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The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
(also known colloquially as the Pan Am Games) is a major sporting event in the Americas
Americas
featuring summer sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The competition is held among athletes from nations of the Americas, every four years in the year before the Summer Olympic Games. The only Winter Pan American Games
Winter Pan American Games
were held in 1990. The Pan American Sports Organization (PASO) is the governing body of the Pan American Games movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the Olympic Charter.[1] The XVII Pan American Games
Pan American Games
were held in Toronto
Toronto
from July 10–26, 2015; the XVIII Pan American Games
Pan American Games
will be in Lima
Lima
in 2019. Since 2007, host cities are contracted to manage both the Pan American and the Parapan American Games,[1] in which athletes with physical disabilities compete with one another. The Parapan American Games are held immediately following the Pan American Games. The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs) that are recognized by PASO, and organizing committees for each specific Pan American Games. As the decision-making body, PASO is responsible for choosing the host city for each Pan American Games. The host city is responsible for organizing and funding a celebration of the Games consistent with the Olympic Charter
Olympic Charter
(since PASO is affiliated with the IOC, the Olympic Charter) and rules. The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
program, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games, is determined by PASO. The celebration of the Games encompasses many rituals and symbols, such as the flag and torch, and the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
in 36 sports and nearly 400 events. The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive gold, silver, and bronze medals, respectively.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early games 1.2 Recent games

2 Winter Pan American Games 3 Pan American Sports Organization 4 Symbols 5 Ceremonies

5.1 Opening 5.2 Closing 5.3 Medal presentation

6 Sports 7 Champions and medalists 8 Host nations and cities

8.1 Summer 8.2 Winter

9 Participating nations 10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Early games[edit] The idea of holding a Pan American Games
Pan American Games
was first raised at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, where Latin American representatives of the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) suggested that a competition among all the countries in the Americas
Americas
should be created.[3] The first event called the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
took place in Dallas
Dallas
in 1937 as part of the Greater Texas & Pan-American Exposition, but it attracted so little attention it has never counted in the records of the competition.[4][5] At the first Pan American Sports Congress, held in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in 1940, the participants decided that the first games should be held in Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in 1942. The plans had to be postponed because of World War II. A second Pan American Sports Congress held in London during the 1948 Summer Olympics
1948 Summer Olympics
reconfirmed Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
as the choice of host city for the inaugural games, which were held in 1951. The games offered 18 sports.[3] Countries that were part of the Commonwealth of Nations such as Canada
Canada
did not compete at the first Pan American Games.[6] The second games were held in Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico. Competitions started on March 12 and included 2,583 athletes from 22 countries, competing in 17 sports.[7] The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
were held subsequently every four years in the cities of Chicago, United States in 1959, São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
in 1963 and Winnipeg, Canada
Canada
in 1967.[7] Recent games[edit]

Flag of the participating countries flying at the 2007 Pan American Games athlete's village.

While the inaugural 1951 Games hosted 2,513 participants representing 14 nations, the 2007 Pan American Games
2007 Pan American Games
involved 5,633 competitors from 42 countries.[3] During the games most athletes and officials are housed in the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
village. This village is intended to be a self-contained home for all the participants. It is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, and locations for religious expression.[8] PASO allows nations to compete that do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organizations demand. As a result, colonies and dependencies are permitted to set up their own National Olympic Committees. Examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and Bermuda
Bermuda
which compete as separate nations despite being legally under the jurisdiction of another power.[9] Winter Pan American Games[edit] Main article: 1990 Winter Pan American Games

Las Leñas, Argentina, hosted the Pan American Winter Games.

