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WINDOWS 95 (codenamed CHICAGO ) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
. It was released on August 24, 1995. Windows
Windows
95 merged Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and Windows products. It featured significant improvements over its predecessor, Windows
Windows
3.1 , most notably in the graphical user interface (GUI) and in its simplified "plug-and-play " features. There were also major changes made to the core components of the operating system, such as moving from a mainly co-operatively multitasked 16-bit architecture to a 32-bit
32-bit
preemptive multitasking architecture.

Accompanied by an extensive marketing campaign, Windows
Windows
95 introduced numerous functions and features that were featured in later Windows
Windows
versions, such as the taskbar, the "Start" button and the way the user navigates.

Three years after its introduction, Windows
Windows
95 was succeeded by Windows 98
Windows 98
. Microsoft
Microsoft
ended support for Windows
Windows
95 on December 31, 2001.

CONTENTS

* 1 Development

* 1.1 Beta

* 2 Architecture

* 2.1 Dependence on MS-DOS
MS-DOS

* 3 User interface
User interface

* 4 Technical improvements

* 4.1 Long file names * 4.2 32-bit
32-bit

* 5 System requirements * 6 Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer

* 7 Release and promotion

* 7.1 Editions

* 8 Legacy * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading

DEVELOPMENT

Main article: Development of Windows 95

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

The initial design and planning of Windows
Windows
95 can be traced back to around March 1992, just after the release of Windows
Windows
3.1 . At this time, Windows
Windows
for Workgroups 3.11 and Windows
Windows
NT 3.1 were still in development and Microsoft's plan for the future was focused on Cairo . Cairo would be Microsoft's next-generation operating system based on Windows
Windows
NT and featuring a new user interface and an object-based file system, but it was not planned to be shipped before 1994. However, Cairo would partially ship in July 1996 in the form of Windows
Windows
NT 4.0 , but without the object-based file system, which would later evolve into WinFS .

Simultaneously with Windows
Windows
3.1's release, IBM
IBM
started shipping OS/2 2.0 . Microsoft
Microsoft
realized they were in need of an updated version of Windows
Windows
that could support 32-bit
32-bit
applications and preemptive multitasking, but could still run on low-end hardware ( Windows
Windows
NT did not). So the development of Windows
Windows
"Chicago" was started and, as it was planned for a late 1993 release, became known as Windows
Windows
93. Initially, the decision was made not to include a new user interface, as this was planned for Cairo, and only focus on making installation, configuration, and networking easier. Windows
Windows
93 would ship together with MS-DOS
MS-DOS
7.0, offering a more integrated experience to the user and making it pointless for other companies to create DOS
DOS
clones. MS-DOS 7.0 was in development at that time under the code name "Jaguar" and could optionally run on top of a Windows
Windows
3.1-based 32-bit
32-bit
protected mode kernel called "Cougar" in order to better compete with DR-DOS . The first version of Chicago's feature specification was finished on September 30, 1992. Cougar was to become Chicago's kernel.

BETA

Prior to Windows
Windows
95's official release, users in the United States and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
had an opportunity to preview it in the Windows
Windows
95 Preview Program. For US$19.95/£19.95, users would receive several 3.5-inch floppy disks that would be used to install Windows
Windows
95 either as an upgrade from Windows 3.1x or as a fresh installation. Participants were also given a free preview of The Microsoft
Microsoft
Network (MSN) , the online service that Microsoft
Microsoft
launched with Windows
Windows
95. During the preview period, Microsoft
Microsoft
established various electronic distribution points for promotional and technical documentation on Chicago, including a detailed document for media reviewers describing the new system highlights. The preview versions expired in November 1995, after which the user would have to purchase their own copy of the final version of Windows
Windows
95.

