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A window is an opening in a
wall A wall is a structure and a surface that defines an area; carries a load; provides security, shelter, or soundproofing; or, is decorative. There are many kinds of walls, including: * Walls in buildings that form a fundamental part of the supers ...

wall
,
door A door is a hinged or otherwise movable barrier that allows ingress into and egress from an enclosure. The created opening in the wall is a ''doorway'' or ''portal''. A door's essential and primary purpose is to provide security by controlling a ...
,
roof A roof is the top covering of a building, including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights, providing protection against rain, snow, sunlight, extremes of temperature, and wind. A roo ...
, or
vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor vehicles (motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses), railed vehicles (trains, trams), watercraft (ships, boats), amphibious vehicles ( ...
that allows the passage of light and may also allow the passage of sound and sometimes air. Modern windows are usually glazed or covered in some other
transparent Transparency, transparence or transparent most often refer to transparency and translucency, the physical property of allowing the transmission of light through a material. They may also refer to: Literal uses * Transparency (photography), a sti ...
or translucent material, a
sash A sash is a large and usually colorful ribbon or band of material worn around the body, draping from one shoulder to the opposing hip, or else running around the waist. The sash around the waist may be worn in daily attire, but the sash from shou ...
set in a frame in the opening; the sash and frame are also referred to as a window. Many glazed windows may be opened, to allow ventilation, or closed, to exclude inclement weather. Windows may have a
latch A latch or catch (called sneck in Northern England and Scotland) is a type of mechanical fastener that joins two (or more) objects or surfaces while allowing for their regular separation. A latch typically engages another piece of hardware on ...
or similar mechanism to lock the window shut or to hold it open by various amounts. Types include the eyebrow window, fixed windows,
hexagonal window A hexagonal window (also Melnikov's or honeycomb window) is a hexagon-shaped window, resembling a bee cell or crystal lattice of graphite. The window can be vertically or horizontally oriented, openable or fixed. It can also be regular or elongately ...
s, single-hung, and double-hung sash windows, horizontal sliding
sash window A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels, or "sashes". The individual sashes are traditionally paned windows, but can now contain an individual sheet (or sheets, in the case of double glazing) of glass. History The ...
s,
casement windowCasement window, with latticed lights A casement is a window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges at the side. They are used singly or in pairs within a common frame, in which case they are hinged on the outside. Casement windows are ...
s, awning windows, hopper windows, tilt, and slide windows (often door-sized), tilt and turn windows, transom windows, sidelight windows, jalousie or
louver A louver (American English) or louvre (British English; see spelling differences) is a window blind or shutter with horizontal slats that are angled to admit light and air, but to keep out rain and direct sunshine. The angle of the slats may ...
ed windows,
clerestory In architecture, a clerestory ( ; ''clear storey'', also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is a high section of wall that contains windows above eye level. The purpose is to admit light, fresh air, or both. Historically, ''clerestory'' de ...
windows,
lancet window A lancet window is a tall, narrow window with a pointed arch at its top. It acquired the "lancet" name from its resemblance to a lance. Instances of this architectural element are typical of Gothic church edifices of the earliest period. Lancet win ...
s, skylights, roof windows,
roof lantern -shaped lantern on 16th-century Seville Cathedral, Andalusia, Spain A roof lantern is a daylighting architectural element. Architectural lanterns are part of a larger roof and provide natural light into the space or room below. In contemporary ...
s,
bay window A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay. A large bay is usually called a gulf, sea, sound, or bight. A cove is a small, circular bay with a nar ...
s,
oriel window An oriel window is a form of bay window which protrudes from the main wall of a building but does not reach to the ground. Supported by corbels, brackets, or similar cantilevers, an oriel window is most commonly found projecting from an upper floo ...
s, thermal, or
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; Greek: Διοκλητιανός; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in Dalmatia, Diocletian rose through ...
, windows, picture windows,
Rose window Rose window is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in Gothic cathedrals and churches. The windows are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. The term ''rose window'' was ...
s, emergency exit windows,
stained glass 300px, Outside-view of a stained glass of the Sint-Petrus-en-Pauluskerk from Ostend (Belgium), built between 1899 and 1908 The term stained glass refers to coloured glass as a material and to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-yea ...
windows, French windows, panel windows, double/triple-paned windows, and
witch window In American vernacular architecture, a witch window (also known as a Vermont window, among other names) is a window (usually a double-hung sash window, occasionally a single-sided casement window) placed in the gable-end wall of a houseGeorge Nash ...
s. The Romans were the first known to use glass for windows, a technology likely first produced in
Roman Egypt , conventional_long_name = Roman Egypt , common_name = Egypt , subdivision = Province , nation = the Roman Empire , era = Late antiquity , capital = Alexandria , title_leader = Praefectus Augustalis , image_map = Roman Empire - Ae ...
, in
Alexandria ) , name = Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, seventh-larges ...
ca. 100 AD. Paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
,
Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Ko ...
, and
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdivided ...
. In
England England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continent ...
, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened
animal horn A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals that consists of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone. Horns are distinct from antlers, which are not permanent. In mammals, true horns a ...
were used as early as the 14th century. In the 19th century American west,
greased paper window A greased paper window is a very inexpensive window made of paper coated in grease. The grease fills gaps between the paper fibers, reducing the amount of light lost to scattering. Greased paper windows provide a diffuse light source, while blockin ...
s came to be used by itinerant groups. Modern-style floor-to-ceiling windows became possible only after the industrial plate
glass making Glass production involves two main methods – the float glass process that produces sheet glass, and glassblowing that produces bottles and other containers. It has been done in a variety of ways during the history of glass. Glass container p ...
processes were fully perfected.