There have been attempts to hold Winter Pan American Games
Winter Pan American Games
throughout the history of the games, but these have had little success.[10] An initial attempt to hold winter events was made by the organizers of the 1951 Pan American Games
1951 Pan American Games
in Buenos Aires, who planned to stage winter events later in the year but dropped the idea due to lack of interest.[11] Reliable winter snow in the Americas
Americas
is limited to two countries, the United States
United States
and Canada. Andean winter weather is often fickle, and higher elevation areas in South America
South America
with annual snow often lack the infrastructure to host major sporting events. Another difficulty is that the Americas
Americas
cover two hemispheres, which creates scheduling issues related to reverse seasons. Lake Placid, New York
Lake Placid, New York
tried to organize Winter Games in 1959 but, again, not enough countries expressed interest. The plans were eventually cancelled.[10] In 1988, members of PASO voted to hold the first Pan American Winter Games at Las Leñas, Argentina
Argentina
in September 1989. It was further agreed that Winter Games would be held every four years. Lack of snow however, forced the postponement of the games until September 16–22, 1990 [10] when only eight countries sent 97 athletes to Las Leñas. Of that total, 76 were from just three countries: Argentina, Canada, and the United States. Weather was unseasonably warm and again there was little snow, so only three Alpine Skiing events – the Slalom, Giant Slalom, and Super G were staged. The United States
United States
and Canada won all 18 medals. PASO awarded the second Pan American Winter Games to Santiago, Chile for 1993. The United States
United States
warned that it would not take part unless a full schedule of events was held. The Santiago
Santiago
organizing committee eventually gave up on planning the Games after the United States Olympic Committee declined to participate, and the idea has not been revived since.[10] Pan American Sports Organization[edit] Main article: Pan American Sports Organization

The 2007 Pan American Games
2007 Pan American Games
opening ceremony had announcements in English, Spanish and Portuguese.

The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
Movement encompasses a number of national and international sporting organizations and federations, recognized media partners, athletes, officials, judges, and every other person and institution that agrees to abide by the rules of the Olympic Charter (which is the same as PASO's charter).[12] As the umbrella organization of the Olympic Movement, PASO is responsible for selecting the host city, overseeing the planning of the Pan American Games, updating and approving the sports program, and negotiating sponsorship and broadcasting rights.[2] The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
Movement is made of three major elements:

International Federations (IFs) are the governing bodies that supervise a sport at an international level. For example, the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) is the IF for football (soccer), and the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) is the international governing body for volleyball. There are currently 36 IFs in the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
Movement, representing each of the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
sports.[13] National Olympic Committees (NOCs) represent and regulate the Pan American Games movement within each country. For example, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) is the NOC of the United States. There are currently 42 NOCs recognized by PASO. Organizing Committees for the Pan America Games (PAOGs) constitute the temporary committees responsible for the organization of a specific celebration of the Pan American Games. PAOGs are dissolved after each Games, once the final report is delivered to PASO.

Spanish and English are the official languages of the Pan American Games Movement. The other language used at each Pan American Games
Pan American Games
is the language of the host country. Every proclamation (such as the announcement of each country during the parade of nations in the opening ceremony) is spoken in these three languages or the main two depending on whether the host country is an English or Spanish speaking country.[2] Symbols[edit]

The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
torch being lit in Teotihuacan.

The Anthem of PASO

Adopted in 2008

Problems playing this file? See media help.

The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
Movement uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
charter. The Pan American Sports Organization flag displays the PASO logo on a white background. To highlight the close association between the International Olympic Committee and the Pan Am Games, the Olympic Rings were added to the flag in 1988. The flag has been hoisted during each celebration of the Games.[14] The flag was hoisted while the Olympic Hymn was played until the 2007 Games. In 2011 Games, the new anthem was played for the first time. The anthem itself was composed in 2008. Similar to the Olympic flame, the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
flame is lit well before the Games are to commence. The flame was lit for the first games in Olympia, Greece. For subsequent games, the torch has been lit by Aztec
Aztec
people in ancient temples, first in the Cerro de la Estrella and later in the Pyramid of the Sun
Pyramid of the Sun
at the Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
Pyramids.[15] The only exception was for the São Paulo
São Paulo
games in 1963, when the torch was lit in Brasília
Brasília
by the indigenous Guaraní people. An Aztec then lights the torch of the first relay bearer, thus initiating the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
torch relay that will carry the flame to the host city's main stadium, where it plays an important role in the opening ceremony.[2] Since 2011, the flame is required to be held during the games in the stadium which will host the athletics competition. If the Opening ceremony and athletics competition will be held in different stadiums, the flame will be required to move from one stadium to the other. Exceptions occurred in the 1987, 1999 and 2007 Games, each of which had only one cauldron.[2] The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
mascot, an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1979 in San Juan, Puerto Rico.[16] It has played an important part on the Games identity and promotion. The mascot of the most recent Pan American Games, in Toronto, was Pachi, a porcupine. List of Games mascots:[17]