ARCHITECTURE

Architectural diagram

Windows
Windows
95 was designed to be maximally compatible with existing MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and 16-bit Windows
Windows
programs and device drivers , while offering a more stable and better performing system. The Windows
Windows
95 architecture is an evolution of Windows
Windows
for Workgroups ' 386 enhanced mode. The lowest level of the operating system consists of a large number of virtual device drivers (VxDs) running in 32-bit
32-bit
protected mode and one or more virtual DOS
DOS
machines running in virtual 8086 mode . The virtual device drivers are responsible for handling physical devices (such as video and network cards), emulating virtual devices used by the virtual machines or providing various system services. The three most important virtual device drivers are: Virtual Machine Manager (VMM32.VXD) Responsible for memory management, event handling , interrupt handling , loading and initializing virtual device drivers, creating new virtual machines and thread scheduling . Configuration Manager (CONFIGMG) Responsible for implementing Plug and Play functionality; monitoring hardware configuration changes; detecting devices using bus enumerators; and allocating I/O ports , IRQs , DMA channels and memory in a conflict-free fashion. Installable File
File
System Manager (Input/Output Subsystem) Coordinates access to supported file systems. Windows
Windows
95 initially shipped with support for FAT12 , FAT16 , the VFAT extension, ISO 9660
ISO 9660
(CDFS) and network redirectors , with later releases supporting FAT32 .

Access requests to physical media are sent to Input/Output Supervisor, a component responsible for scheduling the requests. Each physical media has its own device driver: access to the disk is performed by a port driver, while access to a SCSI
SCSI
device is handled by a miniport driver working atop the SCSI
SCSI
layer. Port and miniport drivers perform I/O operations in 32-bit
32-bit
protected mode, bypassing MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and BIOS , giving a significant performance improvement. In case there is no native Windows
Windows
driver for a certain storage device, or if a device is forced to run in compatibility mode, the Real Mode Mapper can access it through MS-DOS.

32-bit
32-bit
Windows
Windows
programs are assigned their own memory segments, which can be adjusted to any desired size. Memory area outside the segment cannot be accessed by a program. If a program crashes, nothing else is harmed. Before this, programs used fixed non-exclusive 64 KB segments. While the 64 KB size was a serious handicap in DOS
DOS
and Windows
Windows
3.x, lack of guarantee of exclusiveness was the cause of stability issues because programs sometimes overwrote each other's segments. A crashing Windows
Windows
3.x program could knock out surrounding processes.

The Win32 API is implemented by three modules, each consisting of a 16-bit and a 32-bit
32-bit
component: Kernel Provides high level access to memory and process management , and access to the file system. Consists of KRNL386.EXE, KERNEL32.DLL , and VWIN32.VXD. User Responsible for managing and drawing the various user interface components, such as windows , menus and buttons . Consists of USER.EXE and USER32.DLL . Graphics Device Interface
Graphics Device Interface
(GDI) Responsible for drawing graphics in a device-independent way. Consists of GDI.EXE and GDI32.DLL.

DEPENDENCE ON MS-DOS

To end-users, MS-DOS
MS-DOS
appears as an underlying component of Windows 95. For example, it is possible to prevent loading the graphical user interface and boot the system into a real-mode MS-DOS
MS-DOS
environment. This sparked debate amongst users and professionals over the question of to what extent Windows
Windows
95 is an operating system or merely a graphical shell running on top of MS-DOS.

When the graphical user interface is started, the virtual machine manager takes over the filesystem-related and disk-related functionality. MS-DOS
MS-DOS
itself is demoted to a compatibility layer for 16-bit device drivers. This contrasts with earlier versions of Windows
Windows
which rely on MS-DOS
MS-DOS
to perform file and disk access (Windows for Workgroups 3.11 could also largely bypass MS-DOS
MS-DOS
when 32-bit
32-bit
file access and 32-bit
32-bit
disk access were enabled). Keeping MS-DOS
MS-DOS
in memory allows Windows
Windows
95 to use DOS
DOS
device drivers when suitable Windows drivers are unavailable. Windows
Windows
95 is capable of using all 16-bit Windows
Windows
3.x drivers.