Etymology

The English language-word ''window'' originates from the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 7th to the 15th centuries. The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse ...
''vindauga'', from ''vindr'' ("wind") and ''auga'' ("eye"), i.e., ''"wind eye"''. In
Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norwegian language, including the t ...
Nynorsk Nynorsk (translates to "New Norwegian") is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål. Nynorsk was established in 1929 as the state-sanctioned fusion of Ivar Aasen's standard Norwegian language ( no, Landsm ...
and Icelandic, the Old Norse form has survived to this day (in Icelandic only as a less used word for a type of small open "window", not strictly a synonym for ''gluggi'', the Icelandic word for window), in Swedish the word ''vindöga'' remains as a term for a hole through the roof of a hut, and in the Danish language 'vindue' and Norwegian
Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk. Bokmål is the preferred written standard of Norwegian for 85% to 90% of the population in Norway. Unlike, for instance, the Itali ...
'vindu', the direct link to 'eye' is lost, just as for 'window'. The Danish (but not the Bokmål) word is pronounced fairly similarly to ''window''. ''Window'' is first recorded in the early 13th century, and originally referred to an unglazed hole in a roof. ''Window'' replaced the
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th centur ...
''eagþyrl'', which literally means 'eye-hole,' and 'eagduru' 'eye-door'. Many Germanic languages, however, adopted the Latin word 'fenestra' to describe a window with glass, such as
standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of m ...
Swedish 'fönster', or
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language * Germanic peoples * Ger ...
'Fenster'. The use of ''window'' in English is probably because of the Scandinavian influence on the English language by means of
loanwords A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word as adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation. This is in contrast to cognates, which are words in two or more languages that are simi ...
during the
Viking Age The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) was the period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest, and trading throughout Europe, and reached North America. It followed the Migration Period an ...
. In English, the word ''fenester'' was used as a parallel until the mid-18th century. ''Fenestration'' is still used to describe the arrangement of windows within a
façade A façade or facade () is generally the front part of exterior of a building. It is a loan word from the French ''façade'' (), which means "frontage" or "face". In architecture, the façade of a building is often the most important aspect from ...
, as well as ''
defenestration Defenestration (from Modern Latin ), is the act of throwing someone or something out of a window. The term was coined around the time of an incident in Prague Castle in the year 1618 which became the spark that started the Thirty Years' War. This ...
'', meaning to throw something out of a window.


