development Process". W3.org. 2005-04-12. Retrieved 2012-04-03.  ^ "W3C Contact". W3.org. 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2012-04-03.  ^ "Facts About W3C". W3C. Retrieved 7 November 2015.  ^ "W3C people list". W3.org. Retrieved 2012-04-03.  ^ "W3C pulls former Novell
Novell
CTO for CEO spot". Itworld.com. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2012-04-03.  ^ "The World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium: Building a Better Internet". Mays Digital. Retrieved 7 November 2015.  ^ W3C (2010). "Membership FAQ – W3C". Retrieved 7 August 2010.  ^ Jacobs, Ian (2008). "Join W3C". Retrieved 14 September 2008.  ^ W3C Membership Fee Calculator ^ "World Bank Country Classification". Web.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 July 2010.  ^ Cory Doctorow
Cory Doctorow
(12 March 2013). "What I wish Tim Berners-Lee understood about DRM". Technology blog at guardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  ^ Glyn Moody
Glyn Moody
(13 February 2013). "BBC Attacks the Open Web, GNU/Linux in Danger". Open Enterprise blog at ComputerworldUK.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.  ^ Scott Gilbertson (12 February 2013). "DRM for the Web? Say It Ain't So". Webmonkey. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ "Tell W3C: We don't want the Hollyweb". Defective by Design. Free Software Foundation. March 2013. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.  ^ Danny O'Brien (October 2013). "Lowering Your Standards: DRM and the Future of the W3C". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2013-10-03.  ^ Peter Bright
Peter Bright
(2017-09-18). " HTML5
HTML5
DRM finally makes it as an official W3C Recommendation". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2017-09-18.  ^ Cory Doctorow
Cory Doctorow
(2017-09-18). "An open letter to the W3C Director, CEO, team and membership". Blog at Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2017-09-18.  ^ Groth, Paul; Moreau, Luc (April 30, 2013). "PROV-Overview: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents". World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium. Retrieved April 8, 2016. 

External links[edit]

W3C homepage (with links to local Offices, and many others) About the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium W3C Technical Reports and Publications W3C Process Document W3C History How to read W3C specs

v t e

World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Consortium
Consortium
(W3C)

Products and standards

Recommendations

ActivityPub ARIA Canonical XML CDF CSS DOM Geolocation API HTML
HTML
(HTML5) ITS JSON-LD Linked Data Notifications MathML Micropub OWL P3P PLS RDF RDF Schema SISR SKOS SMIL SOAP SRGS SRI SSML SVG SCXML SPARQL Timed text VoiceXML Web storage WSDL Webmention WebSub XForms XHTML XHTML+RDFa XInclude XLink XML XML
XML
Base XML
XML
Encryption XML
XML
Events XML
XML
Information Set XML
XML
namespace XML
XML
Schema XML
XML
Signature XOP XPath XPath
XPath
2.0 XPointer XProc XQuery XSL XSL-FO XSLT (elements)

Notes

IndieAuth JF2 Post Type Discovery XAdES XHTML+SMIL XUP

Working drafts

CCXML CURIE EME InkML MSE RIF SMIL Timesheets sXBL WICD XFDL XFrames XBL XMLHttpRequest

Guidelines

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines

Initiative

Multimodal Interaction Activity (MMI) Markup Validation Service Web Accessibility Initiative WebPlatform

Deprecated

C-HTML HDML JSSS PGML VML XHTML+MathML+SVG

Organizations

Advisory Committee (AC) World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Foundation

Elected groups

Advisory Board (AB) Technical Architecture Group (TAG)

Working groups

CSS Geolocation Social Web SVG Web Hypertext Application Technology (WHATWG) Web Platform

Closed groups

Device Description (DDWG) HTML WebOnt (Semantic Web Activity)

Software

CERN
CERN
httpd Libwww

Browsers

Line Mode (1990–) Arena (1993–98) Agora (1994–97) Argo (1994–97) Amaya (browser/editor, 1996–2012)

Conferences

International World Wide Web
World Wide Web
Conference (IW3C)

Steering Committee (IW3C2) First conference ("WWW1", 1994)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 122285539 LCCN: no96041976 ISNI: 0000 0000 8190 7712 GND: 6011098-3 NDL: 001111916 NKC: kn2008061

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