Winslow Homer (February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an
American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine
subjects. He is considered one of the foremost painters in
19th-century America and a preeminent figure in American art.
Largely self-taught, Homer began his career working as a commercial
illustrator. He subsequently took up oil painting and produced
major studio works characterized by the weight and density he
exploited from the medium. He also worked extensively in watercolor,
creating a fluid and prolific oeuvre, primarily chronicling his
1 Early life
2 Homer's studio
3 Early landscapes and watercolors
5 Maine and maturity
7 U.S. stamp
10 Further reading
11 External links
Born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1836, Homer was the second of three
sons of Charles Savage Homer and Henrietta Benson Homer, both from
long lines of New Englanders. His mother was a gifted amateur
watercolorist and Homer's first teacher. She and her son had a close
relationship throughout their lives. Homer took on many of her traits,
including her quiet, strong-willed, terse, sociable nature; her dry
sense of humor; and her artistic talent. Homer had a happy
childhood, growing up mostly in then rural Cambridge, Massachusetts.
He was an average student, but his art talent was evident in his early
The Bathers, wood engraving, Harper's Weekly, 1873
Homer's father was a volatile, restless businessman who was always
looking to "make a killing". When Homer was thirteen, Charles gave up
the hardware store business to seek a fortune in the California gold
rush. When that failed, Charles left his family and went to Europe to
raise capital for other get-rich-quick schemes that didn't
After Homer's high school graduation, his father saw a newspaper
advertisement and arranged for an apprenticeship. Homer's
apprenticeship at the age of 19 to J. H. Bufford, a
lithographer, was a formative but "treadmill experience". He worked
repetitively on sheet music covers and other commercial work for two
years. By 1857, his freelance career was underway after he turned down
an offer to join the staff of Harper's Weekly. "From the time I took
my nose off that lithographic stone", Homer later stated, "I have had
no master, and never shall have any."
Homer's career as an illustrator lasted nearly twenty years. He
contributed illustrations of
Boston life and rural New England life to
magazines such as
Ballou's Pictorial and Harper's Weekly at a time
when the market for illustrations was growing rapidly and fads and
fashions were changing quickly. His early works, mostly commercial
engravings of urban and country social scenes, are characterized by
clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark,
and lively figure groupings—qualities that remained important
throughout his career. His quick success was mostly due to this
strong understanding of graphic design and also to the adaptability of
his designs to wood engraving.
Before moving to New York in 1859, Homer lived in Belmont,
Massachusetts with his family. His uncle's Belmont mansion, the 1853
Homer House, was the inspiration for a number of his early
illustrations and paintings, including several of his 1860s croquet
pictures. The Homer House, owned by the Belmont Woman's Club, is open
for public tours.
Prisoners from the front, 1866, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Oil on
canvas. 24 x 38in
In 1859, he opened a studio in the
Tenth Street Studio Building in New
York City, the artistic and publishing capital of the United States.
Until 1863, he attended classes at the National Academy of Design, and
studied briefly with Frédéric Rondel, who taught him the basics of
painting. In only about a year of self-training, Homer was
producing excellent oil work. His mother tried to raise family funds
to send him to Europe for further study but instead Harper's sent
Homer to the front lines of the
American Civil War
American Civil War (1861–1865),
where he sketched battle scenes and camp life, the quiet moments as
well as the chaotic ones. His initial sketches were of the camp,
commanders, and army of the famous Union officer, Major General George
B. McClellan, at the banks of the
Potomac River in October 1861.
Long Branch, New Jersey, 1869
Although the drawings did not get much attention at the time, they
mark Homer's expanding skills from illustrator to painter. Like with
his urban scenes, Homer also illustrated women during wartime, and
showed the effects of the war on the home front. The war work was
dangerous and exhausting. Back at his studio, Homer would regain his
strength and re-focus his artistic vision. He set to work on a series
of war-related paintings based on his sketches, among them
Sharpshooter on Picket Duty (1862), Home, Sweet Home (1863), and
Prisoners from the Front (1866). He exhibited paintings of these
subjects every year at the
National Academy of Design
National Academy of Design from 1863 to
1866. Home, Sweet Home was shown at the National Academy to
particular critical acclaim; it was quickly sold and the artist was
consequently elected an Associate Academician, then a full Academician
in 1865. During this time, he also continued to sell his
illustrations to periodicals such as Our Young Folks and Frank
Leslie's Chimney Corner.