History

In the 13th century BC, the earliest windows were unglazed openings in a roof to admit light during the day. Later, windows were covered with animal hide, cloth, or wood. Shutters that could be opened and closed came next. Over time, windows were built that both protected the inhabitants from the elements and transmitted light, using multiple small pieces of translucent material, such as flattened pieces of translucent animal horn, thin slices of
marble Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Marble is typically not foliated, although there are exceptions. In geology, the term ''marble'' refers to metamorphosed limestone, b ...
, for example, fengite, or pieces of glass, set in frameworks of wood, iron or lead. In the Far East, paper was used to fill windows. The Romans were the first known to use glass for windows, a technology likely first produced in Roman Egypt. Namely, in Alexandria ca. 100 AD cast glass windows, albeit with poor optical properties, began to appear, but these were small thick productions, little more than
blown glass Glassblowing is a glassforming technique that involves inflating molten glass into a bubble (or parison) with the aid of a blowpipe (or blow tube). A person who blows glass is called a ''glassblower'', ''glassmith'', or ''gaffer''. A ''lampworker'' ...
jars (cylindrical shapes) flattened out into sheets with circular striation patterns throughout. It would be over a millennium before a window glass became transparent enough to see through clearly, as we think of it now. Over the centuries techniques were developed to shear through one side of a blown glass
cylinder A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – ''kulindros'', "roller", "tumbler") has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. It is the idealized version of a solid physical tin can havi ...
and produce thinner rectangular window panes from the same amount of glass material. This gave rise to tall narrow windows, usually separated by a vertical support called a mullion.
Mullion A mullion is a vertical element that forms a division between units of a window or screen, or is used decoratively. When dividing adjacent window units its primary purpose is a rigid support to the glazing of the window. Its secondary purpose is to ...
ed glass windows were the windows of choice among
Europe Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlant ...
an well-to-do, whereas paper windows were economical and widely used in ancient
China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.4 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3.7 million m ...
,
Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into the two parts which soon became the two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Ko ...
, and
Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Golden circle subdivided ...
. In England, glass became common in the windows of ordinary homes only in the early 17th century whereas windows made up of panes of flattened animal horn were used as early as the 14th century. Modern-style floor-to-ceiling windows became possible only after the industrial plate
glass making Glass production involves two main methods – the float glass process that produces sheet glass, and glassblowing that produces bottles and other containers. It has been done in a variety of ways during the history of glass. Glass container p ...
processes were perfected. Modern windows are usually filled with glass, although a few are transparent plastic.
;Short visual history of doors
Window grill from a palace of Ramesses III MET 14.6.232-dia1.jpg,
Ancient Egyptian Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced ar ...
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) silicate grains. Sandstones make up about 20 to 25 percent of all sedimentary rocks. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar (both silicates) be ...
window grill from a palace of
Ramesses III Usermaatre Meryamun Ramesses III (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the second Pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty in Ancient Egypt. He is thought to have reigned from 1186 to 1155 BC and is considered to be the last great monarch of the New Kingdo ...
, now in the
Metropolitan Museum of Art The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York City, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States. Its permanent collection contains over 2 million works, divided among 17 curatorial departments. The main building at 1000 F ...

Metropolitan Museum of Art
(New York City) GBM - Glas Fenster.jpg, Fragment of a
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
window glass plate dated to 1st to 4th century AD. Note the obvious curvature; this is not a flat pane Window art in Kalleshvara Temple at Aralaguppe (edited angles and cropped).jpg, Indian window of the Kalleshvara Temple (
India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the second-most populous country, the seventh-largest country by land area, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Oce ...

