Wołów [ˈvɔwuf] (German: Wohlau, Czech: Volov) is a town in Lower
Silesian Voivodeship in south-western Poland. It is the seat of
Wołów County, and of the smaller administrative district (gmina)
Gmina Wołów. It lies approximately 38 kilometres (24 miles)
north-west of the regional capital Wrocław. As of 2006[update], the
town has a population of 12,286.
3 Notable residents
4 See also
6 External links
The town's name is derived from the Polish word wół ("ox").
The area around
Wołów was settled since prehistoric times. It was
first mentioned in 1157 when a wooden castle founded by Senior Duke
Władysław II the Exile
Władysław II the Exile is documented, which
developed into a castle complex, which was again mentioned in 1202.
Two villages developed near the castle, one of them called Wołowo.
Probably in the second half of the 13th century the town was founded
near Wołowo and partially on the soil of the second village.
German town law
German town law about 1285; a
Vogt is mentioned in
Wohlau around 1750
At that time
Wołów belonged to the Duchy of Głogów, after 1312 to
the Duchy of Oels. With the duchy it passed to
Bohemia in 1328. In
1517 Johann Thurzo received Wołów. From shortly before, 1473, dates
the oldest known seal of the town, which already shows an ox, as do
all later seals. In 1523 the town passed to the
Duchy of Legnica
Duchy of Legnica and
remained there until the dukes of Liegnica-Brzeg-
Wołów died out in
Protestant Reformation was introduced to the town in 1522 by duke
Frederick II. After the extinction of the local Piasts the duchy
passed to the House of Habsburg, which opposed the Protestant
denomination in the town, as part of the Counter-Reformation. In 1682
the town's parish church was closed and given to the Catholics.
According to the Treaty of Altranstädt the church however was already
returned to the Protestants in 1707 and stayed Protestant until 1945.
The small Catholic minority in return received a Josephinian
In 1742 Wohlau was annexed by Prussia. The duchy was divided into two
districts and the town became county seat of one of the districts. The
structure of the town was, until 1700, defined by craft, especially
clothiers. As the seat of a duchy and a district administrative
function however became more and more important. The industrialization
played only a minor role and mostly affected smaller companies of the
In January 1945 – just before town was taken by the
Red Army – the
Wehrmacht evacuated the German population westwards.
In the May 1945, Poles – some of whom expelled by the Soviets from
the eastern part of pre-war
Poland – started to settle in Wołów
and Lower Silesia with the native German population expelled.[citation
Mirosław Hermaszewski (born September 15, 1941) The first (and to
this day remains the only) Polish national in space.
Jan II the Mad
Jan II the Mad (Polish: Jan II Szalony; 16 April 1435 – 22 September
1504), was a Polish House of
Silesian Piasts dynasty Duke of
Żagań-Przewóz since 1439 . Jan II died in
Wołów on 22 September
1504, ending with him the male line of the Piast Żagań-Głogów
branch. He was buried in the local parish church.
Oskar Müller (1896-1970) German politician
Wołów bank robbery
^ Hugo Weczerka, Handbuch der historischen Stätten, Schlesien, 2003,
p.570, ISBN 3-520-31602-1
^ Józef Pilch, Leksykon zabytków architektury Dolnego Śląska,
Wydawn. "Arkady", 2005, p. 403 link
^ Romuald M. Łuczyński, Chronologia dziejów Dolnego Śląska,
Oficyna Wydawn. ATUT, Wrocławskie Wydawn. Oświatowe, 2006, p. 143
^ Ernst Badstübner, Dehio - Handbuch der Kunstdenkmäler in Polen:
Schlesien, 2003, p.1028, ISBN 3-422-03109-X
^ Badstübner, p.1028
^ a b c Weczerka, p.570
^ a b Weczerka, p.571
Official site of Wołów
Wohlau (Wołów) and Polnischdorf (Polska Wieś) on an
Austro-Hungarian military map (1:200 000) from c.1910
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wołów.
Town and seat
Coordinates: 51°20′29″N 16°37′42″E / 51.34139°N
16.62833°E / 51.34139; 16.62833