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Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
(February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine subjects. He is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th-century America and a preeminent figure in American art. Largely self-taught, Homer began his career working as a commercial illustrator.[1] He subsequently took up oil painting and produced major studio works characterized by the weight and density he exploited from the medium. He also worked extensively in watercolor, creating a fluid and prolific oeuvre, primarily chronicling his working vacations.[2][3]

Contents

1 Early life 2 Homer's studio 3 Early landscapes and watercolors 4 England 5 Maine and maturity 6 Influence 7 U.S. stamp 8 Works 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life[edit] Born in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1836, Homer was the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer and Henrietta Benson Homer, both from long lines of New Englanders. His mother was a gifted amateur watercolorist and Homer's first teacher. She and her son had a close relationship throughout their lives. Homer took on many of her traits, including her quiet, strong-willed, terse, sociable nature; her dry sense of humor; and her artistic talent.[4] Homer had a happy childhood, growing up mostly in then rural Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was an average student, but his art talent was evident in his early years.

The Bathers, wood engraving, Harper's Weekly, 1873

Homer's father was a volatile, restless businessman who was always looking to "make a killing". When Homer was thirteen, Charles gave up the hardware store business to seek a fortune in the California gold rush. When that failed, Charles left his family and went to Europe to raise capital for other get-rich-quick schemes that didn't materialize.[5] After Homer's high school graduation, his father saw a newspaper advertisement and arranged for an apprenticeship. Homer's apprenticeship at the age of 19 to J. H. Bufford, a Boston
Boston
commercial lithographer, was a formative but "treadmill experience".[6] He worked repetitively on sheet music covers and other commercial work for two years. By 1857, his freelance career was underway after he turned down an offer to join the staff of Harper's Weekly. "From the time I took my nose off that lithographic stone", Homer later stated, "I have had no master, and never shall have any."[7] Homer's career as an illustrator lasted nearly twenty years. He contributed illustrations of Boston
Boston
life and rural New England life to magazines such as Ballou's Pictorial
Ballou's Pictorial
and Harper's Weekly[8] at a time when the market for illustrations was growing rapidly and fads and fashions were changing quickly. His early works, mostly commercial engravings of urban and country social scenes, are characterized by clean outlines, simplified forms, dramatic contrast of light and dark, and lively figure groupings—qualities that remained important throughout his career.[9] His quick success was mostly due to this strong understanding of graphic design and also to the adaptability of his designs to wood engraving. Before moving to New York in 1859, Homer lived in Belmont, Massachusetts with his family. His uncle's Belmont mansion, the 1853 Homer House, was the inspiration for a number of his early illustrations and paintings, including several of his 1860s croquet pictures. The Homer House, owned by the Belmont Woman's Club, is open for public tours.

Homer's studio[edit]

Prisoners from the front, 1866, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Oil on canvas. 24 x 38in

In 1859, he opened a studio in the Tenth Street Studio Building in New York City, the artistic and publishing capital of the United States. Until 1863, he attended classes at the National Academy of Design, and studied briefly with Frédéric Rondel, who taught him the basics of painting.[10] In only about a year of self-training, Homer was producing excellent oil work. His mother tried to raise family funds to send him to Europe for further study but instead Harper's sent Homer to the front lines of the American Civil War
American Civil War
(1861–1865), where he sketched battle scenes and camp life, the quiet moments as well as the chaotic ones.[11] His initial sketches were of the camp, commanders, and army of the famous Union officer, Major General George B. McClellan, at the banks of the Potomac River
Potomac River
in October 1861.

Long Branch, New Jersey, 1869

Although the drawings did not get much attention at the time, they mark Homer's expanding skills from illustrator to painter. Like with his urban scenes, Homer also illustrated women during wartime, and showed the effects of the war on the home front. The war work was dangerous and exhausting. Back at his studio, Homer would regain his strength and re-focus his artistic vision. He set to work on a series of war-related paintings based on his sketches, among them Sharpshooter on Picket Duty (1862), Home, Sweet Home (1863), and Prisoners from the Front (1866).[12] He exhibited paintings of these subjects every year at the National Academy of Design
National Academy of Design
from 1863 to 1866.[8] Home, Sweet Home was shown at the National Academy to particular critical acclaim; it was quickly sold and the artist was consequently elected an Associate Academician, then a full Academician in 1865.[10] During this time, he also continued to sell his illustrations to periodicals such as Our Young Folks and Frank Leslie's Chimney Corner.[8] After the war, Homer turned his attention primarily to scenes of childhood and young women, reflecting nostalgia for simpler times, both his own and the nation as a whole.

