WINDOWS SERVER 2008 (sometimes abbreviated as "WIN2K8"
"WINSERVER2K8" "WINDOWS 2008" or "W2K8") is one of
Microsoft Windows '
server line of operating systems . Released to manufacturing on
February 4, 2008, and officially released on February 27, 2008, it is
the successor to
Windows Server 2003
* 1 History
* 2 Features
* 2.8 Other features
* 2.8.1 Core OS improvements * 2.8.2 Active Directory improvements * 2.8.3 Policy related improvements * 2.8.4 Disk management and file storage improvements * 2.8.5 Protocol and cryptography improvements * 2.8.6 Miscellaneous improvements
* 3 Removed features
* 4 Editions
* 5 Service Pack
Windows Server 2008 R2
Beta 1 was released on 27 July 2005, Beta 2 was announced and released on 23 May 2006 at WinHEC 2006 and Beta 3 was released publicly on 25 April 2007. Release Candidate 0 was released to the general public on 24 September 2007 and Release Candidate 1 was released to the general public on 5 December 2007. Windows Server 2008 was released to manufacturing on 4 February 2008 and officially launched on 27 February 2008.
See also: Features new to Windows Vista
Windows Server 2008 is built from the same code base as Windows Vista
; therefore, it shares much of the same architecture and
functionality. Since the code base is common, it automatically comes
with most of the technical , security , management and administrative
features new to
Windows Vista such as the rewritten networking stack
IPv6 , native wireless, speed and security improvements);
improved image-based installation, deployment and recovery; improved
diagnostics, monitoring, event logging and reporting tools; new
security features such as BitLocker and ASLR (address space layout
randomization); improved Windows Firewall with secure default
.NET Framework 3.0 technologies, specifically Windows
Communication Foundation ,
Default user interface for Server Core. Because Windows Explorer is removed from Server Core, programs such as Notepad use the Windows NT 3.x -style file dialog.
Windows Server 2008 includes a variation of installation called
Andrew Mason, a program manager on the
Windows Server team, noted
that a primary motivation for producing a
ACTIVE DIRECTORY ROLES
Active Directory roles are expanded with identity , certificate, and rights management services. Active Directory, until Windows Server 2003, allowed network administrators to centrally manage connected computers, to set policies for groups of users, and to centrally deploy new applications to multiple computers. This role of Active Directory is being renamed as Active Directory Domain Services (ADDS). A number of other additional services are being introduced, including Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS), Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), (formerly Active Directory Application Mode , or ADAM), Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS), and Active Directory Rights Management Services (ADRMS). Identity and certificate services allow administrators to manage user accounts and the digital certificates that allow them to access certain services and systems. Federation management services enable enterprises to share credentials with trusted partners and customers, allowing a consultant to use his company user name and password to log in on a client's network. Identity Integration Feature Pack is included as Active Directory Metadirectory Services. Each of these services represents a server role.
In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2, the way clusters are qualified changed significantly with the introduction of the cluster validation wizard. The cluster validation wizard is a feature that is integrated into failover clustering in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. With the cluster validation wizard, an administrator can run a set of focused tests on a collection of servers that are intended to use as nodes in a cluster. This cluster validation process tests the underlying hardware and software directly, and individually, to obtain an accurate assessment of how well failover clustering can be supported on a given configuration.
This feature is only available in Enterprise and Datacenter editions of Windows Server.
In Windows versions prior to Windows Vista, if the operating system detected corruption in the file system of an NTFS volume, it marked the volume "dirty"; to correct errors on the volume, it had to be taken offline. With self-healing NTFS, an NTFS worker thread is spawned in the background which performs a localized fix-up of damaged data structures, with only the corrupted files/folders remaining unavailable without locking out the entire volume and needing the server to be taken down. The operating system now features S.M.A.R.T. detection techniques to help determine when a hard disk may fail.
