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Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG OM CH TD DL FRS RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As a Member of Parliament (MP), he represented five constituencies during his career. As Prime Minister, Churchill oversaw British victory in the Second World War. Ideologically an economic liberal and British imperialist, he was a member of the Liberal Party from 1904 to 1924 before joining the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955. Born in Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
to an aristocratic family, Churchill was the son of an English politician and an American socialite. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer
Boer
War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900, initially as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty. During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign; after it proved a disaster, he resigned from government. He briefly resumed active army service on the Western Front as a battalion commander in the Royal Scots Fusiliers. Rejoining the Conservatives, he returned to government under David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, then Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's resignation in 1940, Churchill replaced him. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort, resulting in victory in 1945. After the Conservative's defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War
Cold War
with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. He was re-elected prime minister in the 1951 election. His second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War
Korean War
and a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government emphasised house-building and developed an atomic bomb. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral. Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and wider Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. He was decorated with a wide range of awards, including the 1953 Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, he was accused of warmongering and human rights abuses and his imperialist and racist views—coupled with actions surrounding the Bengal famine of 1943
Bengal famine of 1943
and suppression of anti-imperialist movements—have generated considerable controversy.[1]

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Childhood and schooling: 1874–1895 1.2 Cuba, India, and Sudan: 1895–1899 1.3 Attempts at a Parliamentary career and South Africa: 1899–1900

2 Early political career

2.1 Early years in Parliament: 1900–1905 2.2 Under-Secretary of State
Under-Secretary of State
for the Colonies: 1905–1908 2.3 President of the Board of Trade: 1908–1910 2.4 Home Secretary: 1910–1911 2.5 Territorial Service and advancement 2.6 First Lord of the Admiralty: 1911–1915 2.7 Western Front 2.8 Return to Parliament 2.9 Constitutionalist 2.10 Rejoining the Conservative Party

2.10.1 Chancellor of the Exchequer: 1924–1929

2.11 Political isolation

2.11.1 Indian independence 2.11.2 German and Italian rearmament and conflicts in Manchuria and Abyssinia 2.11.3 Germany and rearmament: 1936 2.11.4 Abdication crisis

3 Return from exile

3.1 Return to the Admiralty

4 First term as prime minister: 1940–1945

4.1 "We shall never surrender" 4.2 Mental and physical health 4.3 Relations with the United States 4.4 Relations with the Soviet Union 4.5 Role in Bengal famine 4.6 Dresden
Dresden
bombings controversy 4.7 End of the Second World War 4.8 Syria
Syria
crisis

5 In Opposition: 1945–1951

5.1 Caretaker government and 1945 election 5.2 Opposition leader

5.2.1 European unity

6 Second term as prime minister: 1951–1955

6.1 Return to government

6.1.1 Domestic policy

6.2 Colonial affairs

6.2.1 Kenya and Malaya

6.3 Relations with the US and the quest for a summit 6.4 Stroke and resignation

7 Retirement and death: 1955–1965

7.1 Funeral

8 Legacy and historical assessments 9 Artist, historian, and writer 10 Ideology 11 Personal life

11.1 Marriage and children 11.2 Relationship with Lady Castlerosse 11.3 Religion 11.4 Pets and animals

12 Honours

12.1 Honorary military appointments

13 Cultural depictions 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Notes 15.2 Sources

16 Further reading

16.1 Primary sources 16.2 Secondary sources

17 External links

17.1 Bibliographies and online collections 17.2 Programmes about Churchill 17.3 Recordings 17.4 Museums, archives and libraries

Early life Childhood and schooling: 1874–1895

Blenheim Palace, Churchill's ancestral home and the place of his birth

Churchill was born at his parental home, Blenheim Palace
Blenheim Palace
in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874,[2][3] at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power.[4] A direct descendant of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy,[5] and thus he was born into the country's governing elite.[6] His paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a Member of Parliament (MP) for ten years, a member of the Conservative Party who served in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.[7] His own father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873.[8] His mother, Jennie Churchill (née Jerome), was from an American family whose substantial wealth derived from finance.[9] The couple had met in August 1873, and were engaged three days later, marrying at the British Embassy in Paris in April 1874.[10] The couple lived beyond their income and were frequently in debt;[11] according to the biographer Sebastian Haffner, the family were "rich by normal standards but poor by those of the rich".[12]

Churchill, aged six, in 1881[13]

In 1877, John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy
Viceroy
of Ireland, with Randolph as his private secretary, resulting in the Churchill family's relocation to Dublin, when the entirety of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom.[14] It was here that Jennie's second son, Jack, was born in 1880;[15] there has been speculation that Randolph was not his biological father.[16] Throughout much of the 1880s Randolph and Jennie were effectively estranged, during which she had many suitors.[17] Churchill had virtually no relationship with his father;[18] referring to his mother, Churchill later stated that "I loved her dearly - but at a distance."[19] His relationship with Jack would be warm, and they were close at various points in their lives.[16] In Dublin, he was educated in reading and mathematics by a governess,[20] while he and his brother were cared for primarily by their nanny, Elizabeth Ann Everest.[21] Churchill was devoted to her and nicknamed her "Woomany";[22] he later wrote that "She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the twenty years I had lived."[23] Aged seven, he began boarding at St. George's School in Ascot, Berkshire; he hated it, did poorly academically, and regularly misbehaved.[24] Visits home were to Connaught Place in London, where his parents had settled,[25] while they also took him on his first foreign holiday, to Gastein
Gastein
in Austria-Hungary.[26] As a result of poor health, in September 1884 he moved to Brunswick School in Hove; there, his academic performance improved but he continued to misbehave.[27] He narrowly passed the entrance exam which allowed him to begin studies at the elite Harrow School
Harrow School
in April 1888.[28] There, his academics remained high—he excelled particularly in history—but teachers complained that he was unpunctual and careless.[29] He wrote poetry and letters which were published in the school magazine, Harrovian,[30] and won a fencing competition.[31] His father insisted that he be prepared for a career in the military, and so Churchill's last three years at Harrow were spent in the army form.[32] He performed poorly in most of his exams.[33] On a holiday to Bournemouth
Bournemouth
in January 1893, he fell and was knocked unconscious for three days.[34] In March he took a job at a cram school in Lexham Gardens, South Kensington,[34] before holidaying in Switzerland and Italy that summer.[35] He made three attempts to be admitted to the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, only succeeding on the third.[36] There, he was accepted as a cadet in the cavalry,[37] starting his education in September 1893.[33] In August 1894 he and his brother holidayed in Belgium,[38] and he spent free time in London, joining protests at the closing of the Empire Theatre, which he had frequented.[39] His Sandhurst education lasted for 15 months; he graduated in December 1894.[33] Shortly after Churchill finished at Sandhurst, in January 1895, his father died; this led Churchill to adopt the belief that members of his family inevitably died young.[40] Cuba, India, and Sudan: 1895–1899

Churchill in the military dress uniform of the Fourth Queen's Own Hussars at Aldershot
Aldershot
in 1895.[41]

In February 1895, Churchill was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Fourth Hussars regiment of the British Army, based at Aldershot.[42] This position earned him a wage of £150 a year, which was far outstripped by his expenditure.[33] In July, he rushed to Crouch Hill, North London to sit with Everest as she lay dying, subsequently organising her funeral.[43] Churchill was eager to witness military action and used his mother's influence to try and get him posted to a warzone.[44] In the autumn of 1895, he and Reginald Barnes traveled to Cuba to observe its war of independence; they joined Spanish troops attempting to suppress independence fighters and were caught up in several skirmishes.[45] In North America, he also spent time in New York City, staying with the wealthy politician Bourke Cockran
Bourke Cockran
at the latter's Fifth Avenue
Fifth Avenue
residence; Cockran profoundly influenced the young Churchill.[46] Churchill admired the United States, writing to his brother that it was "a very great country" and telling his mother "what an extraordinary people the Americans are!"[47] With the Hussars, Churchill arrived in Bombay, British India, in October 1896.[48] They were soon transferred to Bangalore, where he shared a bungalow with Barnes.[49] Describing India as a "godless land of snobs and bores",[50] Churchill remained posted there for 19 months, during the course of which he made three visits to Calcutta, expeditions to Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and the North West Frontier, and two visits back to Britain.[51] Believing himself poorly educated, he began a project of self-education,[52] reading the work of Plato, Adam Smith, Charles Darwin, and Henry Hallam.[53] Most influential for him were however Edward Gibbon's The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Winwood Reade's The Martyrdom of Man, and the writings of Thomas Babington Macaulay.[54] Keenly interested in British parliamentary affairs,[55] in a private letter he declared himself "a Liberal in all but name", but added that he could never endorse the Liberal Party's support for Irish home rule.[56] Instead, he allied himself to the Tory democracy wing of the Conservative Party, and on a visit home gave his first public speech for the Conservative's Primrose League in Bath.[57] Reflecting a mix of reformist and conservative perspectives, he supported the promotion of secular, non-denominational education while opposing women's suffrage, referring to the Suffragettes
Suffragettes
as "a ridiculous movement".[58]

A depiction of the Battle of Omdurman; in the battle, Churchill took part in a cavalry charge

Churchill decided to join the Malakand Field Force
Malakand Field Force
led by Bindon Blood in its campaign against Mohmand rebels in the Swat Valley
Swat Valley
of Northwest India.[59] Blood agreed on the condition that Churchill be assigned as a journalist; to ensure this, he gained accreditation from The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph, for whom he wrote regular updates.[60] In letters to family, he described how both sides in the conflict slaughtered each other's wounded, although omitted any reference to such actions by British troops in his published reports.[61] He remained with the British troops for six weeks before returning to Bangalore
Bangalore
in October 1897.[62] There, he wrote his first book, The Story of the Malakand Field Force, which was published by Longman
Longman
to largely positive reviews.[63] He also wrote his only work of fiction, Savrola, a roman à clef set in an imagined Balkan
Balkan
kingdom. It was serialised in Macmillan's Magazine between May–December 1899 before appearing in book form.[64] While staying in Bangalore
Bangalore
in the first half of 1898, Churchill explored the possibility of joining Herbert Kitchener's military campaign in the Sudan.[65] Kitchener was initially reticent, claiming that Churchill was simply seeking publicity and medals.[66] After spending time in Calcutta, Meerut, and Peshawar, Churchill sailed back to England from Bombay
Bombay
in June.[67] There, he used his contacts—including a visit to the Prime Minister Lord Salisbury at 10 Downing Street—to get himself assigned to Kitchener's campaign.[68] He agreed that he would write a column describing the events for The Morning Post.[69] He sailed for Egypt, where he joined the 21st Lancers
21st Lancers
at Cairo
Cairo
before they headed south along the River Nile to take part in the Battle of Omdurman
Battle of Omdurman
against the army of Sudanese leader Abdallahi ibn Muhammad.[70] Churchill was critical of Kitchener's actions during the war, particularly the latter's unmerciful treatment of enemy wounded and his desecration of Muhammad Ahmad's tomb in Omdurman.[71] Following the battle, Churchill gave skin from his chest for a graft for an injured officer.[72] Back in England by October, Churchill wrote an account of the campaign, published as The River War
The River War
in November 1899.[73] Attempts at a Parliamentary career and South Africa: 1899–1900

Churchill in the Lower House of the Houses of Parliament in 1900.[74]

Deciding that he wanted a parliamentary career, Churchill pursued political contacts and gave addresses at three Conservative Party meetings.[75] It was also at this point that he courted Pamela Plowden, later Countess of Lytton; although a relationship did not ensue, they remained lifelong friends.[76] In December he returned to India for three months, largely to indulge his love of the game polo.[76] While in Calcutta, he stayed for a week in the home of Viceroy
Viceroy
George Nathaniel Curzon.[77] On the journey home, he spent two weeks at the Savoy Hotel in Cairo, where he was introduced to the Khedive
Khedive
Abbas II,[78] before arriving in England in April.[79] He refocused his attention on politics, addressing further Conservative meetings and networking at events such as a Rothschild's dinner party.[80] He was selected as one of the two Conservative parliamentary candidates at the June 1899 by-election in Oldham, Lancashire.[81] Although the Oldham seats had previously been held by the Conservatives, the election was a narrow Liberal victory.[82] Anticipating the outbreak of the Second Boer War
Second Boer War
between Britain and the Boer
Boer
Republics, Churchill sailed from Southampton
Southampton
to South Africa as a journalist writing for the Daily Mail
Daily Mail
and Morning Post.[83] From Cape Town, in October he travelled to the conflict zone near Ladysmith, then besieged by Boer
Boer
troops, before spending time at Estcourt
Estcourt
before heading for Colenso.[84] After his train was derailed by Boer
Boer
artillery shelling, he was captured as a prisoner of war and interned in a Boer
Boer
POW camp
POW camp
in Pretoria.[85] In December, Churchill and two other inmates escaped the prison over the latrine wall. Churchill stowed aboard a freight train and later hid within a mine, shielded by the sympathetic English mine owner. Wanted by the Boer authorities, he again hid aboard a freight train and travelled to safety in Portuguese East Africa.[86] Sailing to Durban, Churchill found that his escape had attracted much publicity in Britain.[87] Rather than returning home, in January 1900, he was appointed a lieutenant in the South African Light Horse regiment, joining Redvers Buller's fight to relieve the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria.[88] In his writings during the campaign, he chastised British hatred for the Boer, calling for them to be treated with "generosity and tolerance" and urging a "speedy peace";[89] after the war was over he would call for the British to be magnanimous in victory.[90] He was among the first British troops into Ladysmith and Pretoria. He and his cousin, the Duke of Marlborough, were able to get ahead of the rest of the troops in Pretoria, where they demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer
Boer
prison camp guards.[91] After the victory in Pretoria, he returned to Cape Town and sailed for Britain in July. In May, while he had still been in South Africa, his Morning Post despatches had been published as London to Ladysmith via Pretoria, which sold well.[92] Early political career Main article: Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
in politics: 1900–1939 Early years in Parliament: 1900–1905

Churchill took his seat in London's Houses of Parliament in February 1901

Arriving in Southampton
Southampton
in July 1900,[93] Churchill rented a flat in London's Mayfair, using it as his base for the next six years.[94] To deal with his growing number of correspondences, he hired a secretary.[95] Churchill stood again as a Conservative candidate for the seat of Oldham at the 1900 general election. He secured a narrow victory, beating Liberal candidate Walter Runciman by 222 votes.[96] At the age of 25, he was now an MP.[97] MPs were not then paid a wage, and to earn money Churchill embarked on a speaking tour focusing on his South African experiences; after touring Britain in late October and November he proceeded to the US, where his first lecture was introduced by the writer Mark Twain.[98] In the US, he met President William McKinley
William McKinley
and Vice President Theodore Roosevelt;[99] the latter invited Churchill to dinner, but took a dislike to him.[100] From the US he crossed to Canada to give more lectures.[101] In the spring of 1901, he gave talks in Paris, Madrid, and Gibraltar.[95] In October 1900, Churchill published his Ian Hamilton's March, a book based on his experiences in South Africa.[97] In February 1901, Churchill took his seat in the House of Commons, where his maiden speech gained widespread press coverage.[102] He associated with a group of Conservatives known as the Hughligans,[103] although was critical of the Conservative government on various issues; he opposed their proposal of increased army funding, suggesting that if any additional military expenditure be made then it should go to the navy.[104] This upset the Conservative front bench but gained support from Liberals.[105] His relationship with the Conservative government was further strained when he condemned the British execution of a Boer
Boer
military commandant.[106] In a parliamentary debate he voiced concerns about the levels of public expenditure,[107] and in response, Prime Minister Arthur Balfour
Arthur Balfour
asked him to join a parliamentary select committee on the topic.[108] He increasingly socialised with senior Liberals, and particularly the Liberal Imperialists like H. H. Asquith.[105] In this context, he later wrote, he "drifted steadily to the left" of British parliamentary politics.[106] He privately considered "the gradual creation by an evolutionary process of a Democratic or Progressive wing to the Conservative Party",[109] or alternately a "Central Party" to unite the Conservatives and Liberals.[110]

A painting of the young Churchill by Edwin Arthur Ward.

In the House of Commons, Churchill increasingly voted with the Liberal opposition against the government.[111] In February 1903, he was among 18 Conservative MPs who voted against the government's increase in military expenditure.[112] He backed the Liberal vote of censure against the use of Chinese indentured labourers in South Africa, and in favour of a Liberal bill to restore legal rights to trade unions.[111] His April 1904 parliamentary speech upholding the rights of trade unions was described by the pro-Conservative Daily Mail
Daily Mail
as "Radicalism of the reddest type".[113] In May 1903, the Conservative MP Joseph Chamberlain
Joseph Chamberlain
called for the introduction of tariffs on goods imported into the British Empire
British Empire
from outside; Churchill became a leading Conservative voice against such economic protectionism.[114] Describing himself as a "sober admirer" of "the principles of Free Trade",[115] in July he was a founding member of the anti-protectionist Free Food League.[116] In October, Balfour's government sided with Chamberlain and announced protectionist legislation.[117] Churchill's outspoken criticism of Balfour's government and imperial protectionism, coupled with a letter of support he sent to a Liberal candidate in Ludlow, generated anger among many Conservatives.[118] In December 1903, the Oldham Conservative Association informed him that it would not support his candidature in the next general election.[119] In March 1904, Balfour and the Conservative front bench walked out of the House of Commons during one of his speeches; he described their response as "a very unpleasant and disconcerting demonstration".[120] In May he expressed opposition to the government's proposed Aliens Bill, which was designed to curb Jewish migration into Britain.[121] He stated that the bill would "appeal to insular prejudice against foreigners, to racial prejudice against Jews, and to labour prejudice against competition" and expressed himself in favour of "the old tolerant and generous practice of free entry and asylum to which this country has so long adhered and from which it has so greatly gained."[121] On 31 May, he crossed the floor to sit as a member of the Liberal Party in the House of Commons.[122] Under-Secretary of State
Under-Secretary of State
for the Colonies: 1905–1908

Churchill in 1904

In December, Balfour resigned as Prime Minister and King Edward VII invited the Liberal leader Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Henry Campbell-Bannerman
to form a new government.[123] With the aim of securing a working majority in the House of Commons, Campbell-Bannerman called a general election for January 1906.[124] The Liberals won the election with 377 seats, to the Conservatives' 157.[125] Having had a previous invitation from the Manchester Liberals to stand in their constituency,[126] Churchill did so, winning the Manchester North West seat with a majority of 1241.[127] January also saw the publication of Churchill's biography of his father, a work he had been working on for several years.[128] He received an advance payment of £8000 for the book, the highest ever paid for a political biography in Britain to that point;[129] on publication, it was generally well received.[130] It was also around this time that the first biography of Churchill was published, having been written by the Liberal Alexander MacCallum Scott.[131] In the new government, Churchill became Under-Secretary of State
Under-Secretary of State
for the Colonial Office, a position that he had requested.[132] He worked beneath the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin,[133] and took Edward Marsh as his secretary; the latter remained in this position for 25 years.[134] In this junior ministerial position, Churchill was first tasked with helping to draft a constitution for the Transvaal.[125] In 1906, he helped oversee the granting of a government to the Orange Free State.[135] In dealing with southern Africa, he sought to ensure equality between the British and Boer.[136] He also announced a gradual phasing out of the use of Chinese indentured labourers in South Africa; he and the government decided that a sudden ban would cause too much upset in the colony and might damage the economy.[136] He expressed concerns about the relations between European settlers and the indigenous southern African population; after Zulu launched the Bambatha Rebellion
Bambatha Rebellion
in Natal, he complained of Europeans' "disgusting butchery of the natives".[137] In August 1906, he holidayed on a yacht in Deauville, France, spending much of his time playing polo or gambling.[138] From there he proceeded to Paris and then Switzerland—where he climbed the Eggishorn—and then to Berlin and Silesia, where he was a guest of Kaiser Wilhelm II.[139] He went then to Venice, and from there toured Italy by motorcar with his friend, Lionel Rothschild[disambiguation needed].[139] In May 1907, he holidayed at the home of another friend, Maurice de Forest, in Biarritz.[140] In the autumn, he embarked on a tour of Europe and Africa.[140] Traveling through France and then Italy, he travelled to Malta and then Cyprus, before moving through the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
to Aden
Aden
and Berbera.[141] Sailing to Mombasa, he travelled by rail through the Kenya Colony—stopping for big game hunting in Simba—before heading through the Uganda Protectorate
Uganda Protectorate
and then sailing up the River Nile.[142] He wrote about his experiences for Strand Magazine
Strand Magazine
and later published them in book form as My African Journey.[143] President of the Board of Trade: 1908–1910 When Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded by Asquith in 1908, Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade.[144] Newly appointed Cabinet ministers were legally obliged to seek re-election at a by-election; in April, Churchill lost Manchester North to the Conservative candidate by 429 votes.[145] The Liberals then stood him in a by-election in the Scottish safe seat of Dundee, where he won comfortably.[146] In his Cabinet role, Churchill championed social reform; in one speech he stated that although the "vanguard" of the British people "enjoys all the delights of all the ages, our rearguard struggles out into conditions which are crueller than barbarism".[147] To deal with this, he promoted what he called a "network of State intervention and regulation" akin to that in Germany.[148] His speeches on these issues were published in the volumes Liberalism and the Social Problem and The People's Rights.[149]