India
) File:师俭堂.JPG,
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China * Chinese people, people of Chinese nationality, citizenship, or ethnicity **''Zhonghua minzu'', the supra-ethnic Chinese nationality ** Han Chinese, the majority ethnic group in Mainland China, ...
latticed window in Zhenze (
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, technology, and tourism, with its capital in Nanjing. Jiangsu is the third ...
, China) File:Atenas, varios 10.jpg,
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It surviv ...
window of the Little Metropolis (
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 874 ...
, Greece) Jameh Mosque of Nishapur - October 13 2013 45.JPG,
Islamic Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
window of the Jameh Mosque of Nishapur (
Nishapur Nishapur or Nishabur ( fa, ; also romanized as Nīshāpūr, Nišâpur, Nişapur, Nīshābūr, and Neyshābūr; from Middle Persian ''New-Shabuhr'', meaning "New City of Shapur", "Fair Shapur", or "Perfect built of Shapur") is a city in Razavi Khora ...
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by ...
) David et Salomon, vitrail roman, Cathédrale de Strasbourg.jpg, Part of a Romanesque stained glass window with Kings
David David (traditional spelling), , ''Dāwūd''; grc-koi, Δαυίδ, Dauíd; la, Davidus, David; gez , ዳዊት, ''Dawit''; xcl, Դաւիթ, ''Dawitʿ''; cu, Давíдъ, ''Davidŭ''; possibly meaning "beloved one". is described in the Hebrew Bib ...
and
Solomon Solomon (; he, שְׁלֹמֹה, ''Shlomoh),'' ''Šlēmūn''; Arabic: سُلَيْمَان ', also colloquially: ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; Latin: Salomon) also called Jedidiah (Hebrew ''Yedidyah''), was, according to the Hebrew ...
from Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Strasbourg (
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=Haut Rhin Alsatian, Strossburig ; german: Straßburg lat, Argentoratum) is the prefecture and largest city of the Grand Est region of Eastern France and the official seat o ...
, France) Chartres RosetteNord 121 DSC08241.jpg, North transept windows in the Chartres Cathedral (Chartres, France) File:Valdai IverskyMon asv2018 img41.jpg, Russian architecture, Russian window of the Valday Iversky Monastery (Lake Valdayskoye, Novgorod Oblast, Russia) Flickr - fusion-of-horizons - stavropoleos (124).jpg, Brâncovenesc style, Brâncovenesc window of the Stavropoleos Monastery (Bucharest, Romania) Fenetre-assezat-cour (2).jpg, Renaissance architecture, Renaissance window of the Hôtel du Vieux-Raisin (Toulouse, France) 0756a - Milano - Palazzo Sormani-Andreani - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto 5-May-2007 (edited).jpg, Baroque architecture, Baroque window of the Palazzo Sormani (Milan, Italy) Zwinger Wallpavillon Gartenseite, Dresden.jpg, Rococo windows of the Zwinger (Dresden), Zwinger (Dresden, Germany) File:South gate of the Petit Trianon 004.JPG, Louis XVI style, Louis XVI round window of the Petit Trianon (Versailles, France), with a festoon-derived ornament at the top Window of a lateral façade of the Romanian Athenaeum, on Strada Benjamin Franklin (Bucharest, Romania).jpg, Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassical group of windows, on a lateral side of the Romanian Athenaeum (Bucharest) Window of a very beautiful Gothic Revival house on the Jean-Louis Calderon street from Bucharest (Romania).jpg, Gothic Revival architecture, Gothic Revival window of a house on Strada Jean-Louis Calderon (Bucharest) P1340760 Paris II place et passage du Caire rwk.jpg, Egyptian Revival, Egyptian Revival windows of a building in Place du Caire (Paris) 60, Bulevardul Dacia, Bucharest (Romania) 1.jpg, Romanian Revival architecture, Romanian Revival window of a house on Bulevardul Dacia (Bucharest) Window, 55 rue Molitor, Paris 25 February 2017.jpg, 19th century Eclecticism in architecture, Eclectic Classicist windows on Rue Molitor (Paris) File:9, Strada Dianei, Bucharest (Romania) 3.jpg, Beaux-Arts architecture, Beaux-Arts window of the Stroescu House on Strada Dianei (Bucharest) Strasbourg villa Schutzenberger 2014 (3).jpg, Art Nouveau doors and windows in
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=Haut Rhin Alsatian, Strossburig ; german: Straßburg lat, Argentoratum) is the prefecture and largest city of the Grand Est region of Eastern France and the official seat o ...
(France) Stillemans32.jpg, Art Deco house with stained glass windows on Stillemansstraat (Sint-Niklaas, Belgium) Windows of the Cité de la musique, Paris July 2015.jpg, Postmodern architecture, Postmodern windows of the Cité de la musique (Paris) Windows (7004083002).jpg, Contemporary architecture, Contemporary windows of Cathedral Plaza Bucharest


Types


Cross

A cross-window is a rectangular window usually divided into four lights by a mullion and transom that form a Latin cross.


Eyebrow

The term eyebrow window is used in two ways: a curved top window in a wall or an eyebrow dormer; and a row of small windows usually under the front eaves such as the James-Lorah House in Pennsylvania.


Fixed

A fixed window is a window that cannot be opened, whose function is limited to allowing light to enter (unlike an unfixed window, which can open and close). Clerestory windows in church architecture are often fixed. Transom windows may be fixed or operable. This type of window is used in situations where light or vision alone is needed as no ventilation is possible in such windows without the use of trickle vents or overglass vents.