San Juan 1979: Coqui (frog) Caracas
Caracas
1983: Santiaguito (lion) Indianapolis
Indianapolis
1987: Amigo (green parrot) Havana
Havana
1991: Tocopan (bird) Mar del Plata
Mar del Plata
1995: Lobi (sea lion) Winnipeg
Winnipeg
1999: Duck and Lorita (ducks) Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
2003: Tito (manatee) Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
2007: Cauê (sun) Guadalajara
Guadalajara
2011: Huichi (deer), Gavo (agave plant) and Leo (lion) Toronto
Toronto
2015: Pachi (porcupine) Lima
Lima
2019: Milco (statue)[18]

Ceremonies[edit] Main article: Pan American Games
Pan American Games
ceremony Opening[edit]

A scene from the opening ceremony of the 2015 Pan American Games
2015 Pan American Games
in Toronto

As mandated by the Olympic Charter, various elements frame the opening ceremony of the Pan American Games.[19] The ceremony typically starts with the hoisting of the host country's flag and a performance of its national anthem.[19] The host nation then presents artistic displays of music, singing, dance, and theater representative of its culture and history.[19] The artistic presentations have grown in scale and complexity as successive hosts attempt to provide a ceremony that outlasts its predecessor's in terms of memorability. The opening ceremony of the Guadalajara
Guadalajara
Games reportedly cost $20 million, with much of the cost incurred in the artistic segment.[20] After the artistic portion of the ceremony, the athletes parade into the stadium grouped by nation. Argentina
Argentina
is traditionally the first nation to enter in order to honor the origins of the Pan American Games, similar to how Greece enters first in the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
as the originator. Nations usually then enter the stadium alphabetically according to the Spanish language. During the 1995 Pan American Games, which was hosted in Mar del Plata, Argentina, the Argentine flag entered the stadium first, while the country's delegation entered last (similar to what happened with Greece in the 2004 Summer Olympics). Speeches are given, formally opening the Games. Finally, the Pan American Games torch is brought into the stadium and passed on until it reaches the final torch carrier—often a well-known and successful athlete from the host nation—who lights the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
flame in the stadium's cauldron.[2] Closing[edit]

Athletes gather in the stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2007 Pan American Games.

The closing ceremony of the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
takes place after all sporting events have concluded. Flag-bearers from each participating country enter the stadium, followed by the athletes who enter together, without any national distinction. Two national flags along with the flag of PASO are hoisted while the corresponding national anthems are played: the flag of the current host country and the flag of the country hosting the next Pan American Games.[2] The president of the organizing committee and the president of PASO make their closing speeches, the Games are officially closed, and the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
family is invited to participate at the next Games. The Pan American flame is then extinguished.[2] In what is known as the Antwerp Ceremony, the mayor of the city that organized the Games transfers a special Pan American Games
Pan American Games
flag to the president of PASO, who then passes it on to the mayor of the city hosting the next Games.[2] After these compulsory elements, the next host nation briefly introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theater representative of its culture. The closing ceremony includes a fifteen-minute presentation from the next host city.[2] In the 2011 closing ceremony, while Florence K was singing the acoustic rendition of "O Canada", a technical glitch occurred after the phrase "Our home and native land".[21] The fans booed after the glitch.[22] Medal presentation[edit]

A medal ceremony during the 1987 Pan American Games
1987 Pan American Games
in Indianapolis.