Winslow Homer, Crossing the Pasture, 1871–72, Amon Carter Museum
Amon Carter Museum
of American Art

His Crossing the Pasture (1871–1872) in the collection of the Amon Carter Museum of American Art depicts two boys who idealize brotherhood with the hope of a united future after the war that pitted brother against brother.[13]

A Visit from the Old Mistress, 1876, Smithsonian American Art Museum.[14]

Homer was also interested in postwar subject matter that conveyed the silent tension between two communities seeking to understand their future. His oil painting A Visit from the Old Mistress
A Visit from the Old Mistress
(1876) shows an encounter between a group of four freed slaves and their former mistress. The formal equivalence between the standing figures suggests the balance that the nation hoped to find in the difficult years of Reconstruction. Homer composed this painting from sketches he had made while traveling through Virginia.[15] Near the beginning of his painting career, the 27-year-old Homer demonstrated a maturity of feeling, depth of perception, and mastery of technique which was immediately recognized. His realism was objective, true to nature, and emotionally controlled. One critic wrote, " Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
is one of those few young artists who make a decided impression of their power with their very first contributions to the Academy.... He at this moment wields a better pencil, models better, colors better, than many whom, were it not improper, we could mention as regular contributors to the Academy." And of Home, Sweet Home specifically, "There is no clap-trap about it. The delicacy and strength of emotion which reign throughout this little picture are not surpassed in the whole exhibition." "It is a work of real feeling, soldiers in camp listening to the evening band, and thinking of the wives and darlings far away. There is no strained effect in it, no sentimentality, but a hearty, homely actuality, broadly, freely, and simply worked out."[12] Early landscapes and watercolors[edit]

Artists Sketching in the White Mountains, 1868, oil on panel (Portland Museum of Art, Portland, Maine)[16]

Before exhibiting at the National Academy of Design, Homer finally traveled to Paris, France
France
in 1867 where he remained for a year. His most praised early painting, Prisoners from the Front, was on exhibit at the Exposition Universelle in Paris
Paris
at the same time.[12] He did not study formally but he practiced landscape painting while continuing to work for Harper's, depicting scenes of Parisian life. Homer painted about a dozen small paintings during the stay. Although he arrived in France
France
at a time of new fashions in art, Homer's main subject for his paintings was peasant life, showing more of an alignment with the established French Barbizon school
Barbizon school
and the artist Millet than with newer artists Manet and Courbet. Though his interest in depicting natural light parallels that of the early impressionists, there is no evidence of direct influence as he was already a plein-air painter in America and had already evolved a personal style which was much closer to Manet than Monet. Unfortunately, Homer was very private about his personal life and his methods (even denying his first biographer any personal information or commentary), but his stance was clearly one of independence of style and a devotion to American subjects. As his fellow artist Eugene Benson wrote, Homer believed that artists "should never look at pictures" but should "stutter in a language of their own."[17] Throughout the 1870s, Homer continued painting mostly rural or idyllic scenes of farm life, children playing, and young adults courting, including Country School (1871) and The Morning Bell (1872). In 1875, Homer quit working as a commercial illustrator and vowed to survive on his paintings and watercolors alone. Despite his excellent critical reputation, his finances continued to remain precarious.[18] His popular 1872 painting Snap-the-Whip was exhibited at the 1876 Centennial Exposition
Centennial Exposition
in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as was one of his finest and most famous paintings Breezing Up
Breezing Up
(1876). Of his work at this time, Henry James
Henry James
wrote:

Breezing Up
Breezing Up
(A Fair Wind), 1873–76, oil on canvas (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.)[19]