After the war, Homer turned his attention primarily to scenes of
childhood and young women, reflecting nostalgia for simpler times,
both his own and the nation as a whole.
Winslow Homer, Crossing the Pasture, 1871–72,
Amon Carter Museum
Amon Carter Museum of
His Crossing the Pasture (1871–1872) in the collection of the Amon
Carter Museum of American Art depicts two boys who idealize
brotherhood with the hope of a united future after the war that pitted
brother against brother.
A Visit from the Old Mistress, 1876, Smithsonian American Art
Homer was also interested in postwar subject matter that conveyed the
silent tension between two communities seeking to understand their
future. His oil painting
A Visit from the Old Mistress
A Visit from the Old Mistress (1876) shows an
encounter between a group of four freed slaves and their former
mistress. The formal equivalence between the standing figures suggests
the balance that the nation hoped to find in the difficult years of
Reconstruction. Homer composed this painting from sketches he had made
while traveling through Virginia.
Near the beginning of his painting career, the 27-year-old Homer
demonstrated a maturity of feeling, depth of perception, and mastery
of technique which was immediately recognized. His realism was
objective, true to nature, and emotionally controlled. One critic
Winslow Homer is one of those few young artists who make a
decided impression of their power with their very first contributions
to the Academy.... He at this moment wields a better pencil, models
better, colors better, than many whom, were it not improper, we could
mention as regular contributors to the Academy." And of Home, Sweet
Home specifically, "There is no clap-trap about it. The delicacy and
strength of emotion which reign throughout this little picture are not
surpassed in the whole exhibition." "It is a work of real feeling,
soldiers in camp listening to the evening band, and thinking of the
wives and darlings far away. There is no strained effect in it, no
sentimentality, but a hearty, homely actuality, broadly, freely, and
simply worked out."
Early landscapes and watercolors
Artists Sketching in the White Mountains, 1868, oil on panel (Portland
Museum of Art, Portland, Maine)
Before exhibiting at the National Academy of Design, Homer finally
traveled to Paris,
France in 1867 where he remained for a year. His
most praised early painting, Prisoners from the Front, was on exhibit
at the Exposition Universelle in
Paris at the same time. He did
not study formally but he practiced landscape painting while
continuing to work for Harper's, depicting scenes of Parisian life.
Homer painted about a dozen small paintings during the stay. Although
he arrived in
France at a time of new fashions in art, Homer's main
subject for his paintings was peasant life, showing more of an
alignment with the established French
Barbizon school and the artist
Millet than with newer artists Manet and Courbet. Though his interest
in depicting natural light parallels that of the early impressionists,
there is no evidence of direct influence as he was already a plein-air
painter in America and had already evolved a personal style which was
much closer to Manet than Monet. Unfortunately, Homer was very private
about his personal life and his methods (even denying his first
biographer any personal information or commentary), but his stance was
clearly one of independence of style and a devotion to American
subjects. As his fellow artist Eugene Benson wrote, Homer believed
that artists "should never look at pictures" but should "stutter in a
language of their own."
Throughout the 1870s, Homer continued painting mostly rural or idyllic
scenes of farm life, children playing, and young adults courting,
including Country School (1871) and The Morning Bell (1872). In 1875,
Homer quit working as a commercial illustrator and vowed to survive on
his paintings and watercolors alone. Despite his excellent critical
reputation, his finances continued to remain precarious. His
popular 1872 painting Snap-the-Whip was exhibited at the 1876
Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as was one of his
finest and most famous paintings
Breezing Up (1876). Of his work at
Henry James wrote:
Breezing Up (A Fair Wind),
1873–76, oil on canvas
(National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.)
"We frankly confess that we detest his subjects... he has chosen the
least pictorial range of scenery and civilization; he has resolutely
treated them as if they were pictorial... and, to reward his audacity,
he has incontestably succeeded."