At the conclusion of each event, medals are ceremoniously distributed to the first, second and third-place finishers. The participants stand a three-tiered podium while receiving their medals.[23] After the medals are given out by an IOC or PASO member, the national flags of the three medalists are raised while the national anthem of the gold medalist's country plays.[24] Volunteering citizens of the host country act as hosts during the medal ceremonies, as they aid the officials who present the medals and act as flag-bearers.[25] For every Pan American Games
Pan American Games
event, the respective medal ceremony is held, at most, one day after the event's final. When athletics was scheduled for the last days, the men's marathon is held in the last day of the games, and the award ceremony is held before or during the closing ceremonies. Sports[edit] Main article: Pan American Games
Pan American Games
sports

Swimming has been held at all sixteen editions of the Pan American Games.

According to Pan American Sports Organization
Pan American Sports Organization
rules, all 28 current Olympic sports, plus other optional sports (such as bowling) that are popular throughout the Americas
Americas
can be played at a single games.[2] The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
program consists of 36 sports, 50 disciplines and nearly 400 events. For example, Equestrian is a Pan American Games sport, comprising three disciplines: Dressage, Eventing
Eventing
and Show jumping. It is further broken down into six events for men and women as a mixed gender competition.[26] Athletics, swimming, fencing, diving, baseball, boxing, basketball, equestrian, football, artistic gymnastics, rowing, wrestling, shooting, tennis, weightlifting and water polo are the only summer sports that have never been absent from the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
program. Current Pan American Games
Pan American Games
sports, like rugby sevens, handball, and volleyball, first appeared on the program at later editions of the games. Some sports that were featured in earlier Games were later dropped from the program.[27] The 2019 Pan American Games will welcome a 38th sport to its programme, surfing.[28] On November 17, 2016 it was announced bodybuilding and skateboarding were also added to the sport program for the 2019 Games.[29] Both sports will make their Pan American Games
Pan American Games
debut.[29] Pan American Games sports
Pan American Games sports
are governed by international sports federations (IFs) recognized by PASO as the global supervisors of those sports. There are 36 federations represented at PASO. There are sports recognized by PASO that are not included on the Pan American Games program. These sports are not considered Pan American Games sports, but they can be promoted to this status during a program revision that occurs in the first PASO session following a celebration of the Games.[2] During such revisions, sports can be excluded or included in the program on the basis of a two-thirds majority vote of the members of PASO.[2] Some recognized sports, such as chess, have never been included in a Pan American Games
Pan American Games
program.[30] There are some sports that have been competed just once, such as Sambo, a martial art which was only competed in 1983 in Caracas, Venezuela. Champions and medalists[edit] Further information: Category: Pan American Games
Pan American Games
medalists and All-time Pan American Games
Pan American Games
medal table

Swimmer Thiago Pereira
Thiago Pereira
of Brazil
Brazil
has a record 23 Pan American medals.[31] Here he holds a gold medal during the 2007 edition.

The athletes or teams who place first, second, or third in each event receive medals. The winners receive gold medals, while the runners-up receive silver medals and the third-place athletes are awarded bronze medals. In events contested by a single-elimination tournament (most notably boxing), third place might not be determined and both semifinal losers receive bronze medals. PASO does not keep statistics of medals won, but National Olympic Committees and the media record medal statistics as a measure of success. As of the 2015 Pan American Games, Aruba
Aruba
and the British Virgin Islands
British Virgin Islands
have yet to win a medal.[32] The top ten nations all time at the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
(minus medals won at the Winter Pan American Games):[32] Summer Pan American Games

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  United States 1944 1454 1022 4420

2  Cuba 875 593 558 2026

3  Canada 456 657 802 1915

4  Brazil 329 357 519 1205

5  Argentina 294 327 428 1049

6  Mexico 221 288 502 1011

7  Colombia 108 147 229 484

8  Venezuela 92 205 277 574

9  Chile 44 91 151 286

10  Dominican Republic 29 63 112 204

Winter Pan American Games

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total

1  United States 4 2 5 11

2  Canada 2 4 1 7

Record Summer Pan American Games
Pan American Games
1995  United States, 424 medals

Host nations and cities[edit]

Map of Pan American Games
Pan American Games
locations (host cities in red dots). Countries that have hosted one Pan Am Games are shaded green, while countries that have hosted two or more are shaded blue.