Unlike Windows
Windows
3.1x, DOS
DOS
programs running in Windows
Windows
95 do not need DOS
DOS
drivers for the mouse, CD-ROM
CD-ROM
and sound card; Windows
Windows
drivers are used instead. HIMEM.SYS is still required to boot Windows
Windows
95. EMM386 and other memory managers, however, are only used by legacy DOS programs. In addition, CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT settings (aside from HIMEM.SYS) have no effect on Windows
Windows
programs. DOS
DOS
games, which could not be executed on Windows
Windows
3.x, can run inside Windows
Windows
95 (games tended to lock up Windows
Windows
3.x or cause other problems). As with Windows
Windows
3.x, DOS
DOS
programs that use EGA or VGA graphics modes run in windowed mode (CGA and text mode programs can continue to run).

On startup, the MS-DOS
MS-DOS
component in Windows
Windows
95 responds to a pressed F8 key by temporarily pausing the default boot process and presenting the DOS
DOS
boot options menu, allowing the user to continue starting Windows
Windows
normally, start Windows
Windows
in safe mode or exit to the DOS prompt. As in previous versions of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
, there is no 32-bit support and DOS
DOS
drivers must be loaded for mice and other hardware.

As a consequence of being DOS-based, Windows
Windows
95 has to keep internal DOS
DOS
data structures synchronized with those of Windows
Windows
95. When starting a program, even a native 32-bit
32-bit
Windows
Windows
program, MS-DOS momentarily executes to create a data structure known as the Program Segment Prefix . It is even possible for MS-DOS
MS-DOS
to run out of conventional memory while doing so, preventing the program from launching. Windows
Windows
3.x allocated fixed segments in conventional memory first. Since the segments were allocated as fixed, Windows could not move them, which would prevent any more programs from launching.

Microsoft
Microsoft
partially removed support for File
File
Control Blocks (an API hold-over of DOS
DOS
1.x and CP/M) in Windows
Windows
95 OSR2 ( OEM Service Release 2). FCB functions can only read FAT32 volumes, but not write to them.

USER INTERFACE

Windows
Windows
95 introduced a redesigned shell based around a desktop metaphor ; the desktop was re-purposed to hold shortcuts to applications, files and folders. By contrast, Windows
Windows
3.1 's desktop was used to display icons of running applications. In Windows
Windows
95, they were now displayed as buttons on a taskbar across the bottom of the screen, which also contained a notification area used to display icons for background applications, a volume control and the current time. The Start menu , invoked by clicking the "Start" button on the taskbar, was introduced as an additional means of launching applications or opening documents. While maintaining the program groups used by its predecessor Program Manager , it now displayed applications within cascading sub-menus. The previous File
File
Manager program was also replaced by Windows
Windows
Explorer .

In 1994, Microsoft
Microsoft
designers Mark Malamud and Erik Gavriluk approached Brian Eno
Brian Eno
to compose music for the Windows
Windows
95 project. The result was the six-second start-up music-sound of the Windows
Windows
95 operating system, The Microsoft
Microsoft
Sound .

When released for Windows
Windows
95 and NT4, Internet Explorer 4 came with an optional Windows
Windows
Desktop Update , which modified the shell to provide new features integrated with Internet Explorer, such as Active Desktop (which allowed Internet content to be displayed directly on the desktop) and additional updates to Windows
Windows
Explorer.

Some of the user interface elements introduced in Windows
Windows
95, such as the desktop, taskbar, Start menu and Windows
Windows
Explorer file manager, remained fundamentally unchanged on future versions of Windows.

TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS

Windows
Windows
95 included support for 255-character mixed-case long filenames and preemptively multitasked protected-mode 32-bit applications.