Single-hung sash

A single-hung sash window is a window that has one sash that is movable (usually the bottom one) and the other fixed. This is the earlier form of sliding sash window and is also cheaper.


Double-hung sash

A
sash window A sash window or hung sash window is made of one or more movable panels, or "sashes". The individual sashes are traditionally paned windows, but can now contain an individual sheet (or sheets, in the case of double glazing) of glass. History The ...
is the traditional style of window in the United Kingdom, and many other places that were formerly colonized by the UK, with two parts (sashes) that overlap slightly and slide up and down inside the frame. The two parts are not necessarily the same size; where the upper sash is smaller (shorter) it is termed a cottage window. Currently, most new double-hung sash windows use spring balances to support the sashes, but traditionally, counterweights held in boxes on either side of the window were used. These were and are attached to the sashes using pulleys of either braided cord or, later, purpose-made chain. Three types of spring balances are called a tape or clock spring balance; channel or block-and-tackle balance, and a spiral or tube balance. Double-hung sash windows were traditionally often fitted with Window shutter, shutters. Sash windows can be fitted with simplex hinges that let the window be locked into hinges on one side, while the rope on the other side is detached—so the window can be opened for fire escape or cleaning.


Foldup

A foldup has two equal sashes similar to a standard double-hung but folds upward allowing air to pass through nearly the full-frame opening. The window is balanced using either springs or counterbalances, similar to a double-hung. The sashes can be either offset to simulate a double-hung, or in-line. The inline versions can be made to fold inward or outward. The inward swinging foldup windows can have fixed screens, while the outward swinging ones require movable screens. The windows are typically used for screen rooms, kitchen pass-throughs, or egress.


Horizontal sliding sash

A horizontal sliding sash window has two or more sashes that overlap slightly but slide horizontally within the frame. In the UK, these are sometimes called Yorkshire sash windows, presumably because of their traditional use in that county.


Casement

A casement window is a window with a hinged sash that swings in or out like a door comprising either a side-hung, top-hung (also called "awning window"; see below), or occasionally bottom-hung sash or a combination of these types, sometimes with fixed panels on one or more sides of the sash. In the US, these are usually opened using a Crank (mechanism), crank, but in parts of Europe, they tend to use projection friction stays and espagnolette locking. Formerly, plain hinges were used with a casement stay. Handing applies to casement windows to determine direction of swing; a casement window may be left-handed, right-handed, or double. The casement window is the dominant type now found in modern buildings in the UK and many other parts of Europe.


Awning

An awning window is a casement window that is hung horizontally, hinged on top, so that it swings outward like an awning. In addition to being used independently, they can be stacked, several in one opening, or combined with fixed glass. They are particularly useful for ventilation.


Hopper

A hopper window is a bottom-pivoting casement window that opens by tilting vertically, typically to the inside, resembling a Hopper (particulate collection container), hopper chute.


Pivot

A pivot window is a window hung on one hinge on each of two opposite sides which allows the window to revolve when opened. The hinges may be mounted top and bottom (Vertically Pivoted) or at each jamb (Horizontally Pivoted). The window will usually open initially to a restricted position for ventilation and, once released, fully reverse and lock again for safe cleaning from inside. Modern pivot hinges incorporate a friction device to hold the window open against its weight and may have restriction and reversed locking built-in. In the UK, where this type of window is most common, they were extensively installed in high-rise social housing.


Tilt and slide

A tilt and slide window is a window (more usually a door-sized window) where the sash tilts inwards at the top similar to a hopper window and then slides horizontally behind the fixed pane.


Tilt and turn

A tilt and turn window can both tilt inwards at the top or open inwards from hinges at the side. This is the most common type of window in Germany, its country of origin. It is also widespread in many other European countries. In Europe, it is usual for these to be of the "turn first" type. i.e. when the handle is turned to 90 degrees the window opens in the side hung mode. With the handle turned to 180 degrees the window opens in bottom hung mode. Most usually in the UK the windows will be "tilt first" i.e. bottom hung at 90 degrees for ventilation and side hung at 180 degrees for cleaning the outer face of the glass from inside the building.


Transom

A window above a door; in an exterior door the Transom (architectural), transom window is often fixed, in an interior door, it can open either by hinges at top or bottom, or rotate on hinges. It provided ventilation before forced air heating and cooling. A fan-shaped transom is known as a fanlight, especially in the British Isles.