"We frankly confess that we detest his subjects... he has chosen the least pictorial range of scenery and civilization; he has resolutely treated them as if they were pictorial... and, to reward his audacity, he has incontestably succeeded."[20]

Many disagreed with James. Breezing Up, Homer's iconic painting of a father and three boys out for a spirited sail, received wide praise. The New York Tribune wrote, "There is no picture in this exhibition, nor can we remember when there has been a picture in any exhibition, that can be named alongside this." Visits to Petersburg, Virginia, around 1876 resulted in paintings of rural African American
African American
life. The same straightforward sensibility which allowed Homer to distill art from these potentially sentimental subjects also yielded the most unaffected views of African American
African American
life at the time, as illustrated in Dressing for the Carnival
Dressing for the Carnival
(1877)[21] and A Visit from the Old Mistress (1876).[22] In 1877, Homer exhibited for the first time at the Boston
Boston
Art Club with the oil painting, An Afternoon Sun, (owned by the Artist). From 1877 through 1909, Homer exhibited often at the Boston
Boston
Art Club. Works on paper, both drawings and watercolors, were frequently exhibited by Homer beginning in 1882. A most unusual sculpture by the Artist, Hunter with Dog – Northwoods, was exhibited in 1902. By that year, Homer had switched his primary Gallery from the Boston-based Doll and Richards to the New York City
New York City
based Knoedler & Co. Homer became a member of The Tile Club, a group of artists and writers who met frequently to exchange ideas and organize outings for painting, as well as foster the creation of decorative tiles. For a short time, he designed tiles for fireplaces.[23]

Eastern Point Light, 1880, Princeton University Art Museum

Homer's nickname in The Tile Club was "The Obtuse Bard". Other well known Tilers
Tilers
were painters William Merritt Chase, Arthur Quartley, and the sculptor Augustus Saint Gaudens. Homer started painting with watercolors on a regular basis in 1873 during a summer stay in Gloucester, Massachusetts. From the beginning, his technique was natural, fluid and confident, demonstrating his innate talent for a difficult medium. His impact would be revolutionary. Here, again, the critics were puzzled at first, "A child with an ink bottle could not have done worse."[24] Another critic said that Homer "made a sudden and desperate plunge into water color painting". But his watercolors proved popular and enduring, and sold more readily, improving his financial condition considerably. They varied from highly detailed (Blackboard – 1877) to broadly impressionistic (Schooner at Sunset – 1880). Some watercolors were made as preparatory sketches for oil paintings (as for "Breezing Up") and some as finished works in themselves. Thereafter, he seldom traveled without paper, brushes and water based paints.[25] As a result of disappointments with women or from some other emotional turmoil, Homer became reclusive in the late 1870s, no longer enjoying urban social life and living instead in Gloucester. For a while, he even lived in secluded Eastern Point Lighthouse (with the keeper's family). In re-establishing his love of the sea, Homer found a rich source of themes while closely observing the fishermen, the sea, and the marine weather. After 1880, he rarely featured genteel women at leisure, focusing instead on working women.[26]

Early landscapes and watercolors

Girl in the Hammock, 1873

The Four Leaf Clover, 1873

The Green Hill, 1878

On the Stile, c. 1878

Peach Blossoms, 1878

England[edit]

Three Fisher Girls, Tynemouth, watercolor on paper 1881, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

Homer spent two years (1881–1882) in the English coastal village of Cullercoats, Tyne and Wear. Many of the paintings at Cullercoats
Cullercoats
took as their subjects working men and women and their daily heroism, imbued with a solidity and sobriety which was new to Homer's art, presaging the direction of his future work.[8] He wrote, "The women are the working bees. Stout hardy creatures."[27] His works from this period are almost exclusively watercolors.[28] His palette became constrained and sober; his paintings larger, more ambitious, and more deliberately conceived and executed. His subjects more universal and less nationalistic, more heroic by virtue of his unsentimental rendering. Although he moved away from the spontaneity and bright innocence of the American paintings of the 1860s and 1870s, Homer found a new style and vision which carried his talent into new realms.[29] Maine and maturity[edit]