LONG FILE NAMES

32-bit
32-bit
File
File
Access is necessary for the long file names feature introduced with Windows
Windows
95 through the use of the VFAT file system extension. It is available to both Windows
Windows
programs and MS-DOS programs started from Windows
Windows
(they have to be adapted slightly, since accessing long file names requires using larger pathname buffers and hence different system calls ). Competing DOS-compatible operating systems released before Windows
Windows
95 cannot see these names. Using older versions of DOS
DOS
utilities to manipulate files means that the long names are not visible and are lost if files are moved or renamed, as well as by the copy (but not the original), if the file is copied. During a Windows
Windows
95 automatic upgrade of an older Windows
Windows
3.1 system, DOS
DOS
and third-party disk utilities which can destroy long file names are identified and made unavailable. When Windows
Windows
95 is started in DOS mode, e.g. for running DOS
DOS
programs, low-level access to disks is locked out. In case the need arises to depend on disk utilities that do not recognize long file names, such as the MS-DOS
MS-DOS
6.x's defrag utility, a program called LFNBACK for backup and restoration of long file names is provided on the CD-ROM, specifically in its ADMINAPPTOOLSLFNBACK directory.

32-BIT

Windows
Windows
95 followed Windows
Windows
for Workgroups 3.11 with its lack of support for older, 16-bit x86 processors, thus requiring an Intel 80386 (or compatible). While the OS kernel is 32-bit, much code (especially for the user interface) remained 16-bit for performance reasons as well as development time constraints. This had a rather detrimental effect on system stability and led to frequent application crashes.

The introduction of 32-bit
32-bit
file access in Windows
Windows
for Workgroups 3.11 meant that 16-bit real mode MS-DOS
MS-DOS
is not used for managing the files while Windows
Windows
is running, and the earlier introduction of the 32-bit disk access means that the PC BIOS is often no longer used for managing hard disks. DOS
DOS
can be used for running old-style drivers for compatibility, but Microsoft
Microsoft
discourages using them, as this prevents proper multitasking and impairs system stability. Control Panel allows a user to see which MS-DOS
MS-DOS
components are used by the system; optimal performance is achieved when they are bypassed. The Windows
Windows
kernel uses MS-DOS
MS-DOS
style real-mode drivers in Safe Mode , which exists to allow a user to fix problems relating to loading native, protected-mode drivers.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

Official system requirements were an Intel 80386DX CPU of any speed, 4 MB of system RAM and 50–55 MB of hard disk space depending on features selected. These minimal claims were made in order to maximize the available market of Windows
Windows
3.1 migrations. This configuration would rely heavily on virtual memory and was only optimal for productive use on single-tasking dedicated workstations. It was possible to run Windows
Windows
95 on a 386 SX, but this led to even less acceptable performance due to its 16-bit external data bus. To achieve optimal performance, Microsoft
Microsoft
recommends an Intel 80486 or compatible CPU with at least 8 MB of RAM. Windows
Windows
95 may fail to boot on computers with more than approximately 480 MB of memory. In such case, reducing the file cache size or the size of video memory can help. The theoretical maximum according to Microsoft
Microsoft
is 2 GB.

Windows
Windows
95 was superseded by Windows 98
Windows 98
and could still be directly upgraded by either Windows
Windows
2000 Professional or Windows
Windows
ME . Office 2000 is the last version of Microsoft
Microsoft
Office compatible with Windows 95. Similarly, Windows
Windows
Media Player 7.1, released in May 2001, and DirectX
DirectX
8.0a, released in February 2001, are the last versions of Windows
Windows
Media Player and DirectX
DirectX
available for Windows
Windows
95, respectively. On December 31, 2001, Microsoft
Microsoft
ended its support for Windows
Windows
95, making it an "obsolete" product per the Microsoft Lifecycle Policy. Even though support for Windows
Windows
95 has ended, the software has occasionally remained in use on legacy systems for various purposes. In addition, some video game enthusiasts choose to use Windows
Windows
95 for their legacy system to play old DOS
DOS
games, although some other versions of Windows
Windows
such as Windows 98
Windows 98
can also be used for this purpose.

Most copies of Windows
Windows
95 were on CD-ROM
CD-ROM
, but a floppy version could also be had for older machines. The retail floppy disk version of Windows
Windows
95 came on 13 DMF formatted floppy disks, while OSR 2.1 doubled the floppy count to 26. Both versions exclude additional software that the CD-ROM
CD-ROM
version might have featured. Microsoft
Microsoft
Plus! for Windows
Windows
95 was also available on floppy disks. DMF was a special 21-sector format that Microsoft
Microsoft
used to store 1.68 MB on floppy disks rather than the usual 1.44 MB.