Side light

Windows beside a door or window are called side-, wing-, margen-lights, and flanking windows.


Jalousie window

Also known as a
louver A louver (American English) or louvre (British English; see spelling differences) is a window blind or shutter with horizontal slats that are angled to admit light and air, but to keep out rain and direct sunshine. The angle of the slats may ...
ed window, the jalousie window consists of parallel slats of glass or Poly(methyl methacrylate), acrylic that open and close like a Venetian blind, usually using a crank or a lever. They are used extensively in tropical architecture. A jalousie door is a door with a jalousie window.


Clerestory

A clerestory window is a window set in a
roof A roof is the top covering of a building, including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights, providing protection against rain, snow, sunlight, extremes of temperature, and wind. A roo ...
structure or high in a wall, used for daylighting.


Skylight

A skylight is a window built into a roof structure. This type of window allows for natural daylight and moonlight.


Roof

A sloped window used for daylighting, built into a roof structure. It is one of the few windows that could be used as an exit. Larger roof windows meet building codes for emergency evacuation.


Roof lantern

A roof lantern is a multi-paned glass structure, resembling a small building, built on a roof for day or moon light. Sometimes includes an additional
clerestory In architecture, a clerestory ( ; ''clear storey'', also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is a high section of wall that contains windows above eye level. The purpose is to admit light, fresh air, or both. Historically, ''clerestory'' de ...
. May also be called a cupola.


Bay

A bay window is a multi-panel window, with at least three panels set at different angles to create a protrusion from the wall line.


Oriel

This form of bay window most often appears in Tudor-style houses and monasteries. It projects from the wall and does not extend to the ground. Originally a form of porch, they are often supported by brackets or corbels.


Thermal

Thermal, or Diocletian, windows are large semicircular windows (or niches) which are usually divided into three lights (window compartments) by two mullions. The central compartment is often wider than the two side lights on either side of it.


Picture

A picture window is a large fixed window in a wall, typically without glazing bars, or glazed with only perfunctory glazing bars (muntins) near the edge of the window. Picture windows provide an unimpeded view, as if framing a picture.


Multi-lite

A multi-lite window is a window glazed with small panes of glass separated by wooden or lead ''glazing bars'', or ''muntins'', arranged in a decorative ''glazing pattern'' often dictated by the building's architectural style. Due to the historic unavailability of large panes of glass, the multi-lit (or ''lattice window'') was the most common window style until the beginning of the 20th century, and is still used in traditional architecture.


Emergency exit/egress

An emergency exit window is a window big enough and low enough so that occupants can escape through the opening in an emergency, such as a fire. In many countries, exact specifications for emergency windows in bedrooms are given in many building codes. Specifications for such windows may also allow for the entrance of emergency rescuers. Vehicles, such as buses and aircraft, frequently have emergency exit windows as well.


Stained glass

A stained glass window is a window composed of pieces of colored glass, transparency (optics), transparent, translucent or Opacity (optics), opaque, frequently portraying persons or scenes. Typically the glass in these windows is separated by lead glazing bars. Stained glass windows were popular in Victorian era, Victorian houses and some Frank Lloyd WWrightian houses, and are especially common in Church (building), churches.


French

A French door has two rows of upright rectangular glass panes (lights) extending its full length and two of these doors on an exterior wall and without a mullion separating them, that open outward with opposing hinges to a Terrace (building), terrace or porch, are referred to as a French window. Sometimes these are set in pairs or multiples thereof along the exterior wall of a very large room, but often, one French window is placed centrally in a typically-sized room, perhaps among other fixed windows flanking the feature. French windows are known as ''porte-fenêtre'' in France and ''portafinestra'' in Italy, and frequently are used in modern houses.


Double-paned

Double-paned windows have two parallel panes (slabs of glass) with a separation of typically about 1 cm; this space is permanently sealed and filled at the time of manufacture with dry air or other dry nonreactive gas. Such windows provide a marked improvement in thermal insulation (and usually in acoustic insulation as well) and are resistant to fogging and frosting caused by temperature differential. They are widely used for residential and commercial construction in intemperate climates. In the UK, double-paned and triple-paned are referred to as double-glazing and triple-glazing. Triple-paned windows are now a common type of glazing in central to northern Europe. Quadruple glazing is now being introduced in Scandinavia.