The Fog Warning, 1885, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Back in the U.S. in November 1882, Homer showed his English watercolors in New York. Critics noticed the change in style at once, "He is a very different Homer from the one we knew in days gone by", now his pictures "touch a far higher plane...They are works of High Art."[30] Homer's women were no longer "dolls who flaunt their millinery" but "sturdy, fearless, fit wives and mothers of men" who are fully capable of enduring the forces and vagaries of nature alongside their men.[31] In 1883, Homer moved to Prouts Neck, Maine
Prouts Neck, Maine
(in Scarborough), and lived at his family's estate in the remodeled carriage house seventy-five feet from the ocean.[32] During the rest of the mid-1880s, Homer painted his monumental sea scenes. In Undertow (1886), depicting the dramatic rescue of two female bathers by two male lifeguards, Homer's figures "have the weight and authority of classical figures".[33] In Eight Bells (1886), two sailors carefully take their bearings on deck, calmly appraising their position and by extension, their relationship with the sea; they are confident in their seamanship but respectful of the forces before them. Other notable paintings among these dramatic struggle-with-nature images are Banks Fisherman, The Gulf Stream, Rum Cay, Mending the Nets, and Searchlight on Harbor Entrance, Santiago de Cuba. Some of these he repeated as etchings.[34]

The Fox Hunt, 1893. Oil on canvas, 96.5 x 174 cm. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.

At fifty years of age, Homer had become a "Yankee Robinson Crusoe, cloistered on his art island" and "a hermit with a brush". These paintings established Homer, as the New York Evening Post
New York Evening Post
wrote, "in a place by himself as the most original and one of the strongest of American painters."[32] But despite his critical recognition, Homer's work never achieved the popularity of traditional Salon pictures or of the flattering portraits by John Singer Sargent. Many of the sea pictures took years to sell and Undertow only earned him $400.[35] In these years, Homer received emotional sustenance primarily from his mother, brother Charles, and sister-in-law Martha ("Mattie"). After his mother's death, Homer became a "parent" for his aging but domineering father and Mattie became his closest female intimate.[36] In the winters of 1884–5, Homer ventured to warmer locations in Florida, Cuba, and the Bahamas
Bahamas
and did a series of watercolors as part of a commission for Century Magazine. He replaced the turbulent green storm-tossed sea of Prouts Neck with the sparkling blue skies of the Caribbean and the hardy New Englanders with Black natives, further expanding his watercolor technique, subject matter, and palette.[37] During this trip he painted Children Under a Palm Tree
Children Under a Palm Tree
for Lady Blake, the Governor's wife. His tropical stays inspired and refreshed him in much the same way as Paul Gauguin's trips to Tahiti.[38]

The Gulf Stream, 1899, oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City

A Garden in Nassau (1885) is one of the best examples of these watercolors. Once again, his freshness and originality were praised by critics but proved too advanced for the traditional art buyers and he "looked in vain for profits". Homer lived frugally, however, and fortunately, his affluent brother Charles provided financial help when needed.[39] Homer frequently visited Key West, Florida
Florida
between 1888 and 1903. Some of his best-known works, A Norther, Key West, The Gulf Stream, Taking on Wet Provisions, and Palms in the Storm, are said to have been produced there.[40] Homer found inspiration in summer trips to the North Woods Club, near the hamlet of Minerva, New York, in the Adirondack Mountains. It was on these fishing vacations that he experimented with the watercolor medium, producing works of the utmost vigor and subtlety, hymns to solitude, nature, and to outdoor life. Homer doesn't shrink from the savagery of blood sports nor the struggle for survival. The color effects are boldly and facilely applied. In terms of quality and invention, Homer's achievements as a watercolorist are unparalleled: "Homer had used his singular vision and manner of painting to create a body of work that has not been matched."[41] In 1893, Homer painted one of his most famous "Darwinian" works, The Fox Hunt, which depicts a flock of starving crows descending on a fox slowed by deep snow. This was Homer's largest painting, and it was immediately purchased by the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, his first painting in a major American museum collection.[42] In Huntsman and Dogs (1891), a lone, impassive hunter, with his yelping dogs at his side, heads home after a hunt with deer skins slung over his right shoulder. Another late work, The Gulf Stream (1899), shows a black sailor adrift in a damaged boat, surrounded by sharks and an impending maelstrom.[43]