Many disagreed with James. Breezing Up, Homer's iconic painting of a
father and three boys out for a spirited sail, received wide praise.
The New York Tribune wrote, "There is no picture in this exhibition,
nor can we remember when there has been a picture in any exhibition,
that can be named alongside this." Visits to Petersburg, Virginia,
around 1876 resulted in paintings of rural
African American life. The
same straightforward sensibility which allowed Homer to distill art
from these potentially sentimental subjects also yielded the most
unaffected views of
African American life at the time, as illustrated
Dressing for the Carnival
Dressing for the Carnival (1877) and A Visit from the Old
In 1877, Homer exhibited for the first time at the
Boston Art Club
with the oil painting, An Afternoon Sun, (owned by the Artist). From
1877 through 1909, Homer exhibited often at the
Boston Art Club. Works
on paper, both drawings and watercolors, were frequently exhibited by
Homer beginning in 1882. A most unusual sculpture by the Artist,
Hunter with Dog – Northwoods, was exhibited in 1902. By that year,
Homer had switched his primary Gallery from the Boston-based Doll and
Richards to the
New York City
New York City based Knoedler & Co.
Homer became a member of The Tile Club, a group of artists and writers
who met frequently to exchange ideas and organize outings for
painting, as well as foster the creation of decorative tiles. For a
short time, he designed tiles for fireplaces.
Eastern Point Light, 1880, Princeton University Art Museum
Homer's nickname in The Tile Club was "The Obtuse Bard". Other well
Tilers were painters William Merritt Chase, Arthur Quartley, and
the sculptor Augustus Saint Gaudens.
Homer started painting with watercolors on a regular basis in 1873
during a summer stay in Gloucester, Massachusetts. From the beginning,
his technique was natural, fluid and confident, demonstrating his
innate talent for a difficult medium. His impact would be
revolutionary. Here, again, the critics were puzzled at first, "A
child with an ink bottle could not have done worse." Another
critic said that Homer "made a sudden and desperate plunge into water
color painting". But his watercolors proved popular and enduring, and
sold more readily, improving his financial condition considerably.
They varied from highly detailed (Blackboard – 1877) to broadly
impressionistic (Schooner at Sunset – 1880). Some watercolors were
made as preparatory sketches for oil paintings (as for "Breezing Up")
and some as finished works in themselves. Thereafter, he seldom
traveled without paper, brushes and water based paints.
As a result of disappointments with women or from some other emotional
turmoil, Homer became reclusive in the late 1870s, no longer enjoying
urban social life and living instead in Gloucester. For a while, he
even lived in secluded Eastern Point Lighthouse (with the keeper's
family). In re-establishing his love of the sea, Homer found a rich
source of themes while closely observing the fishermen, the sea, and
the marine weather. After 1880, he rarely featured genteel women at
leisure, focusing instead on working women.
Early landscapes and watercolors
Girl in the Hammock, 1873
The Four Leaf Clover, 1873
The Green Hill, 1878
On the Stile, c. 1878
Peach Blossoms, 1878
Three Fisher Girls, Tynemouth, watercolor on paper 1881, National
Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
Homer spent two years (1881–1882) in the English coastal village of
Cullercoats, Tyne and Wear. Many of the paintings at
as their subjects working men and women and their daily heroism,
imbued with a solidity and sobriety which was new to Homer's art,
presaging the direction of his future work. He wrote, "The women
are the working bees. Stout hardy creatures." His works from this
period are almost exclusively watercolors. His palette became
constrained and sober; his paintings larger, more ambitious, and more
deliberately conceived and executed. His subjects more universal and
less nationalistic, more heroic by virtue of his unsentimental
rendering. Although he moved away from the spontaneity and bright
innocence of the American paintings of the 1860s and 1870s, Homer
found a new style and vision which carried his talent into new
Maine and maturity
The Fog Warning, 1885, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Back in the U.S. in November 1882, Homer showed his English
watercolors in New York. Critics noticed the change in style at once,
"He is a very different Homer from the one we knew in days gone by",
now his pictures "touch a far higher plane...They are works of High
Art." Homer's women were no longer "dolls who flaunt their
millinery" but "sturdy, fearless, fit wives and mothers of men" who
are fully capable of enduring the forces and vagaries of nature
alongside their men.
