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Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is the second major release of the Windows Server family of operating systems for server computers. Developed by Microsoft, it was released to manufacturing on February 4, 2008, and reached general availability on February 27, 2008. It is the successor of Windows Server
Windows Server
2003, released nearly five years earlier.

Contents

1 History 2 Features

2.1 Server Core 2.2 Active Directory
Active Directory
roles 2.3 Failover Clustering 2.4 Self-healing NTFS 2.5 Hyper-V 2.6 Windows System Resource Manager 2.7 Server Manager 2.8 Other features

2.8.1 Core OS improvements 2.8.2 Active Directory
Active Directory
improvements 2.8.3 Policy related improvements 2.8.4 Disk management and file storage improvements 2.8.5 Protocol and cryptography improvements 2.8.6 Miscellaneous improvements

3 Removed features 4 Editions 5 Service Pack 6 Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 7 System requirements 8 Scalability 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Originally known as Windows Server
Windows Server
Codename "Longhorn", Microsoft chairman Bill Gates
Bill Gates
announced its official title ( Windows Server
Windows Server
2008) during his keynote address at WinHEC 16 May 2007.[5] Beta 1 was released on 27 July 2005, Beta 2 was announced and released on 23 May 2006 at WinHEC 2006 and Beta 3 was released publicly on 25 April 2007.[6] Release Candidate 0 was released to the general public on 24 September 2007[7] and Release Candidate 1 was released to the general public on 5 December 2007. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 was released to manufacturing on 4 February 2008 and officially launched on 27 February 2008.[8] Features[edit] See also: Features new to Windows Vista Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is built from the same code base as Windows Vista; therefore, it shares much of the same architecture and functionality. Since the code base is common, it automatically comes with most of the technical, security, management and administrative features new to Windows Vista
Windows Vista
such as the rewritten networking stack (native IPv6, native wireless, speed and security improvements); improved image-based installation, deployment and recovery; improved diagnostics, monitoring, event logging and reporting tools; new security features such as BitLocker and ASLR (address space layout randomization); improved Windows Firewall with secure default configuration; .NET Framework 3.0
.NET Framework 3.0
technologies, specifically Windows Communication Foundation, Microsoft
Microsoft
Message Queuing and Windows Workflow Foundation; and the core kernel, memory and file system improvements. Processors and memory devices are modeled as Plug and Play devices, to allow hot-plugging of these devices. This allows the system resources to be partitioned dynamically using Dynamic Hardware Partitioning; each partition has its own memory, processor and I/O host bridge devices independent of other partitions.[9] Server Core[edit]

Default user interface for Server Core. Because Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer
is removed from Server Core, programs such as Notepad use the Windows NT 3.1-style file dialog.

Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 includes a variation of installation called Server Core. Server Core
Server Core
is a significantly scaled-back installation where no Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer
shell is installed. All configuration and maintenance is done entirely through command-line interface windows, or by connecting to the machine remotely using Microsoft
Microsoft
Management Console. However, Notepad and some control panel applets, such as Regional Settings, are available. Server Core
Server Core
does not include the .NET Framework, Internet Explorer, Windows PowerShell
Windows PowerShell
or many other features not related to core server features. A Server Core
Server Core
machine can be configured for several basic roles: Domain controller/ Active Directory
Active Directory
Domain Services, ADLDS (ADAM), DNS Server, DHCP server, file server, print server, Windows Media Server, IIS 7 web server and Hyper-V
Hyper-V
virtual server. Server Core can also be used to create a cluster with high availability using failover clustering or network load balancing. Andrew Mason, a program manager on the Windows Server
Windows Server
team, noted that a primary motivation for producing a Server Core
Server Core
variant of Windows Server 2008 was to reduce the attack surface of the operating system, and that about 70% of the security vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows from the prior five years would not have affected Server Core.[10] Active Directory
Active Directory
roles[edit] Active Directory
Active Directory
roles are expanded with identity, certificate, and rights management services. Active Directory, until Windows Server 2003, allowed network administrators to centrally manage connected computers, to set policies for groups of users, and to centrally deploy new applications to multiple computers. This role of Active Directory is being renamed as Active Directory
Active Directory
Domain Services (ADDS).[11] A number of other additional services are being introduced, including Active Directory
Active Directory
Federation Services (ADFS), Active Directory
Active Directory
Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), (formerly Active Directory
Active Directory
Application Mode, or ADAM), Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS), and Active Directory
Active Directory
Rights Management Services (ADRMS). Identity and certificate services allow administrators to manage user accounts and the digital certificates that allow them to access certain services and systems. Federation management services enable enterprises to share credentials with trusted partners and customers, allowing a consultant to use his company user name and password to log in on a client's network. Identity Integration Feature Pack is included as Active Directory Metadirectory Services. Each of these services represents a server role. Failover Clustering[edit] Main article: Microsoft
Microsoft
Cluster Server Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 offers high availability to services and applications through Failover Clustering. Most server features and roles can be kept running with little to no downtime. In Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2, the way clusters are qualified changed significantly with the introduction of the cluster validation wizard.[12] The cluster validation wizard is a feature that is integrated into failover clustering in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2. With the cluster validation wizard, an administrator can run a set of focused tests on a collection of servers that are intended to use as nodes in a cluster. This cluster validation process tests the underlying hardware and software directly, and individually, to obtain an accurate assessment of how well failover clustering can be supported on a given configuration. This feature is only available in Enterprise and Datacenter editions of Windows Server. Self-healing NTFS[edit] In Windows versions prior to Windows Vista, if the operating system detected corruption in the file system of an NTFS
NTFS
volume, it marked the volume "dirty"; to correct errors on the volume, it had to be taken offline. With self-healing NTFS, an NTFS
NTFS
worker thread is spawned in the background which performs a localized fix-up of damaged data structures, with only the corrupted files/folders remaining unavailable without locking out the entire volume and needing the server to be taken down. The operating system now features S.M.A.R.T. detection techniques to help determine when a hard disk may fail.[13] Hyper-V[edit]

Hyper-V
Hyper-V
architecture

Main article: Hyper-V Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is hypervisor-based virtualization software, forming a core part of Microsoft's virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on an operating system's kernel layer. It can be thought of as partitioning a single physical server into multiple small computational partitions. Hyper-V
Hyper-V
includes the ability to act as a Xen virtualization hypervisor host allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized.[14] A beta version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008, prior to Microsoft's release of the final version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on 26 June 2008 as a free download. Also, a standalone version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
exists; this version supports only x86-64 architecture.[15] While the IA-32 editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 cannot run or install Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V. Windows System Resource Manager[edit] Main article: Windows System Resource Manager Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) is integrated into Windows Server 2008. It provides resource management and can be used to control the amount of resources a process or a user can use based on business priorities. Process Matching Criteria, which is defined by the name, type or owner of the process, enforces restrictions on the resource usage by a process that matches the criteria. CPU
CPU
time, bandwidth that it can use, number of processors it can be run on, and allocated to a process can be restricted. Restrictions can be set to be imposed only on certain dates as well. Server Manager[edit] Server Manager is a new roles-based management tool for Windows Server 2008.[16] It is a combination of Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard SCW from Windows Server
Windows Server
2003. Server Manager is an improvement of the Configure my server dialog that launches by default on Windows Server
Windows Server
2003 machines. However, rather than serve only as a starting point to configuring new roles, Server Manager gathers together all of the operations users would want to conduct on the server, such as, getting a remote deployment method set up, adding more server roles etc., and provides a consolidated, portal-like view about the status of each role.[17] Other features[edit] Other new or enhanced features include: Core OS improvements[edit]

Fully multi-componentized operating system. Improved hot patching, a feature that allows non-kernel patches to occur without the need for a reboot. Support for being booted from Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)-compliant firmware on x86-64 systems. Dynamic Hardware Partitioning

Support for the hot-addition or replacement of processors and memory, on capable hardware.

Active Directory
Active Directory
improvements[edit]

Read-only domain controllers (RODCs) in Active Directory, intended for use in branch office or other scenarios where a domain controller may reside in a low physical security environment. The RODC holds a non-writeable copy of Active Directory, and redirects all write attempts to a Full Domain Controller. It replicates all accounts except sensitive ones.[citation needed][clarification needed] In RODC mode, credentials are not cached by default. Moreover, only the replication partner of the RODC needs to run Windows Server 2008.[clarification needed] Also, local administrators can log on to the machine to perform maintenance tasks without requiring administrative rights on the domain.[citation needed] Restartable Active Directory
Active Directory
allows ADDS to be stopped and restarted from the Management Console or the command-line without rebooting the domain controller. This reduces downtime for offline operations and reduces overall DC servicing requirements with Server Core. ADDS is implemented as a Domain Controller Service in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008.

Policy related improvements[edit]

All of the Group Policy
Group Policy
improvements from Windows Vista
Windows Vista
are included. Group Policy
Group Policy
Management Console (GPMC) is built-in. The Group Policy objects are indexed for search and can be commented on.[18] Policy-based networking with Network Access Protection, improved branch management and enhanced end user collaboration. Policies can be created to ensure greater Quality of Service
Quality of Service
for certain applications or services that require prioritization of network bandwidth between client and server. Granular password settings within a single domain - ability to implement different password policies for administrative accounts on a "group" and "user" basis, instead of a single set of password settings to the whole domain.

Disk management and file storage improvements[edit]

The ability to resize hard disk partitions without stopping the server, even the system partition. This applies only to simple and spanned volumes, not to striped volumes. Shadow Copy based block-level backup which supports optical media, network shares and Windows Recovery Environment. DFS enhancements - SYSVOL on DFS-R, Read-only Folder Replication Member. There is also support for domain-based DFS namespaces that exceed the previous size recommendation of 5,000 folders with targets in a namespace.[19] Several improvements to Failover Clustering
Failover Clustering
(High-availability clusters).[20] Internet Storage Naming Server (iSNS) enables central registration, deregistration and queries for iSCSI hard drives.

Protocol and cryptography improvements[edit]

Support for 128- and 256-bit AES encryption for the Kerberos authentication protocol. New cryptography (CNG) API which supports elliptic curve cryptography and improved certificate management. Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol, a new Microsoft
Microsoft
proprietary VPN protocol. AuthIP, a Microsoft
Microsoft
proprietary extension of the IKE cryptographic protocol used in IPsec VPN
VPN
networks. Server Message Block 2.0 protocol in the new TCP/IP stack provides a number of communication enhancements, including greater performance when connecting to file shares over high-latency links and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing.

Miscellaneous improvements[edit]

Windows Deployment Services replacing Automated Deployment Services Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 home entertainment and Remote Installation Services. Windows Deployment Services (WDS) support an enhanced multicast feature when deploying operating system images.[21] Internet Information Services 7 - Increased security, Robocopy deployment, improved diagnostic tools, delegated administration. Windows Internal Database, a variant of SQL Server Express 2005, which serves as a common storage back-end for several other components such as Windows System Resource Manager, Windows SharePoint Services
Windows SharePoint Services
and Windows Server
Windows Server
Update Services. It is not intended to be used by third-party applications. An optional "Desktop Experience" component provides the same Windows Aero user interface as Windows Vista, both for local users, as well as remote users connecting through Remote Desktop.