INTERNET EXPLORER

Windows
Windows
95 originally shipped without Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
, and the default network installation did not install TCP/IP, the network protocol used on the Internet. At the release date of Windows
Windows
95, Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
1.0 was available, but only in the Plus! add-on pack for Windows
Windows
95, which was a separate product. The Plus! Pack did not reach as many retail consumers as the operating system itself (it was mainly advertised for its non-Internet-related add-ons such as themes and better disk compression) but was usually included in pre-installed ( OEM ) sales, and at the time of Windows
Windows
95's release, the web was being browsed mainly with a variety of early web browsers such as NCSA Mosaic and Netscape Navigator (promoted by products such as Internet in a Box ).

Windows
Windows
95 OEM Service Release 1 was the first release of Windows
Windows
to include Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
(version 2.0 ) with the OS. While there was no uninstaller, it could be deleted easily if desired. OEM Service Release 2 included Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
3 . The installation of Internet Explorer 4 on Windows
Windows
95 (or the OSR2.5 version preinstalled on a computer) gave Windows
Windows
95 Active Desktop and browser integration into Windows
Windows
Explorer, known as the Windows
Windows
Desktop Update . The CD version of the last release of Windows
Windows
95, OEM Service Release 2.5 (Version 4.00.950C), includes Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
4, and installs it after Windows
Windows
95's initial setup and first boot are complete.

While only the 4.x series of the browser contained the option to install the Windows
Windows
Desktop Update features, the subsequent 5.x version had the option hidden. Editing the installer's configuration file located in a temporary folder would make the feature available in the installer. Alternatively, the user could install IE4 with the desktop update before installing a newer version of Internet Explorer. The last version of Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
supported on Windows
Windows
95 is Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
5.5 , released in 2000. Windows
Windows
95 shipped with Microsoft's own dial-up online service called The Microsoft
Microsoft
Network (MSN) .

RELEASE AND PROMOTION

Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
95 operating system cover shot

The Windows
Windows
95 release included a commercial featuring The Rolling Stones ' 1981 single " Start Me Up " (a reference to the Start button). It was widely reported that Microsoft
Microsoft
paid the Rolling Stones between US$8 and US$14 million for the use of the song in the Windows
Windows
95 advertising campaign. However, Microsoft
Microsoft
said that this was just a rumor spread by the band to increase their market value, and the company actually paid a fraction of that amount. A 30-minute promotional video, labeled a "cyber sitcom," featuring Jennifer Aniston and Matthew Perry
Matthew Perry
, was also released to showcase the features of Windows
Windows
95. Microsoft's US$300 million advertising campaign featured stories of people waiting in line outside stores to get a copy.

In the UK, the largest computer chain PC World received a large quantity of point of sale material; many branches opened at midnight to sell the first copies of the product. Copies of The Times
The Times
were available for free, and Microsoft
Microsoft
paid for 1.5 million issues (twice the daily circulation at the time).

In the United States, the Empire State Building
Empire State Building
in New York City was lit to match the colors of the Windows
Windows
logo. In Canada, a 328 ft (100 m) banner was hung from the top of the CN Tower in Toronto
Toronto
.

The release included a number of "Fun Stuff" items on the CD, including music videos of Edie Brickell 's "Good Times" and Weezer 's "Buddy Holly ," a trailer for the 1995 film Rob Roy and the computer game Hover! .

Sales were strong, with one million copies shipped worldwide in just four days.

EDITIONS

A number of Windows
Windows
95 editions have been released. Only the original release was sold as a shrink-wrapped product; later editions were provided only to computer OEMs for installation on new PCs. For this reason, these editions are known as OEM SERVICE RELEASES (OSR).

Together with the introduction of Windows
Windows
95, Microsoft
Microsoft
released the Microsoft
Microsoft
Plus! for Windows
Windows
95 pack, which contained a number of optional components for high-end multimedia PCs, including Internet Explorer, DriveSpace and additional themes.