The host city for an Pan American Games
Pan American Games
Games is usually chosen six years ahead of their celebration. The process of selection is carried out in two phases that span a two-year period. The prospective host city applies to its country's Olympic Committee; if more than one city from the same country submits a proposal to its NOC, the national committee typically holds an internal selection, since only one city per NOC can be presented to the Pan American Sports Organization
Pan American Sports Organization
for consideration. Once the deadline for submission of proposals by the NOCs is reached, the first phase (Application) begins with the applicant cities asked to complete a questionnaire regarding several key criteria related to the organization of the Pan American Games Games.[2] In this form, the applicants must give assurances that they will comply with the Olympic Charter
Olympic Charter
and with any other regulations established by PASO's Executive Committee.[2] The evaluation of the filled questionnaires by a specialized group provides PASO with an overview of each applicant's project and their potential to host the Games. On the basis of this technical evaluation, PASO's Executive Board selects the applicants that will proceed to the candidature stage.[2] Once the candidate cities are selected, they must submit to PASO a bigger and more detailed presentation of their project as part of a candidature file. Each city is thoroughly analyzed by an evaluation commission. This commission will visit the candidate cities, interviewing local officials and inspecting prospective venue sites, and submit a report on its findings one month before the PASO's final decision. During the interview process the candidate city must guarantee that it will be able to fund the Games.[2] After the work of the evaluation commission, a list of candidates is presented to the General Session of PASO, which is assembled in a country that must not have a candidate city in the running. The members of PASO gathered in the Session have the final vote on the host city. Once elected, the host city bid committee (together with the NOC of the respective country) signs a Host City Contract with PASO, officially becoming a Pan American Games
Pan American Games
host nation and host city.[2] The Pan American Games
Pan American Games
have been hosted by 15 cities in 10 countries. Mexico
Mexico
and Canada
Canada
have hosted three Pan American Games
Pan American Games
each, more than any other nation. Among cities, only Winnipeg
Winnipeg
and Mexico City
Mexico City
have played host to the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
more than once, each holding that honor twice. Summer[edit]

Year Games Host City Host Nation Nations Athletes Sports Events Opening Closing Main stadium(s) Top of the medal table

1951 01 !1 Buenos Aires  Argentina 21 2,513 18

February 25 March 9 River Plate Stadium  Argentina

1955 02 !2 Mexico
Mexico
City  Mexico 22 2,583 17

March 12 March 26 University Olympic Stadium  United States

1959 03 !3 Chicago  United States 25 2,263 18

August 27 September 7 Soldier Field  United States

1963 04 !4 São Paulo  Brazil 22 1,665 19

April 20 May 5 Pacaembu Stadium  United States

1967 05 !5 Winnipeg  Canada 29 2,361 18

July 24 August 6 Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Stadium  United States

1971 06 !6 Cali  Colombia 32 2,935 18

July 25 August 8 Pascual Guerrero Olympic Stadium  United States

1975 07 !7 Mexico
Mexico
City  Mexico 33 3,146 18

October 12 October 25 Azteca Stadium  United States

1979 08 !8 San Juan  Puerto Rico 34 3,700 22

July 1 July 15 Hiram Bithorn Stadium  United States

1983 09 !9 Caracas  Venezuela 36 3,426 23

August 14 August 29 Olympic Stadium  United States

1987 10 !10 Indianapolis  United States 38 4,453 30

August 7 August 23 Indianapolis
Indianapolis
Motor Speedway / Hoosier Dome  United States

1991 11 !11 Havana  Cuba 39 4,519 33

August 8 August 18 Pan American Stadium  Cuba

1995 12 !12 Mar del Plata  Argentina 42 5,144 34

March 11 March 26 José María Minella Stadium  United States

1999 13 !13 Winnipeg  Canada 42 5,083 35 330 July 23 August 8 Winnipeg
Winnipeg
Stadium  United States