Removed features[edit] See also: Features removed from Windows Vista

The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol component in Routing
Routing
and Remote Access Service was removed.[22] Services for Macintosh, which provided file and print sharing via the now deprecated AppleTalk
AppleTalk
protocol, has been removed. Services for Macintosh
Macintosh
were removed in Windows XP
Windows XP
from client operating systems but were available in Windows Server
Windows Server
2003.[22] NTBackup is replaced by Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup, and no longer supports backing up to tape drives.[23] As a result of NTBackup removal, Exchange Server 2007 does not have volume snapshot backup functionality; however Exchange Server 2007 SP2 adds back an Exchange backup plug-in for Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup which restores partial functionality.[24] Windows Small Business Server and Windows Essential Business Server both include this Exchange backup component.[25] The POP3 service has been removed from Internet Information Services 7.0.[26] The SMTP
SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) service is not available as a server role in IIS 7.0, it is a server feature managed through IIS 6.0. NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is no longer part of Internet Information Services 7.0. ReadyBoost
ReadyBoost
is not supported.

Editions[edit] Compared to its predecessor, most editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 are available in x86-64 and IA-32 versions. These editions come in two DVDs: One for installing the IA-32 variant and the other for x64. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 for Itanium-based Systems supports IA-64 processors. Microsoft
Microsoft
has optimized the IA-64
IA-64
version for high-workload scenarios like database servers and Line of Business (LOB) applications. As such, it is not optimized for use as a file server or media server. Microsoft
Microsoft
has announced that Windows Server 2008 is the last 32-bit Windows server operating system.[27] Editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 include:[28]

Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Standard ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Enterprise ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Datacenter ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows HPC Server 2008 (Codenamed "Socrates") (replacing Windows Compute Cluster Server) Windows Web Server 2008 ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Storage Server 2008 (Codenamed "Magni") ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Small Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Cougar") (x86-64) for small businesses Windows Essential Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Centro") (x86-64) for medium-sized businesses[29] (Discontinued)[30] Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 for Itanium-based Systems Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Foundation (Codenamed "Lima") (x86-64) for OEMs only[31]

The Microsoft
Microsoft
Imagine program, known as DreamSpark at the time, used to provide verified students with the 32-bit variant of Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition, but the version has since then been removed. However, they still provide the R2 release. The Server Core
Server Core
feature is available in the Web, Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter editions. Service Pack[edit] Microsoft
Microsoft
occasionally releases service packs for its Windows operating systems to fix bugs and also add new features. Because Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is based on the Windows NT
Windows NT
6.0 Service Pack 1 kernel, the RTM release is considered to be Service Pack 1; accordingly, the first service pack is called Service Pack 2. Announced on October 24, 2008,[32] this service pack contains the same changes and improvements as the Windows Vista Service Pack 2, as well as the final release of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
1.0, and an approximate 10% reduction in power usage. The first SP2 beta build was sent out in October 2008, a public beta arrived in December 2008, and an RC-escrow build was given to testers in January 2009. Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 share a single service pack binary, reflecting the fact that their code bases were joined with the release of Server 2008. On May 26, 2009, Service Pack 2 was ready for release. It is now available in Windows Update. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2[edit] Main article: Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 A second release, Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2, was released on October 22, 2009.[33] Retail availability began September 14, 2009.[34] Windows Server 2008 R2 reached the RTM milestone on July 22, 2009.[35] Like Windows 7, it is built on Windows NT
Windows NT
6.1. New features include new virtualization features, new Active Directory
Active Directory
features, IIS 7.5, and support for 256 logical processors. Support for 32-bit-only processors (IA-32) has been removed. On July 22, 2009, Microsoft
Microsoft
officially announced that they had released both Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
and Windows 7 to manufacturing. Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
was generally available for download from MSDN and Technet on August 19 and for retail purchase from October 22, 2009. System requirements[edit] System requirements for Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 are as follows:

Criteria 2008 2008 R2

Minimum[36] Recommended[36] Minimum[37] Recommended[37]

CPU

1 GHz (IA-32) 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium)

2 GHz or faster 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium) 2 GHz or faster

RAM 512 MB 2 GB or greater 512 MB 2 GB or greater

HDD[a]

Other editions, 32-bit: 20 GB Other editions, 64-bit: 32 GB Foundation: 10 GB[38]

40 GB or greater

Foundation: 10 GB Other editions: 32 GB

Foundation: 10 GB or greater Other editions: 32 GB or greater

Devices DVD drive, 800 × 600 or higher display, keyboard and mouse

Scalability[edit] Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 supports the following maximum hardware specifications:[39][40][41]

Specification Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 SP2 Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2

Physical processors ("sockets")[40]

Standard: 4 Enterprise: 8 Datacenter: 32

Standard: 4 Enterprise: 8 Datacenter: 64

Logical processors when Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is disabled[40]

IA-32: 32 x64: 64

256

Logical processors when Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is enabled[40]

IA-32: N/A x64: 24

64

Memory on IA-32[41]

Standard, Web: 4 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 64 GB

N/A

Memory on x64[41]

Standard, Web: 32 GB HPC: 128 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 1 TB

Foundation: 8 GB Standard, Web: 32 GB HPC: 128 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 2 TB

Memory on Itanium[41] 2 TB 2 TB

See also[edit]

Microsoft
Microsoft
portal Software portal

Microsoft
Microsoft
Servers Comparison of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows versions History of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Comparison of operating systems List of operating systems

Notes[edit]

^ Computers with more than 16 GB of RAM require more disk space for paging, hibernation, and dump files[37]

References[edit]

^ a b "As Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 RTMs, Customers and Partners Adopting with Help of New Tools, Training". News Center. Redmond, WA: Microsoft. 4 February 2008.  ^ Graham, Justin (30 April 2009). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Service pack 2 has reached rtm! (sic)". Windows Server
Windows Server
Blog. Microsoft.  ^ Microsoft. " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Lifecycle Policy". Microsoft. Retrieved 2012-09-25.  ^ Microsoft. " Microsoft
Microsoft
Support Lifecycle". Microsoft. Retrieved 2018-04-01.  ^ Miller, Michael J. (2007-05-15). "Gates at WinHec 2007: Windows Server 2008, Rally, Home Server and More". Forward Thinking. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ Lowe, David (2007-04-25). "Beta 3 is Go!". Windows Server Division WebLog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2007-04-25.  ^ Ralston, Ward (2007-09-24). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Rc0 Released!". Windows Server
Windows Server
Division WebLog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2007-09-24.  ^ Nate Mook. "New Windows Server, Visual Studio, SQL Server to Launch in February". BetaNews. Retrieved 2007-07-11.  It is also commonly referred to as Vista Server ^ "Dynamic Hardware Partitioning Architecture". MSDN. Retrieved 2007-07-23.  ^ "Iain McDonald and Andrew Mason show off the new Windows Server
Windows Server
OS". Channel 9. Microsoft. May 24, 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 18:55  ^ Hynes, Byron (November 2006). "The Future of Windows: Directory Services in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". TechNet Magazine. Retrieved 2007-05-02.  ^ "Failover Cluster Validation Error 80070005 on Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 x64". Capitalhead. 2009-11-04. Retrieved 2013-10-28.  ^ Loveall, John (2006). "Storage improvements in Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008" (PowerPoint). Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Benchmarking Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
x64". Benchmarking Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
x64. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2010-01-28.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Extends Virtualization Strategy, Outlines Product Road Map". Microsoft. 2006-05-22. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Server Manager". Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Technical Library. Microsoft TechNet. 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2007-05-02.  ^ "Unexpected error refreshing Server Manager-0x800706BE and 1601 on Window Server 2008 R2". Unexpected error refreshing Server Manager-0x800706BE and 1601 on Window Server 2008 R2. Retrieved 2010-11-05.  ^ Ward, Keith (2007-10-08). "Top 10 Overlooked Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Features, Part 2". Redmond Developer News. Archived from the original on 2014-10-10. Retrieved 2014-10-10.  ^ Zoeller, Jill (26 July 2007). "New in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008: Breaking the 5K Folder "Barrier" in Domain-Based Namespaces". The Storage Team at Microsoft
Microsoft
- File
File
Cabinet Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ " Failover Clustering
Failover Clustering
with Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 including Cluster shared volumes". Microsoft. 2007-01-17. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Multicasting OS deployments with Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". Kevinsul's Management Blog. Microsoft. 29 August 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ a b "Removed technologies in Routing
Routing
and Remote Access in Windows Server 2008". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". TechNet. Microsoft. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 2 available in Q3 2009". The Exchange Team Blog. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Bilic, Nino (18 June 2008). "To Backup or Not to Backup? Yes! To backup!!". The Exchange Team Blog. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "IIS 7.0 Protocols". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Heaton, Alex (2007-05-18). "On 64-bit and Windows Client". Windows Vista Team Blog. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Product Editions". Microsoft. 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ Ligman, Eric (7 November 2007). "Announcing Windows Essential Business Server". Microsoft
Microsoft
Small Business Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2013-08-16.  ^ " Windows Essential Business Server 2008". Technet.microsoft.com. 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Foundation: An Entry-Level Server Platform". Petri IT Knowledgebase. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2014-01-08.  ^ Justin Graham (October 24, 2008). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Service Pack 2 beta". Microsoft. Retrieved 2008-10-29.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2: Getting Started". Microsoft. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ "When to expect Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
RTM - Windows Server
Windows Server
Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". Blogs.technet.com. 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
Reaches the RTM Milestone! - Windows Server Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". Blogs.technet.com. 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ a b " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". 31 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-31.  ^ a b c " Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". Microsoft.com. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". Microsoft. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ Savill, John (October 28, 2011). "Q: What are Windows Server
Windows Server
8's Scalability Numbers?". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved November 5, 2011.  ^ a b c d Seldam, Matthijs ten (October 13, 2012). " Windows Server
Windows Server
- Sockets, Logical Processors, Symmetric Multi Threading". Matthijs's blog. Microsoft. Retrieved October 14, 2012.  ^ a b c d "Memory Limits for Windows and Windows Server
Windows Server
Releases". MSDN. Microsoft. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

"What's New in Networking". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  "Changes in Functionality from Windows Server
Windows Server
2003 with SP1 to Windows Server 2008". TechNet. Microsoft. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  "Description of the Microsoft
Microsoft
server applications that are supported on Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". Support. Microsoft. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Henderson, Tom; Dvorak, Rand (21 February 2008). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008: Faster, more manageable and secure, but still missing the virtual link". Network World. IDG. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Radzikowski, Przemek (21 February 2010). "How to Find Build and Revision Number of Windows Vista
Windows Vista
or Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Installed". Capitalhead. Capitalhead Pty. Ltd. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Stanek, William (2008). Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Inside Out. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-2438-2. 

External links[edit]

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The Info List - Windows 2008 Server


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Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is the second major release of the Windows Server family of operating systems for server computers. Developed by Microsoft, it was released to manufacturing on February 4, 2008, and reached general availability on February 27, 2008. It is the successor of Windows Server
Windows Server
2003, released nearly five years earlier.