Churchill was married at St Margaret's in Westminster

One of the first tasks he faced was in arbitrating an industrial dispute among ship-workers and their employed on the River Tyne.[146] He then established a Standing Court of Arbitration to deal with future industrial disputes.[150] Through this, Churchill established a reputation as a conciliator.[151] Arguing that workers should have their working hours reduced, Churchill promoted the Mines Eight Hours Bill—which legally prohibited miners working more than an eight-hour day—introducing its second reading in the House of Commons.[152] In 1908, he introduced the Trade Boards Bill to parliament, which would establish a Board of Trade which could prosecute exploitative employers, establish the principle of minimum wage, and the right of workers to have meal breaks. The bill passed with a large majority.[153] In May, he proposed the Labour Exchanges Bill which sought to establish over 200 Labour Exchanges through which the unemployed would be assisted in finding employment.[154][155] He also promoted the idea of an unemployment insurance scheme, which would be part-funded by the state.[156] In his personal life, Churchill proposed marriage to Clementine Hozier;[157] they were married in September at St Margaret's, Westminster.[151] They honeymooned in Baveno, Venice, and Moravia,[151] before settling into a London home at 33 Eccleston Square.[154] In the following July they had a daughter, Diana.[158] Churchill had openly ridiculed those who thought war with Germany was inevitable,[159] and visited Germany, where he spent time with the Kaiser and observed German Army manoeuvres.[160] Churchill's reforms were threatened with derailment when the Conservative Peers in the House of Lords
House of Lords
rejected the budget passed by the House of Commons.[161] Churchill warned that this act could lead to class war as working-class Britons turned against their upper-class counterparts for stifling social reform.[162] As President of the Board of Trade
President of the Board of Trade
he joined newly appointed Chancellor Lloyd George in opposing First Lord of the Admiralty Reginald McKenna's proposed huge expenditure for the construction of Navy dreadnought warships, and in supporting the Liberal reforms.[163] In 1909, he set up Labour Exchanges to help unemployed people find work.[164] He helped draft the first health and unemployment insurance legislation, the National Insurance Act 1911.[165] As a supporter of eugenics, he participated in the drafting of the Mental Deficiency Act 1913; however, the Act, in the form eventually passed, rejected his preferred method of sterilisation of the feeble-minded in favour of their confinement in institutions.[166] Churchill also assisted in passing the People's Budget,[167] becoming President of the Budget League, an organisation set up in response to the opposition's Budget Protest
Protest
League.[168] The budget included the introduction of new taxes on the wealthy to allow for the creation of new social welfare programmes. It attempted to introduce a heavy tax on land value, inspired by the economist and philosopher Henry George.[169] In 1909, Churchill made several speeches with strong Georgist
Georgist
rhetoric,[170] stating that land ownership was at the source of all monopoly.[171] He emphasised the differences between productive investment in capital, which he supported, and land speculation, which he felt produced an unearned income and had only negative consequences to society at large ("an evil").[172] After the budget bill was passed by the Commons in 1909 it was vetoed by the House of Lords. The Liberals then fought and won two general elections in January and December 1910 to gain a mandate for their reforms. The budget was passed after the first election, and after the second election the Parliament Act 1911, for which Churchill also campaigned, was passed.[citation needed] Home Secretary: 1910–1911 In 1910, he was promoted to Home Secretary. His term was controversial after his responses to the Cambrian Colliery dispute, the Siege of Sidney Street and the suffragettes. In 1910, a number of coal miners in the Rhondda
Rhondda
Valley began what has come to be known as the Tonypandy Riot.[163] The Chief Constable of Glamorgan requested troops be sent in to help police quell the rioting. Churchill, learning that the troops were already travelling, allowed them to go as far as Swindon
Swindon
and Cardiff, but blocked their deployment. On 9 November, The Times
The Times
criticised this decision. In spite of this, the rumour persists that Churchill had ordered troops to attack, and his reputation in Wales and in Labour circles never recovered.[173]

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(highlighted) at Sidney Street, 3 January 1911

In early January 1911, Churchill made a controversial visit to the Siege of Sidney Street
Siege of Sidney Street
in London. There is some uncertainty as to whether he attempted to give operational commands, and his presence attracted much criticism. After an inquest, Arthur Balfour
Arthur Balfour
remarked, "he [Churchill] and a photographer were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was doing, but what was the right honourable gentleman doing?"[174] Biographer Roy Jenkins
Roy Jenkins
suggests that he went simply because "he could not resist going to see the fun himself" and that he did not issue commands.[175] A Metropolitan police history of the event, however, states that it was "a very rare case of a Home Secretary
Home Secretary
taking police operational command decisions."[176] The police had the miscreants—Latvian anarchists wanted for murder—surrounded in a house, the Scots Guards
Scots Guards
from the Tower of London were called in. The house caught fire and Churchill prevented the fire brigade from dousing the flames so that the men inside were burned to death. "I thought it better to let the house burn down rather than spend good British lives in rescuing those ferocious rascals."[177] Churchill's proposed solution to the suffragette issue was a referendum on the issue, but this found no favour with Asquith and women's suffrage remained unresolved until after the First World War.[178] Territorial Service and advancement In 1900, he retired from the regular army, and in 1902 joined the Imperial Yeomanry, where he was commissioned as a Captain in the Queen's Own Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
Hussars on 4 January 1902.[179] Later in 1902, he was initiated into Freemasonry
Freemasonry
at Studholme Lodge #1591, London, and raised to the Third Degree on 25 March 1902.[180][181] In April 1905, he was promoted to Major and appointed to command of the Henley Squadron of the Queen's Own Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
Hussars.[182] In September 1916, he transferred to the territorial reserves of officers, where he remained until retiring in 1924 as a Major.[182] First Lord of the Admiralty: 1911–1915 In October 1911, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and continued in the post into the First World War. While serving in this position, he put strong emphasis on modernisation and favoured using aeroplanes in combat. He undertook flying lessons himself.[183] He launched a programme to replace coal power with oil power. When he assumed his position, oil was already being used on submarines and destroyers, but most ships were still coal-powered, though oil was sprayed on the coals to boost maximum speed. Churchill began this programme by ordering that the upcoming Queen Elizabeth-class battleships were to be built with oil-fired engines. He established a Royal Commission chaired by Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher, which confirmed the benefits of oil over coal in three classified reports, and judged that ample supplies of oil existed, but recommended that oil reserves be maintained in the event of war. The delegation then travelled to the Persian Gulf, and the government, largely through Churchill's advice, eventually invested in the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, bought most of its stock, and negotiated a secret contract for a 20-year supply.[184][185] On 5 October 1914, Churchill went to Antwerp, which the Belgian government proposed to evacuate. The Royal Marine
Royal Marine
Brigade was on its way there and at Churchill's urgings the 1st and 2nd Naval Brigades were also committed. He returned on 7 October, but Antwerp
Antwerp
fell on 10 October. 2500 British men, many of them barely trained, were taken prisoner or interned in the neutral Netherlands. At the time he was attacked for squandering resources.[186] Churchill maintained that his actions prolonged the resistance by a week (Belgium had proposed surrendering Antwerp
Antwerp
on 3 October) and that this time had enabled the Allies to secure Calais and Dunkirk.[187] Churchill was involved with the development of the tank, which was financed from the Navy budget.[188] In February 1915 he appointed the Landships Committee, which oversaw the design and production of the first British tanks.[188] However, he was also one of the political and military engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings in the Dardanelles.[189] He took much of the blame for the fiasco, and when H. H. Asquith
H. H. Asquith
formed an all-party coalition government in late May 1915, the Conservatives demanded his demotion as the price for entry.[190] Western Front

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
commanding the 6th Battalion, the Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1916. Archibald Sinclair
Archibald Sinclair
sits to the left

For several months Churchill served in the sinecure of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However, on 15 November 1915 he resigned from the government, feeling his energies were not being used.[191] Although remaining a member of parliament, Churchill returned to the British Army, attempting to obtain an appointment as brigade commander, but settling for command of a battalion. After some time gaining front-line experience as a Major with the 2nd Battalion, Grenadier Guards, he was appointed temporary Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers
Royal Scots Fusiliers
(part of the 9th (Scottish) Division), on 1 January 1916.[192][193] Correspondence with his wife shows that his intent in taking up active service was to rehabilitate his reputation, but this was balanced by the serious risk of being killed. During his period of command, his battalion was stationed at Ploegsteert but did not take part in any set battle. Although he disapproved strongly of the mass slaughter involved in many Western Front actions, he exposed himself to danger by making excursions to the front line and personally made 36 forays into no man's land.[193][194] Return to Parliament In March 1916, Churchill returned to the UK after he had become restless in France and wished to speak again in the House of Commons.[195] Future prime minister David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George
acidly commented: "You will one day discover that the state of mind revealed in (your) letter is the reason why you do not win trust even where you command admiration. In every line of it, national interests are completely overshadowed by your personal concern."[196] In July 1917, Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War
Secretary of State for War
and Secretary of State for Air. He was the main architect of the Ten Year Rule, a principle that allowed the Treasury to dominate and control strategic, foreign and financial policies under the assumption that "there would be no great European war for the next five or ten years".[197] (Later as Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
in 1928, Churchill would persuade the Cabinet to make the rule self-perpetuating, leading to further reductions in Britain's armed services.)[citation needed]

Churchill meets female workers at Georgetown's filling works near Glasgow, October 1918

A major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office
War Office
was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism
Bolshevism
must be "strangled in its cradle".[198] He secured, from a divided and loosely organised Cabinet, intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation.[citation needed]. In 1920, Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles during the Polish-Soviet War.[citation needed]

Official entry into Lille. The Minister of Munitions, Winston Churchill, watching the march past of the 47th (1/2nd London) Division in the Grande Place, Lille, 28 October 1918. In front of him is the Chief of Staff of the 47th Division, Lieutenant Colonel Bernard Montgomery.

He was instrumental in having para-military forces ( Black and Tans
Black and Tans
and Auxiliaries) intervene in the Irish War of Independence.[199] He became Secretary of State for the Colonies
Secretary of State for the Colonies
in 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty
Anglo-Irish Treaty
of 1921, which established the Irish Free State. Churchill was involved in the lengthy negotiations of the treaty and, to protect British maritime interests, he engineered part of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
agreement to include three Treaty Ports—Queenstown (Cobh), Berehaven
Berehaven
and Lough Swilly—which could be used as Atlantic bases by the Royal Navy.[200] In 1938, however, under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement, the bases were returned to Ireland.[citation needed] In 1919, Churchill sanctioned the use of tear gas on Kurdish tribesmen in Iraq.[201] Though the British did consider the use of non-lethal poison gas in putting down Kurdish rebellions, it was not used, as conventional bombing was considered more effective.[201] In 1919, Britain and the United States
United States
signed a treaty of alliance with France which the United States Senate
United States Senate
refused to ratify, thus making the proposed Anglo-Franco-American alliance stillborn.[202] In July 1921, Churchill argued at the Imperial conference of Dominion prime ministers that despite the rejection by the United States
United States
Senate of the alliance with France that Britain should still sign a military alliance with France to guarantee post-war security.[202] Churchill's ideas of an Anglo-French alliance was rejected at the conference as British public opinion and even more so Dominion public opinion was against the idea of the "continental commitment".[203] In September, the Conservative Party withdrew from the Coalition government, following a meeting of backbenchers dissatisfied with the handling of the Chanak Crisis, a move that precipitated the looming November 1922 general election. Churchill fell ill during the campaign, and had to have an appendectomy. This made it difficult for him to campaign, and a further setback was the internal division which continued to beset the Liberal Party. He came fourth in the poll for Dundee, losing to prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour. Churchill later quipped that he left Dundee
Dundee
"without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix".[204] On 4 May 1923, Churchill spoke in favour of the French occupation of the Ruhr, which was extremely unpopular in Britain saying: "We must not allow any particular phrase of French policy to estrange us from the great French nation. We must not turn our backs on our friends from the past".[203] In 1923, Churchill acted as a paid consultant for Burmah Oil (now BP plc) to lobby the British government to allow Burmah exclusive rights to Persian (Iranian) oil resources; these rights were ultimately granted.[196] He stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, losing in Leicester.[citation needed] Constitutionalist

Portrait of Churchill by Ambrose McEvoy
Ambrose McEvoy
(1878–1927)

In January 1924, the first Labour Government had taken office amid fears of threats to the Constitution. Churchill was noted at the time for being particularly hostile to socialism. He believed that the Labour Party as a socialist party, did not fully support the existing British Constitution. In March 1924, aged 49, he sought election at the Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
by-election, 1924. He had originally sought the backing of the local Unionist association which happened to be called the Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
Constitutional Association, so he adopted the term 'Constitutionalist' to describe himself during the by-election campaign.[205] Despite support from Beaverbrook and Rothermere newspapers, he lost by 43 votes. After the by-election Churchill continued to use the term and talked about setting up a Constitutionalist Party, though any formal plans that Churchill may have had were shelved with the calling of another general election. Churchill and 11 others decided to use the label Constitutionalist rather than Liberal or Unionist.[206][207] He was returned at Epping against a Liberal and with the support of the Unionists. After the election the seven Constitutionalist candidates, including Churchill, who were elected did not act or vote as a group. Rejoining the Conservative Party Chancellor of the Exchequer: 1924–1929 Main article: Chancellorship of Winston Churchill Churchill accepted the post of Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
in Stanley Baldwin's Unionist government, and formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that "anyone can rat, but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat” (in British English
British English
to “rat” means to betray).[204][208] As Chancellor of the Exchequer
Chancellor of the Exchequer
Churchill oversaw Britain's disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners' strike that led to the General Strike of 1926.[209] His decision, announced in the 1924 Budget, came after long consultation with various economists including John Maynard Keynes, Sir Otto Niemeyer, the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, and the board of the Bank of England. This decision prompted Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill, arguing that the return to the gold standard at the pre-war parity in 1925 (£1=$4.86) would lead to a global depression. However, the decision was generally popular and seen as 'sound economics' although it was opposed by Lord Beaverbrook and the Federation of British Industries.[210] Churchill later regarded this as the greatest mistake of his life; in discussions at the time with former Chancellor Reginald McKenna, Churchill acknowledged that the return to the gold standard and the resulting 'dear money' policy was economically bad. In those discussions he maintained the policy as fundamentally political—a return to the pre-war conditions in which he believed.[211] In his speech on the Bill he said "I will tell you what it [the return to the Gold Standard] will shackle us to. It will shackle us to reality."[212] The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard depressed industries. The most affected was the coal industry, already suffering from declining output as shipping switched to oil. As basic British industries like cotton came under more competition in export markets, the return to the pre-war exchange was estimated to add up to ten percent in costs to the industry. In July 1925, a Commission of Inquiry reported generally favouring the miners' position rather than that of the mine owners.[213] With Churchill's support Baldwin proposed a subsidy to the coal industry, while a Royal Commission under Herbert Samuel
Herbert Samuel
prepared a further report. The Samuel Commission solved nothing and the miners' dispute led to the General Strike of 1926. Churchill edited the Government's newspaper, the British Gazette,[214] and was one of the more hawkish members of the Cabinet, recommending that the route of food convoys from the docks into London should be guarded by tanks, armoured cars and hidden machine guns. This was rejected by the Cabinet.[215] Exaggerated accounts of Churchill's belligerency during the strike soon began to circulate. Immediately afterward, the New Statesman claimed that Churchill had been leader of a "war party" in the Cabinet and had wished to use military force against the strikers. He consulted the Attorney-General Sir Douglas Hogg, who advised that although he had a good case for criminal libel, it would be inadvisable to have confidential Cabinet discussions aired in open court. Churchill agreed to let the matter drop.[216] Later economists, as well as people at the time, also criticised Churchill's budget measures. These were seen as assisting the generally prosperous rentier banking and salaried classes (to which Churchill and his associates generally belonged) at the expense of manufacturers and exporters which were known then to be suffering from imports and from competition in traditional export markets,[217] and as paring the Armed Forces, and especially the Royal Navy, too heavily.[218] Political isolation

Churchill wrote a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, in the mid-1930s

The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 general election. Churchill did not seek election to the Conservative Business Committee, the official leadership of the Conservative MPs. Over the next two years, he became estranged from Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule, by his political views and by his friendships with press barons, financiers and people whose character was seen as dubious. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. He was at the low-point in his career, in a period known as "the wilderness years".[219] He spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, works including Marlborough: His Life and Times—a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough—and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (though the latter was not published until well after the Second World War),[219] Great Contemporaries
Great Contemporaries
and many newspaper articles and collections of speeches. He was one of the best paid writers of his time.[219] His political views, set forth in his 1930 Romanes Lecture and published as Parliamentary Government and the Economic Problem (republished in 1932 in his collection of essays "Thoughts and Adventures") involved abandoning universal suffrage, a return to a property franchise, proportional representation for the major cities and an economic 'sub parliament'.[220] Indian independence See also: Simon Commission and Government of India Act 1935

The British Indian Empire in 1909

Churchill opposed Gandhi's peaceful disobedience revolt and the Indian Independence movement in the 1920s and 30s, arguing that the Round Table Conference "was a frightful prospect".[221] Churchill brooked no moderation. "The truth is", he declared in 1930, "that Gandhi-ism and everything it stands for will have to be grappled with and crushed."[222] In response to Gandhi's movement, Churchill proclaimed in 1920 that Gandhi should be bound hand and foot and crushed with an elephant ridden by the viceroy.[223][224][225] Later reports indicate that Churchill favoured letting Gandhi die if he went on a hunger strike.[226] In speeches and press articles in this period, he forecast widespread unemployment in Britain and civil strife in India should independence be granted.[227] The Viceroy, Lord Irwin, who had been appointed by the prior Conservative Government, engaged in the Round Table Conference in early 1931 and then announced the Government's policy that India should be granted Dominion status. In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party. Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference.[228] At a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association, specially convened so that Churchill could explain his position, he said "It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace ... to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor."[229][230] He called the Indian National Congress leaders "Brahmins who mouth and patter principles of Western Liberalism".[231] Two incidents damaged Churchill's reputation within the Conservative Party in this period. Both were taken as attacks on the Conservative front bench. The first was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election in April 1931. In a safe Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper
Duff Cooper
was opposed by Ernest Petter, an independent Conservative. Petter was supported by Lord Rothermere, Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers. Although arranged before the by-election was set,[232] Churchill's speech was seen as supporting the independent candidate and as a part of the press barons' campaign against Baldwin. Baldwin's position was strengthened when Duff Cooper
Duff Cooper
won, and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.[233] The second issue was a claim by Churchill that Sir Samuel Hoare and Lord Derby had pressured the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to change evidence it had given to the Joint Select Committee considering the Government of India Bill, and in doing so had breached parliamentary privilege. He had the matter referred to the House of Commons Privilege Committee which, after investigations in which Churchill gave evidence, reported to the House that there had been no breach.[234] The report was debated on 13 June 1934. Churchill was unable to find a single supporter in the House and the debate ended without a division.[235]

Quit India Movement
Quit India Movement
launched by Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during the Second World War, demanding an end to British rule of India.