2003 14 !14 Santo Domingo  Dominican Republic 42 5,223 35 338 August 1 August 17 Félix Sánchez Olympic Stadium  United States

2007 15 !15 Rio de Janeiro  Brazil 42 5,633 34 334 July 13 July 29 Maracanã Stadium  United States

2011 16 !16 Guadalajara  Mexico 42 5,996 36 361 October 14 October 30 Estadio Omnilife  United States

2015 17 Toronto  Canada 41 6,132 36 364 July 10 July 26 Pan Am Dome  United States

2019 18 Lima  Peru Future event 39

July 26 August 11 Estadio Nacional de Lima

2023 19 Santiago  Chile Future event

October 6 October 22 Estadio Nacional Julio Martínez Prádanos

Winter[edit]

Year Games Host City Host Nation Nations Athletes Sports Events Opening Closing Main stadium(s) Top of the medal table

1990 01 !1 Las Leñas  Argentina 8 97 1 6 September 16 September 22

 United States

Participating nations[edit] All 41 countries whose National Olympic Committee
National Olympic Committee
is recognized by the Pan American Sports Organization
Pan American Sports Organization
compete at the Pan American Games.[33]

 Antigua and Barbuda  Argentina  Aruba  Bahamas  Barbados  Belize  Bermuda  Bolivia  Brazil  British Virgin Islands  Canada  Cayman Islands  Chile  Colombia  Costa Rica  Cuba  Dominica  Dominican Republic  Ecuador  El Salvador  Grenada  Guatemala  Guyana  Haiti  Honduras  Jamaica  Mexico  Nicaragua  Panama  Paraguay  Peru  Puerto Rico  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Suriname  Trinidad and Tobago  United States  Uruguay  Venezuela  Virgin Islands

See also[edit]

Olympic Games Parapan American Games World Games Commonwealth Games

References[edit]

^ a b "Parapan American Games". Americas
Americas
Paralympic committee. Archived from the original on July 30, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Pan Am Regulation". Pan American Sports Organization. Archived from the original on September 6, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ a b c "Pan Am Games gets going today". Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2014.  ^ Hersh, Phil (August 2, 1987). "Pan Am Games: From Peron To The Present". Chicago
Chicago
Tribune. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2013.  ^ Richardson, David (April 4, 1955). "On To Australia: The 1955 Pan-American Games were a full-dress Olympic preview". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved May 16, 2013.  ^ "Pan American Games". Dressage
Dressage
Canada. Archived from the original on August 31, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ a b " Mexico City
Mexico City
March 12 – March 26". COPAG. Archived from the original on February 23, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ "Beijing to build convenient Olympic village". The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Olympic Charter" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. p. 61. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ a b c d "World, Continental and Intercontinental Games – Overview of Archives content linked to the preparation, organisation and holding of these Games between 1924 and 1989" (pdf). International Olympic Committee. November 29, 2012. p. 8/16. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.  ^ "Pan American Sports Games". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on February 3, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.  ^ "The Olympic Movement". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on September 25, 2009. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Sport Program". COPAG (Organizing committee for the 2011 Pan American Games). Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2011.  ^ "Pan-American Sports Organization". Flag of the worldwide website. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2014.  ^ COPAG (April 15, 2011). "Pan American Spirit to Light up Mexico". Retrieved June 16, 2011. [dead link] ^ "VI Pan American Games — Cali
Cali
(Colombia) 1971". QUADRO DE MEDALHAS. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "The evolution of the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
mascots throughout its history". 2019 Pan American Games. May 18, 2017. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2018.  ^ "'Milco' was chosen as the official mascot of the XVIII Pan American Games and Sixth Parapan American Games Lima
Lima
to be held in 2019". 2019 Pan American Games. July 26, 2017. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved February 23, 2018.  ^ a b c "Fact sheet: Opening Ceremony of the Summer Olympic Games" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. February 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Costará más de 20 mdd inauguración de los JP" (in Spanish). El Occidental. September 4, 2010. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ Pan 2011 – Cantora do Canadá, Florence K interpreta hino do país no encerramento – 31/10/11 on YouTube ^ Clausura Panamericanos 2011 Presentación de Toronto
Toronto
2015 on YouTube ^ "Olympic Games — the Medal Ceremonies". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved July 11, 2011. (Registration required (help)).  ^ "Symbols and Traditions". USA Today. September 12, 1999. Archived from the original on February 23, 2002. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Medal Ceremony Hostess Outfits Revealed". China
China
Daily. September 18, 2008. Archived from the original on May 27, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Equestrian Technical Manual" (PDF). COPAG. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 22, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "Olympic Sports of the Past". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on July 24, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "ISA WELCOMES THE ADDITION OF SURFING TO THE 2019 PAN AMERICAN GAMES SPORTS PROGRAMME". International Surfing
Surfing
Association. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2015.  ^ a b Butler, Nick (November 17, 2016). " Bodybuilding
Bodybuilding
added to Lima 2019 programme as agreement signed for event to be shown outside Americas". Insidethegames.biz. Dunsar Media. Archived from the original on November 18, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2016.  ^ "Recognised Sports". International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original on August 1, 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2011.  ^ Thiago Pereira
Thiago Pereira
Owns 23 Pan American Games
Pan American Games
Medals, Most Of Any Athlete In Any Sport ^ a b "General medals gained (1951–2007)". COPAG. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010. Retrieved July 11, 2011.  ^ "The 42 present countries in the Panamerican games Guadalajara 2011". COPAG. Archived from the original on August 24, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2011. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pan American Games.