The first service pack was made available half a year after the original release and fixed a number of small bugs.

The second service pack mainly introduced support for new hardware, most notably support for hard drives larger than 2 GB in the form of the FAT32 file system. This release was never made available to end-users directly and was only sold through OEMs with the purchase of a new PC.

A full third service pack was never released, but two smaller updates to the second were released in the form of a USB
USB
Supplement (OSR 2.1) and the Windows
Windows
Desktop Update (OSR 2.5). Both were available as stand-alone updates and as updated disc images shipped by OEMs. OSR 2.5 was notable for featuring a number of changes to the Windows Explorer, integrating it with Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
4.0—this version of Internet Explorer
Internet Explorer
looks very similar to the one featured in Windows 98.

RELEASE CODE NAME RELEASE DATE VERSION SOFTWARE COMPONENTS HARDWARE SUPPORT

SYSTEM PROPERTIES SYSTEM FILES TIMESTAMP MS-DOS
MS-DOS
INTERNET EXPLORER DRIVESPACE DIRECTX FAT32 INFRARED UDMA IRQ STEERING USB
USB
IEEE1394 AGP MMX P6

WINDOWS 95 (RETAIL AND OEM) Chicago August 24, 1995 4.00.950 4.00.950 1995-07-11 09:50:00 7.0 N/A 2 N/A No No No No No No No Bugs Bugs

MICROSOFT PLUS! FOR WINDOWS 95 Frosting N/A 4.40.310 1995-07-14 04:40:00 1.0 3

SERVICE PACK 1 N/A February 14, 1996 4.00.950a 4.00.951 1995-12-31 09:50:00 2.0 2 Yes

OEM SERVICE RELEASE 1 1996-02-02 09:51:00

OEM SERVICE RELEASE 2 Detroit August 24, 1996 4.00.950 B 4.00.1111 1996-08-24 11:11:11 7.1 3.0 3 2.0a Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

USB
USB
SUPPLEMENT TO OSR2 N/A August 27, 1997 March 4, 1212 4.03.1214 1997-04-10 12:14:00 Yes Yes

OEM SERVICE RELEASE 2.1

OEM SERVICE RELEASE 2.5 November 26, 1997 4.00.950 C March 4, 1216 1997-11-26 12:16:00 4.00 5.0 Yes

* ^ The version string displayed in the "System properties" tab. Right-click on "My Computer" and choose "Properties". * ^ The version of updated system files. Note that most system files which have not been updated often retain their old version number. Version numbers are not consistently used: some system files may have older or newer build numbers or use a version numbering scheme separate from regular system files. * ^ Upgradable to 5.5 * ^ Upgradable to 8.0a * ^ Some components have higher build numbers up to 955. * ^ Original release of the USB
USB
Supplement to OSR2. * ^ Updated version of the USB
USB
Supplement to OSR2. * ^ The Microsoft
Microsoft
Knowledge Base reports March 4, 1214. The USB Supplement to OSR2 contains an updated VMM.VXD with support for the Pentium Pro and Pentium II. This file has version March 4, 1216 and has a timestamp of September 23, 1997 09:51:18.

LEGACY

Many features that have become key components of the Microsoft Windows
Windows
series, such as the Start menu and the taskbar , originated in Windows
Windows
95. Neil MacDonald, a Gartner analyst, said that Windows
Windows
95 "was a quantum leap in difference in technological capability and stability." Ina Fried of CNET
CNET
said that "by the time Windows
Windows
95 was finally ushered off the market in 2001, it had become a fixture on computer desktops around the world."