Northeaster, 1895

By 1900, Homer finally reached financial stability, as his paintings fetched good prices from museums and he began to receive rents from real estate properties. He also became free of the responsibilities of caring for his father, who had died two years earlier.[44] Homer continued producing excellent watercolors, mostly on trips to Canada and the Caribbean. Other late works include sporting scenes such as Right and Left, as well as seascapes absent of human figures, mostly of waves crashing against rocks in varying light. His late seascapes are especially valued for their dramatic and forceful expression of natures powers, and for their beauty and intensity.[45] In his last decade, he at times followed the advice he had given a student artist in 1907: "Leave rocks for your old age—they're easy."[46] Homer died in 1910 at the age of 74 in his Prouts Neck studio and was interred in the Mount Auburn Cemetery
Mount Auburn Cemetery
in Cambridge, Massachusetts. His painting, Shooting the Rapids, Saguenay River, remains unfinished. His Prouts Neck studio, a National Historic Landmark, is now owned by the Portland Museum of Art, which offers tours.[47]

Moonlight, 1874

Crab Fishing, 1883

The Herring Net, 1885

Sunlight on the Coast, 1890 (Toledo Museum of Art, Ohio)[48]

Moonlight, Wood Island Light, 1894

Shark Fishing, 1885

Influence[edit]

The Fisher Girl, 1894

Homer never taught in a school or privately, as did Thomas Eakins, but his works strongly influenced succeeding generations of American painters for their direct and energetic interpretation of man's stoic relationship to an often neutral and sometimes harsh wilderness.[49] Robert Henri
Robert Henri
called Homer's work an "integrity of nature".[50] American illustrator and teacher Howard Pyle
Howard Pyle
revered Homer and encouraged his students to study him. His student and fellow illustrator, N. C. Wyeth
N. C. Wyeth
(and through him Andrew Wyeth
Andrew Wyeth
and Jamie Wyeth), shared the influence and appreciation, even following Homer to Maine for inspiration.[51] The elder Wyeth's respect for his antecedent was "intense and absolute" and can be observed in his early work Mowing (1907).[52] Perhaps Homer's austere individualism is best captured in his admonition to artists: "Look at nature, work independently, and solve your own problems." U.S. stamp[edit]

Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
commemorative issue of 1962

Shooting the Rapids, Saguenay River, unfinished. (1910)

In 1962, the U.S. Post Office released a commemorative stamp honoring Winslow Homer. Homer's famous oil painting "Breezing Up", now hanging in the National Gallery in Washington DC, was chosen as the image for the design of this issue.[53][full citation needed] On August 12, 2010, The Postal Service issued a 44-cent commemorative stamp featuring Homer's "Boys in a Pasture" at the APS Stamp Show in Richmond, Virginia. This stamp was the ninth to be issued in a series entitled "American Treasures". The original painting is part of the Hayden Collection at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. It depicts two boys from Belmont, Massachusetts—John Carney and Patrick Keenan—who posed for the artist for 75 cents per day.[54] Works[edit] Unlike many artists who were well known for working in only one art medium, Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
was prominent in a variety of art media, as in the following examples:

Country life

Fresh Eggs, 1874

Song of the Lark, 1876, oil on canvas. Chrysler Museum of Art

The Reaper, 1878

The Milk Maid, 1878

Girl and Laurel, 1879

Pastoral landscapes and lifestyle (see pastoralism) is a genre of literature, art and music that depicts shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasturage. A pastoral is a work of this genre.

Pastoral landscapes

Bo-Peep, 1878

Shepherdess Tending Sheep, 1878

Warm Afternoon (Shepherdess), 1878

The Blue Boy, 1876

Twilight at Leeds, 1876

Winslow Homer's paintings always depicted marine landscapes. Later, when Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
spent the years between 1881 and 1882 in the village of Cullercoats, Tyne and Wear, his paintings depicting shores and coastal landscapes changed. Many of the paintings from the English coast have as subjects working men and women from the area.