Churchill permanently broke with Baldwin over Indian independence and never again held any office while Baldwin was prime minister. Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his book My Early Life
My Early Life
(1930).[236] German and Italian rearmament and conflicts in Manchuria and Abyssinia In the 1920s, Churchill supported the idea of a "reconciliation" between Germany and France with Britain serving as the "honest broker" for the reconciliation".[203] Beginning in 1931, when he opposed those who advocated giving Germany the right to military parity with France, Churchill spoke often of the dangers of Germany's rearmament.[237] In 1931, Churchill said: "It is not in the immediate interest of European peace that the French Army should be seriously weakened. It is not in British interests to antagonize France".[203] He later, particularly in The Gathering Storm, portrayed himself as being for a time, a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself to counter the belligerence of Germany.[238] However Lord Lloyd was the first to so agitate.[239] In 1932, Churchill accepted the presidency of the newly founded New Commonwealth Society, a peace organisation which he described in 1937 as "one of the few peace societies that advocates the use of force, if possible overwhelming force, to support public international law".[240] Churchill's initial attitude towards the fascist dictators was ambiguous. After the First World War
First World War
defeat of Germany, a new danger occupied conservatives' political consciousness—the spread of communism. A newspaper article penned by Churchill and published on 4 February 1920, had warned that "civilisation" was threatened by the Bolsheviks, a movement which he linked through historical precedence to Jewish conspiracy.[241] In his 1920 newspaper article entitled " Zionism
Zionism
versus Bolshevism", Churchill wrote in part:

This movement among the Jews is not new ... this world-wide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilisation and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality, has been steadily growing.

However, in this article, Churchill praised the Jews who had integrated into the national life of the countries in which they lived "while adhering faithfully to their own religion", contrasting them with those who had "forsaken the faith of their forefathers" and come to play an influential role in the rise of the Bolshevik movement.[242] Most Churchill scholars cite his great admiration for the Jews. Due in part to his childhood exposure to his father’s many Jewish friends and associates, Churchill was a lifelong, fervent opponent of antisemitism and a supporter of the Zionist movement.[243] In 1931, he warned against the League of Nations
League of Nations
opposing the Japanese in Manchuria: "I hope we shall try in England to understand the position of Japan, an ancient state ... On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia. On the other the chaos of China, four or five provinces of which are being tortured under communist rule."[244] In contemporary newspaper articles he referred to the Spanish Republican government as a communist front, and Franco's army as the "Anti-red movement."[245] He supported the Hoare-Laval Pact and continued until 1937 to praise Mussolini.[246] He regarded Mussolini's regime as a bulwark against the perceived threat of communist revolution, going as far (in 1933) as to call Mussolini the "Roman genius ... the greatest lawgiver among men." However, he stressed that the UK must stick with its tradition of Parliamentary democracy, not adopt fascism.[247] Speaking in the House of Commons in 1937, Churchill said, "I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism."[248] In a 1935 essay, "Hitler and his Choice", which was republished in his 1937 book Great Contemporaries, Churchill expressed a hope that Hitler, if he so chose, and despite his rise to power through dictatorial action, hatred and cruelty, might yet "go down in history as the man who restored honour and peace of mind to the great Germanic nation and brought it back serene, helpful and strong to the forefront of the European family circle."[249] His first major speech on defence on 7 February 1934 stressed the need to rebuild the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
and to create a Ministry of Defence; his second, on 13 July urged a renewed role for the League of Nations. These three topics remained his themes until early 1936. In 1935, he was one of the founding members of The Focus, which brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking "the defence of freedom and peace."[250] The Focus led to the formation of the much wider Arms and the Covenant
Arms and the Covenant
Movement in 1936.[citation needed] Germany and rearmament: 1936 Churchill, holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February 1936, returned to a divided Britain. The Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government was divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention.[251] Churchill's speech on 9 March was measured, and praised by Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
as constructive. But within weeks Churchill was passed over for the post of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence in favour of Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip.[252] A. J. P. Taylor
A. J. P. Taylor
later called this "an appointment rightly described as the most extraordinary since Caligula made his horse a consul."[253] At the time insiders were less worried: Duff Cooper
Duff Cooper
was opposed to Churchill's appointment, while General Ellison wrote that he had "only one comment, and that is "Thank God we are preserved from Winston Churchill"".[254] On 22 May 1936, Churchill was present at a meeting of Old Guard Conservatives (the group, not all of them present on that occasion, included Austen Chamberlain, Geoffrey Lloyd, Leopold Amery
Leopold Amery
and Robert Horne) at Lord Winterton's house at Shillinglee Park, to push for greater rearmament. This meeting prompted Baldwin to comment that it was "the time of year when midges came out of dirty ditches". Neville Chamberlain was also taking a growing interest in foreign affairs, and in June, as part of a power-bid at the expense of the young and pro- League of Nations
League of Nations
Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, he demanded an end to sanctions against Italy ("the very midsummer of madness").[255][256] In June 1936, Churchill organised a deputation of senior Conservatives to see Baldwin, Inskip and Halifax. There had been demands for a Secret Session of the House and the senior ministers agreed to meet the deputation rather than listen to a potential four-hour speech by Churchill.[255][256] He had tried to have delegates from the other two parties and later wrote, "If the leaders of the Labour and Liberal oppositions had come with us there might have been a political situation so intense as to enforce remedial action."[257] Robert Rhodes James writes that this is "not quite the impression" given by the documentary record of the meetings of 28–29 July, and another meeting in November. Churchill's figures for the size of the Luftwaffe, leaked to him by Ralph Wigram at the Foreign Office, were less accurate than those of the Air Ministry and he believed that the Germans were preparing to unleash thermite bombs "the size of an orange" on London. Ministers stressed that Hitler's intentions were unclear, and the importance of maximising Britain's long-term economic strength through exports, whereas Churchill wanted 25–30 percent of British industry to be brought under state control for purposes of rearmament. Baldwin argued that the important thing had been to win the election to get "a perfectly free hand" for rearmament. The meeting ended with Baldwin agreeing with Churchill that rearmament was vital to deter Germany.[255][256] On 12 November, Churchill returned to the topic. Speaking in the Address in Reply debate, after giving some specific instances of Germany's war preparedness, he said "The Government simply cannot make up their mind or they cannot get the Prime Minister to make up his mind. So they go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful for impotency. And so we go on preparing more months more years precious perhaps vital for the greatness of Britain for the locusts to eat."[258] Robert Rhodes James called this one of Churchill's most brilliant speeches during this period, Baldwin's reply sounding weak and disturbing the House. The exchange gave new encouragement to the Arms and the Covenant
Arms and the Covenant
Movement.[259] Abdication crisis Main article: Edward VIII abdication crisis In June 1936, Walter Monckton
Walter Monckton
told Churchill that the rumours that King Edward VIII intended to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
were true. Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Simpson's existing marriage as a 'safeguard'.[260] In November, he declined Lord Salisbury's invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers who met with Baldwin to discuss the matter. On 25 November he, Attlee and Liberal Party leader Archibald Sinclair
Archibald Sinclair
met with Baldwin, were told officially of the King's intention, and asked whether they would form an administration if Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry's advice. Both Attlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so. Churchill's reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government.[261] The Abdication crisis became public, coming to a head in the first two weeks of December 1936. At this time, Churchill publicly gave his support to the King. The first public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3 December. Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks, he made a declaration 'on the spur of the moment' asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet.[262] Later that night Churchill saw the draft of the King's proposed wireless broadcast and spoke with Beaverbrook and the King's solicitor about it. On 4 December, he met with the King and again urged delay in any decision about abdication. On 5 December, he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision.[263] On 7 December, he tried to address the Commons to plead for delay. He was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members, he left.[264] Churchill's reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged. Some, such as Alistair Cooke, saw him as trying to build a King's Party.[265] Others like Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
were dismayed by the damage Churchill's support for the King had done to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.[266] Churchill himself later wrote "I was myself so smitten in public opinion that it was the almost universal view that my political life was at last ended."[267] Historians are divided about Churchill's motives in his support for Edward VIII. Some such as A. J. P. Taylor
A. J. P. Taylor
see it as being an attempt to 'overthrow the government of feeble men'.[268] Others, such as R. R. James, view Churchill's motives as honourable and disinterested, in that he felt deeply for the King.[269] Return from exile Churchill later sought to portray himself as an isolated voice warning of the need to rearm against Germany. While it is true that he had a small following in the House of Commons during much of the 1930s, he was given privileged information by some elements within the government, particularly by disaffected civil servants in the War Ministry and Foreign Office. The "Churchill group" in the latter half of the decade consisted of only himself, Duncan Sandys
Duncan Sandys
and Brendan Bracken. It was isolated from the other main factions within the Conservative Party in pressing for faster rearmament and a stronger foreign policy;[270][271] one meeting of anti-Chamberlain forces decided that Churchill would make a good Minister of Supply.[272] Even during the time Churchill was campaigning against Indian independence, he received official and otherwise secret information. From 1932, Churchill's neighbour, Major Desmond Morton, with Ramsay MacDonald's approval, gave Churchill information on German air power.[273] From 1930 onward Morton headed a department of the Committee of Imperial Defence
Committee of Imperial Defence
charged with researching the defence preparedness of other nations. Lord Swinton, as Secretary of State for Air, and with Baldwin's approval, in 1934 gave Churchill access to official and otherwise secret information. Swinton did so, knowing Churchill would remain a critic of the government, but believing that an informed critic was better than one relying on rumour and hearsay.[274] Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Adolf Hitler[275] and in private letters to Lloyd George (13 August) and Lord Moyne (11 September) just before the Munich Agreement, he wrote that the government was faced with a choice between "war and shame" and that having chosen shame would later get war on less favourable terms.[276][277][278] Return to the Admiralty On 3 September 1939, the day Britain declared war on Germany following the outbreak of the Second World War, Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty, the same position he had held during the first part of the First World War. As such he was a member of Chamberlain's small War Cabinet.[279][280][281] In this position, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called "Phoney War", when the only noticeable action was at sea and the USSR's attack on Finland. Churchill planned to penetrate the Baltic with a naval force. This was soon changed to a plan involving the mining of Norwegian waters to stop iron ore shipments from Narvik
Narvik
and provoke Germany into attacking Norway, where it could be defeated by the Royal Navy.[282] However, Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet
War Cabinet
disagreed, and the start of the mining plan, Operation Wilfred, was delayed until 8 April 1940, a day before the successful German invasion of Norway.[283] First term as prime minister: 1940–1945 For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the first premiership of Winston Churchill. Further information: Churchill war ministry See also: Military history of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during World War II and British Empire
British Empire
in World War II "We shall never surrender"

Churchill wears a helmet during an air raid warning in the Battle of Britain in 1940

On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Chamberlain's prosecution of the war and so Chamberlain resigned. The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of prime minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords
House of Lords
instead of the House of Commons. Although a prime minister does not traditionally advise the King on a prime minister's own successor, Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all three major parties in the House of Commons. A meeting between Chamberlain, Halifax, Churchill and David Margesson, the government Chief Whip, led to the recommendation of Churchill, and, as constitutional monarch, George VI
George VI
asked Churchill to be prime minister. Churchill's first act was to write to Chamberlain to thank him for his support.[284]

Churchill takes aim with a Sten
Sten
submachine gun in June 1941. The man in the pin-striped suit and fedora to the right is his bodyguard, Walter H. Thompson.

Churchill was still unpopular among many Conservatives and the Establishment,[271][285] who opposed his replacing Chamberlain; the former prime minister remained party leader until dying in November.[286] Churchill probably could not have won a majority in any of the political parties in the House of Commons, and the House of Lords was completely silent when it learned of his appointment.[271] Ralph Ingersoll reported in late 1940 that, "Everywhere I went in London people admired [Churchill's] energy, his courage, his singleness of purpose. People said they didn't know what Britain would do without him. He was obviously respected. But no one felt he would be Prime Minister after the war. He was simply the right man in the right job at the right time. The time being the time of a desperate war with Britain's enemies".[287] An element of British public and political sentiment favoured a negotiated peace with Germany, among them Halifax as Foreign Secretary. Over three days in May (26–28 May 1940), there were repeated discussions within the War Cabinet
War Cabinet
of whether the UK should associate itself with French approaches to Mussolini to use his good offices with Hitler to seek a negotiated peace: they terminated in refusal to do so. Various interpretations are possible of this episode and of Churchill's argument that "it was idle to think that, if we tried to make peace now, we should get better terms than if we fought it out", but throughout Churchill seems to have opposed any immediate peace negotiations.[288] Although at times personally pessimistic about Britain's chances for victory—Churchill told Hastings Ismay
Hastings Ismay
on 12 June 1940 that "[y]ou and I will be dead in three months' time"[286]—his use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war.[289] Coining the general term for the upcoming battle, Churchill stated in his "finest hour" speech to the House of Commons on 18 June, "I expect that the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
is about to begin."[290] By refusing an armistice with Germany, Churchill kept resistance alive in the British Empire and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942–45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the liberation of Western Europe.[citation needed] In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence, making him the most powerful wartime prime minister in British history.[271] He immediately put his friend and confidant, industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook, in charge of aircraft production and made his friend Frederick Lindemann the government's scientific advisor. It has been argued that it was Beaverbrook's business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering, which eventually made the difference in the war.[291]

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
walks through the ruins of Coventry Cathedral
Coventry Cathedral
with Alfred Robert Grindlay, 1941

Churchill's speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British. His first as prime minister was the famous "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat" speech. One historian has called its effect on Parliament "electrifying". The House of Commons that had ignored him during the 1930s "was now listening, and cheering".[272] Churchill followed that closely with two other equally famous ones, given just before the Battle of Britain. One included the words:

... we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.[292]

The other:

Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire
British Empire
and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their finest hour'.[293]

Churchill visits the troops in Normandy, 1944

At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", which engendered the enduring nickname The Few
The Few
for the RAF fighter pilots who won it.[294] He first spoke these famous words upon his exit from No. 11 Group's underground bunker at RAF Uxbridge, now known as the Battle of Britain Bunker on 16 August 1940. One of his most memorable war speeches came on 10 November 1942 at the Lord Mayor's Luncheon at Mansion House in London, in response to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Churchill stated:

This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.[295]

Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead. "Rhetorical power", wrote Churchill, "is neither wholly bestowed, nor wholly acquired, but cultivated." Not all were impressed by his oratory. Robert Menzies, Australian Prime Minister, said of Churchill during the Second World War: "His real tyrant is the glittering phrase so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way."[296] Another associate wrote: "He is ... the slave of the words which his mind forms about ideas ... And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery."[297] Mental and physical health

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
giving his famous 'V' sign, May 1943.

The war energised Churchill, who was 65 years old when he became Prime Minister. Stating that he was the only top leader from World War I who still had an important political job, John Gunther
John Gunther
wrote that Churchill "looks ten years younger than he is". H. R. Knickerbocker wrote that "The responsibilities which are his now must be greater than those carried by any other human being on earth. One would think such a weight would have a crushing effect upon him. Not at all. The last time I saw him, while the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
was still raging, he looked twenty years younger than before the war began ... His uplifted spirit is transmitted to the people".[298][285] Churchill's physical health became more fragile during the war; he suffered a mild heart attack in December 1941 at the White House, and in December 1943 contracted pneumonia. Despite this, Churchill travelled over 100,000 miles (160,000 km) throughout the war to meet other national leaders. For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden.[299] Since the appearance in 1966 of Lord Moran's memoir of his years as Churchill's doctor, with its claim that "Black Dog" was the name Churchill gave to "the prolonged fits of depression from which he suffered",[300] many authors have suggested that throughout his life Churchill was a victim of, or at risk from, clinical depression. Formulated in this way, Churchill's mental health history contains unmistakable echoes of the seminal interpretation of Lord Moran's Black Dog
Dog
revelations made by Dr Anthony Storr.[301] In drawing so heavily on Moran for what he took to be the latter's totally reliable, first-hand clinical evidence of Churchill's lifelong struggle with "prolonged and recurrent depression" and its associated "despair", Storr produced a seemingly authoritative and persuasive diagnostic essay that, in the words of John Ramsden, "strongly influenced all later accounts."[302] However, Storr was not aware that Moran, as Moran's biographer Professor Richard Lovell has shown and contrary to the impression created in Moran's book, kept no diary, in the usual sense of the word, during his years as Churchill's doctor. Nor was Storr aware that Moran's book as published was a much rewritten account which mixed together Moran's contemporaneous jottings with later material acquired from other sources.[303] As Wilfred Attenborough demonstrated, the key Black Dog
Dog
'diary' entry for 14 August 1944 was an arbitrarily dated pastiche in which the explicit reference to Black Dog—the first of the few in the book (with an associated footnote definition of the term)—was taken, not from anything Churchill had said to Moran, but from much later claims made to Moran by Bracken in 1958.[304] Although seemingly unnoticed by Dr Storr and those he influenced, Moran later on in his book retracts his earlier suggestion, also derived from Brendan Bracken, that, towards the end of the Second World War, Churchill was succumbing to "the inborn melancholia of the Churchill blood"; also unnoticed by Storr et al., Moran, in his final chapter, states that Churchill, before the start of the First World War, "had managed to extirpate bouts of depression from his system".[305] Despite the difficulties with Moran's book, the many illustrations it provides of a Churchill understandably plunged into temporary low mood by military defeats and other severely adverse developments constitute a compelling portrait of a great man reacting to, but not significantly impeded by, worry and overstrain, a compelling portrait that is entirely consistent with the portraits of others who worked closely with Churchill.[306] Churchill did not receive medication for depression—the amphetamine that Moran prescribed for special occasions, especially for big speeches from the autumn of 1953 onwards, was to combat the effects of Churchill's stroke of that year.[307]

Churchill in Québec City, Canada in 1943

Churchill himself seems, in a long life, to have written about Black Dog
Dog
on one occasion only: the reference, a backward-looking one, occurs in a private handwritten letter to Clementine Churchill
Clementine Churchill
dated July 1911 which reports the successful treatment of a relative's depression by a doctor in Germany.[308] His ministerial circumstances at that date, the very limited treatments available for serious depression pre-1911, the fact of the relative's being "complete cured", and, not least, the evident deep interest Churchill took in the fact of the complete cure, can be shown to point to Churchill's pre-1911 Black Dog
Dog
depression as having been a form of mild (i.e. non-psychotic) anxiety-depression,[309] as that term is defined by Professor Edward Shorter.[310]

Churchill's crossing of the Rhine
Rhine
river in Germany, during Operation Plunder on 25 March 1945

Moran himself leaned strongly in the direction of his patient being "by nature very apprehensive";[311] close associates of Churchill have disputed the idea that apprehension was a defining feature of Churchill's temperament, although they readily concede that he was noticeably worried and anxious about some matters, especially in the buildup to important speeches in the House of Commons and elsewhere.[312] Churchill himself all but openly acknowledged in his book Painting as a Pastime that he was prey to the "worry and mental overstrain [experienced] by persons who, over prolonged periods, have to bear exceptional responsibilities and discharge duties upon a very large scale".[313] The fact that he found a remedy in painting and bricklaying is a strong indicator that the condition as he defined it did not amount to 'clinical depression', certainly not as that term was understood during the lifetimes of himself and Lord Moran.[314] According to Lord Moran, during the war years Churchill sought solace in his tumbler of whisky and soda and his cigar. Churchill was also a very emotional man, unafraid to shed tears when appropriate. During some of his broadcast speeches it was noticed that he was trying to hold back the tears. Nevertheless, although the fall of Tobruk was, by Churchill's own account, "one of the heaviest blows" he received during the war,[315] there seem to have been no tears. Certainly, the next day Moran found him animated and vigorous.[316] Field Marshal Alanbrooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, who had been present when President Roosevelt broke the news of the tragedy to Churchill, focused afterward in his diary on the superbly well judged manner in which the President made his offer of immediate military assistance,[317] despite Alanbrooke's being ever ready to highlight what he perceived to be Churchill's contradictory motivations and flawed character during the war. For example, in his diary[318] entry for 10 September 1944:

... And the wonderful thing is that 3/4 of the population of the world imagine that Churchill is one of the Strategists of History, a second Marlborough, and the other 1/4 have no idea what a public menace he is and has been throughout this war! It is far better that the world should never know, and never suspect the feet of clay of this otherwise superhuman being. Without him England was lost for a certainty, with him England has been on the verge of disaster time and again ... Never have I admired and despised a man simultaneously to the same extent. Never have such opposite extremes been combined in the same human being.