Contents

1 History 2 Features

2.1 Server Core 2.2 Active Directory
Active Directory
roles 2.3 Failover Clustering 2.4 Self-healing NTFS 2.5 Hyper-V 2.6 Windows System Resource Manager 2.7 Server Manager 2.8 Other features

2.8.1 Core OS improvements 2.8.2 Active Directory
Active Directory
improvements 2.8.3 Policy related improvements 2.8.4 Disk management and file storage improvements 2.8.5 Protocol and cryptography improvements 2.8.6 Miscellaneous improvements

3 Removed features 4 Editions 5 Service Pack 6 Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 7 System requirements 8 Scalability 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Originally known as Windows Server
Windows Server
Codename "Longhorn", Microsoft chairman Bill Gates
Bill Gates
announced its official title ( Windows Server
Windows Server
2008) during his keynote address at WinHEC 16 May 2007.[5] Beta 1 was released on 27 July 2005, Beta 2 was announced and released on 23 May 2006 at WinHEC 2006 and Beta 3 was released publicly on 25 April 2007.[6] Release Candidate 0 was released to the general public on 24 September 2007[7] and Release Candidate 1 was released to the general public on 5 December 2007. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 was released to manufacturing on 4 February 2008 and officially launched on 27 February 2008.[8] Features[edit] See also: Features new to Windows Vista Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is built from the same code base as Windows Vista; therefore, it shares much of the same architecture and functionality. Since the code base is common, it automatically comes with most of the technical, security, management and administrative features new to Windows Vista
Windows Vista
such as the rewritten networking stack (native IPv6, native wireless, speed and security improvements); improved image-based installation, deployment and recovery; improved diagnostics, monitoring, event logging and reporting tools; new security features such as BitLocker and ASLR (address space layout randomization); improved Windows Firewall with secure default configuration; .NET Framework 3.0
.NET Framework 3.0
technologies, specifically Windows Communication Foundation, Microsoft
Microsoft
Message Queuing and Windows Workflow Foundation; and the core kernel, memory and file system improvements. Processors and memory devices are modeled as Plug and Play devices, to allow hot-plugging of these devices. This allows the system resources to be partitioned dynamically using Dynamic Hardware Partitioning; each partition has its own memory, processor and I/O host bridge devices independent of other partitions.[9] Server Core[edit]

Default user interface for Server Core. Because Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer
is removed from Server Core, programs such as Notepad use the Windows NT 3.1-style file dialog.

Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 includes a variation of installation called Server Core. Server Core
Server Core
is a significantly scaled-back installation where no Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer
shell is installed. All configuration and maintenance is done entirely through command-line interface windows, or by connecting to the machine remotely using Microsoft
Microsoft
Management Console. However, Notepad and some control panel applets, such as Regional Settings, are available. Server Core
Server Core
does not include the .NET Framework, Internet Explorer, Windows PowerShell
Windows PowerShell
or many other features not related to core server features. A Server Core
Server Core
machine can be configured for several basic roles: Domain controller/ Active Directory
Active Directory
Domain Services, ADLDS (ADAM), DNS Server, DHCP server, file server, print server, Windows Media Server, IIS 7 web server and Hyper-V
Hyper-V
virtual server. Server Core can also be used to create a cluster with high availability using failover clustering or network load balancing. Andrew Mason, a program manager on the Windows Server
Windows Server
team, noted that a primary motivation for producing a Server Core
Server Core
variant of Windows Server 2008 was to reduce the attack surface of the operating system, and that about 70% of the security vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows from the prior five years would not have affected Server Core.[10] Active Directory
Active Directory
roles[edit] Active Directory
Active Directory
roles are expanded with identity, certificate, and rights management services. Active Directory, until Windows Server 2003, allowed network administrators to centrally manage connected computers, to set policies for groups of users, and to centrally deploy new applications to multiple computers. This role of Active Directory is being renamed as Active Directory
Active Directory
Domain Services (ADDS).[11] A number of other additional services are being introduced, including Active Directory
Active Directory
Federation Services (ADFS), Active Directory
Active Directory
Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), (formerly Active Directory
Active Directory
Application Mode, or ADAM), Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS), and Active Directory
Active Directory
Rights Management Services (ADRMS). Identity and certificate services allow administrators to manage user accounts and the digital certificates that allow them to access certain services and systems. Federation management services enable enterprises to share credentials with trusted partners and customers, allowing a consultant to use his company user name and password to log in on a client's network. Identity Integration Feature Pack is included as Active Directory Metadirectory Services. Each of these services represents a server role. Failover Clustering[edit] Main article: Microsoft
Microsoft
Cluster Server Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 offers high availability to services and applications through Failover Clustering. Most server features and roles can be kept running with little to no downtime. In Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2, the way clusters are qualified changed significantly with the introduction of the cluster validation wizard.[12] The cluster validation wizard is a feature that is integrated into failover clustering in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2. With the cluster validation wizard, an administrator can run a set of focused tests on a collection of servers that are intended to use as nodes in a cluster. This cluster validation process tests the underlying hardware and software directly, and individually, to obtain an accurate assessment of how well failover clustering can be supported on a given configuration. This feature is only available in Enterprise and Datacenter editions of Windows Server. Self-healing NTFS[edit] In Windows versions prior to Windows Vista, if the operating system detected corruption in the file system of an NTFS
NTFS
volume, it marked the volume "dirty"; to correct errors on the volume, it had to be taken offline. With self-healing NTFS, an NTFS
NTFS
worker thread is spawned in the background which performs a localized fix-up of damaged data structures, with only the corrupted files/folders remaining unavailable without locking out the entire volume and needing the server to be taken down. The operating system now features S.M.A.R.T. detection techniques to help determine when a hard disk may fail.[13] Hyper-V[edit]

Hyper-V
Hyper-V
architecture

Main article: Hyper-V Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is hypervisor-based virtualization software, forming a core part of Microsoft's virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on an operating system's kernel layer. It can be thought of as partitioning a single physical server into multiple small computational partitions. Hyper-V
Hyper-V
includes the ability to act as a Xen virtualization hypervisor host allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized.[14] A beta version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008, prior to Microsoft's release of the final version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on 26 June 2008 as a free download. Also, a standalone version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
exists; this version supports only x86-64 architecture.[15] While the IA-32 editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 cannot run or install Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V. Windows System Resource Manager[edit] Main article: Windows System Resource Manager Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) is integrated into Windows Server 2008. It provides resource management and can be used to control the amount of resources a process or a user can use based on business priorities. Process Matching Criteria, which is defined by the name, type or owner of the process, enforces restrictions on the resource usage by a process that matches the criteria. CPU
CPU
time, bandwidth that it can use, number of processors it can be run on, and allocated to a process can be restricted. Restrictions can be set to be imposed only on certain dates as well. Server Manager[edit] Server Manager is a new roles-based management tool for Windows Server 2008.[16] It is a combination of Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard SCW from Windows Server
Windows Server
2003. Server Manager is an improvement of the Configure my server dialog that launches by default on Windows Server
Windows Server
2003 machines. However, rather than serve only as a starting point to configuring new roles, Server Manager gathers together all of the operations users would want to conduct on the server, such as, getting a remote deployment method set up, adding more server roles etc., and provides a consolidated, portal-like view about the status of each role.[17] Other features[edit] Other new or enhanced features include: Core OS improvements[edit]

Fully multi-componentized operating system. Improved hot patching, a feature that allows non-kernel patches to occur without the need for a reboot. Support for being booted from Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)-compliant firmware on x86-64 systems. Dynamic Hardware Partitioning

Support for the hot-addition or replacement of processors and memory, on capable hardware.

Active Directory
Active Directory
improvements[edit]

Read-only domain controllers (RODCs) in Active Directory, intended for use in branch office or other scenarios where a domain controller may reside in a low physical security environment. The RODC holds a non-writeable copy of Active Directory, and redirects all write attempts to a Full Domain Controller. It replicates all accounts except sensitive ones.[citation needed][clarification needed] In RODC mode, credentials are not cached by default. Moreover, only the replication partner of the RODC needs to run Windows Server 2008.[clarification needed] Also, local administrators can log on to the machine to perform maintenance tasks without requiring administrative rights on the domain.[citation needed] Restartable Active Directory
Active Directory
allows ADDS to be stopped and restarted from the Management Console or the command-line without rebooting the domain controller. This reduces downtime for offline operations and reduces overall DC servicing requirements with Server Core. ADDS is implemented as a Domain Controller Service in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008.

Policy related improvements[edit]

All of the Group Policy
Group Policy
improvements from Windows Vista
Windows Vista
are included. Group Policy
Group Policy
Management Console (GPMC) is built-in. The Group Policy objects are indexed for search and can be commented on.[18] Policy-based networking with Network Access Protection, improved branch management and enhanced end user collaboration. Policies can be created to ensure greater Quality of Service
Quality of Service
for certain applications or services that require prioritization of network bandwidth between client and server. Granular password settings within a single domain - ability to implement different password policies for administrative accounts on a "group" and "user" basis, instead of a single set of password settings to the whole domain.

Disk management and file storage improvements[edit]

The ability to resize hard disk partitions without stopping the server, even the system partition. This applies only to simple and spanned volumes, not to striped volumes. Shadow Copy based block-level backup which supports optical media, network shares and Windows Recovery Environment. DFS enhancements - SYSVOL on DFS-R, Read-only Folder Replication Member. There is also support for domain-based DFS namespaces that exceed the previous size recommendation of 5,000 folders with targets in a namespace.[19] Several improvements to Failover Clustering
Failover Clustering
(High-availability clusters).[20] Internet Storage Naming Server (iSNS) enables central registration, deregistration and queries for iSCSI hard drives.

Protocol and cryptography improvements[edit]

Support for 128- and 256-bit AES encryption for the Kerberos authentication protocol. New cryptography (CNG) API which supports elliptic curve cryptography and improved certificate management. Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol, a new Microsoft
Microsoft
proprietary VPN protocol. AuthIP, a Microsoft
Microsoft
proprietary extension of the IKE cryptographic protocol used in IPsec VPN
VPN
networks. Server Message Block 2.0 protocol in the new TCP/IP stack provides a number of communication enhancements, including greater performance when connecting to file shares over high-latency links and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing.

Miscellaneous improvements[edit]

Windows Deployment Services replacing Automated Deployment Services Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 home entertainment and Remote Installation Services. Windows Deployment Services (WDS) support an enhanced multicast feature when deploying operating system images.[21] Internet Information Services 7 - Increased security, Robocopy deployment, improved diagnostic tools, delegated administration. Windows Internal Database, a variant of SQL Server Express 2005, which serves as a common storage back-end for several other components such as Windows System Resource Manager, Windows SharePoint Services
Windows SharePoint Services
and Windows Server
Windows Server
Update Services. It is not intended to be used by third-party applications. An optional "Desktop Experience" component provides the same Windows Aero user interface as Windows Vista, both for local users, as well as remote users connecting through Remote Desktop.