Shores and beaches

On the Beach, 1869

Eagle Head, Manchester, Massachusetts, 1870

Dad's Coming!, 1873

Clear Sailing, 1880

Two boys watching schooners, 1880

A Fresh Breeze, c. 1881

Girl Carrying a Basket, 1882

Girl with Red Stockings, 1882

Summer Night, 1890

Watching the Breakers, 1891

Mountain landscapes

The Bridle Path, 1868, oil painting (Clark Art Institute)

A Huntsman and Dogs, 1891

Mink Pond, 1891

The Hudson River, 1892

The Adirondack Guide, 1894

Croquet

A Game of Croquet, 1866

Croquet Scene, 1866

The Croquet Match, ca. 1869[55]

Croquet Players, 1865[56]

References[edit]

^ Poole, Robert M. Hidden Depths. Smithsonian Magazine. April 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008. ^ Cooper, Helen A., Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
Watercolors, p. 16. Yale University Press, 1986. ^ Hoeber, Arthur (February 1911). "Winslow Homer, A Painter Of The Sea". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXI: 14009–14017. Retrieved July 10, 2009.  ^ Cooper, p. 16. ^ Elizabeth Johns, Winslow Homer: The Nature of Observation, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2002, p. 9, ISBN 0-520-22725-5. ^ Cikovsky, Jr., Nicolai (1990), Winslow Homer, New York: Harry N. Abrams, pp. 11–13, ISBN 0-8109-1193-0 ; Roberts, Norma J., ed. (1988), The American Collections, Columbus Museum of Art, p. 2, ISBN 0-8109-1811-0  (stating age at time of apprenticeship as 18) ^ Johns (2002), p. 13. ^ a b c d Roberts, Norma J., ed. (1988), The American Collections, Columbus Museum of Art, p. 2, ISBN 0-8109-1811-0  ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 12 ^ a b Cooper, p. 13. ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 15. ^ a b c Cikovsky (1990), p. 16. ^ Exhibit at the Amon Carter Museum
Amon Carter Museum
in Fort Worth, Texas ^ "A Visit from the Old Mistress". Americanart.si.edu. July 28, 1909. Retrieved December 3, 2013.  ^ "A Visit From the Old Mistress at the Smithsonian American Art Museum". Americanart.si.edu. July 28, 1909. Retrieved December 3, 2013.  ^ "Artists Sketching the White Mountains at the Portland Museum of Art, Maine". Portlandmuseum.org. Retrieved December 3, 2013.  ^ Cikovsky (1990), pp. 32, 42. ^ Johns (2002), p. 84. ^ " Breezing Up
Breezing Up
at the National Gallery of Art". Nga.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2013.  ^ Quoted by Updike, John: "Epic Homer", Still Looking: Essays on American Art, p. 58. Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. ^ "Winslow Homer: Dressing for the Carnival
Dressing for the Carnival
(22.220) - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History - The Metropolitan Museum of Art". metmuseum.org.  ^ Updike, John, p. 69, 2005. "Among his feats may be listed the best, least caricatural portraits of postbellum African Americans," ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 65. ^ Rough Notes on the Exhibition of the American Water Color Society for 1881, "Andrews' American Queen", p. 110. February 12, 1881. ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 57. ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 72. ^ Johns (2002), p. 98. ^ "Inside the Bar - Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
- 54.183 - Work of Art - Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History". The Metropolitan Museum of Art.  ^ Cikovsky (1990), pp. 75–79. ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 81. ^ Johns (2002), p. 105. ^ a b Cikovsky (1990), p. 91. ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 84. ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 94. ^ Johns (2002), p. 122. ^ Johns (2002), p. 114. ^ Johns (2002), p. 124. ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 100. ^ Johns (2002), pp. 127–128. ^ Federal Writers' Project (1939), Florida. A Guide to the Southernmost State, New York: Oxford University Press, p. 159  ^ Walsh, Judith: "Innovation in Homer's Late Watercolors", Winslow Homer, p. 283. National Gallery of Art, 1995. ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 115. ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 120. ^ Johns (2002), pp. 127-150. ^ " Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
(1836–1910)". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved September 2014.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ Cikovsky (1990), p. 131. ^ "Portland Museum". Portland Museum. Retrieved December 3, 2013.  ^ [1] Archived March 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ See Lost on the Grand Banks, collection of Bill Gates ^ Robert Henri, The Art Spirit, Harper Collins, 1984 ^ An American Vision: Three Generations of Wyeth Art, New York Graphic Society, 1987, p. 68, ISBN 0-8212-1652-X. ^ Wyeth (1987), p. 38. ^ Scott's United States stamp catalogue ^ "Shops.usps.com". Shop.usps.com. March 28, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2013.  ^ "[The art of Winslow Homer]". ubc.ca.  ^ "A game of croquet". ubc.ca. 