In 1883, Homer moved to
Prouts Neck, Maine
Prouts Neck, Maine (in Scarborough), and lived
at his family's estate in the remodeled carriage house seventy-five
feet from the ocean. During the rest of the mid-1880s, Homer
painted his monumental sea scenes. In Undertow (1886), depicting the
dramatic rescue of two female bathers by two male lifeguards, Homer's
figures "have the weight and authority of classical figures". In
Eight Bells (1886), two sailors carefully take their bearings on deck,
calmly appraising their position and by extension, their relationship
with the sea; they are confident in their seamanship but respectful of
the forces before them. Other notable paintings among these dramatic
struggle-with-nature images are Banks Fisherman, The Gulf Stream, Rum
Cay, Mending the Nets, and Searchlight on Harbor Entrance, Santiago de
Cuba. Some of these he repeated as etchings.
The Fox Hunt, 1893. Oil on canvas, 96.5 x 174 cm. Pennsylvania Academy
of the Fine Arts.
At fifty years of age, Homer had become a "Yankee Robinson Crusoe,
cloistered on his art island" and "a hermit with a brush". These
paintings established Homer, as the
New York Evening Post
New York Evening Post wrote, "in a
place by himself as the most original and one of the strongest of
American painters." But despite his critical recognition, Homer's
work never achieved the popularity of traditional Salon pictures or of
the flattering portraits by John Singer Sargent. Many of the sea
pictures took years to sell and Undertow only earned him $400.
In these years, Homer received emotional sustenance primarily from his
mother, brother Charles, and sister-in-law Martha ("Mattie"). After
his mother's death, Homer became a "parent" for his aging but
domineering father and Mattie became his closest female intimate.
In the winters of 1884–5, Homer ventured to warmer locations in
Florida, Cuba, and the
Bahamas and did a series of watercolors as part
of a commission for Century Magazine. He replaced the turbulent green
storm-tossed sea of Prouts Neck with the sparkling blue skies of the
Caribbean and the hardy New Englanders with Black natives, further
expanding his watercolor technique, subject matter, and palette.
During this trip he painted
Children Under a Palm Tree
Children Under a Palm Tree for Lady Blake,
the Governor's wife. His tropical stays inspired and refreshed him in
much the same way as Paul Gauguin's trips to Tahiti.
The Gulf Stream, 1899, oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New
A Garden in Nassau (1885) is one of the best examples of these
watercolors. Once again, his freshness and originality were praised by
critics but proved too advanced for the traditional art buyers and he
"looked in vain for profits". Homer lived frugally, however, and
fortunately, his affluent brother Charles provided financial help when
Homer frequently visited Key West,
Florida between 1888 and 1903. Some
of his best-known works, A Norther, Key West, The Gulf Stream, Taking
on Wet Provisions, and Palms in the Storm, are said to have been
Homer found inspiration in summer trips to the North Woods Club, near
the hamlet of Minerva, New York, in the Adirondack Mountains. It was
on these fishing vacations that he experimented with the watercolor
medium, producing works of the utmost vigor and subtlety, hymns to
solitude, nature, and to outdoor life. Homer doesn't shrink from the
savagery of blood sports nor the struggle for survival. The color
effects are boldly and facilely applied. In terms of quality and
invention, Homer's achievements as a watercolorist are unparalleled:
"Homer had used his singular vision and manner of painting to create a
body of work that has not been matched."
In 1893, Homer painted one of his most famous "Darwinian" works, The
Fox Hunt, which depicts a flock of starving crows descending on a fox
slowed by deep snow. This was Homer's largest painting, and it was
immediately purchased by the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,
his first painting in a major American museum collection. In
Huntsman and Dogs (1891), a lone, impassive hunter, with his yelping
dogs at his side, heads home after a hunt with deer skins slung over
his right shoulder. Another late work, The Gulf Stream (1899), shows a
black sailor adrift in a damaged boat, surrounded by sharks and an
By 1900, Homer finally reached financial stability, as his paintings
fetched good prices from museums and he began to receive rents from
real estate properties. He also became free of the responsibilities of
caring for his father, who had died two years earlier. Homer
continued producing excellent watercolors, mostly on trips to Canada
and the Caribbean. Other late works include sporting scenes such as
Right and Left, as well as seascapes absent of human figures, mostly
of waves crashing against rocks in varying light. His late seascapes
are especially valued for their dramatic and forceful expression of
natures powers, and for their beauty and intensity.