Poster Images from the Pan American Games
Pan American Games
from 1951 to 1999 Guadalajara
Guadalajara
2011 Games Toronto
Toronto
2015 Games History of Pan American Games
Pan American Games
on ISHOF Website, 2013. Pan American Games
Pan American Games
on ESPN Deportes

v t e

Pan American Games

Sports Medal tables Medalists NOCs Symbols

Summer

1951 Buenos Aires 1955 Mexico
Mexico
City 1959 Chicago 1963 São Paulo 1967 Winnipeg 1971 Cali 1975 Mexico
Mexico
City 1979 San Juan 1983 Caracas 1987 Indianapolis 1991 Havana 1995 Mar del Plata 1999 Winnipeg 2003 Santo Domingo 2007 Rio de Janeiro 2011 Guadalajara 2015 Toronto 2019 Lima 2023 Santiago

Winter

1990 Las Leñas

Bids

2007 2011 2015 2019 2023

v t e

Pan American Sports Organization
Pan American Sports Organization
(PASO)

National Olympic Committees

Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Aruba Bahamas Barbados Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil British Virgin Islands Canada Cayman Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Puerto Rico Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Suriname Trinidad and Tobago United States U.S. Virgin Islands Uruguay Venezuela

Affiliated organizations

ODEBO
ODEBO
(Bolivarian) CACSO
CACSO
( Central America
Central America
and Caribbean) ODESUR (South America) ORDECA
ORDECA
(Central America)

Associated competitions

Pan American Games Parapan American Games Winter Pan American Games Pan American Sports Festival

Affiliated competitions

Bolivarian Games Central American Games Central American and Caribbean
Caribbean
Games South American Games

v t e

Association of National Olympic Committees

African Games Asian Games European Games Pan American Games Pacific Games

Africa

ANOCA – Association of National Olympic Committees
Association of National Olympic Committees
of Africa

Americas

PASO – Pan American Sports Organization

Asia

OCA – Olympic Council of Asia

Europe

EOC – European Olympic Committees

Oceania

ONOC – Oceania
Oceania
National Olympic Committees

v t e

Multi-sport events

Global

Olympics

Olympic Games

Summer Winter

Youth Olympic Games

Disabled sports

Deaflympics Défi sportif Invictus Games CPISRA World Games INAS Global Games IBSA World Games IWAS World Games World Dwarf Games Paralympic Games

Summer Winter

Special
Special
Olympics

Summer Winter

World Transplant Games

Professions

Lumberjack World Championship World Air Games World Martial Arts Games World Military Games World Police and Fire Games World Firefighters Games World Roller Games European Championship in Forestry Skills Southern Forestry Conclave Stihl Timbersports Series World Logging Championship