Relations with the United States

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Churchill at the Cairo
Cairo
Conference in 1943.

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
fires an American M1 carbine
M1 carbine
during a visit to the US 2nd Armored Division on Salisbury Plain, 23 March 1944.

Churchill's good relations with United States
United States
President Franklin D. Roosevelt—between 1939 and 1945 they exchanged an estimated 1700 letters and telegrams and met 11 times; Churchill estimated that they had 120 days of close personal contact[319]—helped secure vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes.[320] It was for this reason that Churchill was relieved when Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940. Upon re-election, Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment. Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the US; and so Lend-Lease
Lend-Lease
was born. Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe first
Europe first
strategy, the Declaration by the United Nations and other war policies. After Pearl Harbor was attacked, Churchill's first thought in anticipation of US help was, "We have won the war!"[321] On 26 December 1941, Churchill addressed a joint meeting of the US Congress, asking of Germany and Japan, "What kind of people do they think we are?"[322] Churchill initiated the Special
Special
Operations Executive (SOE) under Hugh Dalton's Ministry of Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world's current Special
Special
Forces. The Russians referred to him as the "British Bulldog."[323] Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-Second World War European and Asian boundaries.[citation needed] These were discussed as early as 1943. At the Second Quebec Conference
Second Quebec Conference
in 1944 he drafted and, together with Roosevelt, signed a less-harsh version of the original Morgenthau Plan, in which they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender "into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character."[324] Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were officially agreed to by President Harry S. Truman, Churchill, and Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
at Potsdam. Churchill's strong relationship with Harry Truman was of great significance to both countries. While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Roosevelt, Churchill was enormously supportive of Truman in his first days in office, calling him, "the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most."[325] Relations with the Soviet Union

Huge portraits of Churchill and Stalin, Brisbane, Australia, 31 October 1941

When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-communist, famously stated "If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons", regarding his policy towards Stalin.[326] Soon, British supplies and tanks were being sent to help the Soviet Union.[327] The Casablanca
Casablanca
Conference, a meeting of Allied powers held in Casablanca, Morocco, on 14 January through 23 January 1943, produced what was to be known as the " Casablanca
Casablanca
Declaration". In attendance were Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Charles de Gaulle. Joseph Stalin had bowed out, citing the need for his presence in the Soviet Union to attend to the Stalingrad crisis. It was in Casablanca
Casablanca
that the Allies made a unified commitment to continue the war through to the "unconditional surrender" of the Axis powers. In private, however, Churchill did not fully subscribe to the doctrine of "unconditional surrender", and was taken by surprise when Franklin Roosevelt announced this to the world as Allied consensus.[328][329] The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and between Germany and Poland, was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile. It was Winston Churchill, who tried to motivate Mikołajczyk, who was prime minister of the Polish government in exile, to accept Stalin's wishes, but Mikołajczyk refused. Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the two populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders.[330][331] As he expounded in the House of Commons on 15 December 1944, "Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble ... A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions."[332][333] However, the resulting expulsions of Germans were carried out in a way which resulted in much hardship and, according to a 1966 report[334] by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons, over 2.1 million Germans dead or missing.[334] Churchill opposed the Soviet domination of Poland and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but was unable to prevent it at the conferences.[335]

Churchill at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
in February 1945, with a frail Roosevelt, and Stalin beside him.

During October 1944, he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at the Yalta conference, there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what.[336] The most significant of these meetings was held on 9 October 1944 in the Kremlin
Kremlin
between Churchill and Stalin. During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed.[337] Churchill told Stalin:

Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don't let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have ninety per cent predominance in Rumania, for us to have ninety per cent of the say in Greece, and go fifty–fifty about Yugoslavia?[336]

Stalin agreed to this Percentages agreement, ticking a piece of paper as he heard the translation. In 1958, five years after the account of this meeting was published (in The Second World War), authorities of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
denied that Stalin accepted the "imperialist proposal".[337] One of the conclusions of the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
was that the Allies would return all Soviet citizens that found themselves in the Allied zone to the Soviet Union. This immediately affected the Soviet prisoners of war liberated by the Allies, but was also extended to all Eastern European refugees.[338] Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn
called the Operation Keelhaul "the last secret" of the Second World War.[339] The operation decided the fate of up to two million post-war refugees fleeing eastern Europe.[340] Role in Bengal famine There has been debate over Churchill's culpability in the deaths of millions of Indians during the Bengal famine of 1943. Some commentators point to the disruption of the traditional marketing system and maladministration at the provincial level as a cause, with Churchill saying that the famine was the Indians' own fault for "breeding like rabbits".[341][342][343][344][342][345] Adam Jones, editor of the Journal of Genocide Research, calls Churchill "a genuine genocidaire", noting that the British leader called Indians a "foul race" in this period and said that the British air force chief should "send some of his surplus bombers to destroy them." [346] Arthur Herman, author of Churchill and Gandhi, contends, 'The real cause was the fall of Burma to the Japanese, which cut off India's main supply of rice imports when domestic sources fell short ... [though] it is true that Churchill opposed diverting food supplies and transports from other theatres to India to cover the shortfall: this was wartime.'[347] In response to an urgent request by the Secretary of State for India (Leo Amery) and the Viceroy
Viceroy
of India (Wavell), to release food stocks for India, Churchill responded with a telegram to Wavell
Wavell
asking, if food was so scarce, "why Gandhi hadn't died yet".[348][349] In July 1940, newly in office, he reportedly welcomed reports of the emerging conflict between the Muslim League and the Indian Congress, hoping "it would be bitter and bloody".[222] Dresden
Dresden
bombings controversy Main article: Bombing of Dresden
Dresden
in World War II

The destruction of Dresden, February 1945

Between 13–15 February 1945, British and US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with German wounded and refugees.[350] There were unknown numbers of refugees in Dresden, so historians Matthias Neutzner, Götz Bergander and Frederick Taylor have used historical sources and deductive reasoning to estimate that the number of refugees in the city and surrounding suburbs was around 200,000 or less on the first night of the bombing. Because of the cultural importance of the city, and of the number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war. Following the bombing Churchill stated in a secret telegram:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed ... I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.[351]

On reflection, under pressure from the chiefs of staff, and in response to the views expressed by Sir Charles Portal
Charles Portal
(Chief of the Air Staff) and Sir Arthur Harris (AOC-in-C of RAF Bomber Command), among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one.[352][353] This final version of the memo completed on 1 April 1945, stated:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called 'area-bombing' of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies ... We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy's war effort.[352][353]

Ultimately, responsibility for the British part of the attack lay with Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to occur. German historian Jörg Friedrich claims that Churchill's decision was a "war crime",[354] and, writing in 2006, philosopher A.C. Grayling
A.C. Grayling
questioned the whole strategic bombing campaign by the RAF, presenting the argument that although it was not a war crime it was a moral crime that undermines the Allies' contention that they fought a just war.[355] On the other hand, it has been asserted that Churchill's involvement in the bombing of Dresden
Dresden
was based on strategic and tactical aspects of winning the war. The destruction of Dresden, while immense, was designed to expedite the defeat of Germany. As historian and journalist Max Hastings
Max Hastings
wrote in an article subtitled "the Allied Bombing of Dresden": "I believe it is wrong to describe strategic bombing as a war crime, for this might be held to suggest some moral equivalence with the deeds of the Nazis. Bombing represented a sincere, albeit mistaken, attempt to bring about Germany's military defeat." British historian Frederick Taylor asserts that "All sides bombed each other's cities during the war. Half a million Soviet citizens, for example, died from German bombing during the invasion and occupation of Russia. That's roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids."[356] End of the Second World War See also: Churchill caretaker ministry

Churchill waving the Victory sign
Victory sign
to the crowd in Whitehall on the day he broadcast to the nation that the war with Germany had been won, 8 May 1945. Ernest Bevin
Ernest Bevin
stands to his right.

In June 1944, the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazi forces back into Germany on a broad front over the coming year. After being attacked on three fronts by the Allies, and in spite of Allied failures, such as Operation Market Garden, and German counter-attacks, including the Battle of the Bulge, Germany was eventually defeated. On 7 May 1945 at the SHAEF
SHAEF
headquarters in Rheims
Rheims
the Allies accepted Germany's surrender. On the same day in a BBC news flash John Snagge announced that 8 May would be Victory in Europe Day.[357] On Victory in Europe Day, Churchill broadcast to the nation that Germany had surrendered and that a final ceasefire on all fronts in Europe would come into effect at one minute past midnight that night.[358][359] Afterward, Churchill told a huge crowd in Whitehall: "This is your victory." The people shouted: "No, it is yours", and Churchill then conducted them in the singing of "Land of Hope and Glory". In the evening he made another broadcast to the nation asserting the defeat of Japan in the coming months.[360] The Japanese surrendered on 15 August 1945. As Europe celebrated peace at the end of six years of war, Churchill was concerned with the possibility that the celebrations would soon be brutally interrupted.[clarification needed][361] He concluded the UK and the US must anticipate the Red Army ignoring previously agreed frontiers and agreements in Europe, and prepare to "impose upon Russia the will of the United States
United States
and the British Empire."[361] According to the Operation Unthinkable
Operation Unthinkable
plan ordered by Churchill and developed by the British Armed Forces, the Third World War could have started on 1 July 1945 with a sudden attack against the allied Soviet troops. The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee
Chiefs of Staff Committee
as militarily unfeasible.[361] Syria
Syria
crisis Further information: Levant
Levant
Crisis Soon after VE day
VE day
there came a dispute with Britain over French mandates Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
known as the Levant
Levant
which quickly developed into a major diplomatic incident.[362] In May, de Gaulle sent more French troops to re-establish their presence provoking an outbreak of nationalism.[362] On 20 May, French troops opened fire on demonstrators in Damascus
Damascus
with artillery and dropped bombs from the air.[363] Finally, on 31 May, with the death toll exceeding a thousand Syrians, Churchill decided to act and sent de Gaulle an ultimatum saying, "In order to avoid a collision between British and French forces, we request you immediately to order French troops to cease fire and withdraw to their barracks".[364] This was ignored by both de Gaulle and the French forces and thus Churchill ordered British troops and armoured cars under General Bernard Paget
Bernard Paget
to invade Syria
Syria
from nearby Transjordan. The invasion went ahead and the British swiftly moved in cutting the French General Fernand Oliva-Roget's telephone line with his base at Beirut. Eventually, heavily outnumbered, Oliva-Roget ordered his men back to their bases near the coast who were then escorted by the British. A furious row then broke out between Britain and France.[363] Churchill's relationship with de Gaulle was at this time rock bottom in spite of his efforts to preserve French interests at Yalta and a visit to Paris the previous year. In January he told a colleague that he believed that de Gaulle was "a great danger to peace and for Great Britain. After five years of experience, I am convinced that he is the worst enemy of France in her troubles ... he is one of the greatest dangers to European peace.... I am sure that in the long run no understanding will be reached with General de Gaulle".[364] In France, there were accusations that Britain had armed the demonstrators and de Gaulle raged against 'Churchill's ultimatum', saying that "the whole thing stank of oil".[362] In Opposition: 1945–1951

Churchill at Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
(July 1945)

Main article: Later life of Winston Churchill Caretaker government and 1945 election With a general election looming (there had been none for almost a decade), and with the Labour Ministers refusing to continue the wartime coalition, Churchill resigned as Prime Minister on 23 May. Later that day, he accepted the King's invitation to form a new government, known officially as the National Government, like the Conservative-dominated coalition of the 1930s, but in practice known as the Churchill caretaker ministry. The government contained Conservatives, National Liberals and a few non-party figures such as Sir John Anderson and Lord Woolton, but not Labour or Archibald Sinclair's Official Liberals. Although Churchill continued to carry out the functions of Prime Minister, including exchanging messages with the US administration about the upcoming Potsdam Conference, he was not formally reappointed until 28 May.[365] Although polling day was 5 July, the results of the 1945 election did not become known until 26 July, owing to the need to collect the votes of those serving overseas. Clementine, who together with his daughter Mary had been at the count at Churchill's constituency in Essex (although unopposed by the major parties, Churchill had been returned with a much-reduced majority against an independent candidate) returned to meet her husband for lunch. To her suggestion that election defeat might be "a blessing in disguise" he retorted that "at the moment it seems very effectively disguised". That afternoon Churchill's doctor Lord Moran (so he later recorded in his book The Struggle for Survival) commiserated with him on the "ingratitude" of the British public, to which Churchill replied "I wouldn't call it that. They have had a very hard time." Having lost the election, despite enjoying much support amongst the British population, he resigned as Prime Minister that evening, this time handing over to a Labour Government.[366][367] Many reasons for his defeat have been given, key among them being that a desire for post-war reform was widespread amongst the population and that the man who had led Britain in war was not seen as the man to lead the nation in peace.[368] Although the Conservative Party was unpopular, many electors appear to have wanted Churchill to continue as Prime Minister whatever the outcome, or to have wrongly believed that this would be possible.[369] On the morning of 27 July, Churchill held a farewell Cabinet. On the way out of the Cabinet Room he told Eden "Thirty years of my life have been passed in this room. I shall never sit in it again. You will, but I shall not."[370] However, contrary to expectations, Churchill did not hand over the Conservative leadership to Anthony Eden, who became his deputy but was disinclined to challenge his leadership. It would be another decade before Churchill finally did hand over the reins.[371] Opposition leader

Churchill with American General Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
and Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery
Bernard Law Montgomery
at a meeting of NATO
NATO
in October 1951, shortly before Churchill was to become prime minister for a second time

For six years he was to serve as the Leader of the Opposition. During these years Churchill continued to influence world affairs. During his 1946 trip[372] to the United States, Churchill famously lost a lot of money in a poker game with Harry Truman and his advisors.[373] During this trip he gave his Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
speech about the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc. Speaking on 5 March 1946 at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, he declared:

From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.[374]

Churchill's doctor Lord Moran later (in his book The Struggle for Survival) recalled Churchill suggesting in 1946—the year before he put the idea (unsuccessfully) in a memo to President Truman—that the United States
United States
make a pre-emptive atomic bomb attack on Moscow while the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
did not yet possess nuclear weapons.[375][376] In parliament on 5 June 1946, three days before the London Victory Parade, Churchill said he 'deeply' regretted that:

none of the Polish troops, and I must say this, who fought with us on a score of battlefields, who poured out their blood in the common cause, are not to be allowed to march in the Victory Parade... The fate of Poland seems to be unending tragedy and we who went to war all ill-prepared on her behalf watch with sorrow the strange outcome of our endeavours.[377]

Churchill told the Irish Ambassador to London in 1946, "I said a few words in parliament the other day about your country because I still hope for a united Ireland. You must get those fellows in the north in, though; you can't do it by force. There is not, and never was, any bitterness in my heart towards your country." He later said "You know I have had many invitations to visit Ulster but I have refused them all. I don't want to go there at all, I would much rather go to southern Ireland. Maybe I'll buy another horse with an entry in the Irish Derby."[378] He continued to lead his party after losing the 1950 general election. European unity Further information: Ideas of European unity before 1945 In the summer of 1930, inspired by the ideas being floated by Aristide Briand and by his recent tour of the US in the autumn of 1929, Churchill wrote an article lamenting the instability which had been caused by the independence of Poland and the disintegration of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
into petty states, and called for a " United States
United States
of Europe", although he wrote that Britain was "with Europe but not of it".[379] Ideas about closer European union continued to circulate, driven by Paul-Henri Spaak, from 1942 onwards.[380] As early as March 1943 a Churchill speech on postwar reconstruction annoyed the US administration not only by not mentioning China as a great power but by proposing a purely European "Council of Europe". Harry Hopkins passed on President Roosevelt's concerns, warning Eden that it would "give free ammunition to (US) isolationists" who might propose an American "regional council". Churchill urged Eden, on a visit to the US at the time, to "listen politely" but give "no countenance" to Roosevelt's proposals for the US, UK, USSR and Chiang Kai-shek's China to act together to enforce "Global Collective Security" with the Japanese and French Empires taken into international trusteeship.[381] Now out of office, Churchill gave a speech at Zurich on 19 September 1946 in which he called for "a kind of United States
United States
of Europe" centred around a Franco-German partnership, with Britain and the Commonwealth, and perhaps the US, as "friends and sponsors of the new Europe". The Times
The Times
wrote of him "startling the world" with "outrageous propositions" and warned that there was as yet little appetite for such unity, and that he appeared to be assuming a permanent division between Eastern and Western Europe, and urged "more humdrum" economic agreements. Churchill's speech was praised by Leo Amery
Leo Amery
and by Count Coudenhove-Kalergi who wrote that it would galvanise governments into action.[382][383] Churchill expressed similar sentiments at a meeting of the Primrose League at the Albert Hall
Albert Hall
on 18 May 1947. He declared "let Europe arise" but was "absolutely clear" that "we shall allow no wedge to be driven between Britain and the United States". Churchill's speeches helped to encourage the foundation of the Council of Europe.[383][384] In June 1950, Churchill was strongly critical of the Attlee Government's failure to send British representatives to Paris (to discuss the Schuman Plan
Schuman Plan
for setting up the European Coal and Steel Community), declaring that les absents ont toujours tort and calling it "a squalid attitude" which "derange(d) the balance of Europe", and risked Germany dominating the new grouping. He called for world unity through the UN (against the backdrop of the communist invasion of South Korea), while stressing that Britain was uniquely placed to exert leadership through her links to the Commonwealth, the US and Europe.[385] However, Churchill did not want Britain to actually join any federal grouping.[386][387][388] In September 1951, a declaration of the American, French and British foreign ministers welcomed the Schuman Plan, stressing that it would revive economic growth and encourage the development of a democratic Germany, part of the Atlantic community.[389] After returning as Prime Minister, Churchill issued a note for the Cabinet on 29 November 1951. He listed British Foreign Policy priorities as Commonwealth unity and consolidation, "fraternal association" of the English-speaking world (i.e. the Commonwealth and the US), then thirdly "United Europe, to which we are a closely—and specially-related ally and friend … (it is) only when plans for uniting Europe take a federal form that we cannot take part, because we cannot subordinate ourselves or the control of British policy to federal authorities".[390] In 1956, after retiring as Prime Minister, Churchill went to Aachen to receive the Charlemagne Prize
Charlemagne Prize
for his contribution to European Unity.[391] Churchill is today listed as one of the "Founding fathers of the European Union".[392] In July 1962, Field-Marshal Montgomery told the press that the aged Churchill, whom he had just visited in hospital where he was being treated for a broken hip, was opposed to Macmillan's negotiations for Britain to enter the EEC (which would, in the event, be vetoed by the French President, General de Gaulle, the following January). Churchill told his granddaughter, Edwina, that Montgomery's behaviour in leaking a private conversation was "monstrous".[393] Second term as prime minister: 1951–1955 Main article: Second premiership of Winston Churchill Further information: Third Churchill ministry Return to government Domestic policy After the general election of October 1951, Churchill again became prime minister, and his second government lasted until his resignation in April 1955. He also held the office of Minister of Defence from October 1951 until 1 March 1952, when he handed the portfolio to Field Marshal Alexander.[394] In domestic affairs, various reforms were introduced such as the Mines and Quarries Act 1954 and the Housing Repairs and Rents Act 1954. The former measure consolidated legislation dealing with the employment of young persons and women in mines and quarries, together with safety, health, and welfare. The latter measure extended previous housing Acts, and set out details in defining housing units as "unfit for human habitation."[395] Tax allowances were raised, as well,[396] construction of council housing accelerated, and pensions and national assistance benefits were increased.[397] Controversially, however, charges for prescription medicines were introduced.[398] Housing was an issue the Conservatives were widely recognised to have made their own, after the Churchill government of the early 1950s, with Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
as Minister for Housing, giving housing construction far higher political priority than it had received under the Attlee administration (where housing had been attached to the portfolio of Health Minister Aneurin Bevan, whose attention was concentrated on his responsibilities for the National Health Service). Macmillan had accepted Churchill's challenge to meet the latter's ambitious public commitment to build 300,000 new homes a year, and achieved the target a year ahead of schedule.[399][400] Colonial affairs

Crowd demonstrates against Britain in Cairo
Cairo
on 23 October 1951 as tension continued to mount in the dispute between Egypt
Egypt
and Britain over control of the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.