In his last decade, he at times followed the advice he had given a
student artist in 1907: "Leave rocks for your old age—they're
Homer died in 1910 at the age of 74 in his Prouts Neck studio and was
interred in the
Mount Auburn Cemetery
Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His
painting, Shooting the Rapids, Saguenay River, remains unfinished.
His Prouts Neck studio, a National Historic Landmark, is now owned by
the Portland Museum of Art, which offers tours.
Crab Fishing, 1883
The Herring Net, 1885
Sunlight on the Coast, 1890
(Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio)
Moonlight, Wood Island Light, 1894
Shark Fishing, 1885
The Fisher Girl, 1894
Homer never taught in a school or privately, as did Thomas Eakins, but
his works strongly influenced succeeding generations of American
painters for their direct and energetic interpretation of man's stoic
relationship to an often neutral and sometimes harsh wilderness.
Robert Henri called Homer's work an "integrity of nature".
American illustrator and teacher
Howard Pyle revered Homer and
encouraged his students to study him. His student and fellow
N. C. Wyeth
N. C. Wyeth (and through him
Andrew Wyeth and Jamie
Wyeth), shared the influence and appreciation, even following Homer to
Maine for inspiration. The elder Wyeth's respect for his
antecedent was "intense and absolute" and can be observed in his early
work Mowing (1907). Perhaps Homer's austere individualism is best
captured in his admonition to artists: "Look at nature, work
independently, and solve your own problems."
Winslow Homer commemorative issue of 1962
Shooting the Rapids, Saguenay River, unfinished. (1910)
In 1962, the U.S. Post Office released a commemorative stamp honoring
Winslow Homer. Homer's famous oil painting "Breezing Up", now hanging
in the National Gallery in Washington DC, was chosen as the image for
the design of this issue.[full citation needed] On August 12,
2010, The Postal Service issued a 44-cent commemorative stamp
featuring Homer's "Boys in a Pasture" at the APS Stamp Show in
This stamp was the ninth to be issued in a series entitled "American
Treasures". The original painting is part of the Hayden Collection at
the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. It depicts two boys from Belmont,
Massachusetts—John Carney and Patrick Keenan—who posed for the
artist for 75 cents per day.
Unlike many artists who were well known for working in only one art
Winslow Homer was prominent in a variety of art media, as in
the following examples:
Fresh Eggs, 1874
Song of the Lark, 1876, oil on canvas. Chrysler Museum of Art
The Reaper, 1878
The Milk Maid, 1878
Girl and Laurel, 1879
Pastoral landscapes and lifestyle (see pastoralism) is a genre of
literature, art and music that depicts shepherds herding livestock
around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing
availability of water and pasturage. A pastoral is a work of this
Shepherdess Tending Sheep, 1878
Warm Afternoon (Shepherdess), 1878
The Blue Boy, 1876
Twilight at Leeds, 1876
Winslow Homer's paintings always depicted marine landscapes. Later,
Winslow Homer spent the years between 1881 and 1882 in the
village of Cullercoats, Tyne and Wear, his paintings depicting shores
and coastal landscapes changed. Many of the paintings from the English
coast have as subjects working men and women from the area.
Shores and beaches
On the Beach, 1869
Eagle Head, Manchester, Massachusetts, 1870
Dad's Coming!, 1873
Clear Sailing, 1880
Two boys watching schooners, 1880
A Fresh Breeze, c. 1881
Girl Carrying a Basket, 1882
Girl with Red Stockings, 1882
Summer Night, 1890
Watching the Breakers, 1891
The Bridle Path, 1868, oil painting (Clark Art Institute)
A Huntsman and Dogs, 1891
Mink Pond, 1891
The Hudson River, 1892
The Adirondack Guide, 1894
A Game of Croquet, 1866
Croquet Scene, 1866
The Croquet Match, ca. 1869
Croquet Players, 1865
^ Poole, Robert M. Hidden Depths. Smithsonian Magazine. April 2008.