Youth and students

Gymnasiade International Children's Games SELL Student Games Universiade World Interuniversity Games Commonwealth Youth Games

Other types

Arafura Games CSIT World Sports Games Dew Tour Mind Sports Olympiad World Mind Sports Games SportAccord World Mind Games TAFISA World Games World Combat Games World Games World Masters Games X Games World Beach Games

Intercommunity

Commonwealth Games CPLP Games Croatian World Games Gay Games Invictus Games Islamic Solidarity Games Jeux de la Francophonie Lusophony Games Maccabiah Games Pan Arab Games Pan-Armenian Games Transplant Games World Eskimo Indian Olympics World Indigenous Games World Nomad Games World Outgames

Regional

Africa

African Youth Games African Games All- Africa
Africa
University Games

Americas

Pan American

Pan American Games Parapan American Games

Central American and the Caribbean

Central American and Caribbean
Caribbean
Games Central American Games

Latin American

ALBA Games Bolivarian Games

North American

CANUSA Games North American Indigenous Games North American Outgames

South American

South American Games South American Beach Games South American Youth Games

Asia

Pan Asian

Asian Games Asian Beach Games Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games Asian Para Games Asian Winter Games Asian Youth Games

Southeast Asian

Southeast Asian Games ASEAN School Games ASEAN University Games ASEAN Para Games

Central Asian Games East Asian Youth Games South Asian Games West Asian Games

Europe

Black Sea Games European Games European Masters Games European Sports Championships European Youth Olympic Festival Games of the Small States of Europe Jeux des îles EuroGames

Oceania

Australian Youth Olympic Festival Micronesian Games Pacific Games

Intercontinental

Arctic Winter Games Asia
Asia
Pacific Deaf Games Indian Ocean Island Games Island Games Mediterranean Games Pan Arab Games

National

Africa

South African Games1

Americas

Canada

British Columbia Quebec Western

Colombia United States

amateur juniors seniors Warrior Games

NCSG, United States3

Alabama California Florida Massachusetts Missouri Montana Nebraska New York North Carolina North Dakota1 Lakota Nation Texas Wisconsin

Asia

Bangladesh China

All- China
China
Games National Games National Peasants' Games National Youth Games

India Indonesia Japan Malaysia

Para

Mongolia Pakistan Philippines

National Games Batang Pinoy Palaro

Singapore South Korea

Summer Winter

Thailand

youth

Vietnam

Europe

Netherlands Poland (youth) All-Union Spartakiad1 Spartakiad
Spartakiad
of Albania1 Spartakiad
Spartakiad
of Peoples of the USSR1

youth1

WheelPower

Historical1

Pre-Modern Olympics (in order, from 1900 BC to 1859 AD)

Tailteann Games (ancient) Panhellenic Games

Ancient Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games Heraean Games

Panathenaic Games Roman Games Cotswold Olimpick Games Gog Magog Games Wenlock Olympian Society Annual Games Zappas Olympics

Alternatives to the Modern Olympics

Aryan Games Friendship Games GANEFO Goodwill Games Inter-Allied Games Islamic Games Liberty Bell Classic People's Olympiad Workers' Olympiads

Defunct regional or community events

Afro-Asian Games Asian Indoor Games Asian Martial Arts Games Central African Games East Asian Games Far Eastern Championship Games FESPIC Games Games of the New Emerging Forces Nordic Games Pacific Ocean Games Spartakiad
Spartakiad
of Peoples of the USSR Tailteann Games (modern) Women's Islamic Games World Youth Games

Winter games

International

Olympics Paralympics Winter Universiade Commonwealth1 World Scout Arctic Winter Games Kennedy Memorial1 New Zealand Winter Games

Regional

National Winter Games of China Asian Winter Games European Youth Olympic Festival Winter X Games
X Games
Europe

1 Defunct 2 Sub-national 3 51 component games in 36 U.S. states

Category List

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