Removed features[edit] See also: Features removed from Windows Vista

The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol component in Routing
Routing
and Remote Access Service was removed.[22] Services for Macintosh, which provided file and print sharing via the now deprecated AppleTalk
AppleTalk
protocol, has been removed. Services for Macintosh
Macintosh
were removed in Windows XP
Windows XP
from client operating systems but were available in Windows Server
Windows Server
2003.[22] NTBackup is replaced by Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup, and no longer supports backing up to tape drives.[23] As a result of NTBackup removal, Exchange Server 2007 does not have volume snapshot backup functionality; however Exchange Server 2007 SP2 adds back an Exchange backup plug-in for Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup which restores partial functionality.[24] Windows Small Business Server and Windows Essential Business Server both include this Exchange backup component.[25] The POP3 service has been removed from Internet Information Services 7.0.[26] The SMTP
SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) service is not available as a server role in IIS 7.0, it is a server feature managed through IIS 6.0. NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is no longer part of Internet Information Services 7.0. ReadyBoost
ReadyBoost
is not supported.

Editions[edit] Compared to its predecessor, most editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 are available in x86-64 and IA-32 versions. These editions come in two DVDs: One for installing the IA-32 variant and the other for x64. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 for Itanium-based Systems supports IA-64 processors. Microsoft
Microsoft
has optimized the IA-64
IA-64
version for high-workload scenarios like database servers and Line of Business (LOB) applications. As such, it is not optimized for use as a file server or media server. Microsoft
Microsoft
has announced that Windows Server 2008 is the last 32-bit Windows server operating system.[27] Editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 include:[28]

Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Standard ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Enterprise ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Datacenter ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows HPC Server 2008 (Codenamed "Socrates") (replacing Windows Compute Cluster Server) Windows Web Server 2008 ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Storage Server 2008 (Codenamed "Magni") ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Small Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Cougar") (x86-64) for small businesses Windows Essential Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Centro") (x86-64) for medium-sized businesses[29] (Discontinued)[30] Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 for Itanium-based Systems Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Foundation (Codenamed "Lima") (x86-64) for OEMs only[31]

The Microsoft
Microsoft
Imagine program, known as DreamSpark at the time, used to provide verified students with the 32-bit variant of Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition, but the version has since then been removed. However, they still provide the R2 release. The Server Core
Server Core
feature is available in the Web, Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter editions. Service Pack[edit] Microsoft
Microsoft
occasionally releases service packs for its Windows operating systems to fix bugs and also add new features. Because Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is based on the Windows NT
Windows NT
6.0 Service Pack 1 kernel, the RTM release is considered to be Service Pack 1; accordingly, the first service pack is called Service Pack 2. Announced on October 24, 2008,[32] this service pack contains the same changes and improvements as the Windows Vista Service Pack 2, as well as the final release of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
1.0, and an approximate 10% reduction in power usage. The first SP2 beta build was sent out in October 2008, a public beta arrived in December 2008, and an RC-escrow build was given to testers in January 2009. Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 share a single service pack binary, reflecting the fact that their code bases were joined with the release of Server 2008. On May 26, 2009, Service Pack 2 was ready for release. It is now available in Windows Update. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2[edit] Main article: Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 A second release, Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2, was released on October 22, 2009.[33] Retail availability began September 14, 2009.[34] Windows Server 2008 R2 reached the RTM milestone on July 22, 2009.[35] Like Windows 7, it is built on Windows NT
Windows NT
6.1. New features include new virtualization features, new Active Directory
Active Directory
features, IIS 7.5, and support for 256 logical processors. Support for 32-bit-only processors (IA-32) has been removed. On July 22, 2009, Microsoft
Microsoft
officially announced that they had released both Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
and Windows 7 to manufacturing. Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
was generally available for download from MSDN and Technet on August 19 and for retail purchase from October 22, 2009. System requirements[edit] System requirements for Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 are as follows:

Criteria 2008 2008 R2

Minimum[36] Recommended[36] Minimum[37] Recommended[37]

CPU

1 GHz (IA-32) 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium)

2 GHz or faster 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium) 2 GHz or faster

RAM 512 MB 2 GB or greater 512 MB 2 GB or greater

HDD[a]

Other editions, 32-bit: 20 GB Other editions, 64-bit: 32 GB Foundation: 10 GB[38]

40 GB or greater

Foundation: 10 GB Other editions: 32 GB

Foundation: 10 GB or greater Other editions: 32 GB or greater

Devices DVD drive, 800 × 600 or higher display, keyboard and mouse

Scalability[edit] Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 supports the following maximum hardware specifications:[39][40][41]

Specification Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 SP2 Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2

Physical processors ("sockets")[40]

Standard: 4 Enterprise: 8 Datacenter: 32

Standard: 4 Enterprise: 8 Datacenter: 64

Logical processors when Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is disabled[40]

IA-32: 32 x64: 64

256

Logical processors when Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is enabled[40]

IA-32: N/A x64: 24

64

Memory on IA-32[41]

Standard, Web: 4 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 64 GB

N/A

Memory on x64[41]

Standard, Web: 32 GB HPC: 128 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 1 TB

Foundation: 8 GB Standard, Web: 32 GB HPC: 128 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 2 TB

Memory on Itanium[41] 2 TB 2 TB

See also[edit]

Microsoft
Microsoft
portal Software portal

Microsoft
Microsoft
Servers Comparison of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows versions History of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Comparison of operating systems List of operating systems

Notes[edit]

^ Computers with more than 16 GB of RAM require more disk space for paging, hibernation, and dump files[37]

References[edit]

^ a b "As Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 RTMs, Customers and Partners Adopting with Help of New Tools, Training". News Center. Redmond, WA: Microsoft. 4 February 2008.  ^ Graham, Justin (30 April 2009). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Service pack 2 has reached rtm! (sic)". Windows Server
Windows Server
Blog. Microsoft.  ^ Microsoft. " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Lifecycle Policy". Microsoft. Retrieved 2012-09-25.  ^ Microsoft. " Microsoft
Microsoft
Support Lifecycle". Microsoft. Retrieved 2018-04-01.  ^ Miller, Michael J. (2007-05-15). "Gates at WinHec 2007: Windows Server 2008, Rally, Home Server and More". Forward Thinking. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ Lowe, David (2007-04-25). "Beta 3 is Go!". Windows Server Division WebLog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2007-04-25.  ^ Ralston, Ward (2007-09-24). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Rc0 Released!". Windows Server
Windows Server
Division WebLog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2007-09-24.  ^ Nate Mook. "New Windows Server, Visual Studio, SQL Server to Launch in February". BetaNews. Retrieved 2007-07-11.  It is also commonly referred to as Vista Server ^ "Dynamic Hardware Partitioning Architecture". MSDN. Retrieved 2007-07-23.  ^ "Iain McDonald and Andrew Mason show off the new Windows Server
Windows Server
OS". Channel 9. Microsoft. May 24, 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 18:55  ^ Hynes, Byron (November 2006). "The Future of Windows: Directory Services in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". TechNet Magazine. Retrieved 2007-05-02.  ^ "Failover Cluster Validation Error 80070005 on Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 x64". Capitalhead. 2009-11-04. Retrieved 2013-10-28.  ^ Loveall, John (2006). "Storage improvements in Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008" (PowerPoint). Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Benchmarking Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
x64". Benchmarking Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
x64. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2010-01-28.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Extends Virtualization Strategy, Outlines Product Road Map". Microsoft. 2006-05-22. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Server Manager". Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Technical Library. Microsoft TechNet. 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2007-05-02.  ^ "Unexpected error refreshing Server Manager-0x800706BE and 1601 on Window Server 2008 R2". Unexpected error refreshing Server Manager-0x800706BE and 1601 on Window Server 2008 R2. Retrieved 2010-11-05.  ^ Ward, Keith (2007-10-08). "Top 10 Overlooked Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Features, Part 2". Redmond Developer News. Archived from the original on 2014-10-10. Retrieved 2014-10-10.  ^ Zoeller, Jill (26 July 2007). "New in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008: Breaking the 5K Folder "Barrier" in Domain-Based Namespaces". The Storage Team at Microsoft
Microsoft
- File
File
Cabinet Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ " Failover Clustering
Failover Clustering
with Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 including Cluster shared volumes". Microsoft. 2007-01-17. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Multicasting OS deployments with Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". Kevinsul's Management Blog. Microsoft. 29 August 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ a b "Removed technologies in Routing
Routing
and Remote Access in Windows Server 2008". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". TechNet. Microsoft. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 2 available in Q3 2009". The Exchange Team Blog. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Bilic, Nino (18 June 2008). "To Backup or Not to Backup? Yes! To backup!!". The Exchange Team Blog. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "IIS 7.0 Protocols". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Heaton, Alex (2007-05-18). "On 64-bit and Windows Client". Windows Vista Team Blog. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Product Editions". Microsoft. 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ Ligman, Eric (7 November 2007). "Announcing Windows Essential Business Server". Microsoft
Microsoft
Small Business Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2013-08-16.  ^ " Windows Essential Business Server 2008". Technet.microsoft.com. 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Foundation: An Entry-Level Server Platform". Petri IT Knowledgebase. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2014-01-08.  ^ Justin Graham (October 24, 2008). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Service Pack 2 beta". Microsoft. Retrieved 2008-10-29.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2: Getting Started". Microsoft. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ "When to expect Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
RTM - Windows Server
Windows Server
Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". Blogs.technet.com. 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
Reaches the RTM Milestone! - Windows Server Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". Blogs.technet.com. 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ a b " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". 31 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-31.  ^ a b c " Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". Microsoft.com. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". Microsoft. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ Savill, John (October 28, 2011). "Q: What are Windows Server
Windows Server
8's Scalability Numbers?". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved November 5, 2011.  ^ a b c d Seldam, Matthijs ten (October 13, 2012). " Windows Server
Windows Server
- Sockets, Logical Processors, Symmetric Multi Threading". Matthijs's blog. Microsoft. Retrieved October 14, 2012.  ^ a b c d "Memory Limits for Windows and Windows Server
Windows Server
Releases". MSDN. Microsoft. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

"What's New in Networking". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  "Changes in Functionality from Windows Server
Windows Server
2003 with SP1 to Windows Server 2008". TechNet. Microsoft. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  "Description of the Microsoft
Microsoft
server applications that are supported on Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". Support. Microsoft. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Henderson, Tom; Dvorak, Rand (21 February 2008). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008: Faster, more manageable and secure, but still missing the virtual link". Network World. IDG. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Radzikowski, Przemek (21 February 2010). "How to Find Build and Revision Number of Windows Vista
Windows Vista
or Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Installed". Capitalhead. Capitalhead Pty. Ltd. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Stanek, William (2008). Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Inside Out. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-2438-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikiversity has learning resources about Windows Server

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Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is the second major release of the Windows Server family of operating systems for server computers. Developed by Microsoft, it was released to manufacturing on February 4, 2008, and reached general availability on February 27, 2008. It is the successor of Windows Server
Windows Server
2003, released nearly five years earlier.