Hexagonal window

A hexagonal window is a hexagon-shaped window, resembling a bee cell or crystal lattice of graphite. The window can be vertically or horizontally oriented, openable or dead. It can also be regular or elongately-shaped and can have a separator (mullion). Typically, the cellular window is used for an attic or as a decorative feature, but it can also be a major architectural element to provide the natural lighting inside buildings.


Guillotine window

A guillotine window is a window that opens vertically. The guillotine windows are opening from bottom to top or from top to bottom with more than one sliding frames. The remote control can be used to open and close guillotine windows.


Terms

EN 12519 is the European standard that describes windows terms officially used in EU Member States. The main terms are: * Light, or Lite, is the area between the outer parts of a window (Transom (architectural), transom, sill and jambs), usually filled with a glass pane. Multiple panes are divided by mullions when load-bearing, muntins when not. * Lattice light is a compound window pane madeup of small pieces of glass held together in a Latticework, lattice. * Fixed window is a unit of one non-moving lite. The terms ''single-light'', ''double-light'', etc., refer to the number of these glass panes in a window. * Sash unit is a window consisting of at least one sliding glass component, typically composed of two lites (known as a ''double-light''). * Replacement window in the United States means a framed window designed to slip inside the original window frame from the inside after the old sashes are removed. In Europe, it usually means a complete window including a replacement outer frame. * New construction window, in the US, means a window with a nailing fin that is inserted into a rough opening from the outside before applying siding and inside trim. A nailing fin is a projection on the outer frame of the window in the same plane as the glazing in architecture, glazing, which overlaps the prepared opening, and can thus be 'nailed' into place. :In the UK and mainland Europe, windows in new-build houses are usually fixed with long screws into expanding plastic plugs in the brickwork. A gap of up to 13 mm is left around all four sides, and filled with expanding polyurethane foam. This makes the window fixing weatherproof but allows for expansion due to heat. * Lintel is a beam over the top of a window, also known as a transom (architectural), transom. * Window sill is the bottom piece in a window frame. Window sills slant outward to drain water away from the inside of the building. * Secondary glazing is an additional frame applied to the inside of an existing frame, usually used on protected or listed buildings to achieve higher levels of thermal and sound insulation without compromising the look of the building * Millwork (building material), Decorative millwork is the moulding, cornices and lintels often decorating the surrounding edges of the window.


Labeling

The United States National Fenestration Rating Council, NFRC Window Label lists the following terms: * Thermal conductivity, Thermal transmittance (U-factor), best values are around U-0.15 (equal to 0.8 W/m2/K) * Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), ratio of solar heat (infrared) passing through the glass to incident solar heat * Visible transmittance (VT), ratio of transmitted visible light divided by incident visible light * airflow, Air leakage (AL), measured in cubic foot per minute per linear foot of crack between sash and frame * Damp (structural)#Condensation, Condensation resistance (CR), measured between 1 and 100 (the higher the number, the higher the resistance of the formation of condensation) The European harmonised standard hEN 14351–1, which deals with doors and windows, defines 23 characteristics (divided into ''essential'' and ''non ''essential''. Two other, preliminary European Norms that are under development deal with internal pedestrian doors (prEN 14351-2), smoke and fire resisting doors, and openable windows (prEN 16034).


Construction

Windows can be a significant source of heat transfer.Carmody, J., Selkowitz, S., Lee, E. S., Arasteh, D., & Willmert, T. (2004). ''Window Systems for High-Performance Buildings''. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Therefore, Insulated glazing, insulated glazing units consist of two or more panes to reduce the transfer of heat.


Grids or muntins

These are the pieces of framing that separate a larger window into smaller panes. In older windows, large panes of glass were quite expensive, so muntins let smaller panes fill a larger space. In modern windows, light-colored muntins still provide a useful function by reflecting some of the light going through the window, making the window itself a source of diffuse light (instead of just the surfaces and objects illuminated within the room). By increasing the indirect illumination of surfaces near the window, muntins tend to brighten the area immediately around a window and reduce the contrast of shadows within the room.


