Winter counts (Lakota: waníyetu wówapi or waníyetu iyáwapi) are pictorial calendars or histories in which tribal records and events were recorded by Native Americans in North America. The Blackfeet, Mandan, Kiowa, Lakota, and other Plains tribes used winter counts extensively. There are approximately one hundred winter counts in existence, but many of these are duplicates.
1 Description 2 Corroborating dates 3 Known winter counts
3.1 Oglala Lakota
3.2 Brulé Lakota
3.3 Hunkpapa Lakota
4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links
Most winter counts have a single pictograph symbolizing each year,
based on the most memorable event of that year. For Lakota people,
years ran from first snow fall to first snowfall.
Tradition 1: No Ears, John Colhoff, Flying Hawk, Baptiste Garnier Tradition 2: Short Man Tradition 3: White Cow Killer Tradition 4: Iron Crow, Wounded Bear Tradition 5: Red Horse Owner Tradition 6: Cloud Shield Tradition 7: American Horse Tradition 8: Breast
Battiste Good and High Hawk Rosebud Swift Bear Swift Dog Iron Shell
Iron Dog Lone Dog Long Soldier Major Bush
Swan Thin Elk / Wata Peta (Steamboat), 1821-1877
Other Lakota, and Dakota
Hardin Winter Count Mato Sapa Northern The Flame Lone Dog's winter count
Bad Head, 1810-1883, oral count recorded Bull Plume, 1794-1924, survives only as copied drawings from 1912 Percy Creighton, 1831-1938
Butterfly, 1833-1870s Foolish Woman, 1833-1870s
Tohausen Silver Horn, 1860-1940 Haba, 1828-1909 Settan, 1833-1892 Anko Seasonal, 1864-1892; and Anko Monthly, August 1889-August 1892 Harry Ware, 1860-1887 Quitone, 1825-1921
Ledger art Plains hide painting
^ "Pictures of Indians in the United States." The National Archives. (retrieved 4 Feb 2010) ^ a b c d Hansen, 42-45 ^ Greene and Thorton, 300 ^ Sundstrom, Linea. "The Thin Elk/Steamboat Winter Count: A Study in Lakota Pictography", Buechel Memorial Lakota Museum, 2003 (retrieved 3 May 2010) ^ McClure, Nancy. "Treasures from our West: Lone Dog's winter count". Centerofthewest.org. Originally featured in Points West (Winter 2011). Retrieved 27 June 2017. ^ "Lone Dog Winter Count". www.smithsoniansource.org. Retrieved 27 June 2017. ^ a b Greene and Thornton, 301 ^ Greene and Thornton, 314 ^ a b c Greene and Thornton, 302 ^ Greene and Thornton, 300 ^ a b Greene and Thornton, 304 ^ Greene and Thornton, 306 ^ Greene and Thornton, 309 ^ Greene and Thornton, 310
Greene, Candace S. and Russell Thornton, eds. The Year the Stars Fell: Lakota Winter Counts at the Smithsonian. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2007. ISBN 0-8032-2211-4. Hansen, Emma I. Memory and Vision: Arts, Cultures, and Lives of Plains Indian People. Cody, WY: Buffalo Bill Historical Center, 2007:42-45. ISBN 0-295-98580-1.
Lakota Winter Counts: An Online Exhibit by National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution (after clicking winter count site link, click on "View HTML Version" in lower right) Anderson Winter Count, articles by Tanis Thorne Waniyetu Wowapi (Winter Count) - Reliable information and interesting lesson plans. Lakota Wint