SEE ALSO

* 1990s portal * Microsoft
Microsoft
portal

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Segal, David (August 24, 1995). "With Windows
Windows
95\'s Debut, Microsoft\'s Scales Heights of Hype". WashingtonPost.com
WashingtonPost.com
. The Washington Post Company . * ^ Thurrott, Paul (October 19, 1997). " Microsoft
Microsoft
to release Windows
Windows
95 OSR 2.5". Windows
Windows
IT Pro. Penton . * ^ A B " Microsoft
Microsoft
Support Lifecycle". Microsoft. Retrieved February 7, 2015. * ^ A B David Segal (August 24, 1995). "With Windows
Windows
95\'s Debut, Microsoft
Microsoft
Scales Heights of Hype". Washington Post. Retrieved March 24, 2011. * ^ Long, Tony (August 24, 2011). "Aug. 24, 1995: Say Hello to Windows
Windows
95". Wired.com. Retrieved April 21, 2012. * ^ Comes v. Microsoft. Plaintiff\'s Exhibit 1263. * ^ Comes v. Microsoft. Plaintiff\'s Exhibit 1308. * ^ Comes v. Microsoft. Plaintiff\'s Exhibit 1310. * ^ A B Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
Chicago Reviewer\'s Guide, p.282 * ^ Stephen Manes. "PERSONAL COMPUTERS; Microsoft\'s New System Promises to Fix Glitches". The New York Times
The New York Times
. * ^ "How 16-Bit and 32-Bit Programs Multitask in Windows
Windows
95". support.microsoft.com. November 15, 2006. Retrieved April 9, 2010. * ^ " Windows
Windows
95 Architecture Components". Microsoft
Microsoft
Technet . Microsoft. Retrieved March 24, 2011. * ^ A B C Schulman, Andrew (October 1994). Unauthorized Windows
Windows
95 - Developer's Resource Kit. Foster City, California : International Data Group Company . ISBN 1-56884-305-4 . OCLC
OCLC
300092018 . * ^ Saunders, Alec (February 21, 1995). "Microsoft(R) WinNews Electronic Newsletter, Vol. 2, #2" . Microsoft. Retrieved April 30, 2013. * ^ Lea, Graham (March 23, 1998). "Caldera shows Windows
Windows
on DR-DOS, denying Microsoft
Microsoft
claims". Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. * ^ Chen, Raymond (December 24, 2008). "What was the role of MS-DOS in Windows
Windows
95?". The Old New Thing. Microsoft
Microsoft
. Retrieved March 24, 2011. * ^ Rohrlich, Justin (May 25, 2010). "Who Created The Windows Start-Up Sound?". Minyanville 's Wall Street. Retrieved June 18, 2013.

* ^ Joel Selvin , Chronicle Pop Music Critic (June 2, 1996). "Q and A With Brian Eno". San Francisco Chronicle
San Francisco Chronicle
. Retrieved June 19, 2012. * ^ 255-character mixed-case long filenames are only possible for files and/or folders with no sub-folders at the root folder of any drive. * ^ "Yes, Win95 Runs On Minimum System Requirements, But It\'s A Slow Road To Travel". The Seattle Times. September 24, 1995. Retrieved March 22, 2015. * ^ " Windows
Windows
95 Installation Requirements". Microsoft. April 23, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2009. * ^ ""Out of Memory" Error Messages with Large Amounts of RAM Installed" . Support. Microsoft
Microsoft
. * ^ "Error Message: Insufficient Memory to Initialize Windows" . Support. Microsoft
Microsoft
. * ^ Chen, Raymond (August 14, 2003). " Windows
Windows
95 doesn\'t boot with more than 1GB of RAM". The Old New Thing. Microsoft
Microsoft
. * ^ ""Out of Memory" Error Messages with Large Amounts of RAM Installed". microsoft.com. Microsoft. Archived from the original on September 29, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2015. * ^ https://support.microsoft.com/ru-ru/kb/181594/en-us * ^ "Cannot Upgrade Windows
Windows
95/98 to Windows
Windows
2000 Server". * ^ " Windows
Windows
95 Support: Contact Support". Microsoft. December 13, 2002. Archived from the original on May 22, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2009. Internet Archive * ^ Microsoft
Microsoft
detractors were quick to point out that the second verse of "Start Me Up" begins "you make a grown man cry" (a line which is repeated throughout). The phrase subsequently featured as a humorous reference in many critical expositions of Windows
Windows
95. * ^ Michael Gartenberg (August 22, 2006). "The Story behind "Start Me Up" and Windows
Windows
95". JupiterResearch. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2009. Internet Archive * ^ " Windows
Windows
95 Video Guide (Full Show)". YouTube. October 5, 2011.