Further reading[edit]

Griffin, Randall C. "Winslow Homer: An American Vision." London: Phaidon Press, 2017. ISBN 978-0-7148-7419-7 Murphy, Alexandra R. Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
in the Clark Collection. Williamstown, Mass: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, 1986. ISBN 0-931102-19-7 Sherman, Frederic Fairchild, American Painters of Yesterday and Today, 1919, Priv. print in New York. Chapter: Early Paintings by Winslow Homer: https://archive.org/stream/americanpainters00sheriala#page/n67/mode/2up Malcolm, John, Simpson's Homer, 2001 and 2006. This art mystery novel, the only novel to feature Winslow Homer, involves Tim Simpson tracking down an unknown watercolour by Homer of Cullercoats
Cullercoats
in 1881. ISBN 1-901167-14-3

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Winslow Homer.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Winslow Homer.

External video

Homer's The Life Line

Homer's The Fog Warning
The Fog Warning
(Halibut Fishing)

Wood, Peter H. " Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
and the American Civil War". A lecture on Homer's painting Near Andersonville and his relationship to the Civil War. Southern Spaces, March 4, 2011. Winslow-Homer.com Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
in the National Gallery of Art
National Gallery of Art
This Web Feature traces the artist's career from the late 1850s until his death in 1910, and includes zoomable images with high resolution details. White Mountain paintings by Winslow Homer Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
Artwork Examples on AskART. "Winslow Homer: Making Art, Making History". Exhibition held at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute
Clark Art Institute
in 2005. The exhibition website showcases the range of Homer's work—oil paintings, watercolors, drawings and etchings, as well as approximately 120 wood engravings and other reproductions from the Clark's collections. Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
at the Clark: a series of videos produced by the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute
Clark Art Institute
that explore the themes, contexts and techniques of Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
works in the Clark collection. Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
biography, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
Gallery at MuseumSyndicate Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
papers online at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art Philip C. Beam papers, c. 1946– c. 1993; Homer historian and his related collection from the Smithsonian Archives of American Art. Winslow Homer
Winslow Homer
collection at the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum "Winslow Homer's Illustrations", Exhibitions, Boston
Boston
Public Library, 2011 

v t e

Winslow Homer

Paintings

The Boat Builders Breezing Up The Brierwood Pipe The Bright Side Children Under a Palm The Cotton Pickers Dressing for the Carnival Eight Bells The Fog Warning In Front of Yorktown Cannon Rock Northeaster The Fox Hunt The Gulf Stream Lost on the Grand Banks Right and Left Snap the Whip A Visit from the Old Mistress Maine Coast Searchlight on Harbor Entrance, Santiago de Cuba Fishing Boats, Key West

