HOME
The Info List - Windows 3.0


--- Advertisement ---



Windows 3.0, a graphical environment, is the third major release of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows, and was released on May 22, 1990. It became the first widely successful version of Windows and a rival to Apple Macintosh
Macintosh
and the Commodore Amiga
Amiga
on the graphical user interface (GUI) front. It was followed by Windows 3.1.[3] Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
originated in 1989 when David Weise and Murray Sargent independently decided to develop a protected mode Windows as an experiment. They cobbled together a rough prototype and presented it to company executives, who were impressed enough to approve it as an official project.

Contents

1 Features 2 System
System
requirements

2.1 Memory modes

3 Updates

3.1 Windows 3.0a 3.2 Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
with Multimedia
Multimedia
Extensions

4 Marketing 5 Software support 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Features[edit] Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
succeeded Windows 2.1x
Windows 2.1x
and included a significantly revamped user interface as well as technical improvements to make better use of the memory management capabilities of Intel's 80286 and 80386 processors. Text mode
Text mode
programs written for MS-DOS
MS-DOS
can be run within a window — a feature previously available in a more limited form with Windows/386 2.1 — making the system usable as a crude multitasking base for legacy programs. However, this was of limited use for the home market, where most games and entertainment programs continued to require raw DOS
DOS
access.[3] The MS-DOS
MS-DOS
Executive file manager/program launcher was replaced with the icon-based Program Manager
Program Manager
and the list-based File
File
Manager, splitting files and programs. The Control Panel, previously available as a standard-looking applet, was re-modeled after the one in the classic Mac OS. It centralized system settings, including control over the color scheme of the interface.[4] A number of simple applications were included, such as the text editor Notepad and the word processor Write (both inherited from earlier versions of Windows), a macro recorder (new; later dropped), the paint program Paintbrush (inherited, but substantially improved), and a calculator (also inherited). Also, the earlier Reversi
Reversi
game was complemented with the card game Microsoft
Microsoft
Solitaire.[4] The Windows icons and graphics support a full 16 colors in EGA, MCGA and VGA mode while Windows 2.x had only a very limited palette for colored menus and window boxes with in-application graphics being monochrome. 256-color VGA and MCGA modes were supported for the first time. Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
includes a Protected/Enhanced mode which allows Windows applications to use more memory in a more painless manner than their DOS
DOS
counterparts could. It can run in any of Real, Standard, or 386 Enhanced modes, and is compatible with any Intel
Intel
processor from the 8086/8088 up to 80286 and 80386.[5] Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
tries to auto detect which mode to run in, although it can be forced to run in a specific mode using the switches: /r (real mode), /s ("standard" 286 protected mode) and /3 (386 enhanced protected mode) respectively.[6] Since Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
(and later Windows 3.1) runs in 16-bit 286 protected mode and not 32-bit 386 protected mode, the default setup is to use the 64 KB segmented memory model. However, on 32-bit CPUs, the programmer had access to larger memory pointers and so it was possible to expand program segments to whatever size was desired (the maximum limit being 16 MB due to segment descriptors being 24-bit). Since Windows API functions were 16-bit at the time, they could not use 32-bit pointers and thus it was necessary to place the portion of the program code that performed OS calls in a 64 KB segment,[7] like in DOS, although 32-bit instructions may be contained in the code.[8] (Ami Pro was the first Windows application to require a 386). Because of this, Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
can access only 16 MB total of RAM, even on 386 or higher CPUs which have a theoretical capability of utilizing 4GB. This was the first version to run Windows programs in protected mode, although the 386 enhanced mode kernel was an enhanced version of the protected mode kernel for Windows/286. System
System
requirements[edit] The official system requirements for Windows 3.0:

8086/8088 processor or better 384 KB of free conventional memory (real mode), 1 MB (Standard Mode), or 2 MB (Enhanced Mode)[9] Hard disk with 6-7 MB of free space CGA, EGA, MCGA, VGA, Hercules, 8514/A or XGA graphics and an appropriate and compatible monitor MS-DOS
MS-DOS
version 3.1 or higher[1]

Also, a Microsoft-compatible mouse is recommended.[10] Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
cannot run in full color on most 8086/88 machines, as the built-in 640×350 (16 color) EGA and 640×480 (16 color) VGA drivers contained Intel
Intel
80186 instructions. MCGA 320×200 (256 color) and 640×480 (2 color) drivers did not contain these instructions. This could be worked around by installing the Windows 2.x EGA/VGA drivers (which support color menus and frames, but not in-program graphics), replacing the CPU with an NEC V20/V30 (8086/88 pin-compatible chips with an 80186 instruction set), or by using a modified VGA driver that supports the 8086/88 (originally written in 2013).[11] Microsoft
Microsoft
had dropped support for the Tandy 1000 line by 1990, so a Tandy graphics driver was not provided for Windows 3.0, but the Windows 2.x Tandy driver could be copied into the target system and used. Memory modes[edit] Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
was the only version of Windows that could be run in three different memory modes:

Real mode, intended for older computers with a CPU below Intel
Intel
80286, and corresponding to its real mode; Standard mode, intended for computers with an 80286 processor, and corresponding to its protected mode; 386 Enhanced mode, intended for newer computers with an Intel
Intel
80386 processor or above, and corresponding to its protected mode and virtual 8086 mode.[12]

Real mode primarily existed as a way to run Windows 2.x applications. It was removed in Windows 3.1x. Almost all applications designed for Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
had to be run in standard or 386 enhanced modes. ( Microsoft
Microsoft
Word 1.x and Excel 2.x would work in real mode as they were actually designed for Windows 2.x). However, it was necessary to load Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
in real mode to run SWAPFILE.EXE, which allowed users to change virtual memory settings. Officially, Microsoft
Microsoft
stated that an 8Mhz turbo 8086 was the minimum CPU needed to run Windows 3.0. It could be run on 4.77 MHz 8088 machines, but performance is so slow as to render the OS almost unusable. Up to 4 MB of EMS memory is supported in real mode. Standard mode was used most often as its requirements were more in-line with an average PC of that era — an 80286 processor with at least 1 MB of memory. Since some PCs (notably Compaqs) did not place extended memory at the 1MB line and instead left a hole between the end of conventional memory and the start of XMS, Windows could not work on them except in real mode. Standard mode was still widely used on 386 PCs as many only had 1-2 MB of memory and used the 386SX chip (a cut-down version with a 16-bit data bus), so they could not run Enhanced mode well. 386 Enhanced mode was a 32-bit virtual machine that ran a copy of 16-bit Standard mode, and multiple copies of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
in virtual 8086 mode.[13] In 286 mode, the CPU temporarily switches back into real mode when a DOS
DOS
application is run, thus they cannot be windowed or switched into the background, and all Windows processes are suspended while the DOS
DOS
application is in use. 386 enhanced mode by comparison uses virtual 8086 mode to allow multiple DOS
DOS
programs to run (each DOS session takes 1MB of memory) along with being windowed and allowing multitasking to continue. Virtual memory support allows the user to employ the hard disk as a temporary storage space if applications use more memory than exists in the system. Normally, Windows will start in the highest operating mode the computer can use, but the user may force it into lower modes by typing WIN /R or WIN /S at the DOS
DOS
command prompt. If the user selects an operating mode that cannot be used due to lack of RAM or CPU support, Windows merely boots into the next lowest one. Updates[edit] Windows 3.0a[edit] In December 1990, Microsoft
Microsoft
released Windows 3.0a. This version contained an improved ability to move pieces of data greater than 64KB (the original release could only manipulate one segment of RAM at a time). It also improved stability by reducing Unrecoverable Application Errors (UAEs) associated with networking, printing, and low-memory conditions.[14] This version appears as "Windows 3.00a" in Help/About Windows system dialogs. Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
with Multimedia
Multimedia
Extensions[edit] Based on Windows 3.0a, Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
with Multimedia
Multimedia
Extensions 1.0 was released in October 1991 to support sound cards like the Creative Labs Sound Blaster
Sound Blaster
Pro, as well as CD-ROM
CD-ROM
drives, which were then becoming increasingly available. This edition was released to Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), mainly CD-ROM
CD-ROM
drive and sound card manufacturers, and some PCs came preloaded with it. This edition added basic multimedia support for audio input and output, along with new applications: Media Player, CD audio player, more advanced Help format, screen savers, and a new clock. These new features were integrated into Windows 3.1x. Microsoft
Microsoft
developed the Windows Sound System
System
sound card specification to complement these extensions. The new features were not accessible in Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
Real Mode.[15] The MME API was the first universal and standardized Windows audio API. Wave sound events played in Windows (up to Windows XP) and MIDI I/O use MME. The devices listed in the Multimedia/Sounds and Audio control panel applet represent the MME API of the sound card driver. MME lacks channel mixing, so only one audio stream can be rendered at a time. MME supports sharing the audio device for playback between multiple applications starting with Windows 2000, up to two channels of recording, 16-bit audio bit depth and sampling rates of up to 44.1 kHz with all the audio being mixed and sampled to 44.1 kHz. Marketing[edit] Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
was the first version to be pre-installed on hard drives by PC-compatible manufacturers. Zenith Data Systems
Zenith Data Systems
had previously shipped all of its computers with Windows 1.0
Windows 1.0
or later 2.x on diskettes, but committed early in the development of Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
to shipping it pre-installed. Indeed, the Zenith division had pushed Microsoft
Microsoft
hard to develop the graphical user interface because of Zenith's direct competition with Apple in the educational market. However, Zenith PCs had to run a proprietary OEM version of Windows, because they used hard disks with 1024 byte sectors instead of the normal 512 bytes, and could not use the standard SWAPFILE.EXE Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
was not available as a run-time version, as was the case with its predecessors. A limited-use version of Windows 2.x was often bundled with other applications (e.g., Ami Pro) due to the low market penetration of Windows. Standard retail and OEM distributions of Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
were on high density 1.2 MB and 1.44 MB floppy disks. A 720 KB version was also offered, and a 360 KB edition could be ordered from Microsoft. Fully installed, Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
used 5 MB of hard disk space. Software support[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
was the first Windows version to see widespread use, although DOS
DOS
still remained dominant (especially for games) and freeware and shareware applications for Windows considerably outnumbered commercial ones. It also significantly spurred sales of new PCs with larger RAM capacities as many older machines lacked the speed or memory to handle a demanding OS like Windows properly, and some could not run it in protected mode due to outdated BIOSes or lack of proper implementation. Since very few applications used protected mode prior to Windows 3.0, PC manufacturers sometimes did not bother including functional support for it in either the hardware, BIOS, or both. Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
had a software update that was never released, increasing the speed of the floppy disk drive. By the time it was ready to be launched, a new version of Windows was released. All editions of Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
became unsupported after December 31, 2001. See also[edit]