Kenya and Malaya Main articles: Mau Mau Uprising
Mau Mau Uprising
and Malayan Emergency Churchill's domestic priorities in his last government were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power. Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action. One example was his dispatch of British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion.[401] Trying to retain what he could of the Empire, he once stated that, "I will not preside over a dismemberment."[401] This was followed by events which became known as the Malayan Emergency which had been in progress since 1948. Once again, Churchill's government inherited a crisis, and Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not.[360][402] While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer sustainable.[403] Relations with the US and the quest for a summit In the early 1950s, Britain was still attempting to remain a third major power on the world stage. This was "the time when Britain stood up to the United States
United States
as strongly as she was ever to do in the postwar world".[404] However, Churchill devoted much of his time in office to Anglo-American relations and attempted to maintain the Special
Special
Relationship. He made four official transatlantic visits to America during his second term as prime minister.[405] Churchill and Eden visited Washington in January 1952. The Truman Administration was supporting the plans for a European Defence Community (EDC), hoping that this would allow controlled West German rearmament and enable American troop reductions. Churchill affected to believe that the proposed EDC would not work, scoffing at the supposed difficulties of language. Churchill asked in vain for a US military commitment to support Britain's position in Egypt
Egypt
and Middle East (where the Truman Administration had recently pressured Attlee not to intervene against Mossadeq in Iran); this did not meet with American approval—the US expected British support to fight communism in Korea, but saw any US commitment to the Middle East as supporting British imperialism, and were unpersuaded that this would help prevent pro-Soviet regimes from coming to power.[406] By early 1953, the Cabinet's Foreign Policy priority was Egypt
Egypt
and the nationalist, anti-imperialist Egyptian Revolution.[407] After Stalin's death, Churchill, the last of the wartime Big Three, wrote to Dwight D. Eisenhower, who had just assumed office as US President, on 11 March proposing a summit meeting with the Soviets; Eisenhower wrote back pouring cold water on the suggestions as the Soviets might use it for propaganda.[408][409][410] Some of Churchill's colleagues hoped that he might retire after the Queen's Coronation in May 1953. Eden wrote to his son on 10 April "W gets daily older & is apt to ... waste a great deal of time ... the outside world has little idea how difficult that becomes. Please make me retire before I am 80!" However, Eden's serious illness (he nearly died after a series of botched operations on his bile duct) allowed Churchill to take control of foreign affairs from April 1953.[409][411] After further discouragement from President Eisenhower (this was the McCarthy era in the US, in which Secretary of State Dulles took a Manichean view of the Cold War), Churchill announced his plans in the House of Commons on 11 May. The US Embassy in London noted that this was a rare occasion on which Churchill did not mention Anglo-American solidarity in a speech. Ministers like Lord Salisbury (acting Foreign Secretary) and Nutting were concerned at the irritation caused to the Americans and the French, although Selwyn Lloyd
Selwyn Lloyd
supported Churchill's initiative, as did most Conservatives. In his diary a year later, Eden wrote of Churchill's actions with fury.[409][412] Stroke and resignation Churchill had suffered a mild stroke while on holiday in the south of France in the summer of 1949. By the time he formed his next government he was slowing down noticeably enough for George VI, as early as December 1951, to consider inviting Churchill to retire in the following year in favour of Anthony Eden,[413] but it is not recorded if the King made that approach before his own death in February 1952. The strain of carrying the Premiership and Foreign Office contributed to his second stroke at 10 Downing Street
10 Downing Street
after dinner on the evening of 23 June 1953. Despite being partially paralysed down one side, he presided over a Cabinet meeting the next morning without anybody noticing his incapacity. Thereafter his condition deteriorated, and it was thought that he might not survive the weekend. Had Eden been fit, Churchill's premiership would most likely have been over. News of this was kept from the public and from Parliament, who were told that Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. He went to his country home, Chartwell, to recuperate, and by the end of June he astonished his doctors by being able, dripping with perspiration, to lift himself upright from his chair. He joked that news of his illness had chased the trial of the serial killer John Christie off the front pages.[414][415][416] Churchill was still keen to pursue a meeting with the Soviets and was open to the idea of a reunified Germany. He refused to condemn the Soviet crushing of East Germany, commenting on 10 July 1953 that "The Russians were surprisingly patient about the disturbances in East Germany". He thought this might have been the reason for the removal of Beria.[417] Churchill returned to public life in October 1953 to make a speech at the Conservative Party conference at Margate.[416] In December 1953, Churchill met Eisenhower in Bermuda.[418] Churchill was annoyed about friction between Eden and Dulles (June 1954). On the trip home from another Anglo-American conference, the diplomat Pierson Dixon compared US actions in Guatemala to Soviet policy in Korea and Greece, causing Churchill to retort that Guatemala was a "bloody place" he'd "never heard of". Churchill was still keen for a trip to Moscow, and threatened to resign, provoking a crisis in the Cabinet when Lord Salisbury threatened to resign if Churchill had his way. In the end the Soviets proposed a five-power conference, which did not meet until after Churchill had retired. By the autumn Churchill was again postponing his resignation.[419][420] Eden, now partially recovered from his operations, became a major figure on the world stage in 1954, helping to negotiate peace in Indo-China, an agreement with Egypt
Egypt
and to broker an agreement between the countries of Western Europe after the French rejection of the EDC.[421] Aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Churchill at last retired as prime minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden. At the time of his departure, he was considered to have had the longest ministerial career in modern British politics.[422] Churchill suffered another mild stroke in December 1956. Retirement and death: 1955–1965 Main article: Later life of Winston Churchill

Churchill spent much of his retirement at his home Chartwell
Chartwell
in Kent. He purchased it in 1922 after his daughter Mary was born.

Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
offered to create Churchill Duke of London, but this was declined as a result of the objections of his son Randolph, who would have inherited the title on his father's death.[423] He did, however, accept a knighthood as Garter Knight. After leaving the premiership, Churchill spent less time in parliament until he stood down at the 1964 general election. Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell
Chartwell
and at his home in Hyde Park Gate, in London, and became a habitué of high society on the French Riviera.[360][424] Although publicly supportive, Churchill was privately scathing about Eden's Suez Invasion. His wife believed that he had made a number of visits to the US in the following years in an attempt to help repair Anglo-American relations.[425] By the time of the 1959 general election Churchill seldom attended the House of Commons. Despite the Conservative landslide, his own majority fell by more than a thousand. It is widely believed that as his mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose a battle he had supposedly long fought against depression. However, the nature, incidence and severity of Churchill's depression is uncertain. Anthony Montague Browne, Personal Secretary to Churchill during the latter's final ten years of life, wrote that he never heard Churchill refer to depression, and he disputed that the former prime minister suffered from depression.[426] There was speculation that Churchill may have had Alzheimer's disease in his last years, although others maintain that his reduced mental capacity was simply the cumulative result of the ten strokes and the increasing deafness he suffered from during the period 1949–1963.[427] In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed him an Honorary Citizen of the United States,[428] but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony.[429] Despite poor health, Churchill still tried to remain active in public life, and on St George's Day
St George's Day
1964, sent a message of congratulations to the surviving veterans of the 1918 Zeebrugge Raid
Zeebrugge Raid
who were attending a service of commemoration in Deal, Kent, where two casualties of the raid were buried in the Hamilton Road Cemetery. On 15 January 1965, Churchill suffered a severe stroke and died at his London home nine days later, aged 90, on the morning of Sunday, 24 January 1965, 70 years to the day after his own father's death.[429] Funeral

Churchill's grave at St Martin's Church, Bladon

Churchill's funeral plan had been initiated in 1953, after he suffered a major stroke, under the name Operation Hope Not. The purpose was to commemorate Churchill "on a scale befitting his position in history", as Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
declared.[430] The funeral was the largest state funeral in world history up to that time, with representatives from 112 nations; only China did not send an emissary. In Europe, 350 million people, including 25 million in Britain, watched the funeral on television, and only the Republic of Ireland did not broadcast it live.[431] By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state in Westminster Hall
Westminster Hall
for three days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul's Cathedral on 30 January 1965.[432] One of the largest assemblages of statesmen in the world was gathered for the service. Unusually, the Queen attended the funeral because Churchill was the first commoner since William Gladstone
William Gladstone
to lie-in-State.[433] As Churchill's lead-lined coffin passed up the River Thames
River Thames
from Tower Pier to Festival Pier
Festival Pier
on the MV Havengore, dockers lowered their crane jibs in a salute.[434] The Royal Artillery
Royal Artillery
fired the 19-gun salute due a head of government, and the RAF staged a fly-by of sixteen English Electric Lightning fighters. The coffin was then taken the short distance to Waterloo station where it was loaded onto a specially prepared and painted carriage as part of the funeral train for its rail journey to Hanborough,[435] seven miles northwest of Oxford.

Sir Winston Churchill's funeral train passing Clapham Junction

The funeral train of Pullman coaches carrying his family mourners was hauled by Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
class steam locomotive No. 34051 Winston Churchill. In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects. At Churchill's request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin's Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace. Churchill's funeral van—former Southern Railway van S2464S—is now part of a preservation project with the Swanage Railway, having been repatriated to the UK in 2007 from the US, to where it had been exported in 1965.[436] Later in 1965 a memorial to Churchill, cut by the engraver Reynolds Stone, was placed in Westminster Abbey.[437] Legacy and historical assessments Churchill's reputation among the general British public remains high: he was voted number one in a 2002 BBC poll of the 100 Greatest Britons of all time.[438] Throughout his career, Churchill's outspokenness earned him enemies,[72] and his legacy continues to stir intense debate among writers and historians.[1] Haffner believed that Churchill had an "affinity with war", exhibiting "a profound and innate understanding of it."[439] In his later career, Churchill gained a reputation as being the last Victorian in British politics;[440] Jenkins thought that this was not a fair assessment, stating that he remained "essentially an Edwardian rather than a Victorian" in his attitudes.[440]

Statue of Churchill in Westerham, Kent

According to Allen Packwood, director of the Churchill Archives Centre, even during his own lifetime Churchill was an "incredibly complex, contradictory and larger-than-life human being," who frequently wrestled with those contradictions.[441] Notably, his strongly held and outspoken views on race have frequently been highlighted, quoted and strongly criticised.[442] However, historian Richard Toye has observed that in the context of the era, Churchill was not "particularly unique" in having strong opinions on race and the superiority of white peoples, even if many of his contemporaries did not subscribe to them. While staunchly opposed to labour unions and holding Communist agitation responsible for the Labour movement during the 1920s, he supported social reform, if more in the spirit of Victorian paternalism.[441] From early on, his reputation as an unbending imperialist was well established. At the November 1921 cabinet meeting where a final decision on a proposal to retrocede Weihaiwei to China was to be made, he, alone with George Curzon, another uncompromising imperialist, adamantly opposed the proposal, no matter how worthless the territory was known to be. He lamented Britain’s historic readiness to barter away places such as Java and Corfu, asking "Why melt down the capital collected by our forebears to please a lot of pacifists?"[443] Churchill's attitudes towards and policies regarding Indians and Britain's rule of the subcontinent are frequently criticised, and have left a lasting and highly contentious mark on his legacy. Historian Walter Reid, who has written admiringly about Churchill's premiership and "absolutely crucial role during the Second World War," has however acknowledged that Churchill "was very wrong in relation to India, where his conduct fell far below his usual level." Reid further observes that while it remains "tough to give a nuanced view on Churchill in a few words," Churchill's efforts and those of several fellow back-bench parliamentarians in the 1930s to manipulate the 1935 Government of India Act further entrenched religious and political divisions amongst Hindus, Muslims and the Indian princely rulers.[444] Artist, historian, and writer

Allies (1995) by Lawrence Holofcener, a sculptural group depicting Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Churchill in New Bond Street, London

Main articles: Winston Churchill as historian
Winston Churchill as historian
and Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as writer Churchill was an accomplished amateur artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915.[445] He found a haven in art to overcome the spells of depression which some say he suffered throughout his life. As William Rees-Mogg has stated, "In his own life, he had to suffer the 'black dog' of depression. In his landscapes and still lives there is no sign of depression."[446] Churchill was persuaded and taught to paint by his artist friend, Paul Maze, whom he met during the First World War. Maze was a great influence on Churchill's painting and became a lifelong painting companion.[447] Churchill's best known paintings are impressionist landscapes, many of which were painted while on holiday in the South of France, Egypt
Egypt
or Morocco.[446] Using the pseudonym "Charles Morin",[285] he continued his hobby throughout his life and painted hundreds of paintings, many of which are on show in the studio at Chartwell
Chartwell
as well as private collections.[448] Most of his paintings are oil-based and feature landscapes, but he also did a number of interior scenes and portraits. In 1925 Lord Duveen, Kenneth Clark, and Oswald Birley
Oswald Birley
selected his Winter Sunshine as the prize winner in a contest for anonymous amateur artists.[449]:46–47 Due to obvious time constraints, Churchill attempted only one painting during the Second World War. He completed the painting from the tower of the Villa Taylor in Marrakesh.[450] Some of his paintings can today be seen in the Wendy and Emery Reves Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art. Emery Reves was Churchill's American publisher, as well as a close friend[451] and Churchill often visited Emery and his wife Wendy Russell Reves at their villa, La Pausa, in the South of France, which had originally been built in 1927 for Coco Chanel by her lover the 2nd Duke of Westminster. The villa was rebuilt within the museum in 1985 with a gallery of Churchill paintings and memorabilia.[452][453] Gunther estimated in 1939 that Churchill earned $100,000 a year ($1.39 million in 2016) from writing and lecturing, but that "of this he spends plenty".[298] Despite his lifelong fame and upper-class origins, Churchill always struggled to keep his income at a level which would fund his extravagant lifestyle. MPs before 1946 received only a nominal salary (and in fact did not receive anything at all until the Parliament Act 1911) so many had secondary professions from which to earn a living.[454] From his first book in 1898 until his second stint as Prime Minister, Churchill's income while out of office was almost entirely from writing books and opinion pieces for newspapers and magazines, among them the fortnightly columns that appeared in the Evening Standard
Evening Standard
from 1936 warning of the rise of Hitler and the danger of the policy of appeasement.[455] Churchill was a prolific writer, often under the pen name "Winston S. Churchill", which he used by agreement with the American novelist of the same name to avoid confusion between their works. His output included a novel, two biographies, three volumes of memoirs, and several histories. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1953 "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values".[456] Two of his most famous works, published after his first premiership brought his international fame to new heights, were his six-volume memoir The Second World War
Second World War
and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples; a four-volume history covering the period from Caesar's invasions of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of the First World War (1914).[457] A number of volumes of Churchill's speeches were also published. the first of which, Into Battle, was published in the United States
United States
under the title Blood, Sweat and Tears, and was included in Life Magazine's list of the 100 outstanding books of 1924–1944.[458] Churchill was an amateur bricklayer, constructing buildings and garden walls at his country home at Chartwell,[285] where he also bred butterflies.[459] As part of this hobby Churchill joined the Amalgamated Union of Building Trade Workers,[460] but was expelled due to his revived membership in the Conservative Party.[285] Churchill was passionate about science and technology. When he was 22 he read Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
and a primer on physics. In the 1920s and 1930s, he wrote popular-science essays on topics such as evolution and fusion power. In an unpublished manuscript, Are We Alone in the Universe?, he investigates the possibility of extraterrestrial life in a thoroughly scientific way.[461][462] Ideology

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When campaigning for his Oldham seat in 1899, Churchill referred to himself as a Conservative and a Tory Democrat.[463] In a 1902 letter to a fellow Conservative, Churchill stated that he had "broad, tolerant, moderate views—a longing for compromise and agreement—a disdain for cant of all kinds—a hatred for extremists whether they be Jingos or Pro-Boers; and I confess the idea of a central party, fresher, freer, more efficient, yet, above all, loyal and patriotic, is very pleasing to my heart."[464] In a 1903 letter, he referred to himself as an "English Liberal... I hate the Tory party, their men, their words and their methods".[465] Jenkins thought that "there is room for argument about whether he was ever an engrained philosophical Liberal".[466] Jenkins described Churchill's opposition to protectionism as being based on a "profound conviction".[467] Churchill was well disposed to Zionism.[468] Personal life From childhood, Churchill had been unable to pronounce the letter s, verbalising it with a slur.[50] This lateral lisp continued throughout his career, reported consistently by journalists of the time and later. Authors writing in the 1920s and 1930s, before sound recording became common, also mentioned Churchill having a stutter, describing it in terms such as "severe" or "agonising".[469] The Churchill Centre and Museum says the majority of records show his impediment was a lateral lisp, while Churchill's stutter is a myth.[470] His dentures were specially designed to aid his speech.[471] After many years of public speeches carefully prepared not only to inspire, but also to avoid hesitations, he could finally state, "My impediment is no hindrance".[472] Gilbert believed that during the early 1900s, when Churchill worked as a professional speech giver, he mastered "every aspect of the art of speech-making".[473] Describing Churchill's "ebullient personality",[474] Jenkins noted that in his youth, Churchill displayed "impetuous self-centredness" and "rash courage".[475] He added that Churchill displayed a "self-confidence and determination always to go straight to the top" when dealing with a situation, approaching the highest ranking official he could.[476] Gilbert stated that in his early parliamentary career, Churchill reflected "zeal, intelligence, and eagerness to learn".[108] Churchill developed a reputation for being a heavy drinker of alcoholic beverages, although this was often over-exaggerated.[477] In India, he enjoyed playing polo.[439] Gilbert noted that Churchill's literary style was "outspoken, vigorous, with the written equivalent of a mischievous grin".[95] His barbed rhetorical style earned him many enemies in parliament,[478] and many Conservatives disliked him for his open criticism of Balfour and subsequent defection to the Liberals.[479] One of his closest friends, even when he was a Liberal, was the Conservative MP F. E. Smith.[480] Like his father, Churchill faced jibes that all of his friends were Jewish.[139] Marriage and children Further information: Descendants of Winston Churchill

A young Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
and fiancée Clementine Hozier shortly before their marriage in 1908