Contents

1 History 2 Features

2.1 Server Core 2.2 Active Directory
Active Directory
roles 2.3 Failover Clustering 2.4 Self-healing NTFS 2.5 Hyper-V 2.6 Windows System Resource Manager 2.7 Server Manager 2.8 Other features

2.8.1 Core OS improvements 2.8.2 Active Directory
Active Directory
improvements 2.8.3 Policy related improvements 2.8.4 Disk management and file storage improvements 2.8.5 Protocol and cryptography improvements 2.8.6 Miscellaneous improvements

3 Removed features 4 Editions 5 Service Pack 6 Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 7 System requirements 8 Scalability 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Originally known as Windows Server
Windows Server
Codename "Longhorn", Microsoft chairman Bill Gates
Bill Gates
announced its official title ( Windows Server
Windows Server
2008) during his keynote address at WinHEC 16 May 2007.[5] Beta 1 was released on 27 July 2005, Beta 2 was announced and released on 23 May 2006 at WinHEC 2006 and Beta 3 was released publicly on 25 April 2007.[6] Release Candidate 0 was released to the general public on 24 September 2007[7] and Release Candidate 1 was released to the general public on 5 December 2007. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 was released to manufacturing on 4 February 2008 and officially launched on 27 February 2008.[8] Features[edit] See also: Features new to Windows Vista Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is built from the same code base as Windows Vista; therefore, it shares much of the same architecture and functionality. Since the code base is common, it automatically comes with most of the technical, security, management and administrative features new to Windows Vista
Windows Vista
such as the rewritten networking stack (native IPv6, native wireless, speed and security improvements); improved image-based installation, deployment and recovery; improved diagnostics, monitoring, event logging and reporting tools; new security features such as BitLocker and ASLR (address space layout randomization); improved Windows Firewall with secure default configuration; .NET Framework 3.0
.NET Framework 3.0
technologies, specifically Windows Communication Foundation, Microsoft
Microsoft
Message Queuing and Windows Workflow Foundation; and the core kernel, memory and file system improvements. Processors and memory devices are modeled as Plug and Play devices, to allow hot-plugging of these devices. This allows the system resources to be partitioned dynamically using Dynamic Hardware Partitioning; each partition has its own memory, processor and I/O host bridge devices independent of other partitions.[9] Server Core[edit]

Default user interface for Server Core. Because Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer
is removed from Server Core, programs such as Notepad use the Windows NT 3.1-style file dialog.

Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 includes a variation of installation called Server Core. Server Core
Server Core
is a significantly scaled-back installation where no Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer
shell is installed. All configuration and maintenance is done entirely through command-line interface windows, or by connecting to the machine remotely using Microsoft
Microsoft
Management Console. However, Notepad and some control panel applets, such as Regional Settings, are available. Server Core
Server Core
does not include the .NET Framework, Internet Explorer, Windows PowerShell
Windows PowerShell
or many other features not related to core server features. A Server Core
Server Core
machine can be configured for several basic roles: Domain controller/ Active Directory
Active Directory
Domain Services, ADLDS (ADAM), DNS Server, DHCP server, file server, print server, Windows Media Server, IIS 7 web server and Hyper-V
Hyper-V
virtual server. Server Core can also be used to create a cluster with high availability using failover clustering or network load balancing. Andrew Mason, a program manager on the Windows Server
Windows Server
team, noted that a primary motivation for producing a Server Core
Server Core
variant of Windows Server 2008 was to reduce the attack surface of the operating system, and that about 70% of the security vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows from the prior five years would not have affected Server Core.[10] Active Directory
Active Directory
roles[edit] Active Directory
Active Directory
roles are expanded with identity, certificate, and rights management services. Active Directory, until Windows Server 2003, allowed network administrators to centrally manage connected computers, to set policies for groups of users, and to centrally deploy new applications to multiple computers. This role of Active Directory is being renamed as Active Directory
Active Directory
Domain Services (ADDS).[11] A number of other additional services are being introduced, including Active Directory
Active Directory
Federation Services (ADFS), Active Directory
Active Directory
Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), (formerly Active Directory
Active Directory
Application Mode, or ADAM), Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS), and Active Directory
Active Directory
Rights Management Services (ADRMS). Identity and certificate services allow administrators to manage user accounts and the digital certificates that allow them to access certain services and systems. Federation management services enable enterprises to share credentials with trusted partners and customers, allowing a consultant to use his company user name and password to log in on a client's network. Identity Integration Feature Pack is included as Active Directory Metadirectory Services. Each of these services represents a server role. Failover Clustering[edit] Main article: Microsoft
Microsoft
Cluster Server Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 offers high availability to services and applications through Failover Clustering. Most server features and roles can be kept running with little to no downtime. In Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2, the way clusters are qualified changed significantly with the introduction of the cluster validation wizard.[12] The cluster validation wizard is a feature that is integrated into failover clustering in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2. With the cluster validation wizard, an administrator can run a set of focused tests on a collection of servers that are intended to use as nodes in a cluster. This cluster validation process tests the underlying hardware and software directly, and individually, to obtain an accurate assessment of how well failover clustering can be supported on a given configuration. This feature is only available in Enterprise and Datacenter editions of Windows Server. Self-healing NTFS[edit] In Windows versions prior to Windows Vista, if the operating system detected corruption in the file system of an NTFS
NTFS
volume, it marked the volume "dirty"; to correct errors on the volume, it had to be taken offline. With self-healing NTFS, an NTFS
NTFS
worker thread is spawned in the background which performs a localized fix-up of damaged data structures, with only the corrupted files/folders remaining unavailable without locking out the entire volume and needing the server to be taken down. The operating system now features S.M.A.R.T. detection techniques to help determine when a hard disk may fail.[13] Hyper-V[edit]

Hyper-V
Hyper-V
architecture

Main article: Hyper-V Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is hypervisor-based virtualization software, forming a core part of Microsoft's virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on an operating system's kernel layer. It can be thought of as partitioning a single physical server into multiple small computational partitions. Hyper-V
Hyper-V
includes the ability to act as a Xen virtualization hypervisor host allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized.[14] A beta version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008, prior to Microsoft's release of the final version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on 26 June 2008 as a free download. Also, a standalone version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
exists; this version supports only x86-64 architecture.[15] While the IA-32 editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 cannot run or install Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V. Windows System Resource Manager[edit] Main article: Windows System Resource Manager Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) is integrated into Windows Server 2008. It provides resource management and can be used to control the amount of resources a process or a user can use based on business priorities. Process Matching Criteria, which is defined by the name, type or owner of the process, enforces restrictions on the resource usage by a process that matches the criteria. CPU
CPU
time, bandwidth that it can use, number of processors it can be run on, and allocated to a process can be restricted. Restrictions can be set to be imposed only on certain dates as well. Server Manager[edit] Server Manager is a new roles-based management tool for Windows Server 2008.[16] It is a combination of Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard SCW from Windows Server
Windows Server
2003. Server Manager is an improvement of the Configure my server dialog that launches by default on Windows Server
Windows Server
2003 machines. However, rather than serve only as a starting point to configuring new roles, Server Manager gathers together all of the operations users would want to conduct on the server, such as, getting a remote deployment method set up, adding more server roles etc., and provides a consolidated, portal-like view about the status of each role.[17] Other features[edit] Other new or enhanced features include: Core OS improvements[edit]

Fully multi-componentized operating system. Improved hot patching, a feature that allows non-kernel patches to occur without the need for a reboot. Support for being booted from Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)-compliant firmware on x86-64 systems. Dynamic Hardware Partitioning

Support for the hot-addition or replacement of processors and memory, on capable hardware.

Active Directory
Active Directory
improvements[edit]

Read-only domain controllers (RODCs) in Active Directory, intended for use in branch office or other scenarios where a domain controller may reside in a low physical security environment. The RODC holds a non-writeable copy of Active Directory, and redirects all write attempts to a Full Domain Controller. It replicates all accounts except sensitive ones.[citation needed][clarification needed] In RODC mode, credentials are not cached by default. Moreover, only the replication partner of the RODC needs to run Windows Server 2008.[clarification needed] Also, local administrators can log on to the machine to perform maintenance tasks without requiring administrative rights on the domain.[citation needed] Restartable Active Directory
Active Directory
allows ADDS to be stopped and restarted from the Management Console or the command-line without rebooting the domain controller. This reduces downtime for offline operations and reduces overall DC servicing requirements with Server Core. ADDS is implemented as a Domain Controller Service in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008.

Policy related improvements[edit]

All of the Group Policy
Group Policy
improvements from Windows Vista
Windows Vista
are included. Group Policy
Group Policy
Management Console (GPMC) is built-in. The Group Policy objects are indexed for search and can be commented on.[18] Policy-based networking with Network Access Protection, improved branch management and enhanced end user collaboration. Policies can be created to ensure greater Quality of Service
Quality of Service
for certain applications or services that require prioritization of network bandwidth between client and server. Granular password settings within a single domain - ability to implement different password policies for administrative accounts on a "group" and "user" basis, instead of a single set of password settings to the whole domain.

Disk management and file storage improvements[edit]

The ability to resize hard disk partitions without stopping the server, even the system partition. This applies only to simple and spanned volumes, not to striped volumes. Shadow Copy based block-level backup which supports optical media, network shares and Windows Recovery Environment. DFS enhancements - SYSVOL on DFS-R, Read-only Folder Replication Member. There is also support for domain-based DFS namespaces that exceed the previous size recommendation of 5,000 folders with targets in a namespace.[19] Several improvements to Failover Clustering
Failover Clustering
(High-availability clusters).[20] Internet Storage Naming Server (iSNS) enables central registration, deregistration and queries for iSCSI hard drives.

Protocol and cryptography improvements[edit]

Support for 128- and 256-bit AES encryption for the Kerberos authentication protocol. New cryptography (CNG) API which supports elliptic curve cryptography and improved certificate management. Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol, a new Microsoft
Microsoft
proprietary VPN protocol. AuthIP, a Microsoft
Microsoft
proprietary extension of the IKE cryptographic protocol used in IPsec VPN
VPN
networks. Server Message Block 2.0 protocol in the new TCP/IP stack provides a number of communication enhancements, including greater performance when connecting to file shares over high-latency links and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing.

Miscellaneous improvements[edit]

Windows Deployment Services replacing Automated Deployment Services Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 home entertainment and Remote Installation Services. Windows Deployment Services (WDS) support an enhanced multicast feature when deploying operating system images.[21] Internet Information Services 7 - Increased security, Robocopy deployment, improved diagnostic tools, delegated administration. Windows Internal Database, a variant of SQL Server Express 2005, which serves as a common storage back-end for several other components such as Windows System Resource Manager, Windows SharePoint Services
Windows SharePoint Services
and Windows Server
Windows Server
Update Services. It is not intended to be used by third-party applications. An optional "Desktop Experience" component provides the same Windows Aero user interface as Windows Vista, both for local users, as well as remote users connecting through Remote Desktop.