Retrieved May 22, 2008.
^ Cooper, Helen A.,
Winslow Homer Watercolors, p. 16. Yale University
^ Hoeber, Arthur (February 1911). "Winslow Homer, A Painter Of The
Sea". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXI: 14009–14017.
Retrieved July 10, 2009.
^ Cooper, p. 16.
^ Elizabeth Johns, Winslow Homer: The Nature of Observation,
University of California Press, Berkeley, 2002, p. 9,
^ Cikovsky, Jr., Nicolai (1990), Winslow Homer, New York: Harry N.
Abrams, pp. 11–13, ISBN 0-8109-1193-0 ; Roberts,
Norma J., ed. (1988), The American Collections, Columbus Museum of
Art, p. 2, ISBN 0-8109-1811-0 (stating age at time of
apprenticeship as 18)
^ Johns (2002), p. 13.
^ a b c d Roberts, Norma J., ed. (1988), The American Collections,
Columbus Museum of Art, p. 2, ISBN 0-8109-1811-0
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 12
^ a b Cooper, p. 13.
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 15.
^ a b c Cikovsky (1990), p. 16.
^ Exhibit at the
Amon Carter Museum
Amon Carter Museum in Fort Worth, Texas
^ "A Visit from the Old Mistress". Americanart.si.edu. July 28, 1909.
Retrieved December 3, 2013.
^ "A Visit From the Old Mistress at the Smithsonian American Art
Museum". Americanart.si.edu. July 28, 1909. Retrieved December 3,
^ "Artists Sketching the White Mountains at the Portland Museum of
Art, Maine". Portlandmuseum.org. Retrieved December 3, 2013.
^ Cikovsky (1990), pp. 32, 42.
^ Johns (2002), p. 84.
Breezing Up at the National Gallery of Art". Nga.gov. Retrieved
December 3, 2013.
^ Quoted by Updike, John: "Epic Homer", Still Looking: Essays on
American Art, p. 58. Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
^ "Winslow Homer:
Dressing for the Carnival
Dressing for the Carnival (22.220) - Heilbrunn
Timeline of Art History - The Metropolitan Museum of Art".
^ Updike, John, p. 69, 2005. "Among his feats may be listed the best,
least caricatural portraits of postbellum African Americans,"
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 65.
^ Rough Notes on the Exhibition of the American Water Color Society
for 1881, "Andrews' American Queen", p. 110. February 12, 1881.
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 57.
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 72.
^ Johns (2002), p. 98.
^ "Inside the Bar -
Winslow Homer - 54.183 - Work of Art - Heilbrunn
Timeline of Art History". The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
^ Cikovsky (1990), pp. 75–79.
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 81.
^ Johns (2002), p. 105.
^ a b Cikovsky (1990), p. 91.
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 84.
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 94.
^ Johns (2002), p. 122.
^ Johns (2002), p. 114.
^ Johns (2002), p. 124.
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 100.
^ Johns (2002), pp. 127–128.
^ Federal Writers' Project (1939), Florida. A Guide to the
Southernmost State, New York: Oxford University Press,
^ Walsh, Judith: "Innovation in Homer's Late Watercolors", Winslow
Homer, p. 283. National Gallery of Art, 1995.
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 115.
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 120.
^ Johns (2002), pp. 127-150.
Winslow Homer (1836–1910)". The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Retrieved September 2014. Check date values in: access-date=
^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 131.
^ "Portland Museum". Portland Museum. Retrieved December 3,
^  Archived March 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
^ See Lost on the Grand Banks, collection of Bill Gates
^ Robert Henri, The Art Spirit, Harper Collins, 1984
^ An American Vision: Three Generations of Wyeth Art, New York Graphic
Society, 1987, p. 68, ISBN 0-8212-1652-X.
^ Wyeth (1987), p. 38.
^ Scott's United States stamp catalogue
^ "Shops.usps.com". Shop.usps.com. March 28, 2011. Retrieved December
^ "[The art of Winslow Homer]". ubc.ca.