Churchill met his future wife, Clementine Hozier, in 1904 at a ball in Crewe House, home of the Earl of Crewe and Crewe's wife Margaret Primrose (daughter of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, and Hannah Rothschild).[481] In 1908, they met again at a dinner party hosted by Lady St Helier. Churchill found himself seated beside Clementine, and they soon began a lifelong romance.[482] He proposed to Clementine during a house party at Blenheim Palace
Blenheim Palace
on 10 August 1908, in a small Temple of Diana.[157][483] On 12 September 1908, he and Clementine were married in St. Margaret's, Westminster.[151] A. G. Edwards, the Bishop of St Asaph, conducted the service.[484] Their first child, Diana, was born in London on 11 July 1909. After the pregnancy, Clementine moved to Sussex to recover, while Diana stayed in London with her nanny.[158][485] On 28 May 1911, their second child, Randolph, was born at 33 Eccleston Square.[486] Their third child, Sarah, was born on 7 October 1914 at Admiralty House. The birth was marked with anxiety for Clementine, as Churchill had been sent to Antwerp
Antwerp
by the Cabinet to "stiffen the resistance of the beleaguered city" after news that the Belgians intended to surrender the town.[487] Clementine gave birth to her fourth child, Marigold Frances Churchill, on 15 November 1918, four days after the official end of the First World War.[488] In the early days of August 1921, the Churchills' children were entrusted to a French nursery governess in Kent, Mlle Rose. Clementine travelled to Eaton Hall to play tennis with Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster, and his family. While still under the care of Mlle Rose, Marigold had a cold but was reported to have recovered from the illness. As the illness progressed with hardly any notice, it turned into septicaemia. Rose sent for Clementine, but the illness proved fatal on 23 August 1921, and Marigold was buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery three days later.[489] On 15 September 1922, the Churchills' last child, Mary, was born. Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell, which would be their home until Winston's death in 1965.[490][491] The Churchills were married for 57 years.[150] Churchill was aware of the strain that his political career placed on his marriage.[492] Relationship with Lady Castlerosse In autumn 1985, Churchill's former private secretary, Sir John Colville was interviewed by activists at Churchill College, Cambridge. During the interview Colville reported that Churchill had had a 'brief affair' with Doris, Viscountess Castlerosse, a glamorous aristocrat. During the 1930s, while he was out of political office, Churchill spent four holidays with Castlerosse, in the south of France. Churchill painted at least two portraits of Castlerosse. Following the revival of his political career, in the late 1930s, Churchill ended the relationship. In the late 1950s, Castlerosse's love letters to Churchill were revealed to Clementine. Churchill's relationship with Castlerosse was the subject of a documentary shown on Channel 4, on 4 March 2018.[493] Religion Churchill had never been a Christian and has been described as an agnostic.[494] In 1898 he wrote to his mother stating that "I do not accept the Christian or any other form of religious belief".[495] In a letter to his cousin he referred to religion as "a delicious narcotic" and expressed a preference for Protestantism
Protestantism
over Roman Catholicism, relating that he felt it "a step nearer Reason".[496] Churchill was very interested in Islam and the culture of the Orient, to the point that relatives feared he might convert. In 1907, Churchill received a letter from his future sister-in-law, Lady Gwendoline Bertie, in which she pleaded: "Please don't become converted to Islam; I have noticed in your disposition a tendency to orientalise [fascination with the Orient and Islam], Pasha-like tendencies, I really have".[497] During the Boer
Boer
War, Churchill often prayed during the heat of battle, but he admitted that he thought it was an unreasonable thing to do. He reflected that: "The practice [of prayer] was comforting and the reasoning led nowhere. I therefore acted in accordance with my feelings without troubling to square such conduct with the conclusions of thought".[498] During the Second World War, Churchill made reference to God in a number of his speeches. During his famous "Finest Hour" speech, delivered to the House of Commons on 18 June 1940, Churchill observed that "Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilisation".[499] Pets and animals See also: Winston Churchill's pets Churchill was an animal lover and owned a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, horses, pigs, fish, and black swans, many of which were kept at Chartwell.[500] Honours

The statue of Churchill (1973) by Ivor Roberts-Jones
Ivor Roberts-Jones
in Parliament Square, London

Coat of arms of Winston Churchill

Main article: Honours of Winston Churchill In addition to the honour of a state funeral, Churchill received a wide range of awards and other honours, including the following, chronologically:

Churchill was appointed to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1907. He was conferred the Order of the Companions of Honour
Order of the Companions of Honour
in 1922.[501] He was awarded the Territorial Decoration
Territorial Decoration
for his long service in the Territorial Army in 1924.[501] Churchill was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
(FRS) in 1941[501] In 1941, he was appointed to the Privy Council of Canada.[502] In 1945, while Churchill was mentioned by Halvdan Koht
Halvdan Koht
as one of seven appropriate candidates for the Nobel Prize in Peace, the nomination went to Cordell Hull.[503] He was conferred the Order of Merit
Order of Merit
in 1946.[501] In 1953, Churchill was invested as a Knight
Knight
of the Garter (becoming Sir Winston Churchill, KG), and awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature for his numerous published works, especially his six-volume set The Second World War. In 1958, Churchill College, Cambridge
Churchill College, Cambridge
was founded in his honour. In 1963, Churchill was named an Honorary Citizen of the United States by Public Law 88-6/H.R. 4374 (approved/enacted 9 April 1963).[504][505] On 29 November 1995, during a visit to the United Kingdom, President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
of the United States
United States
announced to both Houses of Parliament that an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer
Arleigh Burke-class destroyer
would be named the USS Winston S. Churchill. This was the first United States warship to be named after an Englishman since the end of the American Revolution.[506] In a BBC poll of the "100 Greatest Britons" in 2002, he was proclaimed "The Greatest of Them All" based on approximately a million votes from BBC viewers.[507] Churchill was also rated as one of the most influential leaders in history by TIME.[508]

Honorary military appointments

Churchill in his air commodore's uniform

Churchill in his colonel's uniform

Churchill held substantive ranks in the British Army
British Army
and in the Territorial Army since he was commissioned as a Cornet in the 4th Queen's Own Hussars until his retirement from the Territorial Army in 1924 with the rank of Major, having held the temporary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel during the Great War.[509] In addition he held many honorary military appointments. In 1939, he was appointed as an Honorary Air Commodore
Honorary Air Commodore
in the Auxiliary Air Force and was awarded honorary wings in 1943.[510] In 1941, he was made a Regimental Colonel of the 4th Hussars. During the Second World War, he frequently wore his uniform as an Air Commodore and as a Colonel of the Hussars. After the war he was appointed as the Colonel in Chief
Colonel in Chief
of the 4th Hussars,[511] Queen's Royal Irish Hussars[512] and the Queen's Own Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
Hussars.[513] In 1913, he was appointed an Elder Brother of Trinity House
Trinity House
as result of his appointment as First Lord of the Admiralty.[514] He held the post of Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
from 1941 until his death and in that capacity was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 89th (Cinque Ports) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery, on 20 February 1942.[515] In 1949, he was appointed Deputy Lieutenant (DL) of Kent. Cultural depictions Main article: Cultural depictions of Winston Churchill See also

List of people on the cover of Time magazine (1920s); 14 April 1923, 11 May 1925 Politics of the United Kingdom Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Memorial Trusts

Biography portal Conservatism portal World War II portal United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

References Notes

^ a b "Winston Churchill: greatest British hero or a warmongering villain?". The Week. 23 January 2015.  ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 1; Best 2001, p. 1; Jenkins 2001, p. 5; Robbins 2014, p. 1. ^ Johnson, Paul (2010). Churchill. New York, NY: Penguin. p. 4. 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"Exit Wounds", The New Yorker, 13 August 2007 ^ Taylor, Frederick. Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945, New York: Harper Collins ISBN 0-06-000676-5/London: Bloomsbury ISBN 0-7475-7078-7, pp. 262–64 ^ Quoted after the devastation of Dresden
Dresden
by aerial bombing, and the resulting fire storm (February 1945) in Where the Right Went Wrong (2004) by Buchanan, Patrick J., p. 119 ^ a b Longmate, Norman (1983). The Bombers, Hutchins & Co. p. 346. Harris quote as source: Public Records Office ATH/DO/4B quoted by Lord Zuckerman From Apes to Warlords p. 352 ^ a b *Taylor, Frederick (2004). Dresden: Tuesday, 13 February 1945, London: Bloomsbury; ISBN 0-7475-7078-7. pp. 432–33 ^ Harding, Luke (21 October 2003). "German historian provokes row over war photos". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 2 January 2013.  ^ Grayling, A.C. (2006). Among the Dead Cities. New York: Walker Publishing Company Inc. pp. 237–38. ISBN 0-8027-1471-4.  ^ Hawley, Charles. " Dresden
Dresden
Bombing Is To Be Regretted Enormously", Der Spiegel
Der Spiegel
online, 11 February 2005. ^ Coming Home BBC Four, 9:00 am – 9:45 am, 9–13 May 2005 ^ On this day 8 May 1945, BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 26 December 2007 ^ The UK was on double summer time which was one hour in front of 2301 hours CET that the surrender document specified ("RAF Site Diary 7/8 May". Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2007. ) ^ a b c Gilbert, Martin
Gilbert, Martin
(2001). Churchill: A Study in Greatness (one-volume edition). London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0-7126-6725-8.  ^ a b c Fenton, Bob. "The secret strategy to launch attack on Red Army". Archived from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) The Daily Telegraph, Issue 1124 (1 October 1998) ^ a b c Masson, Philippe (1966) Purnell's History of the Second World War: No. 119. "France's Retreat from Empire" ^ a b Time, 25 June 1945 ^ a b Fenby, Jonathan. The General: Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
and The France He Saved (2010), pp. 42–47 ^ Gilbert, pp. 22–23, 27[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, pp. 57, 107–09[incomplete short citation] ^ Picknett, et al., p. 190[incomplete short citation] ^ Jenkins, pp. 789–94 ^ Gilbert, p. 113[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, p. 110; Gilbert points out that up to this point he had in fact served for approximately 28.5 years as a Cabinet Minister.[incomplete short citation] ^ "WWII Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West – Biographies: Anthony Eden". PBS. Retrieved 9 August 2011.  ^ Churchill On Vacation, 1946/01/21 (1946). Universal Newsreel. 1946. Retrieved 22 February 2012.  ^ "Interview: Clark Clifford". Archived from the original on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Retrieved 23 March 2009 ^ Churchill, Winston. "Sinews of Peace (Iron Curtain)". Churchill Centre. Retrieved 26 February 2007.  ^ Maier, Thomas (2014). When Lions Roar: The Churchills and the Kennedys. Crown. pp. 412–13. ISBN 0-307-95679-2.  ^ Kevin Ruane, Churchill and the Bomb in War and Cold War
Cold War
(2016) p. 156 ^ Laurence Rees, World War II Behind Closed Doors, BBC Books (2009), p. 391 ^ " Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
spoke of his hopes for a united Ireland". The Irish Times. 17 November 2014.  ^ James 1970, p. 220 ^ Charmley 1995, pp. 107–830[incomplete short citation] ^ Charmley 1995, pp. 65–66[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, pp. 265–66[incomplete short citation] ^ a b Charmley 1995, pp. 246–49[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, p. 321[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, pp. 535–36[incomplete short citation] ^ Johnson 2014, pp. 306–10[incomplete short citation] ^ Jenkins, pp. 810, 819–14 ^ "Remembrance Day 2003". Churchill Society London. Retrieved 25 April 2007.  ^ Charmley 1995, p. 249[incomplete short citation] ^ Charmley 1995, pp. 249, 298[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: Never Despair: 1945–1965. 1988: p. 1197 ^ Johnson 2014, p. 304[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, p. 1337[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, p. 711[incomplete short citation] ^ Poverty, inequality and health in Britain, 1800–2000: a reader edited by George Davey Smith, Daniel Dorling, & Mary Shaw, p. LXXIX ^ Pugh, Martin (24 March 2010). Speak for Britain!: A New History of the Labour Party. Vintage. ISBN 978-1-4070-5155-0. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ OCR A Level History B: The End of Consensus: Britain 1945–90. Pearson Education. Heinemann. 27 February 2009. ISBN 978-0-435-31237-4. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ Griffin, John P. (15 October 2009). The Textbook of Pharmaceutical Medicine. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-4443-1756-5. Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ Fisher 1982, p. 139. ^ "The Housing Total Was 318,779". Hartlepool Northern Daily Mail. 5 February 1954. Retrieved 8 March 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b Jenkins, pp. 843–61 ^ Stubbs, Richard (2001). Hearts and Minds in Guerrilla Warfare: The Malayan Emergency
Malayan Emergency
1948–1960. New York: Eastern University. ISBN 981-210-352-X.  ^ Ferguson, Niall (2000). Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. London: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-14-100754-0.  ^ Seldon 1981, pp. 395–96 ^ Jenkins, p. 847 ^ Charmley 1995, p. 255[incomplete short citation] ^ In July 1952 the pro-British King Farouk was ousted by a junta of army officers led by General Naguib, who was soon himself ousted by Colonel Nasser. Egypt
Egypt
had been a British client state, under varying degrees of control and military occupation, since 1883. In 1953 Britain, keen to restore friendly relations, agreed to terminate her rule in the Sudan by 1956 in return for Egypt's abandoning of her own claim over the region. In October 1954, Britain and Egypt
Egypt
would conclude an agreement on the phased evacuation of British troops from the Suez base, to the dismay—privately shared by Churchill—of the "Suez Group" of Conservative backbenchers. (Charmley 1995, pp. 261, 277, 285)[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, pp. 805–06[incomplete short citation] ^ a b c Charmley 1995, pp. 263–65[incomplete short citation] ^ Blake, Robert; Louis, Wm Roger (1993). Churchill. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 405. ISBN 978-0-393-03409-7.  ^ Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: Never Despair: 1945–1965. 1988: pp. 814–15, 817 ^ Gilbert, pp. 827–32[incomplete short citation] ^ Judd, Dennis (2012). George VI
George VI
(Paperback ed.). I. B. Tauris. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-78076-071-1.  Judd writes: "George VI felt it was time for Churchill to make way for Anthony Eden...Since none of Churchill's cabinet colleagues stood a chance of persuading him to stand down for Eden, only the King had the necessary prestige to undertake the delicate task of suggesting that the time had arrived for Churchill's retirement. He decided that he would broach the subject in the new year." ^ Gilbert, pp. 846–57[incomplete short citation] ^ Charmley 1995, p. 266[incomplete short citation] ^ a b Jenkins, pp. 868–71 ^ Gilbert, p. 863[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, pp. 936–37[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, pp. 1009–17[incomplete short citation] ^ Charmley 1995, pp. 289–91[incomplete short citation] ^ Gilbert, pp. 298–300[incomplete short citation] ^ Churchill longevity, bbc.co.uk; accessed 30 December 2016 ^ Rasor, p. 205 ^ Lovell, Mary S. (7 April 2011). The Churchills. Little, Brown Book Group. pp. 486–. ISBN 978-0-7481-1711-6.  ^ Gilbert, Martin. Winston S. Churchill: Never Despair: 1945–1965. 1988: pp. 1224–25 ^ A. M. Browne, Long Sunset (1995), pp. 302–03 ^ W. Attenborough, Churchill and the Black Dog
Dog
of Depression (2014), pp. 175–86. ^ "Winston Churchill" (PDF). Pub.L. 86-6. U.S. Senate. 9 April 1963. Retrieved 17 March 2011.  ^ a b Jenkins, p. 911 ^ Dockter, Warren (30 January 2015). "Winston Churchill's funeral was 12 years in the planning". The Telegraph. Retrieved 27 May 2016.  ^ Ramsden, John (2002). Man of the Century: Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
and His Legend Since 1945. Columbia University Press. pp. 16–17, 113. ISBN 978-0-231-13106-3.  ^ Picknett, et al., p. 252[incomplete short citation] ^ Remembering Winston Churchill: The State Funeral of Sir Winston Churchill, part 2, BBC Archive. Retrieved 5 March 2011 ^ " Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1874–1965)". PortCities London. Retrieved 12 January 2008.  ^ Winston Churchill's funeral van project Archived 23 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Swanage Railway
Swanage Railway
News 2006 ^ Winston Churchill's funeral van denied Lottery funding Archived 22 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Swanage Railway
Swanage Railway
News 2008 ^ "History – Sir Winston Churchill". The Dean and Chapter of Westminster. Retrieved 11 January 2014.  ^ Matt Born, "Ten contenders for the title Greatest Briton" The Telegraph 10 October 2002. Retrieved 10 July 2017 ^ a b Haffner 2003, p. 19. ^ a b Jenkins 2001, p. 71. ^ a b Tom, Heyden (26 January 2015). "The 10 greatest controversies of Winston Churchill's career". BBC Magazine.  ^ "The 10 greatest controversies of Winston Churchill's career". 26 January 2015.  ^ Clarence B. Davis and Robert J. Gowen, "The British at Weihaiwei: A Case Study in the Irrationality of Empire", The Historian, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Fall 2000), p. 98. ^ Nikhil, Varma (23 December 2016). "A new look at the Raj". The Hindu.  ^ Jenkins, p. 279 ^ a b Rees-Mogg, William (22 May 2007). "Portrait of the artist with his black dog". The Times. London. Retrieved 6 March 2008.  ^ " Paul Maze Biography". Albanyfineart.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2010.  ^ Lady Soames. " Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
the Painter". Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ Johnson, Paul (2009). Churchill. Viking. ISBN 978-1-101-14929-4.  ^ Churchill, Winston S. The Hinge of Fate, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company (1950), p. 622 ^ "Churchill and Reves". Winstonchurchill.org. Archived from the original on 20 February 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2010.  ^ "25th Anniversary of Reves Collection at the Dallas Museum of Art". Dallas Art News. Retrieved 7 November 2010.  ^ Mohr, Philip. "Reves Collection Inventory" (PDF). The Emery and Wendy Reves Memorial Collection, Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Memorial and Library in the United States, Westminster College. Retrieved 28 October 2011.  ^ "FAQ about Parliament". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ Plant Here The Standard by Dennis Griffiths; p. 270 Macmillan Press Ltd, London, 1996 ISBN 978-1-349-12463-3. ^ "Official Nobel Page". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 9 August 2009.  ^ Jenkins, pp. 819–23, 525–26 ^ Canby, Henry Seidel. "The 100 Outstanding Books of 1924–1944". Life, 14 August 1944. Chosen in collaboration with the magazine's editors. ^ Wainwright, Martin (19 August 2010). "Winston Churchill's butterfly house brought back to life". The Guardian. London, UK. Retrieved 14 July 2013.  ^ Radio Times, 12 March 2011, pp. 130–31 ^ Livio, Mario (15 February 2017). "Winston Churchill's essay on alien life found". Nature. 542 (7641): 289–91. Bibcode:2017Natur.542..289L. doi:10.1038/542289a. Retrieved 18 February 2017.  ^ de Freytas-Tamura, Kimiko (15 February 2017). "Winston Churchill Wrote of Alien Life in a Lost Essay". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 February 2017.  ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 104. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 151. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 158; Jenkins 2001, p. 83. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 88. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 79. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 108. ^ "Winston Churchill, Stutterer".  ^ Mather, John (5 September 2009). "Churchill's speech impediment was stuttering". The Churchill Centre and Museum at the Churchill War Rooms, London. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2012.  "Reports of Churchill by his family and cousins do not mention stuttering. Later on Churchill dictated to many 'secretaries' and none mention any hesitation (possible stuttering) in his speech but rather a charming lisp. All secretaries that took dictation, but one, agree that any hesitation was a 'searching' for the right words." ^ "Churchill's teeth sell for almost $24,000".  ^ Oliver, Robert Tarbell (October 1987). Public speaking in the reshaping of Great Britain. Associated University Press. ISBN 978-0-87413-315-8. Retrieved 8 January 2014.  ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 134. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 90. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 60. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 83. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 51. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 168. ^ Jenkins 2001, p. 93. ^ Jenkins 2001, pp. 92–93. ^ Soames, Mary: Speaking for Themselves: The Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill. p. 1 ^ Soames, p. 6[incomplete short citation] ^ Soames, pp. 14–15[incomplete short citation] ^ Soames, p. 17[incomplete short citation] ^ Soames, pp. 18, 22, 25[incomplete short citation] ^ Soames, pp. 40, 44[incomplete short citation] ^ Soames, p. 105[incomplete short citation] ^ Soames, p. 217[incomplete short citation] ^ Soames, pp. 239–41[incomplete short citation] ^ Soames, p. 262[incomplete short citation] ^ Crowhurst, Richard (2006). "Chartwell: Churchill's House of Refuge". Moira Allen. Retrieved 9 January 2008.  ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 207. ^ Doward, Jamie (2018-02-25). "Revealed: secret affair with a socialite that nearly wrecked Churchill's career". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-02-25.  ^ Haffner 2003, p. 32. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 92. ^ Gilbert 1991, p. 102. ^ Sawer, Patrick (2014-12-28). "Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
's family feared he might convert to Islam". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2018-02-26.  ^ 1952-, Rose, Jonathan,. The literary Churchill: author, reader, actor. New Haven. p. 30. ISBN 0300204078. OCLC 861497403.  ^ Cite error: The named reference :0 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Dockter, Warren (27 Jan 2015). "Pigs, poodles, and African lions - meet Churchill the animal-lover". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ a b c d Jones, R. V. (1966). "Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill 1874–1965". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 12: 34–105. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1966.0003.  ^ "Historical Alphabetical List since 1867 of Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada". pco-bcp.gc.ca. Privy Council Office / Government of Canada. Retrieved 18 March 2017.  ^ "Record from The Nomination Database for the Nobel Prize in Peace, 1901–1956". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 8 June 2010.  ^ Russell, Douglas (2002). The Orders, Decorations and Medals of Sir Winston Churchill. Churchill Centre.  ^ 88th Congress (1963) (9 April 1963). "H.R. 4374 (88th)". Legislation. GovTrack.us. Retrieved 27 January 2014. An Act to proclaim Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
an honorary citizen of the United States of America.  ^ Kennedy, Harold (April 2001). "USS Churchill Shows Off High-Tech Gear". National Defense Magazine. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2017.  ^ "Poll of the 100 Greatest Britons". BBC. Archived from the original on 14 May 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2007.  ^ "The Most Influential People of the 20th Century". Time. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 22 December 2007.  ^ Alkon, Paul Kent (16 June 2017). "Winston Churchill's Imagination". Associated University Presse – via Google Books.  ^ FINEST HOUR no. 128 Archived 16 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine.; Autumn 2005 p. 14 ^ "4th Queen's Own Hussars". regiments.org. Archived from the original on 3 March 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Queen's Royal Irish Hussars". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Queen's Own Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
Hussars". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 15 January 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Fedden, Robin (15 May 2014). Churchill at Chartwell: Museums and Libraries Series. Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4831-6136-5.  ^ 89 HAA Rgt War Diary, 1942, The National Archives (TNA), Kew, file WO 169/4808

Sources

Best, Geoffrey (2001). Churchill: A Study in Greatness. London and New York: Hambledon and Continuum. ISBN 9781852852535. 