Microsoft
Microsoft
portal

GEOS (16-bit operating system) Mac OS

References[edit]

^ a b "Windows Version History". Support. Microsoft. July 19, 2005. Retrieved January 21, 2017.  ^ [1] ^ a b " Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
3.0". Old Computer Museum. Old Computer Museum. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ a b "Windows 3.0". ToastyTech. ToastyTech. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ "For the Nitpickers: Enhanced-mode Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
didn't exactly run a copy of standard-mode Windows inside virtual machine". MSDN. Old New Thing. February 8, 2013. Archived from the original on February 12, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ "Windows 3.x help and information". Computer Hope. Computer Hope. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ "Segment and Handle Limits and Protected Mode Windows". Microsoft File
File
Transfer Protocol. November 6, 1999. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ "386 Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia". PC Mag. PC Mag. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ " Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
Modes and Memory Requirements". Support. Microsoft. July 7, 2005. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009.  ^ "The Riddle of the Right Mouse Button". GUIdebook. PC Magazine. January 14, 1992. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ Montecarlo4tony. " Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
VGA color driver for 8088/XT". Vintage Computer Forums. Retrieved October 23, 2014.  ^ "Windows 3.0". Human Computer Interaction Lab of the University of Maryland. Human Computer Interaction Lab of the University of Maryland. Retrieved August 20, 2013.  ^ Chen, Raymond (May 17, 2010). "If Windows 3.11 required a 32-bit processor, why was it called a 16-bit operating system?". Archived from the original on June 5, 2010. Retrieved January 21, 2017.  ^ Daly, James (April 29, 1991). "Windows 3.0A tackles UAE bug". Computerworld. 25 (17): 41. Retrieved October 23, 2014.  ^ " Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
with Multimedia
Multimedia
Extensions". Toasty Tech. Toasty Tech. Retrieved August 20, 2013. 

External links[edit]

GUIdebook: Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
Gallery — A site dedicated to preserving and showcasing Graphical User Interfaces Windows 3.1 Rocks Mailing List — Support, links and freeware downloads for users of Windows 3.x. Windows 3.0
Windows 3.0
Modes and Memory Requirements

v t e

Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
family

Components History Timeline Criticism

DOS-based

Windows 1.0 Windows 2.0 Windows 2.1x Windows 3.0 Windows 3.1x

Windows 9x

Windows 95
Windows 95
(Development) Windows 98 Windows ME

Windows NT

Windows NT
Windows NT
3.1 Windows NT
Windows NT
3.5 Windows NT
Windows NT
3.51 Windows NT
Windows NT
4.0 Windows 2000

Client versions

Windows XP

editions x64 Media Center Fundamentals

Windows Vista

editions

Windows 7

editions

Windows 8

editions RT

8.1 Windows 10

editions version history

Windows Server

Server 2003

Home Server

Server 2008

EBS 2008 HPC Server 2008

Server 2008 R2

Home Server 2011

Server 2012 Server 2012 R2 Server 2016 Server 2019 MultiPoint Server Server Essentials

Specialized

Windows Preinstallation Environment

Windows Embedded

Embedded Compact

CE 5.0 Embedded CE 6.0 Embedded Compact 7

Embedded Automotive Embedded Industry

Windows Mobile

Pocket PC 2000 Pocket PC 2002 Mobile 2003 Mobile 5.0 Mobile 6.0 Mobile 6.1 Mobile 6.5

Windows Phone

Phone 7 Phone 8 Phone 8.1 Windows 10
Windows 10
Mobile

Cancelled

Cairo Nashville Neptune Odyssey

List of versions Comparison Book Category

This article needs additional or more specific categories. Please help out by adding categories to it so that it can be listed with similar art

.