v t e

Society of Illustrators' Hall of Fame

1958–1959

1958

Norman Rockwell

1959

Dean Cornwell Harold Von Schmidt

1960–1969

1960

Fred Cooper

1961

Floyd Davis

1962

Edward A. Wilson

1963

Walter Biggs

1964

Arthur William Brown

1965

Al Parker

1966

Al Dorne

1967

Robert Fawcett

1968

Peter Helck

1969

Austin Briggs

1970–1979

1970

Rube Goldberg

1971

Stevan Dohanos

1972

Ray Prohaska

1973

Jon Whitcomb

1974

Charles Dana Gibson Tom Lovell N. C. Wyeth

1975

Bernie Fuchs Maxfield Parrish Howard Pyle

1976

Harvey Dunn John Falter Winslow Homer

1977

J. C. Leyendecker Wallace Morgan Robert Peak

1978

Norman Price Frederic Remington Coby Whitmore

1979

Edwin Austin Abbey Lorraine Fox Ben Stahl

1980–1989

1980

Howard Chandler Christy James Montgomery Flagg Saul Tepper

1981

Stan Galli John Gannam Frederic R. Gruger

1982

John Clymer Carl Erickson Henry P. Raleigh

1983

Franklin Booth Mark English Noel Sickles

1984

John LaGatta Neysa Moran McMein James Williamson

1985

Arthur Burdett Frost Charles Marion Russell Robert Weaver

1986

Al Hirschfeld Rockwell Kent

1987

Maurice Sendak Haddon Sundblom

1988

René Bouché Pruett Carter Robert T. McCall

1989

Erté John Held Jr. Arthur Ignatius Keller

1990–1999

1990

Robert Riggs Morton Roberts Burt Silverman

1991

Jessie Willcox Smith William Arthur Smith Donald Teague

1992

Joe Bowler Edwin A. Georgi Dorothy Hood

1993

Robert McGinnis Thomas Nast Coles Phillips

1994

Harry Anderson Elizabeth Shippen Green Ben Shahn

1995

James Avati McClelland Barclay Joseph Clement Coll Frank E. Schoonover

1996

Anton Otto Fischer Winsor McCay Violet Oakley Mead Schaeffer Herb Tauss

1997

Chesley Bonestell Joe DeMers Diane Dillon Leo Dillon Maynard Dixon Harrison Fisher Frank McCarthy

1998

Boris Artzybasheff Robert M. Cunningham Kerr Eby Frank Frazetta Edward Penfield Martha Sawyers

1999

Mitchell Hooks Andrew Loomis Antonio Lopez Stanley Meltzoff Thomas Moran Rose Cecil O'Neill Adolph Treidler

2000–2009

2000

James Bama Nell Brinkley Charles Livingston Bull David Stone Martin Alice and Martin Provensen James Allen St. John

2001

John James Audubon Will H. Bradley Howard Brodie F.O.C. Darley Charles R. Knight Franklin McMahon

2002

E. Simms Campbell Milton Glaser Jean-Leon Huens Daniel Schwartz

2003

Elaine Duillo David Levine Bill Mauldin Jack Potter

2004

John Berkey John Groth Robert Andrew Parker Saul Steinberg

2005

Jack Davis Brad Holland Herbert Paus Albert Beck Wenzell

2006

Gilbert Bundy Bradshaw Crandell Keith Ferris Harold Foster Frank H. Netter Alvin J. Pimsler Jack Neal Unruh

2007

David Grove Gary Kelley Edward Windsor Kemble Russell Patterson George Stavrinos

2008

Benton Clark Matt Clark Kinuko Y. Craft Naiad Einsel Walter Einsel

2009

Mario Cooper Paul Davis Laurence Fellows Arnold Roth Herbert Morton Stoops

2010–2019

2010

Charles Edward Chambers Earl Oliver Hurst Orson Byron Lowell Wilson McLean Chris Van Allsburg

2011

Kenneth Paul Block Alan E. Cober Robert Heindel Fred Otnes Jerry Pinkney

2012

Ludwig Bemelmans R. O. Blechman John Collier Edward Gorey John Sloan Nancy Stahl

2013

Ted CoConis George Herriman Sanford Kossin Arthur Rackham Charles M. Schulz Murray Tinkelman

2014

Mary Blair Walter Everett Al Jaffee Syd Mead William Cameron Menzies Alex Raymond Edward Sorel

2015

Bernard D'Andrea Walter Baumhofer Will Eisner Virgil Finlay Ted Lewin and Betsy Lewin Patrick Oliphant Arthur Szyk

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15044075 LCCN: n79023170 ISNI: 0000 0001 0872 7050 GND: 119193523 SELIBR: 304583 SUDOC: 028728726 BNF: cb12050476t (data) BIBSYS: 90520644 ULAN: 500019202 NLA: 35204236 NKC: ola2003192320 BNE: XX874605 RKD: 39

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