Gilbert, Martin
Gilbert, Martin
(1991). Churchill: A Life. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-29183-8. 

Haffner, Sebastian (2003). Churchill. John Brownjohn (translator). London: Haus. ISBN 9781904341079. 

Jenkins, Roy (2001). Churchill. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-78290-9. 

Robbins, Keith (2014) [1992]. Churchill: Profiles in Power. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781317874522. 

Further reading Primary sources

Churchill, Winston. The World Crisis. Six vols. (1923–31); one-vol. ed. (2005). On the First World War. Churchill, Winston. The Second World War. Six vols. (1948–53) Coombs, David, ed., with Minnie Churchill. Sir Winston Churchill: His Life through His Paintings. Fwd. by Mary Soames. Pegasus, 2003. ISBN 0-7624-2731-0. Other editions entitled Sir Winston Churchill's Life and His Paintings and Sir Winston Churchill: His Life and His Paintings. Includes illustrations of approx. 500–534 paintings by Churchill. Edwards, Ron. Eastcote: From Village to Suburb (1987). Uxbridge: London Borough of Hillingdon. ISBN 0-907869-09-2. Gilbert, Martin. In Search of Churchill: A Historian's Journey (1994). Memoir about editing the following multi-volume work. Gilbert, Martin, ed. Winston S. Churchill. An eight-volume biography begun by Randolph Churchill, supported by 15 companion vols. of official and unofficial documents relating to Churchill. 1966–

I. Youth, 1874–1900 (2 vols., 1966); II. Young Statesman, 1901–1914 (3 vols., 1967); III. The Challenge of War, 1914–1916 (3 vols., 1973). ISBN 0-395-16974-7, ISBN 978-0-395-16974-2; IV. The Stricken World, 1916–1922 (2 vols., 1975); V. The Prophet of Truth, 1923–1939 (3 vols., 1977); VI. Finest Hour, 1939–1941: The Churchill War Papers (2 vols., 1983); VII. Road to Victory, 1941–1945 (4 vols., 1986); VIII. Never Despair, 1945–1965 (3 vols., 1988).

James, Robert Rhodes, ed. Winston S. Churchill: His Complete Speeches, 1897–1963. Eight vols. London: Chelsea, 1974. Knowles, Elizabeth. The Oxford
Oxford
Dictionary of Twentieth Century Quotations. Oxford, Eng.: Oxford
Oxford
University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-860103-4, ISBN 978-0-19-860103-6, ISBN 0-19-866250-5, ISBN 978-0-19-866250-1. Langworth, Richard, ed. Churchill in his own Words, Ebury Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-09-193336-4. Loewenheim, Francis L. and Harold D. Langley, eds (1975). Roosevelt and Churchill: Their Secret Wartime Correspondence.

Secondary sources

Beschloss, Michael R. (2002). The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941–1945. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81027-0. OCLC 50315054.  Blake, Robert (1997). Winston Churchill. Pocket Biographies. Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-1507-6. OCLC 59586004.  Blake, Robert; Louis, William Roger, eds. (1992). Churchill: A Major New Reassessment of His Life in Peace and War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-282317-5. OCLC 30029512.  Browne, Anthony Montague (1995). Long sunset: memoirs of Winston Churchill's last private secretary. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-34478-9. OCLC 32547047.  Charmley, John (1993). Churchill, The End of Glory: A Political Biography. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-15-117881-0. OCLC 440131865.  Charmley, John (1996). Churchill's Grand Alliance: The Anglo-American Special Relationship
Special Relationship
1940–57. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-59760-6. OCLC 247165348.  Davis, Richard Harding. Real Soldiers of Fortune (1906). Early biography. Project Gutenberg
Project Gutenberg
etext, wikisource here "Real Soldiers of Fortune/Chapter 3". En.wikisource.org. 20 October 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2009.  D'Este, Carlo (2008). Warlord: a life of Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
at war, 1874–1945 (1st ed.). New York: Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-057573-1. Retrieved 26 November 2008.  Fisher, Nigel (1982). Harold Macmillan. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-77914-8.  Hastings, Max. Finest Years: Churchill as Warlord, 1940–45. London: HarperPress (2009). ISBN 978-0-00-726367-7. Hennessy, Peter The Prime Minister: The Office and Its Holders since 1945 (2001). Hitchens, Christopher. "The Medals of His Defeats", The Atlantic Monthly (April 2002) James, Robert Rhodes. Churchill: A Study in Failure, 1900–1939 (1970). ISBN 978-0-29-782015-4. Jenkins, Roy. Churchill: A Biography (2001). ISBN 978-0-374-12354-3/ISBN 978-0-452-28352-7. Johnson, Boris, The Churchill Factor: How One Man Made History. Hodder & Stoughton (2013). ISBN 978-1444783025. Jordan, Anthony J. Churchill: A Founder of Modern Ireland. Westport Books (1995). ISBN 978-0-9524447-0-1. Julius, Anthony, The Trials of the Diaspora, A History of Anti-Semitism in England. Oxford
Oxford
University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-19-929705-4. Kersaudy, François. Churchill and De Gaulle (1981). ISBN 0-00-216328-4. Krockow, Christian. Churchill: Man of the Century. [1900–1999]. ISBN 1-902809-43-2. Lukacs, John. Churchill: Visionary, Statesman, Historian. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002 Lunde, Henrik O. (2009). Hitler's pre-emptive war: The Battle for Norway, 1940. Newbury: Casemate Publishers. ISBN 978-1-932033-92-2.  Manchester, William. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Alone, 1932–1940 (1988). ISBN 0-316-54512-0. Manchester, William. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Defender of the Realm, 1940–1965 (2010). Manchester, William. The Last Lion: Winston Spencer Churchill: Visions of Glory, 1874–1932 (1983). ISBN 0-316-54503-1. Massie, Robert. Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War. ISBN 1-84413-528-4. [chapters 40–41 concern Churchill at the Admiralty.] Pelling, Henry. Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1974). ISBN 1-84022-218-2. [Comprehensive biography] Prior, Robin. Churchill's "World Crisis" as History Croom Helm (1983). ISBN 0-70992-011-3. Rasor, Eugene L. Winston S. Churchill, 1874–1965: A Comprehensive Historiography and Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press, 2000. ISBN 0-313-30546-3. [Entries include several thousand books and scholarly articles] Seldon, Anthony (1981). Churchill's Indian Summer. London: Hodder & Stoughton. ISBN 978-0-340-25456-1.  [Study of the 1951–55 Government] Soames, Mary (ed.) Speaking for Themselves: The Personal Letters of Winston and Clementine Churchill
Clementine Churchill
(1998). Stansky, Peter, ed. Churchill: A Profile (1973). [Perspectives on Churchill by leading scholars] Toye, Richard. Churchill's Empire: The World that Made Him and the World He Made. Macmillan, 2010. ISBN 978-0-230-70384-1. Trukhanovskiĭ, Vladimir Grigor'evich. Winston Churchill. Moscow: Progress Publishers (1978; revised edition). Weber, Oliver, War Correspondent, Preface of The Malakand War, Belles Lettres (2012).

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

Preceded by Walter Runciman Member of Parliament for Oldham 1900–1906 Served alongside: Alfred Emmott Succeeded by John Bright

Preceded by William Houldsworth Member of Parliament for Manchester North West 1906–1908 Succeeded by William Joynson-Hicks

Preceded by Edmund Robertson Member of Parliament for Dundee 1908–1922 Served alongside: Alexander Wilkie Succeeded by Edwin Scrymgeour

Preceded by Leonard Lyle Member of Parliament for Epping 1924–1945 Succeeded by Leah Manning

New constituency Member of Parliament for Woodford 1945–1964 Constituency abolished

Preceded by Dai Grenfell Father of the House 1959–1964 Succeeded by Rab Butler

Political offices

Preceded by The Duke of Marlborough Undersecretary of State for the Colonies 1905–1908 Succeeded by Jack Seely

Preceded by David Lloyd-George President of the Board of Trade 1908–1910 Succeeded by Sydney Buxton

Preceded by Herbert Gladstone Home Secretary 1910–1911 Succeeded by Reginald McKenna

Preceded by Reginald McKenna First Lord of the Admiralty 1911–1915 Succeeded by Arthur Balfour

Preceded by Edwin Montagu Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1915 Succeeded by Herbert Samuel

Preceded by Christopher Addison Minister of Munitions 1917–1919 Succeeded by The Lord Inverforth

Preceded by The Viscount Weir Secretary of State for Air 1919–1921 Succeeded by Freddie Guest

Preceded by The Viscount Milner Secretary of State for War 1919–1921 Succeeded by Laming Worthington-Evans

Secretary of State for the Colonies 1921–1922 Succeeded by The Duke of Devonshire

Preceded by Philip Snowden Chancellor of the Exchequer 1924–1929 Succeeded by Philip Snowden

Preceded by The Earl Stanhope First Lord of the Admiralty 1939–1940 Succeeded by A. V. Alexander

Preceded by Neville Chamberlain Leader of the House of Commons 1940–1942 Succeeded by Stafford Cripps

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1940–1945 Succeeded by Clement Attlee

Preceded by The Lord Chatfield as Minister for Coordination of Defence Minister of Defence 1940–1945

Preceded by Clement Attlee Leader of the Opposition 1945–1951

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1951–1955 Succeeded by Anthony Eden

Preceded by Manny Shinwell Minister of Defence 1951–1952 Succeeded by The Earl Alexander of Tunis

Academic offices

Preceded by H. H. Asquith Rector of the University of Aberdeen 1914–1918 Succeeded by The Viscount Cowdray

Preceded by John Gilmour Rector of the University of Edinburgh 1929–1932 Succeeded by Ian Hamilton

Preceded by The Viscount Haldane Chancellor of the University of Bristol 1929–1965 Succeeded by The Duke of Beaufort

Party political offices

Preceded by Neville Chamberlain Leader of the Conservative Party 1940–1955 Succeeded by Anthony Eden

Honorary titles

Preceded by The Marquess of Willingdon Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports 1941–1965 Succeeded by Robert Menzies

Preceded by The Earl Baldwin of Bewdley Oldest living Prime Minister of the United Kingdom 1947–1965 Succeeded by The Earl Attlee

Preceded by The Viscount Ullswater Senior Privy Counsellor 1949–1965 Succeeded by The Earl of Swinton

Preceded by François Mauriac Laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature 1953 Succeeded by Ernest Hemingway

Preceded by Davie Logan Oldest sitting Member of Parliament 1964 Succeeded by Manny Shinwell

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Winston Churchill

Life

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as historian Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as painter Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
as writer Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
in politics, 1900–1939

Timeline War Rooms conferences Percentages agreement Quebec Agreement

Statement on Atrocities

European Advisory Commission

Honours of Winston Churchill Later life of Winston Churchill

funeral gravesite

The Other Club Blenheim Palace Chartwell

Writings

The Story of the Malakand Field Force
Malakand Field Force
(1898) Savrola
Savrola
(1899 novel) The River War
The River War
(1899) London to Ladysmith via Pretoria
Pretoria
(1900) Ian Hamilton's March
Ian Hamilton's March
(1900) Lord Randolph Churchill
Randolph Churchill
(1906) The World Crisis
The World Crisis
(1923–1931, five volumes) My Early Life
My Early Life
(1930) Marlborough: His Life and Times (1933–1938, four volumes) Great Contemporaries
Great Contemporaries
(1937) Arms and the Covenant
Arms and the Covenant
(1938) The Second World War
Second World War
(1948–1963, six volumes) A History of the English-Speaking Peoples
A History of the English-Speaking Peoples
(1956–1958, four volumes)

Speeches

"Blood, toil, tears, and sweat" "Be ye men of valour" "We shall fight on the beaches" "This was their finest hour" "Never was so much owed by so many to so few" "Iron Curtain"

Legacy and depictions

Palace of Westminster statue Parliament Square
Parliament Square
statue Washington, DC, statue Epstein bust Memorial Trusts Churchill College, Cambridge Churchill Archives Centre The Churchill Centre US Churchill Museum Cultural depictions Churchillian Drift

Related

Norway Debate Terminological inexactitude Siege of Sidney Street Tonypandy riots May 1940 War Cabinet
War Cabinet
Crisis Sword of Stalingrad Operation Unthinkable

Family

Lord Randolph Churchill
Randolph Churchill
(father) Jennie Jerome, Lady Randolph Churchill
Randolph Churchill
(mother) Jack Churchill (brother) Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill
Clementine Churchill, Baroness Spencer-Churchill
(wife) Diana Churchill
Diana Churchill
(daughter) Randolph Churchill
Randolph Churchill
(son) Sarah Churchill (daughter) Marigold Churchill
Marigold Churchill
(daughter) Mary Soames, Baroness Soames
Mary Soames, Baroness Soames
(daughter) Descendants John Spencer-Churchill (grandfather) Frances Anne Spencer-Churchill (grandmother) Leonard Jerome
Leonard Jerome
(grandfather) Clarissa Eden
Clarissa Eden
(niece)

Links to related articles

v t e

Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

Kingdom of Great Britain

Orford (Walpole) Wilmington Pelham Newcastle Devonshire Newcastle Bute G. Grenville Rockingham Chatham (Pitt the Elder) Grafton North Rockingham Shelburne Portland Pitt the Younger

United Kingdom

Pitt the Younger Addington Pitt the Younger Ld. Grenville Portland Perceval Liverpool Canning Goderich Wellington Grey Melbourne Wellington Peel Melbourne Peel Russell Derby Aberdeen Palmerston Derby Palmerston Russell Derby Disraeli Gladstone Beaconsfield (Disraeli) Gladstone Salisbury Gladstone Salisbury Gladstone Rosebery Salisbury Balfour Campbell-Bannerman Asquith Lloyd George Law Baldwin MacDonald Baldwin MacDonald Baldwin Chamberlain Churchill Attlee Churchill Eden Macmillan Douglas-Home Wilson Heath Wilson Callaghan Thatcher Major Blair Brown Cameron May

Book Category Commons

v t e

Chancellors of the Exchequer

of England

Eustace of Fauconberg Maunsell Leicester Westminster Chishull W. Giffard G. Giffard Chishull de la Leye Willoughby Benstead Sandale Hotham Stanton Harvington Wodehouse Stratford Ashby Ashton Barnham Somer Somerset Browne Witham Thwaites Witham Fowler Catesby Lovell Berners Cromwell Baker Sackville Mildmay Fortescue Dunbar Caesar Greville Portland Barrett Cottington Colepeper Hyde Ashley Duncombe Ernle Delamer Hampden Montagu Smith Boyle

of Great Britain

Boyle Smith Harley Benson Wyndham Onslow Walpole Stanhope Aislabie Pratt Walpole Sandys Pelham Lee Bilson-Legge Lyttelton Bilson-Legge Mansfield Bilson-Legge Barrington Dashwood Grenville Dowdeswell Townshend North Cavendish Pitt Cavendish Pitt Addington Pitt Ellenborough Petty Perceval Vansittart

of the United Kingdom

Vansittart Robinson Canning Tenterden Herries Goulburn Althorp Denman Peel Spring Rice Baring Goulburn Wood Disraeli Gladstone Lewis Disraeli Gladstone Disraeli Hunt Lowe Gladstone Northcote Gladstone Childers Hicks Beach Harcourt R. Churchill Goschen Harcourt Hicks Beach Ritchie A. Chamberlain Asquith Lloyd George McKenna Law A. Chamberlain Horne Baldwin N. Chamberlain Snowden W. Churchill Snowden N. Chamberlain Simon Wood Anderson Dalton Cripps Gaitskell Butler Macmillan Thorneycroft Heathcoat-Amory Lloyd Maudling Callaghan Jenkins Macleod Barber Healey Howe Lawson Major Lamont Clarke Brown Darling Osborne Hammond

Italic: Interim Chancellor of the Exchequer, as Lord Chief Justice

v t e

Home Secretaries of the United Kingdom

Secretary of State for the Home Department

Shelburne Townshend North Temple Sydney Grenville Dundas Portland Pelham Yorke Hawkesbury Spencer Liverpool Ryder Sidmouth Peel Sturges Bourne Lansdowne Peel Melbourne Duncannon Wellington Goulburn Russell Normanby Graham Grey Walpole Palmerston Grey Walpole Sotheron-Estcourt Lewis Grey Walpole Hardy Bruce Lowe Cross Harcourt Cross Childers Matthews Asquith Ridley Ritchie Akers-Douglas Gladstone Churchill McKenna Simon Samuel Cave Shortt Bridgeman Henderson Joynson-Hicks Clynes Samuel Gilmour Simon Hoare Anderson Morrison Somervell Chuter Ede Maxwell-Fyfe Lloyd George Butler Brooke Soskice Jenkins Callaghan Maudling Carr Jenkins Rees Whitelaw Brittan Hurd Waddington Baker K. Clarke Howard Straw Blunkett C. Clarke Reid Smith Johnson May Rudd

v t e

Defence Secretaries of the United Kingdom

Minister for Co-ordination of Defence

Sir Thomas Inksip The Lord Chatfield

Ministers for Defence

Winston Churchill Clement Attlee A. V. Alexander Manny Shinwell Winston Churchill The Earl Alexander of Tunis Harold Macmillan Selwyn Lloyd Sir Walter Monckton Anthony Head Duncan Sandys Harold Watkinson Peter Thorneycroft