* ^ A B Fried, Ina (August 25, 2010). " Windows
Windows
95 turns 15: Has Microsoft\'s OS peaked?". CNN
CNN
. Cable News Network . CNET
CNET
. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2012. * ^ " Edie Brickell - Good Times". YouTube. * ^ Chen, Raymond (December 26, 2005). "Why did the Windows
Windows
95 CD have extra fun stuff?". blogs.msdn.com. Microsoft
Microsoft
. Retrieved September 6, 2013. * ^ "1995: The Calm Before the Storm?". Next Generation . Imagine Media (13): 53. January 1996. * ^ " Windows
Windows
95 Support for Infrared Data Association Connectivity". Microsoft. November 15, 2006. Retrieved September 9, 2009. * ^ "How to Enable Direct Memory Access (DMA)". Microsoft. January 27, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2009. * ^ "Description of PCI Bus IRQ Steering". Microsoft. January 22, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2009. * ^ "GP Fault or Fatal Exception Error on Intel MMX CPU". Microsoft. November 15, 2006. Retrieved September 9, 2009. * ^ "Memory Management Problems on Computers with Pentium Processors" . Microsoft. June 10, 1998. Retrieved May 16, 2013. * ^ "Memory Management Problems on Computers with Pentium Processors". Microsoft. September 22, 2005. Retrieved September 9, 2009. * ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
Releases Windows
Windows
95 Service Pack". Microsoft. February 14, 1996. Retrieved November 10, 2016. * ^ "Description of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
95 Service Pack 1 Components". Microsoft. November 16, 2006. Retrieved July 16, 2010. * ^ "How to Determine the Version of Windows
Windows
95/98/Me in Use". Microsoft. May 12, 2007. Retrieved September 9, 2009.

FURTHER READING

MICROSOFT:

* "Description of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
95 Service Pack 1 Components" . Support. Microsoft
Microsoft
. Retrieved July 23, 2013. * "Description of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows
Windows
95 Service Pack 1 Updates" . Support. Microsoft
Microsoft
. Retrieved July 23, 2013. * "Description of Windows
Windows
95 OEM Service Release 1" . Support. Microsoft
Microsoft
. Retrieved July 23, 2013. * "Availability of Universal Serial Bus Support in Windows
Windows
95" . Support. Microsoft
Microsoft
. Retrieved July 23, 2013. * "Implementing Windows
Windows
95 Updates" . Support. Microsoft
Microsoft
. Retrieved July 23, 2013. * " Windows
Windows
95 Installation Requirements" . Support. Microsoft
Microsoft
. Retrieved July 23, 2013.

THIRD-PARTY:

* Katz, Ian; Atkinson, Dan; Bannister, Nicholas (August 25, 1995). " Windows
Windows
95: The hype and beyond". Guardian.co.uk . Guardian Media Group . * Segal, David (August 24, 1995). "With Windows
Windows
95\'s Debut, Microsoft
Microsoft
Scales Heights of Hype". The Washington Post
The Washington Post
. The Washington Post Company . Retrieved July 23, 2013. * Schulman, Andrew (1994). Unauthorized Windows
Windows
95 : a developer\'s guide to exploring the foundations of Windows
Windows
"Chicago". IDG Books . ISBN 9781568841694 . Archived from the original on June 15, 2006. * Pietrek, Matt (1995). Windows
Windows
95 System Programming Secrets. IDG Books . ISBN 9781568843186 . * Windows
Windows
95 ( Web video ). Computer Chronicles . Retrieved July 23, 2013. * " Windows
Windows
95 Patches & Updates Guide". hpcfactor.com. HPC:Factor. December 13, 2003. Retrieved July 23, 2013.

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