Removed features[edit] See also: Features removed from Windows Vista

The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol component in Routing
Routing
and Remote Access Service was removed.[22] Services for Macintosh, which provided file and print sharing via the now deprecated AppleTalk
AppleTalk
protocol, has been removed. Services for Macintosh
Macintosh
were removed in Windows XP
Windows XP
from client operating systems but were available in Windows Server
Windows Server
2003.[22] NTBackup is replaced by Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup, and no longer supports backing up to tape drives.[23] As a result of NTBackup removal, Exchange Server 2007 does not have volume snapshot backup functionality; however Exchange Server 2007 SP2 adds back an Exchange backup plug-in for Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup which restores partial functionality.[24] Windows Small Business Server and Windows Essential Business Server both include this Exchange backup component.[25] The POP3 service has been removed from Internet Information Services 7.0.[26] The SMTP
SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) service is not available as a server role in IIS 7.0, it is a server feature managed through IIS 6.0. NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is no longer part of Internet Information Services 7.0. ReadyBoost
ReadyBoost
is not supported.

Editions[edit] Compared to its predecessor, most editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 are available in x86-64 and IA-32 versions. These editions come in two DVDs: One for installing the IA-32 variant and the other for x64. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 for Itanium-based Systems supports IA-64 processors. Microsoft
Microsoft
has optimized the IA-64
IA-64
version for high-workload scenarios like database servers and Line of Business (LOB) applications. As such, it is not optimized for use as a file server or media server. Microsoft
Microsoft
has announced that Windows Server 2008 is the last 32-bit Windows server operating system.[27] Editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 include:[28]

Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Standard ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Enterprise ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Datacenter ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows HPC Server 2008 (Codenamed "Socrates") (replacing Windows Compute Cluster Server) Windows Web Server 2008 ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Storage Server 2008 (Codenamed "Magni") ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Small Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Cougar") (x86-64) for small businesses Windows Essential Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Centro") (x86-64) for medium-sized businesses[29] (Discontinued)[30] Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 for Itanium-based Systems Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Foundation (Codenamed "Lima") (x86-64) for OEMs only[31]

The Microsoft
Microsoft
Imagine program, known as DreamSpark at the time, used to provide verified students with the 32-bit variant of Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition, but the version has since then been removed. However, they still provide the R2 release. The Server Core
Server Core
feature is available in the Web, Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter editions. Service Pack[edit] Microsoft
Microsoft
occasionally releases service packs for its Windows operating systems to fix bugs and also add new features. Because Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is based on the Windows NT
Windows NT
6.0 Service Pack 1 kernel, the RTM release is considered to be Service Pack 1; accordingly, the first service pack is called Service Pack 2. Announced on October 24, 2008,[32] this service pack contains the same changes and improvements as the Windows Vista Service Pack 2, as well as the final release of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
1.0, and an approximate 10% reduction in power usage. The first SP2 beta build was sent out in October 2008, a public beta arrived in December 2008, and an RC-escrow build was given to testers in January 2009. Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 share a single service pack binary, reflecting the fact that their code bases were joined with the release of Server 2008. On May 26, 2009, Service Pack 2 was ready for release. It is now available in Windows Update. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2[edit] Main article: Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 A second release, Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2, was released on October 22, 2009.[33] Retail availability began September 14, 2009.[34] Windows Server 2008 R2 reached the RTM milestone on July 22, 2009.[35] Like Windows 7, it is built on Windows NT
Windows NT
6.1. New features include new virtualization features, new Active Directory
Active Directory
features, IIS 7.5, and support for 256 logical processors. Support for 32-bit-only processors (IA-32) has been removed. On July 22, 2009, Microsoft
Microsoft
officially announced that they had released both Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
and Windows 7 to manufacturing. Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
was generally available for download from MSDN and Technet on August 19 and for retail purchase from October 22, 2009. System requirements[edit] System requirements for Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 are as follows:

Criteria 2008 2008 R2

Minimum[36] Recommended[36] Minimum[37] Recommended[37]

CPU

1 GHz (IA-32) 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium)

2 GHz or faster 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium) 2 GHz or faster

RAM 512 MB 2 GB or greater 512 MB 2 GB or greater

HDD[a]

Other editions, 32-bit: 20 GB Other editions, 64-bit: 32 GB Foundation: 10 GB[38]

40 GB or greater

Foundation: 10 GB Other editions: 32 GB

Foundation: 10 GB or greater Other editions: 32 GB or greater

Devices DVD drive, 800 × 600 or higher display, keyboard and mouse

Scalability[edit] Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 supports the following maximum hardware specifications:[39][40][41]

Specification Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 SP2 Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2

Physical processors ("sockets")[40]

Standard: 4 Enterprise: 8 Datacenter: 32

Standard: 4 Enterprise: 8 Datacenter: 64

Logical processors when Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is disabled[40]

IA-32: 32 x64: 64

256

Logical processors when Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is enabled[40]

IA-32: N/A x64: 24

64

Memory on IA-32[41]

Standard, Web: 4 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 64 GB

N/A

Memory on x64[41]

Standard, Web: 32 GB HPC: 128 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 1 TB

Foundation: 8 GB Standard, Web: 32 GB HPC: 128 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 2 TB

Memory on Itanium[41] 2 TB 2 TB

See also[edit]

Microsoft
Microsoft
portal Software portal

Microsoft
Microsoft
Servers Comparison of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows versions History of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Comparison of operating systems List of operating systems

Notes[edit]

^ Computers with more than 16 GB of RAM require more disk space for paging, hibernation, and dump files[37]

References[edit]

^ a b "As Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 RTMs, Customers and Partners Adopting with Help of New Tools, Training". News Center. Redmond, WA: Microsoft. 4 February 2008.  ^ Graham, Justin (30 April 2009). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Service pack 2 has reached rtm! (sic)". Windows Server
Windows Server
Blog. Microsoft.  ^ Microsoft. " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Lifecycle Policy". Microsoft. Retrieved 2012-09-25.  ^ Microsoft. " Microsoft
Microsoft
Support Lifecycle". Microsoft. Retrieved 2018-04-01.  ^ Miller, Michael J. (2007-05-15). "Gates at WinHec 2007: Windows Server 2008, Rally, Home Server and More". Forward Thinking. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ Lowe, David (2007-04-25). "Beta 3 is Go!". Windows Server Division WebLog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2007-04-25.  ^ Ralston, Ward (2007-09-24). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Rc0 Released!". Windows Server
Windows Server
Division WebLog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2007-09-24.  ^ Nate Mook. "New Windows Server, Visual Studio, SQL Server to Launch in February". BetaNews. Retrieved 2007-07-11.  It is also commonly referred to as Vista Server ^ "Dynamic Hardware Partitioning Architecture". MSDN. Retrieved 2007-07-23.  ^ "Iain McDonald and Andrew Mason show off the new Windows Server
Windows Server
OS". Channel 9. Microsoft. May 24, 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 18:55  ^ Hynes, Byron (November 2006). "The Future of Windows: Directory Services in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". TechNet Magazine. Retrieved 2007-05-02.  ^ "Failover Cluster Validation Error 80070005 on Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 x64". Capitalhead. 2009-11-04. Retrieved 2013-10-28.  ^ Loveall, John (2006). "Storage improvements in Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008" (PowerPoint). Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Benchmarking Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
x64". Benchmarking Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
x64. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2010-01-28.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Extends Virtualization Strategy, Outlines Product Road Map". Microsoft. 2006-05-22. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Server Manager". Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Technical Library. Microsoft TechNet. 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2007-05-02.  ^ "Unexpected error refreshing Server Manager-0x800706BE and 1601 on Window Server 2008 R2". Unexpected error refreshing Server Manager-0x800706BE and 1601 on Window Server 2008 R2. Retrieved 2010-11-05.  ^ Ward, Keith (2007-10-08). "Top 10 Overlooked Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Features, Part 2". Redmond Developer News. Archived from the original on 2014-10-10. Retrieved 2014-10-10.  ^ Zoeller, Jill (26 July 2007). "New in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008: Breaking the 5K Folder "Barrier" in Domain-Based Namespaces". The Storage Team at Microsoft
Microsoft
- File
File
Cabinet Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ " Failover Clustering
Failover Clustering
with Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 including Cluster shared volumes". Microsoft. 2007-01-17. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Multicasting OS deployments with Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". Kevinsul's Management Blog. Microsoft. 29 August 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ a b "Removed technologies in Routing
Routing
and Remote Access in Windows Server 2008". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". TechNet. Microsoft. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 2 available in Q3 2009". The Exchange Team Blog. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Bilic, Nino (18 June 2008). "To Backup or Not to Backup? Yes! To backup!!". The Exchange Team Blog. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "IIS 7.0 Protocols". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Heaton, Alex (2007-05-18). "On 64-bit and Windows Client". Windows Vista Team Blog. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Product Editions". Microsoft. 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ Ligman, Eric (7 November 2007). "Announcing Windows Essential Business Server". Microsoft
Microsoft
Small Business Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2013-08-16.  ^ " Windows Essential Business Server 2008". Technet.microsoft.com. 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Foundation: An Entry-Level Server Platform". Petri IT Knowledgebase. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2014-01-08.  ^ Justin Graham (October 24, 2008). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Service Pack 2 beta". Microsoft. Retrieved 2008-10-29.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2: Getting Started". Microsoft. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ "When to expect Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
RTM - Windows Server
Windows Server
Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". Blogs.technet.com. 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
Reaches the RTM Milestone! - Windows Server Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". Blogs.technet.com. 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ a b " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". 31 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-31.  ^ a b c " Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". Microsoft.com. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". Microsoft. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ Savill, John (October 28, 2011). "Q: What are Windows Server
Windows Server
8's Scalability Numbers?". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved November 5, 2011.  ^ a b c d Seldam, Matthijs ten (October 13, 2012). " Windows Server
Windows Server
- Sockets, Logical Processors, Symmetric Multi Threading". Matthijs's blog. Microsoft. Retrieved October 14, 2012.  ^ a b c d "Memory Limits for Windows and Windows Server
Windows Server
Releases". MSDN. Microsoft. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

"What's New in Networking". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  "Changes in Functionality from Windows Server
Windows Server
2003 with SP1 to Windows Server 2008". TechNet. Microsoft. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  "Description of the Microsoft
Microsoft
server applications that are supported on Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". Support. Microsoft. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Henderson, Tom; Dvorak, Rand (21 February 2008). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008: Faster, more manageable and secure, but still missing the virtual link". Network World. IDG. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Radzikowski, Przemek (21 February 2010). "How to Find Build and Revision Number of Windows Vista
Windows Vista
or Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Installed". Capitalhead. Capitalhead Pty. Ltd. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Stanek, William (2008). Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Inside Out. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-2438-2. 

External links[edit]

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Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is the second major release of the Windows Server family of operating systems for server computers. Developed by Microsoft, it was released to manufacturing on February 4, 2008, and reached general availability on February 27, 2008. It is the successor of Windows Server
Windows Server
2003, released nearly five years earlier.