Hyper-V is hypervisor -based virtualization software, forming a core part of Microsoft's virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on an operating system's kernel layer. It can be thought of as partitioning a single physical server into multiple small computational partitions. Hyper-V includes the ability to act as a Xen virtualization hypervisor host allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized. A beta version of Hyper-V shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server 2008, prior to Microsoft's release of the final version of Hyper-V on 26 June 2008 as a free download. Also, a standalone version of Hyper-V exists; this version supports only x86-64 architecture. While the IA-32 editions of Windows Server 2008 cannot run or install Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V.
WINDOWS SYSTEM RESOURCE MANAGER
Main article: Windows System Resource Manager
Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) is integrated into Windows
Server 2008. It provides resource management and can be used to
control the amount of resources a process or a user can use based on
business priorities. Process Matching Criteria, which is defined by
the name, type or owner of the process, enforces restrictions on the
resource usage by a process that matches the criteria.
Server Manager is a new roles-based management tool for Windows
Server 2008. It is a combination of Manage Your Server and Security
Configuration Wizard SCW from
Windows Server 2003. Server Manager is
an improvement of the Configure my server dialog that launches by
Windows Server 2003
Other new or enhanced features include:
Core OS Improvements
* Fully multi-componentized operating system. * Improved hot patching , a feature that allows non-kernel patches to occur without the need for a reboot. * Support for being booted from Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)-compliant firmware on x86-64 systems.
* Dynamic Hardware Partitioning
* Support for the hot-addition or replacement of processors and memory, on capable hardware.
Active Directory Improvements
* Read-only domain controllers (RODCs) in Active Directory, intended for use in branch office or other scenarios where a domain controller may reside in a low physical security environment. The RODC holds a non-writeable copy of Active Directory, and redirects all write attempts to a Full Domain Controller . It replicates all accounts except sensitive ones. In RODC mode, credentials are not cached by default. Moreover, only the replication partner of the RODC needs to run Windows Server 2008. Also, local administrators can log on to the machine to perform maintenance tasks without requiring administrative rights on the domain. * Restartable Active Directory allows ADDS to be stopped and restarted from the Management Console or the command-line without rebooting the domain controller. This reduces downtime for offline operations and reduces overall DC servicing requirements with Server Core. ADDS is implemented as a Domain Controller Service in Windows Server 2008.
Policy Related Improvements
* All of the Group Policy improvements from Windows Vista are included. Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) is built-in. The Group Policy objects are indexed for search and can be commented on. * Policy-based networking with Network Access Protection , improved branch management and enhanced end user collaboration. Policies can be created to ensure greater Quality of Service for certain applications or services that require prioritization of network bandwidth between client and server. * Granular password settings within a single domain - ability to implement different password policies for administrative accounts on a "group" and "user" basis, instead of a single set of password settings to the whole domain.
Disk Management And
* The ability to resize hard disk partitions without stopping the
server, even the system partition. This applies only to simple and
spanned volumes, not to striped volumes.
Shadow Copy based block-level backup which supports optical media,
network shares and
Windows Recovery Environment
Protocol And Cryptography Improvements
* Support for 128- and 256-bit AES encryption for the Kerberos
* New cryptography (CNG) API which supports elliptic curve
cryptography and improved certificate management.
Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol , a new
Windows Deployment Services replacing Automated Deployment
Windows Server 2008 home entertainment and Remote
Installation Services .
Windows Deployment Services (WDS) support an
enhanced multicast feature when deploying operating system images.
Internet Information Services 7 - Increased security, Robocopy
deployment, improved diagnostic tools, delegated administration .
Windows Internal Database , a variant of
SQL Server Express 2005,
which serves as a common storage back-end for several other components
Windows System Resource Manager , Windows SharePoint Services
Windows Server Update Services
See also: Features removed from Windows Vista
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol component in
Routing and Remote Access Service was removed.