^ "A game of croquet". ubc.ca.
Griffin, Randall C. "Winslow Homer: An American Vision." London:
Phaidon Press, 2017. ISBN 978-0-7148-7419-7
Murphy, Alexandra R.
Winslow Homer in the Clark Collection.
Williamstown, Mass: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 1986.
Sherman, Frederic Fairchild, American Painters of Yesterday and Today,
1919, Priv. print in New York. Chapter: Early Paintings by Winslow
Malcolm, John, Simpson's Homer, 2001 and 2006. This art mystery novel,
the only novel to feature Winslow Homer, involves Tim Simpson tracking
down an unknown watercolour by Homer of
Cullercoats in 1881.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Winslow Homer.
Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
about Winslow Homer.
Homer's The Life Line
The Fog Warning
The Fog Warning (Halibut Fishing)
Wood, Peter H. "
Winslow Homer and the American Civil War". A lecture
on Homer's painting Near Andersonville and his relationship to the
Civil War. Southern Spaces, March 4, 2011.
Winslow Homer in the
National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art This Web Feature traces
the artist's career from the late 1850s until his death in 1910, and
includes zoomable images with high resolution details.
White Mountain paintings by Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer Artwork Examples on AskART.
"Winslow Homer: Making Art, Making History". Exhibition held at the
Sterling and Francine
Clark Art Institute
Clark Art Institute in 2005. The exhibition
website showcases the range of Homer's work—oil paintings,
watercolors, drawings and etchings, as well as approximately 120 wood
engravings and other reproductions from the Clark's collections.
Winslow Homer at the Clark: a series of videos produced by the
Sterling and Francine
Clark Art Institute
Clark Art Institute that explore the themes,
contexts and techniques of
Winslow Homer works in the Clark
Winslow Homer biography, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Winslow Homer Gallery at MuseumSyndicate
Winslow Homer papers online at the Smithsonian Archives of American
Philip C. Beam papers, c. 1946– c. 1993; Homer historian and his
related collection from the Smithsonian Archives of American Art.
Winslow Homer collection at the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum
"Winslow Homer's Illustrations", Exhibitions,
Boston Public Library,
The Boat Builders
The Brierwood Pipe
The Bright Side
Children Under a Palm
The Cotton Pickers
Dressing for the Carnival
The Fog Warning
In Front of Yorktown
The Fox Hunt
The Gulf Stream
Lost on the Grand Banks
Right and Left
Snap the Whip
A Visit from the Old Mistress
Searchlight on Harbor Entrance, Santiago de Cuba
Fishing Boats, Key West
Society of Illustrators' Hall of Fame
Harold Von Schmidt
Edward A. Wilson
Arthur William Brown
Charles Dana Gibson
N. C. Wyeth
J. C. Leyendecker
Edwin Austin Abbey
Howard Chandler Christy
James Montgomery Flagg
Frederic R. Gruger
Henry P. Raleigh
Neysa Moran McMein
Arthur Burdett Frost
Charles Marion Russell
Robert T. McCall
John Held Jr.
Arthur Ignatius Keller
Jessie Willcox Smith
William Arthur Smith
Edwin A. Georgi
Elizabeth Shippen Green
Joseph Clement Coll
Frank E. Schoonover
Anton Otto Fischer
Robert M. Cunningham
Rose Cecil O'Neill
Charles Livingston Bull
David Stone Martin
Alice and Martin Provensen
James Allen St. John
John James Audubon
Will H. Bradley
Charles R. Knight
E. Simms Campbell
Robert Andrew Parker
Albert Beck Wenzell
Frank H. Netter
Alvin J. Pimsler
Jack Neal Unruh
Edward Windsor Kemble
Kinuko Y. Craft
Herbert Morton Stoops
Charles Edward Chambers
Earl Oliver Hurst
Orson Byron Lowell
Chris Van Allsburg
Kenneth Paul Block
Alan E. Cober
R. O. Blechman
Charles M. Schulz
William Cameron Menzies
Ted Lewin and Betsy Lewin
ISNI: 0000 0001 0872 7050
BNF: cb12050476t (data)