Contents

1 History 2 Features

2.1 Server Core 2.2 Active Directory
Active Directory
roles 2.3 Failover Clustering 2.4 Self-healing NTFS 2.5 Hyper-V 2.6 Windows System Resource Manager 2.7 Server Manager 2.8 Other features

2.8.1 Core OS improvements 2.8.2 Active Directory
Active Directory
improvements 2.8.3 Policy related improvements 2.8.4 Disk management and file storage improvements 2.8.5 Protocol and cryptography improvements 2.8.6 Miscellaneous improvements

3 Removed features 4 Editions 5 Service Pack 6 Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 7 System requirements 8 Scalability 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Originally known as Windows Server
Windows Server
Codename "Longhorn", Microsoft chairman Bill Gates
Bill Gates
announced its official title ( Windows Server
Windows Server
2008) during his keynote address at WinHEC 16 May 2007.[5] Beta 1 was released on 27 July 2005, Beta 2 was announced and released on 23 May 2006 at WinHEC 2006 and Beta 3 was released publicly on 25 April 2007.[6] Release Candidate 0 was released to the general public on 24 September 2007[7] and Release Candidate 1 was released to the general public on 5 December 2007. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 was released to manufacturing on 4 February 2008 and officially launched on 27 February 2008.[8] Features[edit] See also: Features new to Windows Vista Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is built from the same code base as Windows Vista; therefore, it shares much of the same architecture and functionality. Since the code base is common, it automatically comes with most of the technical, security, management and administrative features new to Windows Vista
Windows Vista
such as the rewritten networking stack (native IPv6, native wireless, speed and security improvements); improved image-based installation, deployment and recovery; improved diagnostics, monitoring, event logging and reporting tools; new security features such as BitLocker and ASLR (address space layout randomization); improved Windows Firewall with secure default configuration; .NET Framework 3.0
.NET Framework 3.0
technologies, specifically Windows Communication Foundation, Microsoft
Microsoft
Message Queuing and Windows Workflow Foundation; and the core kernel, memory and file system improvements. Processors and memory devices are modeled as Plug and Play devices, to allow hot-plugging of these devices. This allows the system resources to be partitioned dynamically using Dynamic Hardware Partitioning; each partition has its own memory, processor and I/O host bridge devices independent of other partitions.[9] Server Core[edit]

Default user interface for Server Core. Because Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer
is removed from Server Core, programs such as Notepad use the Windows NT 3.1-style file dialog.

Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 includes a variation of installation called Server Core. Server Core
Server Core
is a significantly scaled-back installation where no Windows Explorer
Windows Explorer
shell is installed. All configuration and maintenance is done entirely through command-line interface windows, or by connecting to the machine remotely using Microsoft
Microsoft
Management Console. However, Notepad and some control panel applets, such as Regional Settings, are available. Server Core
Server Core
does not include the .NET Framework, Internet Explorer, Windows PowerShell
Windows PowerShell
or many other features not related to core server features. A Server Core
Server Core
machine can be configured for several basic roles: Domain controller/ Active Directory
Active Directory
Domain Services, ADLDS (ADAM), DNS Server, DHCP server, file server, print server, Windows Media Server, IIS 7 web server and Hyper-V
Hyper-V
virtual server. Server Core can also be used to create a cluster with high availability using failover clustering or network load balancing. Andrew Mason, a program manager on the Windows Server
Windows Server
team, noted that a primary motivation for producing a Server Core
Server Core
variant of Windows Server 2008 was to reduce the attack surface of the operating system, and that about 70% of the security vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows from the prior five years would not have affected Server Core.[10] Active Directory
Active Directory
roles[edit] Active Directory
Active Directory
roles are expanded with identity, certificate, and rights management services. Active Directory, until Windows Server 2003, allowed network administrators to centrally manage connected computers, to set policies for groups of users, and to centrally deploy new applications to multiple computers. This role of Active Directory is being renamed as Active Directory
Active Directory
Domain Services (ADDS).[11] A number of other additional services are being introduced, including Active Directory
Active Directory
Federation Services (ADFS), Active Directory
Active Directory
Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS), (formerly Active Directory
Active Directory
Application Mode, or ADAM), Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS), and Active Directory
Active Directory
Rights Management Services (ADRMS). Identity and certificate services allow administrators to manage user accounts and the digital certificates that allow them to access certain services and systems. Federation management services enable enterprises to share credentials with trusted partners and customers, allowing a consultant to use his company user name and password to log in on a client's network. Identity Integration Feature Pack is included as Active Directory Metadirectory Services. Each of these services represents a server role. Failover Clustering[edit] Main article: Microsoft
Microsoft
Cluster Server Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 offers high availability to services and applications through Failover Clustering. Most server features and roles can be kept running with little to no downtime. In Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2, the way clusters are qualified changed significantly with the introduction of the cluster validation wizard.[12] The cluster validation wizard is a feature that is integrated into failover clustering in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2. With the cluster validation wizard, an administrator can run a set of focused tests on a collection of servers that are intended to use as nodes in a cluster. This cluster validation process tests the underlying hardware and software directly, and individually, to obtain an accurate assessment of how well failover clustering can be supported on a given configuration. This feature is only available in Enterprise and Datacenter editions of Windows Server. Self-healing NTFS[edit] In Windows versions prior to Windows Vista, if the operating system detected corruption in the file system of an NTFS
NTFS
volume, it marked the volume "dirty"; to correct errors on the volume, it had to be taken offline. With self-healing NTFS, an NTFS
NTFS
worker thread is spawned in the background which performs a localized fix-up of damaged data structures, with only the corrupted files/folders remaining unavailable without locking out the entire volume and needing the server to be taken down. The operating system now features S.M.A.R.T. detection techniques to help determine when a hard disk may fail.[13] Hyper-V[edit]

Hyper-V
Hyper-V
architecture

Main article: Hyper-V Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is hypervisor-based virtualization software, forming a core part of Microsoft's virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on an operating system's kernel layer. It can be thought of as partitioning a single physical server into multiple small computational partitions. Hyper-V
Hyper-V
includes the ability to act as a Xen virtualization hypervisor host allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized.[14] A beta version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008, prior to Microsoft's release of the final version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on 26 June 2008 as a free download. Also, a standalone version of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
exists; this version supports only x86-64 architecture.[15] While the IA-32 editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 cannot run or install Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V. Windows System Resource Manager[edit] Main article: Windows System Resource Manager Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) is integrated into Windows Server 2008. It provides resource management and can be used to control the amount of resources a process or a user can use based on business priorities. Process Matching Criteria, which is defined by the name, type or owner of the process, enforces restrictions on the resource usage by a process that matches the criteria. CPU
CPU
time, bandwidth that it can use, number of processors it can be run on, and allocated to a process can be restricted. Restrictions can be set to be imposed only on certain dates as well. Server Manager[edit] Server Manager is a new roles-based management tool for Windows Server 2008.[16] It is a combination of Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard SCW from Windows Server
Windows Server
2003. Server Manager is an improvement of the Configure my server dialog that launches by default on Windows Server
Windows Server
2003 machines. However, rather than serve only as a starting point to configuring new roles, Server Manager gathers together all of the operations users would want to conduct on the server, such as, getting a remote deployment method set up, adding more server roles etc., and provides a consolidated, portal-like view about the status of each role.[17] Other features[edit] Other new or enhanced features include: Core OS improvements[edit]

Fully multi-componentized operating system. Improved hot patching, a feature that allows non-kernel patches to occur without the need for a reboot. Support for being booted from Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI)-compliant firmware on x86-64 systems. Dynamic Hardware Partitioning

Support for the hot-addition or replacement of processors and memory, on capable hardware.

Active Directory
Active Directory
improvements[edit]

Read-only domain controllers (RODCs) in Active Directory, intended for use in branch office or other scenarios where a domain controller may reside in a low physical security environment. The RODC holds a non-writeable copy of Active Directory, and redirects all write attempts to a Full Domain Controller. It replicates all accounts except sensitive ones.[citation needed][clarification needed] In RODC mode, credentials are not cached by default. Moreover, only the replication partner of the RODC needs to run Windows Server 2008.[clarification needed] Also, local administrators can log on to the machine to perform maintenance tasks without requiring administrative rights on the domain.[citation needed] Restartable Active Directory
Active Directory
allows ADDS to be stopped and restarted from the Management Console or the command-line without rebooting the domain controller. This reduces downtime for offline operations and reduces overall DC servicing requirements with Server Core. ADDS is implemented as a Domain Controller Service in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008.

Policy related improvements[edit]

All of the Group Policy
Group Policy
improvements from Windows Vista
Windows Vista
are included. Group Policy
Group Policy
Management Console (GPMC) is built-in. The Group Policy objects are indexed for search and can be commented on.[18] Policy-based networking with Network Access Protection, improved branch management and enhanced end user collaboration. Policies can be created to ensure greater Quality of Service
Quality of Service
for certain applications or services that require prioritization of network bandwidth between client and server. Granular password settings within a single domain - ability to implement different password policies for administrative accounts on a "group" and "user" basis, instead of a single set of password settings to the whole domain.

Disk management and file storage improvements[edit]

The ability to resize hard disk partitions without stopping the server, even the system partition. This applies only to simple and spanned volumes, not to striped volumes. Shadow Copy based block-level backup which supports optical media, network shares and Windows Recovery Environment. DFS enhancements - SYSVOL on DFS-R, Read-only Folder Replication Member. There is also support for domain-based DFS namespaces that exceed the previous size recommendation of 5,000 folders with targets in a namespace.[19] Several improvements to Failover Clustering
Failover Clustering
(High-availability clusters).[20] Internet Storage Naming Server (iSNS) enables central registration, deregistration and queries for iSCSI hard drives.

Protocol and cryptography improvements[edit]

Support for 128- and 256-bit AES encryption for the Kerberos authentication protocol. New cryptography (CNG) API which supports elliptic curve cryptography and improved certificate management. Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol, a new Microsoft
Microsoft
proprietary VPN protocol. AuthIP, a Microsoft
Microsoft
proprietary extension of the IKE cryptographic protocol used in IPsec VPN
VPN
networks. Server Message Block 2.0 protocol in the new TCP/IP stack provides a number of communication enhancements, including greater performance when connecting to file shares over high-latency links and better security through the use of mutual authentication and message signing.

Miscellaneous improvements[edit]

Windows Deployment Services replacing Automated Deployment Services Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 home entertainment and Remote Installation Services. Windows Deployment Services (WDS) support an enhanced multicast feature when deploying operating system images.[21] Internet Information Services 7 - Increased security, Robocopy deployment, improved diagnostic tools, delegated administration. Windows Internal Database, a variant of SQL Server Express 2005, which serves as a common storage back-end for several other components such as Windows System Resource Manager, Windows SharePoint Services
Windows SharePoint Services
and Windows Server
Windows Server
Update Services. It is not intended to be used by third-party applications. An optional "Desktop Experience" component provides the same Windows Aero user interface as Windows Vista, both for local users, as well as remote users connecting through Remote Desktop.

Removed features[edit] See also: Features removed from Windows Vista

The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol component in Routing
Routing
and Remote Access Service was removed.[22] Services for Macintosh, which provided file and print sharing via the now deprecated AppleTalk
AppleTalk
protocol, has been removed. Services for Macintosh
Macintosh
were removed in Windows XP
Windows XP
from client operating systems but were available in Windows Server
Windows Server
2003.[22] NTBackup is replaced by Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup, and no longer supports backing up to tape drives.[23] As a result of NTBackup removal, Exchange Server 2007 does not have volume snapshot backup functionality; however Exchange Server 2007 SP2 adds back an Exchange backup plug-in for Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup which restores partial functionality.[24] Windows Small Business Server and Windows Essential Business Server both include this Exchange backup component.[25] The POP3 service has been removed from Internet Information Services 7.0.[26] The SMTP
SMTP
(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) service is not available as a server role in IIS 7.0, it is a server feature managed through IIS 6.0. NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is no longer part of Internet Information Services 7.0. ReadyBoost
ReadyBoost
is not supported.