* Services for
Macintosh , which provided file and print sharing via
the now deprecated
AppleTalk protocol, has been removed. Services for
Macintosh were removed in
Compared to its predecessor, most editions of
Windows Server 2008 are
available in x86-64 and
IA-32 versions. These editions come in two
DVDs: One for installing the
IA-32 variant and the other for x64.
Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems supports IA-64
* Windows Server 2008 Standard ( IA-32 and x86-64) * Windows Server 2008 Enterprise ( IA-32 and x86-64) * Windows Server 2008 Datacenter ( IA-32 and x86-64) * Windows HPC Server 2008 (Codenamed "Socrates") (replacing Windows Compute Cluster Server ) * Windows Web Server 2008 ( IA-32 and x86-64) * Windows Storage Server 2008 (Codenamed "Magni") ( IA-32 and x86-64) * Windows Small Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Cougar") (x86-64) for small businesses * Windows Essential Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Centro") (x86-64) for medium-sized businesses (Discontinued) * Windows Server 2008 for Itanium -based Systems * Windows Server 2008 Foundation (Codenamed "Lima") (x86-64) for OEMs only
Windows Server 2008 is based on the
The first SP2 beta build was sent out in October 2008, a public beta arrived in December 2008, and an RC-escrow build was given to testers in January 2009. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 share a single service pack binary, reflecting the fact that their code bases were joined with the release of Server 2008. On May 26, 2009, Service Pack 2 was ready for release. It is now available in Windows Update.
WINDOWS SERVER 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
A second release,
Windows Server 2008 R2, was released on October 22,
2009. Retail availability began September 14, 2009. Windows Server
2008 R2 reached the RTM milestone on July 22, 2009. Like
System requirements for Windows Server 2008 are as follows:
CRITERIA 2008 2008 R2
MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MINIMUM RECOMMENDED
* 1 GHz (IA-32) * 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium)
2 GHz or faster 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium) 2 GHz or faster
RAM 512 MB 2 GB or greater 512 MB 2 GB or greater
* Other editions, 32-bit: 20 GB * Other editions, 64-bit: 32 GB * Foundation: 10 GB
40 GB or greater
* Foundation: 10 GB * Other editions: 32 GB
* Foundation: 10 GB or greater * Other editions: 32 GB or greater
Windows Server 2008 supports the following maximum hardware specifications:
SPECIFICATION WINDOWS SERVER 2008 SP2 WINDOWS SERVER 2008 R2
Physical processors ("sockets")
* Standard: 4 * Enterprise: 8 * Datacenter: 32
* Standard: 4 * Enterprise: 8 * Datacenter: 64
Logical processors when Hyper-V is disabled
* IA-32 : 32 * x64 : 64
Logical processors when Hyper-V is enabled
* IA-32 : N/A * x64 : 24
Memory on IA-32
* Standard, Web: 4 GB * Enterprise, Datacenter: 64 GB
Memory on x64
* Standard, Web: 32 GB * HPC: 128 GB * Enterprise, Datacenter: 1 TB
* Foundation: 8 GB * Standard, Web: 32 GB * HPC: 128 GB * Enterprise, Datacenter: 2 TB
Memory on Itanium 2 TB 2 TB
* ^ Computers with more than 16 GB of RAM require more disk space for paging, hibernation, and dump files
* ^ Microsoft. "
Windows Server 2008 Lifecycle Policy". Microsoft.
* ^ Crowley, Matthew (2010). Pro
Internet Explorer 8 & 9
Development: Developing Powerful Applications for the Next Generation
Apress . p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4302-2853-0 . On XP SP3, Vista SP1+,
Win2K8, Windows 7, and Win2K8R2, IE opts onto DEP/NX by default
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Windows Server 2008 R2
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Exchange Team Blog. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
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To backup!!". The Exchange Team Blog. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
* ^ "IIS 7.0 Protocols". TechNet . Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August
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Windows Vista Team Blog. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
* ^ "
Windows Server 2008 Product Editions".
* "What\'s New in Networking". TechNet .