Frame and sash construction

Frames and sashes can be made of the following materials: :*PVC and fiberglass frames perform well in accelerated weathering tests. Because PVC is not as strong as other materials, some PVC frames are reinforced with metal or composite materials to improve their structural strength. :**Modern aluminium window frames are typically separated by a thermal break made of a glass fibre reinforced polyamide. With a 34 mm thermal insulation profile it is possible to reach Uf= 1.3 W/m2K for a metal window. This greatly increases thermal resistance, while retaining virtually all of the structural strength. composite material, Composites (also known as Hybrid Windows) are start since early 1998 and combine materials like aluminium + pvc or wood to obtain aesthetics of one material with the functional benefits of another. A special class of PVC window frames, uPVC window frames, became widespread since the late 20th century, particularly in Europe: there were 83.5 million installed by 1998 with numbers still growing as of 2012.


Glazing and filling

Low-emissivity coated panes reduce heat transfer by radiation, which, depending on which surface is coated, helps prevent heat loss (in cold climates) or heat gains (in warm climates). High thermal resistance can be obtained by evacuating or filling the insulated glazing units with gases such as argon or krypton, which reduces Heat conduction, conductive heat transfer due to their low thermal conductivity. Performance of such units depends on good window seals and meticulous frame construction to prevent entry of air and loss of efficiency. Modern double-pane and triple-pane windows often include one or more low-e coatings to reduce the window's U-factor (its insulation value, specifically its rate of heat loss). In general, soft-coat low-e coatings tend to result in a lower solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) than hard-coat low-e coatings. Modern windows are usually glazed with one large sheet of glass per sash, while windows in the past were glazed with multiple panes separated by ''glazing bars'', or ''muntins'', due to the unavailability of large sheets of glass. Today, glazing bars tend to be decorative, separating windows into small panes of glass even though larger panes of glass are available, generally in a pattern dictated by the architectural style at use. Glazing bars are typically wooden, but occasionally lead glazing bars soldered in place are used for more intricate glazing patterns.


Other construction details

Many windows have movable window coverings such as blinds or curtains to keep out light, provide additional insulation, or ensure privacy. Windows allow natural light to enter, but too much can have negative effects such as glare and heat gain. Additionally, while windows let the user see outside, there must be a way to maintain privacy on in the inside.Howell, Sandra C. (1976). ''Designing for the Elderly; Windows''. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Architecture. Design Evaluation Project. Window coverings are practical accommodations for these issues.


Impact of the sun


Sun incidence angle

Historically, windows are designed with surfaces parallel to vertical building walls. Such a design allows considerable solar light and heat penetration due to the most commonly occurring incidence of sun angles. In passive solar building design, an extended eave is typically used to control the amount of solar light and heat entering the window(s). An alternative method is to calculate an optimum window mounting angle that accounts for summer sun load minimization, with consideration of actual latitude of the building. This process has been implemented, for example, in the Dakin Building in Brisbane, California—in which most of the fenestration is designed to reflect summer heat load and help prevent summer interior over-illumination and glare, by canting windows to nearly a 45 degree angle.


Solar window

Photovoltaic windows not only provide a clear view and illuminate rooms, but also convert sunlight to electricity for the building. In most cases, translucent photovoltaic cells are used.


Passive solar

Passive solar windows allow light and solar energy into a building while minimizing air leakage and heat loss. Properly positioning these windows in relation to sun, wind, and landscape—while properly shading them to limit excess heat gain in summer and shoulder seasons, and providing thermal mass to absorb energy during the day and release it when temperatures cool at night—increases comfort and energy efficiency. Properly designed in climates with adequate solar gain, these can even be a building's primary heating system.


Coverings

A window covering is a shade or screen that provides multiple functions. Some coverings, such as drapes and blinds provide occupants with privacy. Some window coverings control solar heat gain and glare. There are external shading devices and internal shading devices.Beckett, H. E., & Godfrey, J. A. (1974). ''Windows: Performance, design and installation''. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Low-e window film is a low-cost alternative to window replacement to transform existing poorly-insulating windows into energy-efficient windows. For high-rise buildings, smart glass can provide an alternative.


See also

* Airflow window * Demerara window * Display window * Fenestration testing laboratory * Glass mullion system * Greased paper window * Insulated glazing * Porthole *
Rose window Rose window is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in Gothic cathedrals and churches. The windows are divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. The term ''rose window'' was ...
* Window tax * Window treatment * Witch window * Fortochka


References


External links


Roman Glass from Metropolitan Museum of Art
{{Authority control Windows, Architectural elements Glass