Editions[edit] Compared to its predecessor, most editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 are available in x86-64 and IA-32 versions. These editions come in two DVDs: One for installing the IA-32 variant and the other for x64. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 for Itanium-based Systems supports IA-64 processors. Microsoft
Microsoft
has optimized the IA-64
IA-64
version for high-workload scenarios like database servers and Line of Business (LOB) applications. As such, it is not optimized for use as a file server or media server. Microsoft
Microsoft
has announced that Windows Server 2008 is the last 32-bit Windows server operating system.[27] Editions of Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 include:[28]

Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Standard ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Enterprise ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Datacenter ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows HPC Server 2008 (Codenamed "Socrates") (replacing Windows Compute Cluster Server) Windows Web Server 2008 ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Storage Server 2008 (Codenamed "Magni") ( IA-32 and x86-64) Windows Small Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Cougar") (x86-64) for small businesses Windows Essential Business Server 2008 (Codenamed "Centro") (x86-64) for medium-sized businesses[29] (Discontinued)[30] Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 for Itanium-based Systems Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Foundation (Codenamed "Lima") (x86-64) for OEMs only[31]

The Microsoft
Microsoft
Imagine program, known as DreamSpark at the time, used to provide verified students with the 32-bit variant of Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition, but the version has since then been removed. However, they still provide the R2 release. The Server Core
Server Core
feature is available in the Web, Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter editions. Service Pack[edit] Microsoft
Microsoft
occasionally releases service packs for its Windows operating systems to fix bugs and also add new features. Because Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 is based on the Windows NT
Windows NT
6.0 Service Pack 1 kernel, the RTM release is considered to be Service Pack 1; accordingly, the first service pack is called Service Pack 2. Announced on October 24, 2008,[32] this service pack contains the same changes and improvements as the Windows Vista Service Pack 2, as well as the final release of Hyper-V
Hyper-V
1.0, and an approximate 10% reduction in power usage. The first SP2 beta build was sent out in October 2008, a public beta arrived in December 2008, and an RC-escrow build was given to testers in January 2009. Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 share a single service pack binary, reflecting the fact that their code bases were joined with the release of Server 2008. On May 26, 2009, Service Pack 2 was ready for release. It is now available in Windows Update. Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2[edit] Main article: Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 A second release, Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2, was released on October 22, 2009.[33] Retail availability began September 14, 2009.[34] Windows Server 2008 R2 reached the RTM milestone on July 22, 2009.[35] Like Windows 7, it is built on Windows NT
Windows NT
6.1. New features include new virtualization features, new Active Directory
Active Directory
features, IIS 7.5, and support for 256 logical processors. Support for 32-bit-only processors (IA-32) has been removed. On July 22, 2009, Microsoft
Microsoft
officially announced that they had released both Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
and Windows 7 to manufacturing. Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
was generally available for download from MSDN and Technet on August 19 and for retail purchase from October 22, 2009. System requirements[edit] System requirements for Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 are as follows:

Criteria 2008 2008 R2

Minimum[36] Recommended[36] Minimum[37] Recommended[37]

CPU

1 GHz (IA-32) 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium)

2 GHz or faster 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium) 2 GHz or faster

RAM 512 MB 2 GB or greater 512 MB 2 GB or greater

HDD[a]

Other editions, 32-bit: 20 GB Other editions, 64-bit: 32 GB Foundation: 10 GB[38]

40 GB or greater

Foundation: 10 GB Other editions: 32 GB

Foundation: 10 GB or greater Other editions: 32 GB or greater

Devices DVD drive, 800 × 600 or higher display, keyboard and mouse

Scalability[edit] Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 supports the following maximum hardware specifications:[39][40][41]

Specification Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 SP2 Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2

Physical processors ("sockets")[40]

Standard: 4 Enterprise: 8 Datacenter: 32

Standard: 4 Enterprise: 8 Datacenter: 64

Logical processors when Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is disabled[40]

IA-32: 32 x64: 64

256

Logical processors when Hyper-V
Hyper-V
is enabled[40]

IA-32: N/A x64: 24

64

Memory on IA-32[41]

Standard, Web: 4 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 64 GB

N/A

Memory on x64[41]

Standard, Web: 32 GB HPC: 128 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 1 TB

Foundation: 8 GB Standard, Web: 32 GB HPC: 128 GB Enterprise, Datacenter: 2 TB

Memory on Itanium[41] 2 TB 2 TB

See also[edit]

Microsoft
Microsoft
portal Software portal

Microsoft
Microsoft
Servers Comparison of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows versions History of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Comparison of operating systems List of operating systems

Notes[edit]

^ Computers with more than 16 GB of RAM require more disk space for paging, hibernation, and dump files[37]

References[edit]

^ a b "As Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 RTMs, Customers and Partners Adopting with Help of New Tools, Training". News Center. Redmond, WA: Microsoft. 4 February 2008.  ^ Graham, Justin (30 April 2009). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Service pack 2 has reached rtm! (sic)". Windows Server
Windows Server
Blog. Microsoft.  ^ Microsoft. " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Lifecycle Policy". Microsoft. Retrieved 2012-09-25.  ^ Microsoft. " Microsoft
Microsoft
Support Lifecycle". Microsoft. Retrieved 2018-04-01.  ^ Miller, Michael J. (2007-05-15). "Gates at WinHec 2007: Windows Server 2008, Rally, Home Server and More". Forward Thinking. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ Lowe, David (2007-04-25). "Beta 3 is Go!". Windows Server Division WebLog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2007-04-25.  ^ Ralston, Ward (2007-09-24). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Rc0 Released!". Windows Server
Windows Server
Division WebLog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2007-09-24.  ^ Nate Mook. "New Windows Server, Visual Studio, SQL Server to Launch in February". BetaNews. Retrieved 2007-07-11.  It is also commonly referred to as Vista Server ^ "Dynamic Hardware Partitioning Architecture". MSDN. Retrieved 2007-07-23.  ^ "Iain McDonald and Andrew Mason show off the new Windows Server
Windows Server
OS". Channel 9. Microsoft. May 24, 2006. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 18:55  ^ Hynes, Byron (November 2006). "The Future of Windows: Directory Services in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". TechNet Magazine. Retrieved 2007-05-02.  ^ "Failover Cluster Validation Error 80070005 on Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2 x64". Capitalhead. 2009-11-04. Retrieved 2013-10-28.  ^ Loveall, John (2006). "Storage improvements in Windows Vista
Windows Vista
and Windows Server
Windows Server
2008" (PowerPoint). Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Benchmarking Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
x64". Benchmarking Hyper-V
Hyper-V
on Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
x64. 2010-01-20. Retrieved 2010-01-28.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Extends Virtualization Strategy, Outlines Product Road Map". Microsoft. 2006-05-22. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Server Manager". Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Technical Library. Microsoft TechNet. 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2007-05-02.  ^ "Unexpected error refreshing Server Manager-0x800706BE and 1601 on Window Server 2008 R2". Unexpected error refreshing Server Manager-0x800706BE and 1601 on Window Server 2008 R2. Retrieved 2010-11-05.  ^ Ward, Keith (2007-10-08). "Top 10 Overlooked Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Features, Part 2". Redmond Developer News. Archived from the original on 2014-10-10. Retrieved 2014-10-10.  ^ Zoeller, Jill (26 July 2007). "New in Windows Server
Windows Server
2008: Breaking the 5K Folder "Barrier" in Domain-Based Namespaces". The Storage Team at Microsoft
Microsoft
- File
File
Cabinet Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ " Failover Clustering
Failover Clustering
with Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 including Cluster shared volumes". Microsoft. 2007-01-17. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ "Multicasting OS deployments with Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". Kevinsul's Management Blog. Microsoft. 29 August 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ a b "Removed technologies in Routing
Routing
and Remote Access in Windows Server 2008". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
Backup Step-by-Step Guide for Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". TechNet. Microsoft. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "Exchange Server 2007 Service Pack 2 available in Q3 2009". The Exchange Team Blog. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Bilic, Nino (18 June 2008). "To Backup or Not to Backup? Yes! To backup!!". The Exchange Team Blog. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ "IIS 7.0 Protocols". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  ^ Heaton, Alex (2007-05-18). "On 64-bit and Windows Client". Windows Vista Team Blog. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Product Editions". Microsoft. 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2007-07-09.  ^ Ligman, Eric (7 November 2007). "Announcing Windows Essential Business Server". Microsoft
Microsoft
Small Business Blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 2013-08-16.  ^ " Windows Essential Business Server 2008". Technet.microsoft.com. 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Foundation: An Entry-Level Server Platform". Petri IT Knowledgebase. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2014-01-08.  ^ Justin Graham (October 24, 2008). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Service Pack 2 beta". Microsoft. Retrieved 2008-10-29.  ^ " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 R2: Getting Started". Microsoft. Retrieved 2009-07-13.  ^ "When to expect Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
RTM - Windows Server
Windows Server
Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". Blogs.technet.com. 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Server 2008 R2
Reaches the RTM Milestone! - Windows Server Blog - Site Home - TechNet Blogs". Blogs.technet.com. 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ a b " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". 31 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-31.  ^ a b c " Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". Microsoft.com. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". Microsoft. Retrieved 2013-01-09.  ^ Savill, John (October 28, 2011). "Q: What are Windows Server
Windows Server
8's Scalability Numbers?". Windows IT Pro. Penton Media. Retrieved November 5, 2011.  ^ a b c d Seldam, Matthijs ten (October 13, 2012). " Windows Server
Windows Server
- Sockets, Logical Processors, Symmetric Multi Threading". Matthijs's blog. Microsoft. Retrieved October 14, 2012.  ^ a b c d "Memory Limits for Windows and Windows Server
Windows Server
Releases". MSDN. Microsoft. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

"What's New in Networking". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  "Changes in Functionality from Windows Server
Windows Server
2003 with SP1 to Windows Server 2008". TechNet. Microsoft. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  "Description of the Microsoft
Microsoft
server applications that are supported on Windows Server
Windows Server
2008". Support. Microsoft. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 System Requirements". TechNet. Microsoft. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Henderson, Tom; Dvorak, Rand (21 February 2008). " Windows Server
Windows Server
2008: Faster, more manageable and secure, but still missing the virtual link". Network World. IDG. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Radzikowski, Przemek (21 February 2010). "How to Find Build and Revision Number of Windows Vista
Windows Vista
or Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Installed". Capitalhead. Capitalhead Pty. Ltd. Retrieved 16 August 2013.  Stanek, William (2008). Windows Server
Windows Server
2008 Inside Out. Microsoft Press. ISBN 978-0-7356-2438-2. 

External links[edit]

Wikiversity has learning resources about Windows Server

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.

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