Secretaries of State for Defence

Peter Thorneycroft Denis Healey The Lord Carrington Ian Gilmour Roy Mason Fred Mulley Francis Pym John Nott Michael Heseltine George Younger Tom King Malcolm Rifkind Michael Portillo George Robertson Geoff Hoon John Reid Des Browne John Hutton Bob Ainsworth Liam Fox Philip Hammond Michael Fallon Gavin Williamson

v t e

First Lords of the Admiralty

of England

The Earl of Portland The Earl of Lindsey William Juxon, Bishop of Lincoln The Earl of Northumberland The Lord Cottington Sir Henry Capell The Earl of Nottingham The Earl of Torrington The Earl of Pembroke The Lord Cornwallis The Viscount Falkland The Earl of Orford The Earl of Bridgewater The Earl of Pembroke

of Great Britain

The Earl of Orford Sir John Leake The Earl of Strafford The Earl of Orford The Earl of Berkeley The Viscount Torrington Sir Charles Wager The Earl of Winchilsea The Duke of Bedford The Earl of Sandwich The Lord Anson The Earl Temple The Earl of Winchilsea The Lord Anson The Earl of Halifax Hon. George Grenville The Earl of Sandwich The Earl of Egmont Sir Charles Saunders Sir Edward Hawke The Earl of Sandwich The Viscount Keppel The Viscount Howe The Viscount Keppel The Viscount Howe The Earl of Chatham The Earl Spencer

of the United Kingdom

The Earl of St Vincent The Viscount Melville The Lord Barham Viscount Howick Thomas Grenville The Lord Mulgrave Charles Philip Yorke The Viscount Melville HRH The Duke of Clarence The Viscount Melville Sir James Graham, Bt The Lord Auckland The Earl de Grey The Lord Auckland The Earl of Minto The Earl of Haddington The Earl of Ellenborough The Earl of Auckland Sir Francis Baring, Bt The Duke of Northumberland Sir James Graham, Bt Sir Charles Wood, Bt Sir John Pakington, Bt The Duke of Somerset Sir John Pakington, Bt Hon. Henry Lowry-Corry Hugh Childers George Goschen George Ward Hunt William Henry Smith Smith The Earl of Northbrook Lord George Hamilton The Marquess of Ripon Lord George Hamilton The Earl Spencer George Goschen The Earl of Selborne The Earl Cawdor The Lord Tweedmouth Reginald McKenna Winston Churchill Arthur Balfour Sir Edward Carson Sir Eric Geddes Walter Long The Viscount Lee of Fareham Wood Anderson Leo Amery The Viscount Chelmsford The Viscount Bridgeman A. V. Alexander Sir Austen Chamberlain The Viscount Monsell Sir Samuel Hoare, Bt Duff Cooper The Earl Stanhope Winston Churchill A. V. Alexander Brendan Bracken A. V. Alexander The Viscount Hall Lord Pakenham Viscount Cilcennin The Viscount Hailsham The Earl of Selkirk The Lord Carrington The Earl Jellicoe

v t e

Presidents of the Board of Trade

Shaftesbury Bridgewater Stamford Weymouth Stamford Winchilsea Guilford Berkeley Suffolk Holderness Fitzwalter Monson Halifax Sandys Townshend Shelburne Hillsborough Dartmouth Hillsborough Nugent Hillsborough Dartmouth Sackville Carlisle Grantham Sydney Liverpool Montrose Auckland Bathurst Clancarty Robinson Huskisson Grant Vesey-Fitzgerald Herries Auckland Thomson Baring Thomson Labouchere Ripon Gladstone Dalhousie Clarendon Labouchere Henley Cardwell Stanley Henley Dnoughmore Gibson Northcote Richmond Bright Parkinson-Fortescue Adderley Sandon Chamberlain Richmond Stanhope Mundella Stanley Hicks Beach Mundella Bryce Ritchie Balfour Salisbury Lloyd George Churchill Buxton Burns Runciman Stanley Geddes Horne Baldwin Cunliffe-Lister Graham Cunliffe-Lister Runciman Stanley Duncan Lyttelton Duncan Llewellin Dalton Lyttelton Cripps Wilson Shawcross Thorneycroft Eccles Maulding Erroll Heath Jay Crosland Mason Noble Davies Walker Benn Varley Joseph Jenkin Shore Dell Smith Nott Biffen Cockfield Parkinson Tebbit Brittan Channon Young Ridley Lilley Heseltine Lang Beckett Mandelson Byers Hewitt Johnson Darling Hutton Mandelson Cable Javid Clark Fox

v t e

Leaders
Leaders
of the House of Commons

Walpole Sandys Pelham Robinson H. Fox Pitt the Elder Vacant (caretaker ministry) Pitt the Elder Grenville H. Fox Grenville Conway North C. Fox Townshend (C. Fox/North) Pitt the Younger Addington Pitt the Younger C. Fox Howick Perceval Castlereagh Canning Huskisson Peel Althorp Peel Russell Disraeli Russell Palmerston Disraeli Palmerston Gladstone Disraeli Gladstone Northcote Gladstone Hicks-Beach Gladstone R. Churchill Smith Balfour Gladstone Harcourt Balfour Campbell-Bannerman Asquith Bonar Law A. Chamberlain Bonar Law Baldwin MacDonald Baldwin MacDonald Baldwin N. Chamberlain W. Churchill Cripps Eden Morrison Chuter Ede Crookshank Butler Macleod Lloyd Bowden Crossman Peart Whitelaw Carr Prior Short Foot St John-Stevas Pym Biffen Wakeham Howe MacGregor Newton Taylor Beckett Cook Reid Hain Hoon Straw Harman Young Lansley Hague Grayling Lidington Leadsom

v t e

Minister of Munitions
Minister of Munitions
of the United Kingdom

David Lloyd George Edwin Samuel Montagu Christopher Addison Winston Churchill Lord Inverforth

v t e

Fathers of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom

Fagg Turgis Musgrave Strangways Onslow Erle E. Vaughan R. Vaughan Powlett Isham Turner Bradshaigh Ashe Cartwright Shuttleworth Gybbon Rushout Aislabie FitzRoy-Scudamore Nugent Frederick Ellis Drake Stephens Tudway Aubrey Smith Byng Williams-Wynn Harcourt Burrell Lowther T. Williams Lowry-Corry Weld-Forester Talbot Villiers Mowbray Beach Hicks Beach Finch Campbell-Bannerman Kennaway Burt O'Connor Lloyd George Winterton O'Neill Grenfell Churchill Butler Turton Strauss Parker Callaghan Braine Heath Dalyell A. Williams Tapsell Kaufman Clarke

v t e

Conservative Party

History

Organisations

Conservative Party Archive

Topics

History of the Conservative Party History of conservatism in Great Britain Tories Tamworth Manifesto Carlton Club Primrose League Tariff Reform League Carlton Club
Carlton Club
meeting General election manifestos Fourth Party Liberal Unionist Party Irish Conservative Party Irish Unionist Party Scottish Unionist Party National Liberal Party

Leadership

House of Lords (1828–1922)

Wellington Derby Malmesbury Cairns Richmond Beaconsfield Salisbury Devonshire Lansdowne Curzon

House of Commons (1834–1922)

Peel Bentinck Granby vacant (1848–1849) Disraeli / Granby / Herries Disraeli Northcote Hicks Beach R. Churchill Smith Balfour Law A. Chamberlain

Leaders
Leaders
(1922–)

Law Baldwin N. Chamberlain W. Churchill Eden Macmillan Douglas-Home Heath Thatcher Major Hague Duncan Smith Howard Cameron May

Chairmen (1911–)

Steel-Maitland Younger Jackson Davidson N. Chamberlain Baird Hacking Dugdale Assheton Woolton Poole Hailsham Butler Macleod / Poole Blakenham du Cann Barber Thomas Carrington Whitelaw Thorneycroft Parkinson Gummer Tebbit Brooke Baker Patten Fowler Hanley Mawhinney Parkinson Ancram Davis May Fox / Saatchi Maude Spelman Pickles Warsi / Feldman Shapps / Feldman Feldman McLoughlin Lewis

See also

Deputy Leader of the Conservative Party

Leadership elections

1965

Heath

1975

Thatcher

1989

Thatcher re-elected

1990

Major

1995

Major re-elected

1997

Hague

2001

Duncan Smith

2003

Howard

2005

Cameron

2016

May

Next

Party structure

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Voluntary

National Conservative Convention

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1922 Committee

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Conference

Conservative Party Conference

Subnational

Northern Ireland Conservatives Scottish Conservatives Welsh Conservative Party Gibraltar Conservatives

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London Conservatives

Local

Conservative Associations

Associated organisations

List

Organisations associated with the Conservative Party

Sectional groups

Conservative Women's Organisation Young Conservatives Conservatives Abroad LGBT+ Conservatives Association of Conservative Clubs

Factional groups

Activate The Atlantic Bridge Conservative Animal Welfare Group Conservative Christian Fellowship Conservative Countryside Forum Conservative Disability Group Conservative Europe Group Conservative Friends of America Conservative Friends of Gibraltar Conservative Friends of Israel Conservative Friends of Turkey Conservative History Group Conservative Humanist Association Conservative Mainstream Conservative Health Conservative Muslim Forum Conservative Education Society Conservative National Property Advisory Committee Conservative Rural Affairs Group Conservative Technology Forum Conservative Trade Unionists Conservative Transport Group Conservative Way Forward Conservative Women National Committee Conservative Workers & Trade Unionists Conservatives 4 Cities Conservatives Against Fox Hunting Conservatives at Work Conservatives for International Travel Cornerstone Group Countryside Alliance European Foundation Fresh Start Macleod Group Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
Foundation Monday Club 92 Group No Campaign No Turning Back Selsdon Group Tory Green Initiative Tory Reform Group Renewing One Nation Young Britons' Foundation

Think tanks

Bow Group Bright Blue Bruges Group Centre for Policy Studies Centre for Social Justice European Foundation Policy Exchange Society of Conservative Lawyers

Party alliances

Current

List of current alliances Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe
Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe
(European Conservatives and Reformists) International Democrat Union
International Democrat Union
(European Democrat Union) European Conservatives Group Conservative–DUP agreement

Former

List of former alliances European People's Party
European People's Party
( European People's Party
European People's Party
group) European Conservative Group European Democrats Movement for European Reform Alliance for an Open Europe Ulster Conservatives and Unionists
Ulster Conservatives and Unionists
(Ulster Unionist Party)

Conservatism portal

v t e

War Cabinet
War Cabinet
of Winston Churchill

Prime Minister Minister of Defence

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940–1945)

Deputy Prime Minister

Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
(1942–1945)

Lord President of the Council

Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
(1940) Sir John Anderson (1940–1943) Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
(1943–1945)

Lord Privy Seal

Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
(1940–1942) Sir Stafford Cripps
Stafford Cripps
(1942)

Chancellor of the Exchequer

Sir Kingsley Wood
Kingsley Wood
(1940–1942) Sir John Anderson (1943–1945)

Foreign Secretary

Viscount Halifax (1940) Anthony Eden
Anthony Eden
(1940–1945)

Home Secretary

Herbert Morrison
Herbert Morrison
(1940–1945)

Minister of Aircraft Production

Lord Beaverbrook (1940–1941)

Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs

Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
(1942–1943)

Minister of Labour and National Service

Ernest Bevin
Ernest Bevin
(1940–1945)

Minister Resident Middle East

Oliver Lyttelton (1942) Richard Casey (1942–1944) Lord Moyne (1944)

Minister without Portfolio

Arthur Greenwood
Arthur Greenwood
(1940–1942)

Minister of Reconstruction

Lord Woolton (1943–1945)

Minister of State

Lord Beaverbrook (1941)

Minister of Supply

Lord Beaverbrook (1941–1942)

Minister of Production

Lord Beaverbrook (1942) Oliver Lyttelton (1942–1945)

v t e

Caretaker Cabinet of Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(May–July 1945)

Lord President of the Council

Lord Woolton

Lord Privy Seal

Lord Beaverbrook

Chancellor of the Exchequer

Sir John Anderson

Foreign Secretary

Anthony Eden

Home Secretary

Sir Donald Somervell

First Lord of the Admiralty

Brendan Bracken

Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food

Robert Hudson

Secretary of State for Air

Harold Macmillan

Secretary of State for the Colonies

Oliver Stanley

Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs

Viscount Cranborne

Minister of Education

Richard Law

Secretary of State for India
Secretary of State for India
and Burma

Leo Amery

Minister of Labour and National Service

Rab Butler

Minister of Production President of the Board of Trade

Oliver Lyttelton

Secretary of State for Scotland

The Earl of Rosebery

Secretary of State for War

Sir P. J. Grigg

v t e

Cabinet of Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1951–1955)

Prime Minister First Lord of the Treasury

Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1951–55)

Lord Chancellor

The Lord Simonds (1951–54) The Viscount Kilmuir (1954–55)

Lord President of the Council

The Lord Woolton (1951–52) The Marquess of Salisbury (1952–55)

Lord Privy Seal

The Marquess of Salisbury (1951–52) Harry Crookshank (1952–55)

Chancellor of the Exchequer

Rab Butler
Rab Butler
(1951–55)

Foreign Secretary

Sir Anthony Eden
Anthony Eden
(1951–55)

Home Secretary Welsh Secretary

Sir David Maxwell Fyfe (1951–54) Gwilym Lloyd George (1954–55)

Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries

Derick Heathcoat-Armory (1954–55)

Secretary of State for the Colonies

Oliver Lyttelton (1951–54) Alan Lennox-Boyd (1954–55)

Minister for Coordination of Transport, Fuel and Power

The Lord Leathers (1951–53)

Minister of Defence

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1951–52) The Earl Alexander of Tunis (1952–54) Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
(1954–55)

Minister of Education

Florence Horsbrugh (1951-1954 - in cabinet 1953-1954 only) Sir David Eccles (1954–55)

Minister of Health

Harry Crookshank (1951–52)

Ministry of Housing and Local Government

Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
(1951–54) Duncan Sandys
Duncan Sandys
(1954–55)

Minister of Labour and National Service

Sir Walter Monckton
Walter Monckton
(1951–55)

Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster

The Lord Woolton (1952–55)

Minister of Materials

The Lord Woolton (1953–55)

Paymaster General

The Lord Cherwell (1951–53)

Secretary of State for Scotland

James Stuart (1951–55)

v t e

War Cabinet
War Cabinet
of Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
(1939–1940)

Prime Minister Leader of the House of Commons

Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
(1939–1940)

Lord Privy Seal

Sir Samuel Hoare (1939–1940) Sir Kingsley Wood
Kingsley Wood
(1940)

Chancellor of the Exchequer

Sir John Simon (1939–1940)

Foreign Secretary

Lord Halifax (1939–1940)

Secretary of State for War

Leslie Hore-Belisha (1939–1940) Oliver Stanley
Oliver Stanley
(1940)

Secretary of State for Air

Sir Kingsley Wood
Kingsley Wood
(1939–1940) Sir Samuel Hoare (1940)

First Lord of the Admiralty

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1939–1940)

Minister for Co-ordination of Defence

Lord Chatfield (1939–1940)

Minister without Portfolio

Lord Hankey (1939–1940)

v t e

Cold War

USA USSR ANZUS NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact Cold War
Cold War
II

1940s

Morgenthau Plan Hukbalahap Rebellion Dekemvriana Percentages Agreement Yalta Conference Guerrilla war in the Baltic states

Forest Brothers Operation Priboi Operation Jungle Occupation of the Baltic states

Cursed soldiers Operation Unthinkable Operation Downfall Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Division of Korea Operation Masterdom Operation Beleaguer Operation Blacklist Forty Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Baruch Plan Corfu Channel incident Turkish Straits crisis Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Asian Relations Conference May 1947 Crises Marshall Plan Comecon 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état Tito–Stalin Split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Western Bloc Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
(Second round) Malayan Emergency Albanian Subversion

1950s

Papua conflict Bamboo Curtain Korean War McCarthyism Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Dirty War
Dirty War
(Mexico) Bricker Amendment 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam Vietnam War First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Bandung Conference Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis "We will bury you" Operation Gladio Arab Cold War

Syrian Crisis of 1957 1958 Lebanon
Lebanon
crisis Iraqi 14 July Revolution

Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1959 Tibetan uprising Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Sino-Soviet split

1960s

Congo Crisis 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion 1960 Turkish coup d'état Soviet–Albanian split Berlin Crisis of 1961 Berlin Wall Portuguese Colonial War

Angolan War of Independence Guinea-Bissau War of Independence Mozambican War of Independence

Cuban Missile Crisis Sino-Indian War Communist insurgency in Sarawak Iraqi Ramadan Revolution Eritrean War of Independence Sand War North Yemen Civil War Aden
Aden
Emergency 1963 Syrian coup d'état Vietnam War Shifta War Guatemalan Civil War Colombian conflict Nicaraguan Revolution 1964 Brazilian coup d'état Dominican Civil War South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War 1966 Syrian coup d'état Argentine Revolution Korean DMZ conflict Greek military junta of 1967–74 Years of Lead (Italy) USS Pueblo incident Six-Day War War of Attrition Dhofar Rebellion Al-Wadiah War Protests of 1968 French May Tlatelolco massacre Cultural Revolution Prague Spring 1968 Polish political crisis Communist insurgency in Malaysia Invasion of Czechoslovakia Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion Corrective Move

1970s

Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize

1950–1975

1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975

1976–2000

1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton

2001–present

2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash

1 Received extraordinary prize.

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature

1901–1925

1901 Sully Prudhomme 1902 Theodor Mommsen 1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson 1904 Frédéric Mistral
Frédéric Mistral
/ José Echegaray 1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz 1906 Giosuè Carducci 1907 Rudyard Kipling 1908 Rudolf Eucken 1909 Selma Lagerlöf 1910 Paul Heyse 1911 Maurice Maeterlinck 1912 Gerhart Hauptmann 1913 Rabindranath Tagore 1914 1915 Romain Rolland 1916 Verner von Heidenstam 1917 Karl Gjellerup / Henrik Pontoppidan 1918 1919 Carl Spitteler 1920 Knut Hamsun 1921 Anatole France 1922 Jacinto Benavente 1923 W. B. Yeats 1924 Władysław Reymont 1925 George Bernard Shaw

1926–1950

1926 Grazia Deledda 1927 Henri Bergson 1928 Sigrid Undset 1929 Thomas Mann 1930 Sinclair Lewis 1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt 1932 John Galsworthy 1933 Ivan Bunin 1934 Luigi Pirandello 1935 1936 Eugene O'Neill 1937 Roger Martin du Gard 1938 Pearl S. Buck 1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 Johannes V. Jensen 1945 Gabriela Mistral 1946 Hermann Hesse 1947 André Gide 1948 T. S. Eliot 1949 William Faulkner 1950 Bertrand Russell

1951–1975

1951 Pär Lagerkvist 1952 François Mauriac 1953 Winston Churchill 1954 Ernest Hemingway 1955 Halldór Laxness 1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez 1957 Albert Camus 1958 Boris Pasternak 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo 1960 Saint-John Perse 1961 Ivo Andrić 1962 John Steinbeck 1963 Giorgos Seferis 1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre
(declined award) 1965 Mikhail Sholokhov 1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
/ Nelly Sachs 1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias 1968 Yasunari Kawabata 1969 Samuel Beckett 1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1971 Pablo Neruda 1972 Heinrich Böll 1973 Patrick White 1974 Eyvind Johnson
Eyvind Johnson
/ Harry Martinson 1975 Eugenio Montale

1976–2000

1976 Saul Bellow 1977 Vicente Aleixandre 1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer 1979 Odysseas Elytis 1980 Czesław Miłosz 1981 Elias Canetti 1982 Gabriel García Márquez 1983 William Golding 1984 Jaroslav Seifert 1985 Claude Simon 1986 Wole Soyinka 1987 Joseph Brodsky 1988 Naguib Mahfouz 1989 Camilo José Cela 1990 Octavio Paz 1991 Nadine Gordimer 1992 Derek Walcott 1993 Toni Morrison 1994 Kenzaburō Ōe 1995 Seamus Heaney 1996 Wisława Szymborska 1997 Dario Fo 1998 José Saramago 1999 Günter Grass 2000 Gao Xingjian

2001–present

2001 V. S. Naipaul 2002 Imre Kertész 2003 J. M. Coetzee 2004 Elfriede Jelinek 2005 Harold Pinter 2006 Orhan Pamuk 2007 Doris Lessing 2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio 2009 Herta Müller 2010 Mario Vargas Llosa 2011 Tomas Tranströmer 2012 Mo Yan 2013 Alice Munro 2014 Patrick Modiano 2015 Svetlana Alexievich 2016 Bob Dylan 2017 Kazuo Ishiguro

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi
Mohandas Gandhi
(1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

Authority control

World Cat
Cat
Identities VIAF: 94507588 LCCN: n78085430 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 6628 GND: 118520776 SELIBR: 181701 SUDOC: 027891631 BNF: cb119836090 (data) BIBSYS: 90117157 ULAN: 500028788 HDS: 42890 MusicBrainz: e9fb8bad-ec0e-4cf1-aa82-a7e04a34b278 NLA: 35908632 NDL: 00436010 NKC: jn19990003864 ICCU: ITICCURAVV03813 BNE: XX850994 CiNii: DA0065926X KulturNav: 64ea9f31-622b-44b6-a357-f6433ce35bb2 RKD: 16

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